Histories of



Henry Cary
With a


and Biographical Introduction


Basil L. Gildersleeve


New York
D. Appleton and Company



Copyright, 1899,

By D.


75* \







Herodotus, the Father of History,



known. The

commonly accepted

for his birth

c, and he is supposed not to have survived He was a dates rest on combinations. Both the year 424. proud Caria, and was of Dorian city a Halicarnassus, native of Halicarnassus of speech Doric the But of his Doric blood. was in time supplanted by the Ionic, which was the prevalent Asiatic type of Greek, and in a Halicarnassian inscription of 455 b. c. only the opening formula is Doric. Halicarnassus was thrust out of the Dorian league because of a sin which one of the citizens had committed against the majesty of Apollo, and fell first under Lydian and then under Persian sway. At the time of Herodotus's birth it was held as a fief of the Persian Empire by Artemisia, the high-hearted heroine
of Salamis.

Herodotus was of a noble family, the son of Lyxes and Dryo, or Rhoio, and a kinsman of Panyassis, the diviner, the What the relation was is not poet, the reviver of the epic. Intermarriage among the Greeks was often complex, clear. and Panyassis, his mother's brother, may readily have been his father's nephew. At all events, the connection with Panyassis lends especial significance to the Herodotean weakness for dreams and omens, signs and wonders, and makes still


intelligible the historian's familiarity

with epic poetry,

and the epic cast and colouring of his narrative and when we read that Herodotus undertook a long voyage in order to investigate the origin of the worship of Tyrian Heracles, we recollect that Panyassis composed a Heracleis. More im-






was the



of Panyassis,



an unsuccessful revolt against Lygdamis, grandson or haply younger son of Artemisia. After the death of Panyassis, Herodotus, who may have been implicated in the affair, is supposed to have withdrawn to Samos, and it is recorded that he bore a conspicuous part in the revolution that unseated

Lygdamis in 455. In 454 the name of Halicarnassus appears on the roll of the Athenian allies who paid their quota to the fund levied for resistance to Persia. But faction begets faction, and Herodotus, who had ousted Lygdamis, was himself forced to withdraw, and we find him registered among those who joined the Athenian colony of Thurii, in Lower Italy, founded in 444. Hence he is sometimes called a Thurian. His tomb was there, but another tomb was shown in Athens, the city he loved so well. Shortly before going to Thurii he is said to have read a portion of his histories at Athens which portion is much disputed and to have received a public reward of ten talents for his praise of the violet-wreathed city. The amount is extravagant the story reminds one of the old tale


about Pindar, but a public recitation is not at all improbable, nor a public recognition of some kind. Much of his time was spent in travel. What the modern historian finds useful for giving vividness and exactness to

narrative the ancient historian found indispensable for


The day of the bookworm hiswhose journeys were limited to papyrus and to parchment, had not yet come. In point of fact, the geographer and the historian were one in the early time, and the differthe collection of material.
entiation did not take place until a comparatively late period.

investigation, and the information on the spot. gathered be sought had often to made to trace the travels of HerodoAttempts have been with signal success. Continental always tus in his work, not




Greece he knew, Athens beyond a doubt, and the traveller of to-day who stands in Sparta and looks out toward Therapne Some of the Cyclades feels that he is on Herodotean ground.

he must have



how many


open to question.




birthplace was on the coast of Asia Minor, and the coast of Asia Minor he must have known, and the greater islands in those waters, notably Samos, where he is said to have re-

who had seen the capital His voyage along the northern coast of Asia Minor seems to have extended to the mouth of the Phasis, but there is no cogent evidence of his personal knowledge of Scythia, and it has been suggested that he went no farther than Byzantium and gathered his material there for the regions beyond. But if he is as honest as we take him to be, his description of Exampaeus (iv, 81) is based on actual vision, and it is desirable that he should have visited Olbia, a famous outpost of Greekdom, which he calls Borysthenes. Tyre he sought, as he tells us expressly. Of Babylon he writes as one that had seen with his own eyes. In Palestine he beheld the monuments of the triumphal march of Sesostris. Perhaps he saw them on his way to Egypt, where he must have sojourned

Sardis he discusses as one

of Lydia.

But the extent of his actual vision of Egypt Of Upper Egypt he makes scant mention, but then he makes scant mention of Phoenicia. That he never reached Elephantine is supposed to be proved by his calling Elephantine a city and not an island; but it was both then, as Rhodes became both afterward. Cyrene he most probably Thurii, at least, which he visited, and Lower Italy he knew helped to colonize, and Metapontum. Sicily was near, and Likelihood and probabilit seems likely that he knew Sicily. ity can not be excluded, but we may boldly say that Herodotus was qualified for membership even in an exigent Travellers'




much mooted.


On these travels, on these researches, rests the great work which heads the long line of Greek prose classics, and a brief summary of the contents of the nine books that compose the " Setting Forth of Investigation " may fitly precede the charachievement. Alexandrian scholar of some note denied that Herodotus wrote the preface of his work, but every word in it is sigacteristic of this great


nificant, and,


properly studied, the preface gives the key

to the whole.

gives the authorship.

It tells

us that



a setting forth of investigation, that


to prevent

the history of the world from being effaced by the lapse of

The great and marvellous deeds wrought by Greeks time. and non-Greeks are not to be left unfamoused, and the cause Thucydides is of the war between them is to be set down. satisfied with how? Herodotus demands why? Thucydides looks to history as a lesson for future generations drawn from experience. Herodotus looks to history as a record of the dealings of a higher power. For the wrath of Achilles substitute the envy of the gods, and we have a movement like
that of the " Iliad."

The history opens on mythical ground, but it is noteworthy that Herodotus singles out the Phoenicians as the first Orientals who came into contact with the Greeks, and it is significant that Crete plays the part of a breedbate, as she has
this. The Eternal Feminine is bottom of the trouble between East and West, Io and Medea and Helen. But these old, unhappy, far-off things are soon dismissed, and we come in an early chapter to Croesus the Lydian, the first to make the Greek feel the power of the East. The history of the dynasty of Croesus and his overthrow by Cyrus, with the necessary account of the Medes and Persians, takes up about two thirds of the first book. Upon the subjection of the Lydian monarchy follows the subjugation of the Ionians and other peoples of Asia Minor a task which was intrusted by Cyrus to his lieutenant Harpagus, while Cyrus himself undertook to reduce Babylon. After Babylon the Great comes the expedition of Cyrus against the Massagetae, and his death in battle with Tomyris. It is a dramatic ending, a notable illustration of the envy of the gods, of the law of compensation. (The second book, after briefly recording the accession of Cambyses and his designs on Egypt, takes Egypt itself for its theme, and so wholly is Egypt the theme that the book has been lifted out of the complex and treated as an independent work. But we must remember that biologists have succeeded in isolating the heart itself, and he

always done from that day to
at the


has not been simply Cambyses's conquest of Egypt. yii studies the second it book aright can It trace the fibres that to the rest of the structure. and Periander are three shining examples of the unhappiness of supreme power. But Greece is not Greeks formed part of the army of Cambyses. and various performances of that eccentric monarch. . Samos is we learn subjugated. Corinth made common cause with the Lacedaemonians against Polycrates. The Scythian expedition was a failure. Nor was the attempt to extend the Persian rule over Libya an unqualified success. as a the fate of Polycrates. and recounts the uprising of the false Smerdis. and many chapters are given up to Scythian history and geography. and the book closes with an account of the revolt of Babylon and the quelling of the same. Cambyses. and. In the fourth book we follow Darius into the land of the Scythians. The Persian Empire is firmly rooted. and this leads to the story of Periander of Corinth. and Polycrates of Samos was an ally of Cambyses. of the envy of the gods. and Herodotus apologizes for it as he resumes the thread of his narrative of Persian history. and this failure encouraged the Ionians to plan a revolt. but the tale of the famous colony of Cyrene is told. now come into the cycle. it does not detach itself so much as does the second. his overthrow. and the enthronement of his successor Darius. and begins again to send forth its runners northward and westward. and prepares us for the closer complication of Greece and Persia in the fifth. and the reign of Smerdis. the death of Cambyses. Thrace and Macedon furnish the introductory chapters to the Ionian revolt. Largely ethnographical and geographical as the fourth book is. the great organizer of the Persian Empire. preface to the subjugation. Polycrates. But Samos was a digression. forgotten. which is the main theme of the remainder of the fifth book and the opening of the sixth. Most of the Libyans cared naught for the Great King. as he had been an ally of Amasis under the former Egyptian dynasty. Indians and Arabians third tells of The book his plans to subjugate other peoples of Africa.HERODOTUS who unite let in. and an account of the Libyans is given.

Mod- on the other hand ing school of modern tory tus.— Viii HERODOTUS the suppression of the Ionian revolt follows the to the front. Such is a rapid outline of the nine books of Herodotus the nine Muses. permeates the whole structure. has been rudely attacked in modern times. and the The digressions are few. and there is no lack of art in the leisurely introduction. narrative that war was a monograph. so much admired in antiquity. and there is a seductive theory that this last part in the order of time was the first part in the order of composition. unhasting and unresting. the skill with which the historian has ern made one body out life so that a oneness of critics. to the last chapter. so the three parts or volumes into which the work naturally falls may have been split along the lines of the several books as we have them. is not original. but a congeries of monographs. at least to begin with. of the most heterogeneous subjects. as they were fancifully named in Alexandrian times. The last triad forms. a close unity. There was no great conception in his mind . by Xerxes. the " Iliad " and the " Odyssey. and supplemented his own researches by compilations from various sources. is it critics —or —have at least the most domineer- pointed out the various layers in the composition." The art is the art of But the unity of Herodotus. and the accelerated close. and that the history of the second Persian other parts were afterward added. Ancient critics laud the skill with which the vast material is disposed so as to preserve unity in variety. as we have seen. not a unit. to which the But there is a thread of holds the triple triad together. The division. the side-light di- gressions. and has been hotly assailed. first Upon comes invasion of Greece by the Persians. and have maintained that the hisHerodoseems. He prepared accounts of his travels. also due doubtless to Alexandrian scholars. Books VII to IX give a consecutive failure history of the invasion of Greece of the expedition. But as the three original Muses became nine. did not differ essentially from his predecessors. In both books Athens is and much interest shown in the details of Athenian history. The narrative moves on.

recur. to persons that never so. But the charge of plagiarism. so that long before he came to write his preface the work of his life was revealed to himself. and attempts have been made to prove that the histories lack the supreme touch of the master's hand. The extent of Herodotus's obligations to his predecessors is variously estimated. A good thing was At all events is material. The thought that seems to dominate the whole was at best an after-thought. If Herodotus did not set out with a fixed purpose and a definite plan. if he began as a curious traveller. and not only fails of narrative a proper close. By processes familiar to the student of Homeric criticism. The true masters helped themselves to what they needed. it is this unity. still there must have been in his mind a general conception of the universe. glanced harmless from the armour of the Greek of the best period. that . this grasp of a vast and varied one of the special claims set up for Herodotus as the originator of a new department of literature. but the unity of the work lies in its moral purport. and before proceeding to consider the other points in which the historian differentiates himself from his predecessors it is necessary to give some brief account of the earlier writers of Greek prose. there must have been. but. to which modern writers are extremely sensitive. But we must beware of over-analysis. elaboration. which grew clearer and sharper as he matured. and what we have is an attempt to bring a mass of heterogeneous material into some kind of connection with the history of the second Persian war. the only part of the work that has any true coherence. Even the marvellous style has not escaped criticism. References are made to stories that are never told. Later Greeklings have much to say about stealing one from another. and there are those who have made Herodotus out to be an unscrupulous conveyer of other men's labours.HERODOTUS when he began ix his story-book. according to these critics. Revision. and not as a systematic investigator. the It should have ended earlier or later. evidence is of adduced to show the imperfect welding the mass and the incompleteness of the work.

He may have learned something of Miletus from an obscure writer. and the . beginnings of prose presaged the death of the epos. Herodotus had predecessors." When Logos comes There is no X0709 in Homer. "writers of accounts. of Lydia from Xanthus. once to approve his judgment. an earlier and haply not so far inferior Herodotus. The opening words of the Genealogies of Hecataeus show that he approached tradition in no reverent spirit. once to criticise. and this must be borne in mind when we consider the predecessors of Herodotus. he cites Hecataeus but four times once to magnify the importance of the historian's calling. for that matter. — ready to attribute to others the processes of their own craft. called the Lydian. True. and the eldest Muse of the nine was commissioned to tell of the glories of the past. earliest writers of prose* The in. Chronicles and genealogies and. that which takes stock. might have been composed in hexameters to the end travels of time. for history means investigation and poetry is inspiration. ficed. But the Logos is that which reckons. and that he scouted the false and foolish stories which he found current. and the first The logographer was prose writers were the first critics. that which calculates. not investigation. he was the originator of a new line of literary work. and there is scant evidence that the work of Herodotus is in any sense a compilation.X HERODOTUS property. Cadmus of Miletus. Before him the epopee had served as history. something else than the translator of poetry into the language In the early period the poetical form is of every-day life. or both to a third? To whom did Herodotus and Euripides owe the common estimate of life as an accident? Yes. and the art of verse is earlier and easier than the For mere narrative the epos would have sufart of prose. But poetry is not history. and once to show that his authority But German professors are always is not overwhelming. — — . From whatever sources he drew his material. common Was Sophocles in debt to Herodotus. Herodo- Mythos retreats. imperative. were called logographers ( Xoyoypdfoi or XoyoiroLoC). or Herodotus to Sophocles. and there are those who think that he owes much to Hecataeus of Miletus.

xiii He is a critic of far greater acumen than was once course. he was at the mercy of guides and interpreters. Even in antiquity the untrustworthiness of Herodotus was a jest. to tap every wheel on which the train runs so smoothly.HERODOTUS calendar. which took place in October. and in all matters involving numbers we must be careful to suspend our judgment. Travellers' tales are proverbial. has been mercilessly impugned. Indeed. 1887. But an introduction like this can not go into the various . The account of a flood in northern China. depends on the tradition of the text. and he who takes a romantic epic for a sober chronicle is no better off than a man who had no command of Persian. supposed. The trouble! we have found in establishing his itinerary recurs when we Those who follow the historian along the track of events. who claims so much greater accuracy than does Herodotus. and yet he has not seldom fared better at the hands of modern critics than those who had access to native documents. very much. fully distinguish Of we must care- between the facts for which he vouches and the reports that he simply repeats. but in the vast number of details it is not always clear when he is speaking of his own knowledge and when he is giving mere hearsay. errors. it must be confessed that. and the good faith of Thucydides himself. which ranged from one million to seven millions and to the intrinsic difficulty of exactness in figures we must add the trouble of the Greek double notation. showed a vast difference in the estimates of the loss of life. But no historian can escape this scrutiny. being no linguist. and the assaults on his honesty have not demolished the importance of his evidence. The native documents require as much interpretation as do the stories of the native dragoman. which lent itself readily to all manner of . study Herodotus critically must be content to put every narrative to the test. and Herodotus may have contributed to the currency of the proverb. And then much. and the frivolous scepticism of a later age selected for ridicule the very points on which the testimony of Herodotus has been sustained by recent exploration.

now called Nemesis. but the old leaven was working}* protest that The Xenophanes had made early in the century against the anthropomorphism of Greek religion had not lost its effect. He holds He does not deny the exist- ence of the gods outright. not to say reactionist. He goes so far as to point out the influence of poetic fancy on the Hellenic notion of the several gods. Outtrue Disaster ('Arrj). and some space must be given to the author's conception of the world. for. fast to the old doctrine. is brought low. no overstepping the bounds. after all. Sophistic influences are traceable in his style. and extols the purer ideas of the Persians but . and he has a strong faith in the divine power that regulates the universe. of which the poets of nations as of individuals. is him. The innocent suffer with the if Nor do the instruments of divine vengeance escape not modest in their office. but refuses to believe the myths that he deems dishonouring to the gods. and the jingles that bear the name of Gorgias are heard now and then. The famous debate of the third book reminds one of Protagoras. guilty. now envy of " Mind not high things. iEschylus shows by is his attempts to justify the ways is of God to men that there a profound dissidence to be bridged. tell." for high things are The dread genealogy of Surfeit (K0/J09). as to Anaxagoras. he reveres tradition. every history reflects the historian fs more or less. Under these conditions Herodo- tus is best understood as a conservative. There must be no excess. To is a wise Providence that keeps everything in balance. The Divine gives satisfaction to the . rage ("T/S/tM?). there This balance the gods. faith with a difference. rationalist. now vengeance. ( Euripides Sophocles wears his counted by some an out- and-out The leading agnostics were close con- temporaries of Herodotus. Pindar is orthodox. he is a Church of Greece man. In order to do justice to Herodotus's conception of his task we must remember that he belonged to a sceptical generation. another friend of Pericles. The Persian war had brought about what might be called a revival of religion.xiv HERODOTUS points which have been raised and met in regard to the trustworthiness of Herodotus.

HERODOTUS injured. and as a famous Greek critic has undertaken to prove by actual experiment that the spell of Herodotus is not broken by the translation from Ionic into Attic. so a transfer from Greek into English does not efface all the Herodotean charm. the leisurely Ionic. The varied . not a dialect. its fair to say his unapproachable excellence True. in his critical method. it is true. The employment of consecrated phrases in a secular narrative grates. to the study of psychical research. a cunningly wrought robe with gleams of epic gold. The historian keeps strictly to the sphere of national thought. does not reproduce the tone of Herodotus. and even those who have rid themselves of religious this is ingrained in the ") — formulae are not always superior to spiritual manifestations. original of the which common to the Hebrew Old Testament and to the Greek of Herodotus. such as Thucydides conceives her and as Polybius conceives her. The dialect is gone. jargon. old-fashioned vocabulary. the style of Herodotus loses much of Greek scholar is tempted to say all its charm — charm —the in the transfer to another idiom. superior. Biblical English. lies in his style. but even our century demands an increasing purpose that runs through the ages. biblical German. its quavering rhythm. All this is Hellenic. gone so itualist. God in history becomes too much a deus ex machina. Not the least of its attractiveness lies in the dialect. Herodotus's greatest. This poetical jusmakes it perhaps tice simplifies the scheme of the universe suspiciously simple. its deliberate utterance. as it is Herodotean. All Greek temper. far as to call There are those who have Herodotus a sceptic lined with a spir- Superior to his predecessors in his conception of his task." to Fortune. with its soft its vowels. a too convenient untier of knots. and restores the balance. which has been tried. We must go farther down before we come to the " Chance central of circumstance. and proof texts might be drawn from Solon and Theognis and Pindar. But the dialect is not everything. We have a The chief thing gained is is the simple structure of the sentence. as well as from Herodotus. after it is all. XV champions the weaker.

did not feel the bowstring of tragedy in the . as unreal. but the closer study of Herodotus shows what a close student he himself was.XVI tone tive. and some- Herodotus are true womanly in English as in on our hearts in English as in Greek. if you choose. was deliberately adopted or deliberately retained. The princes and the sages of Herodotean history hold language fitting their high estate. and its charm was felt long after the common speech of Greece had swept away all literary rivals. No happy knack of fluent. something must be said of the artistic character of his language. The him magnificence as But no matter how much or how little of the original charm hangs about the translation of Herodotus. the great thinker Democritus was a master of Ionic style but Herodotus evolved an Ionic of his own. and his Ionic became the type. the play of the eddy thing of the dramatic impersonation is kept alive. scientious toil. as it is called by the Greek critics. the manifold stops of the organ voice. or his grandeur. graceThe easy style was the result of conful writing was his. for the appreciation of the genius of the author. for the correct estimate of vj^ his position among the great writers of the world. Herodotus was a conscious artist. The women Greek. is HERODOTUS i gone. The Ionic dialect was the first dialect used for artistic prose. and the old-fashioned style. Genius there was. of tears of mortal things drip . though his imitators did not appreciate either his depth . with its wealth of vowels and its drawling A great mass of medical literature bearing the utterance. or else we should have had no such result. name of Hippocrates was written in Ionic the dark and deep sayings of Heraclitus were couched in Ionic. as ideal. as modern literary Provencal. Those who emphasize the simplicity of Herodotus are prone to forget that antiquity recognised in well. . but the English Herodotus retains the picturesqueness of the narrathe flow of the stream. so that in the time of the Greek Renascence scholars composed in Ionic and tried to reproduce the easy pace of the dialect. their far-reaching wisdom. The very dialect in which he wrote was a work of art.

better. serves as a special bead to co-ordinate the groups of words. and one of the hardest tasks of modern Hellenists has been The personal equation disarset by the historian's dialect. as we must put aside. and the gathered power of its circuit. the fable of his reading at is elsewhere. its problem and its answer. Whether we attach much importance and or not to the story if of Herodotus's recitation at Athens. and its pellucid flow. with its protasis and apodosis. now there is a reminiscence of Homer and Panyassis. and the tide of the narrative moves " This artistic use of the " strung-on style in narrative has been misunderstood.HERODOTUS silken cord of his narrative. or. The freedom with which the Greek can handle his participles enables him to give colour and shade to the seneipofiev7)\ or rosary style. that in the age of facile sneer the world Ctesias's " History of Persia" was a formal assault on Herodotus. treats Thucydides. as so much has been misunderstood in Herodotus. the simRhetoric ple structure of the sentence. with its elaborate framework. draw his own inferences. so much emphasized by those who have itself not penetrated into his in his language. xvii The naivete of Herodotus. free. real character. It is a composite diction of his own. Now the breath of Attic blows on the vowels. a simple but. in the time of Herodotus. in tence without the use of analytic conjunctions. and girds him covertly with a sense of superiority. is left to The reader. made considerable advance had and he was no stranger to the periodic style. does not show which was not learned in the streets of Halicarnassus or picked up on the island of Samos. we put aside. whose art only too effectfull and yet ually conceals his art. But he deliberately preferred the older type. unquestioned the fact that his Olympia and work became imlittle mediately famous. to make on his own perspective. with the result seemed richer by an- . ranges the most elaborate schemes of the uniformitarian. the listener. who is but younger. the so-called strung-on style (\e|-45 which a simple and. at him as a celebrity of the old school. To the vocal charm of the dialect is added the delight of the transparent style.

Viewed as a history. and for wide vision. and well deserves a place in a library like try of facts. a feeder to a mill-race. and the rapid decline in his reputation. the Father of History may challenge all those who have come after him. the " Setting Forth of Investigation " is one of the greatest literary achievements of all time. but the legends this. ure who are familiar with the curious chapter of parasitic called the literary life. viewed as a contribution to ethnology and anthropology. which some assume. is nothing but the inevitable process of absorption.xviii HERODOTUS liar. who saw in him the model of narrative. of his art how much imitated. . how strenuously the secrets how many allusions to were sought and his history stud the pages of the later sophists. Greek Renascence. other Ctesias and Herodotus falling into the same con- demnation. for manifold suggestiveness. viewed as a moral story-book. for fascinating style. It is not a simple regis- and the fictions are often as illuminative as the facts. How much he was historian . In his recently recovered " Commonwealth of Athens " Aristotle uses Herodotus freely. for sunshiny humour. for serene wisdom. for noble and yet liberal spirit. Historian swallowed up Herodotus became a source. Basil L. Gildersleeve. studied then. and his limpid current It was not until the time of the was Roman Empire that Herodotus found readers who appreciated him from the stylistic point of view. viewed as a work of art. none but those can rightly measpractised.

showing the development of manuscript and thousand years. A series of fac-similes. in the National Library .-.FAMOUS AND UNIQUE MANUSCRIPT AND BOOK ILLUSTRATIONS. book illustrating during four THE FORIRFss OF THE FAITH. Miniature from a fifteenth century manuscript at Pari.

same conn wealth of m regis- .



CONTENTS BOOK Clio I PAGE i BOOK Euterpe II 85 BOOK Thalia III 153 BOOK Melpomene IV 213 BOOK V Terpsichore * . . 275 BOOK Erato VI 319 BOOK POLYMNIA VII 366 BOOK Urania VIII 444 BOOK Calliope xix IX 491 .


164 Photogravure from a painting by Frederick Arthur Bridgman The World Coloured as Known to the Ancients 290 map 388 Ancient Greece. .... . Jackman ..ILLUSTRATIONS FACING PAGE HERODOTUS Photogravure from a "bust Frontispiece The Fortress of the Faith Coloured miniature from a manuscript of the fifteenth century xviii Babylonian Marriage Market Photogravure from an engraving after a painting by Edwin Long 76 Building the Pyramids Photogravure from a painting by Gustave Richter 130 Procession of the Bull Apis-Osiris ... including Epirus and Thessalia Coloured map The Parthenon Steel 458 xxi engraving by William G.. .


Achaians. for what cause they waged war upon each other. Argives." 8 The region known by the name of Hellas or Greece. Now Argos at that period in every respect surpassed all those states which are now comprehended under the general appellation of Greece. The learned among the Persians assert that the Phoenicians were the original authors of the quarrel for that they having migrated from that which is called the Red Sea to the Mediterranean.. 3 They say. and when they had almost disposed of their cargo. was. a great number of women came down to the sea-shore. etc. was Io. that on their arrival at Argos. Homer speaks of the Danaans. they touched at other places. and that on the fifth or sixth day after their arrival. the Red Sea to the Mediterranean. only discriminated by the names of its different inhabitants. forthwith applied themselves to distant voyages and that having exported Egyptian and Assyrian merchandise. and among them the king's daughter. the Phoenicians exposed their merchandise to sale. is of of of in that of not be effaced by time. Larcher. daughter of Inachus. previous to the Trojan war. in the time of Herodotus. which in the text and in other Grecian writers is called " this sea. . but never gives these people the general name of Greeks. The Phoenicians passed over-land from — . — . nor the great and wondrous 1 dedeeds displayed by both Greeks and barbarians prived of renown and among the rest. and also at Argos. 1 By selves 4 — barbarians the Greeks meant all all who were not sprung from them- foreigners.HERODOTUS BOOK CLIO I Herodotus the researches a publication THIS men may the actions order Halicarnassus. 2 and having settled in the country which they now inhabit. whose name. and indeed long afterward. as the Greeks also say.

they say that the Greeks immediately sent messengers to demand her back again.. that while these women were standing near the stern of the vessel. for that they levied war against Asia before the Asiatics did upon Europe." The long vessels were vessels of refer to the war . they could not have been carried . of wise men for that it is clear. and require satisfaction for the rape but that they. Alexander. the Phoenicians. When therefore he had carried off Helen. objected to them the rape of Medea . HERODOTUS— BOOK They I. and were bargaining for such things as most pleased them. demanded satisfaction for the rape.if they had not been willing. not agreeing herein with the Phoenicians and that this was the beginning of wrongs. having exhorted one another. Note.. being fully persuaded that he should not have to give satisfaction. but that Io. These must have been Cretans. and that the King of Colchis. having heard of these events. made an attack upon them. . to teH their name). when they brought forward these demands. They say too. they carried off the king's daughter Medea. neither would they give any to them. . now wished others to give it to themselves.'After this. and the restitution of the princess but the Greeks replied. but to trouble one's self about avenging them when so carried off is the act of foolish ones and to pay no regard to them when carried off. . Thus far then they say that there had but that after this the only been rapes from each other Greeks were greatly to blame. that in the second generation after this. when they had accomplished the more immediate object of their expedition. : 1 " In a long vessel. the round vessels. having touched at Tyre in Phoenicia. that as they of Asia had not given any satisfaction for the rape of Io. was desirous of obtaining a wife from Greece by means of violence. carried off the king's daughter Europa. . set sail for Egypt. a city of Colchis on the river Phasis. Thus the Persians say that Io went to Egypt. that certain Grecians (for they are unable . . Now. was seized and that they. for that the Greeks had not done so. . having despatched a herald to Greece. The small figures in the headlines — paragraphing of Baehr. . having hurried them on board. and that most of the women escaped. nor made it when demanded. to carry off women by violence the Persians think is the act of wicked men. CLIO [1-4 add. merchantmen and transports. that they who had not themselves given satisfaction. the son of Priam. Thus far they say that they had only retaliated but that after this the Greeks were guilty of the second provocation for that having sailed down in a vessel of war 1 to 2E&. that . with some others.

through dread of her parents. am not going to inquire whether the facts were so or not. the Phoenicians do not agree with this account of the Persians for they affirm that they did not use violence to carry her into Egypt but that she had connection at Argos with the master of a vessel. are the accounts of the Persians and Phoenicians. which formerly belonged to the Heraclidae. she. son of Alyattes. * Syria was at that time the name of Cappadocia. This Croesus was the first of the barbarians whom we know of that subjected some of the Greeks to the payment of tribute. the other from the south Herodotus speaks only of the southern one. one flowing from the east. and to the capture of Troy they ascribe the beginning of their enmity to the Greeks. passed in the following manner to the family . the Persians say. a The incursion here spoken of occurred in the reign of the Lydian : Ardys. which was before the time of Croesus. empties itself northward into the Euxine Sea. I will then proceed with my history. That from this event they had always considered the Greeks as their enemies: for the Persians claim Asia and the barbarous nations that inhabit it as their own. Croesus was a Lydian by birth. voluntarily sailed away with the Phoenicians to avoid detection. no account tinct. touching as well on the small as the great estates of men for of those that were formerly powerful many have become weak. however. Accordingly. He subdued the Ionians and ^Eolians. that they of Asia made of women that were carried off. : alike. but that the Greeks for the sake of a Lacedaemonian woman assembled a mighty fleet. I shall commemorate both : . .4-71 CRCESUS 3. I. and the Dorians settled in Asia. and some that were powerful in my time were formerly weak. flowing from the south ' between the Syrians 2 and Paphlagonians. but an invasion for plunder. The government. 1 The Halys had two branches. then. and consider Europe and the people of Greece as totally disoff. Such. and formed alliances with others. Knowing therefore the precarious nature of human prosperity. As relates to Io. was not for the purpose of subjecting states. but having pointed out the person whom I myself know to have been the first guilty of injustice toward the Greeks. and then having come to Asia overthrew the empire of Priam. and sovereign of the nations on this side the river Halys. Such is the Persian account. This river. but before the reign of Croesus all the Greeks were free for the incursion of the Cimmerians 3 into Ionia. and he formed an alliance with the Lacedaemonians . and when she found herself pregnant.

as I think you do not believe me when I speak of my wife's beauty (for the ears of men are naturally more incredulous than their eyes). For Agron. having been intrusted with the government by these princes. .' I am persuaded that she is the most beautiful of her sex. answered " Sire. derived the name of Lydians. was the last.. was tyrant of Sardis. was the first of the Heraclidae who became King of Sardis and Candaules. bidding me behold my queen naked! With her clothes a woman puts off her modesty. retained the supreme power in obedience to the declaration of an oracle they reigned for twenty-two generations. nor of my wife. grandson of Belus. 4 HERODOTUS—BOOK I. and to him Candaules confided his most important affairs. and a descendant of Alcaeus. The Heraclidae. son of Myrsus. anciently called Maeonians. by speaking thus. For from the outset I will so contrive that she shall not know she has been seen by you. I will place you behind the open door of the apartment in which we sleep as soon as I enter my wife will come to bed by the entrance stands a chair on this she will lay her garments one by one as she takes them off. but when she steps from the chair to the bed. son of Dascylus. Wise maxims have been of old laid down by men from these it is our duty to learn among them is the following. you must contrive to see her naked. lest any harm should befall you from her. ' Let every man look to the things that concern himself. . son of Ninus. whom of Croesus. In lapse of time (for Candaules was fated to be miserable) he addressed Gyges as follows " Gyges." Saying thus. the Greeks call Myrsilus. take courbefall himself but the king answered age. exclaiming loudly. one of his body-guard. a space of five hundred and five years. dreading lest some harm should " Gyges. from whom this whole people. son of Myrsus. and being so. happened to be his especial favourite. enamoured of his own wife. son of Atys." But he. but I entreat of you not to require what is wicked. and be not afraid of me. and you are at her back. the son succeeding to the father to the This Candaules was time of Candaules. Gyges fought off the proposal. be . great-grandson of Alcseus. and then she will give you an opportunity to look at her at your leisure. what a shocking proposal do you make. and moreover extolled the beauty of his wife in exaggerated terms. . — : : : : : . CLIO [7-9 Candaules. son of Hercules. as if I desired to make trial of you. They who ruled over this country before Agron were descendants of Lydus. . thought that she was by far the most beautiful of all women. who were called Mermnadae. Now being of this opinion Gyges. descended from a female slave of Jardanus and Hercules.

When Gyges came. as the lady was going to bed. therefore. when Candaules was asleep." Gyges therefore. having shown no consciousness of what had occurred. on the approach of night he followed the lady to the chamber: then (for Gyges was not suffered to depart. for among the Lydians and almost all the barbarians it is deemed a great disgrace even for a man to be seen naked. having prepared such of her domestics as she knew were most to be trusted. she. He. therefore. It is necessary that he who planned this. . supposing that : she knew nothing of what had happened. she sent for Gyges. At the time. nor was there any possibility of escape. from your obedience to Candaules in all things. the lady thus addressed him " Gyges. tell me how we shall lay hands on him. and the lady soon afterward appeared. could not persuade. having given him a dagger." Gyges for a time was amazed at what he heard but afterward he implored her not to compel him to make such a choice. or that you who have seen me naked. : : 1 mains of Archilochus was one of the earliest writers of iambics. and Gyges saw her enter and lay her clothes on the chair when he was at her back.9-i2j GYGES AND CANDAULES 5 careful that she does not see you as you are going out by the door. Perceiving what her husband had done. she neither cried out through modesty nor appeared to notice it. either to kill his master Candaules or die himself by the hands of others he chose. Archilochus * either kill Candaules . He. but saw a necessity imposed on him." When they had concerted their plan. also. concealed him behind the same door and after this. I submit two proposals to your choice : : and take possession of me and of the Lydian kingdom. so that you may not." She answered " The assault shall be made from the very spot whence he showed me naked. prepared to obey. she held her peace. came when he was sent for. purposing to take vengeance on Candaules . but she saw him as he was going away. to survive. however." re- . and as soon as it was day. he crept secretly out. or expect immediate death. and have done what is not decorous. possessed himself both of the woman and of the kingdom. for he had been before used to attend whenever the queen sent for him. led him to the chamber. Gyges having crept stealthily up and slain him. should die. the attack shall be made on him while asleep. Of this event. and made the following inquiry: " Since you compel me to kill my master against my will. when it seemed to be time to go to bed. again see what you ought not. All that his writing is to be met with in Brunck's "Analecta. finding he could not escape. And Candaules. but either he or Candaules must needs perish).

. He made war upon Cyaxares. and were up in arms. led an army against Miletus and Smyrna. if not. proceed to mention Ardys. he should restore the power to the Heraclidae. having made this mention of him. and so Gyges became king. the Cimmerians. what is especially worthy of mention. has made mention in a trimeter iambic poem. he should reign . and invaded Miletus. this treasury does not belong to the people of Corinth. possessed themselves of the supreme power. who lived about the same time. being driven from their seats by the Scythian nomads. a deHe drove the scendant of Deioces. The oracle answered accordingly. and are thirty talents in weight though. were dedicated by him these now stand in the treasury of the Corinthians. he gave a vast quantity of gold. six in number. son of Eetion. and among the rest. for Midas dedicated the royal throne. son of Gordius. on which he used to sit and administer justice. the son and successor of Gyges. Now this prince. that if the oracle should pronounce him king of the Lydians. from the name of the donor. having deprived the Heraclidse. which was founded . This gold and silver which place as the bowls of Gyges. . the partisans of Gyges and the other Lydians came to the following agreement. This Gyges is the first of the barbarians whom we know of that dedicated offerings at Delphi except Midas. the bowls of gold. a piece of workmanship This throne stands in the same deserving of admiration. and upon the Medes. When Ardys had reigned forty-nine years. " that the Heraclidae should be avenged on the fifth descendant of Gyges. Thus Gyges obtained the kingdom. sent many offerings to Delphi for most of the silver offerings at Delphi are his and besides the silver. to say the truth. But the Pythian added this. CLIO [12-16 the Parian. and reigned twelve years succeeded Sadyattes. took Smyrna. Thus the Mermnadae. and took the city of Colophon but as he performed no other great action during his reign of eight and thirty years. Cimmerians out of Asia. For when the Lydians resented the murder of Candaules. but to Cypselus. passed into Asia. : : . 6 HERODOTUS—BOOK I. we I will will pass him over. He took Priene. his son Sadyand Alyattes attes succeeded him. . ." Of this prediction neither the Lydians nor their kings took any notice until it was actually accomplished. King of Phrygia. and was confirmed in it by the oracle at Delphi. when he obtained the sovereignty. and possessed themselves of all Sardis except the citadel. Gyges having obtained the kingdom. Gyges dedicated is by the Delphians called Gygian. During the time that he reigned at Sardis.

When the disease continued a considerable time. and during those he made incursions into the Milesian territory (for this Sadyattes was the person that began the war). but signally defeated. Alyattes. but let them stand as they were but when he had destroyed their trees and the fruits on the ground. 16-19] CONQUESTS OF THE LYDIANS 7 from Colophon. and invaded Clazomenae. None of the Ionians. thus set on fire. carried by the wind. an accident of the following nature occurred: as soon as the corn had caught fire. Six of these eleven years Sadyattes. On his arrival in Milesia. No notice was taken of this at the time but afterward. nor forced off the doors. and hence took the name of the Assesian Minerva. the son of Ardys. for formerly the Milesians had assisted the Chians in prosecuting the war : : . In this manner he carried on the war eleven years. having those habitations. Minerva had a temple there. who (as I have before mentioned) received it from his father. he led his army into their territory. when the corn had been set on fire by the army.— Larcher. so that there was no use in the army's besieging it. he sent messengers to Delphi to consult the oracle. the son of Sadyattes. during which the Milesians received two great blows. caught a temple of Minerva. was still king of the Lydians. But during the five years that succeeded the six. and when they had cultivated it. either from the advice of some friend or because it appeared right to himself to send and Assesus was a small town dependent on Miletus. .. except the Chians. that the Milesians. assisted the Milesians in bearing the burden of this war: they did it in requital for succour they had received. for the Milesians were masters of the sea. one in a battle at Limeneion in their own territory. he neither demolished nor burned their country houses. He also performed in the course of his reign the following actions worthy of mention he continued the war which his father had begun against the Milesians. the flames. might come out to sow and cultivate the ground. From this place he departed. earnestly applied himself to it. And the Lydian king would not destroy their houses for this reason. he might have something to ravage. and flutes. called Assesian x and the temple. was burned to the ground. harps. masculine and feminine. he invaded it in the following manner when their fruits were ripe on the ground. the other in the plain of the Maeander. 1 . attended in his march with pipes. Alyattes fell sick. and leading his army against Miletus. when he should invade them with his army. not as he could wish. he returned home. against the Erythraeans. In the twelfth year. when the army had returned to Sardis.

Soon afterward a reconciliation took place between them. when the above answer was brought to him. — . They say that Arion of Methymna. and who was the first that we are acquainted with who com. and himself recovered from sickness. at that time King of Miletus. . Now. de- spatched a messenger to inform him of it.8 HERODOTUS— BOOK I. instead of Such were the one. Periander was King of Corinth. circumstances of the war that Alyattes made against Thrasybulus and the Milesians. in order that. he returned to Sardis and. had recourse to the following artifice in the market-place all the corn that was in the city. immediately sent a herald to Miletus. the son of Cypselus. to the end that the Sardian herald. For when the herald had seen these things. received from the herald on his return from Miletus an account quite contrary to what he expected. who was second to none of his time in accompanying the harp. For Alyattes expecting that there was a great scarcity of corn in Miletus. that when he gave the signal all the inhabitants should feast together. being aware of it beforehand.ve rebuilt the temple. as I am informed. Periander was the son of Cypselus he it was who acquainted Thrasybulus with the answer of the oracle. and delivered to Thrasybulus the message of the Lydian king. The herald accordingly went on this mission to Miletus. Alyattes. might report accordingly to Alyattes and so it came to pass. seeing so great a profusion of corn. having heard of the answer given to Alyattes. The Pythian refused to give any answer to the messengers when they arrived at Delphi until they had rebuilt the Temple of Minerva which they had burned at Assesus in the territory of Milesia. This relation I had from the Delphians: but the Milesians add that Periander. desiring to make a truce with Thrasybulus and the Milesians till such time as he should h:. he made a proc: lamation. and the people enjoying themselves. a reconciliation was brought about for no other reason. and the Corinthians say (and the Lesbians confirm their account) that a wonderful prodigy occurred in his lifetime. And Alyattes built two temples to Minerva at Assesus. and that the people were reduced to extreme distress. both his own and what belonged to private persons. CLIO [19-23 make inquiries of the god concerning his disorder. But Thrasybulus being accurately informed of the whole matter. on terms of mutual friendship and alliance. Thrasybulus contrived and ordered this. who was a very intimate friend of Thrasybulus. he might form his plans according to present circumstances. This is the Milesian account. and knowing the design of Alyhaving collected attes.

. . : summoned them and inquired if they could give any account of Arion but when they answered that he peared. that Arion. an object that deserves attention above . when he had reigned fifty-seven years. put Arion under close confinement. but that these men. and that having acquired great wealth. them his money. this. . pleased that they should hear the best singer in the world. was desirous of making a voyage to Italy and Sicily . These things are reported by the Corinthians and Lesbians and there is a small brazen statue of Arion at Taenarus. that Arion. he . having landed. and he promised when he had sung himself. entreated them. with a saucer of iron inlaid . proceeded to Corinth in his full dress. They say that this Arion. Alyattes. representing a man sitting on . and watched anxiously for the seamen that when they ap- to make away with . stood on the rowing benches and went through the Orthian strain that when the strain was ended he leaped into the sea as he was. was safe in Italy. and he being aware of offered . in his full dress and the sailors continued their voyage to Corinth. having waged this long war against the Milesians. when they were in the open sea. and carried him to Taenarus and that he. But they say that a dolphin received him on his back. since such was their determination. the Lydian. having put on all his robes. that he might be buried ashore. and represented the dithyrambus at Corinth. retired from the stern to the middle of the vessel. They relate. and that they had left him flourishing at Tarentum. he could not prevail on them but the sailors ordered him either to kill himself. he determined to return to Corinth that he set out from Tarentum. conspired together to throw him was : overboard and seize his money. and entreated them to spare his life. and upon his arrival there related all that had happened. but that Periander. or to leap immediately into the sea. named. because he put more confidence in them than in any other nation. reduced to this strait. being fully convicted. they could no longer deny the fact. a dolphin. having continued a long time with Periander. to permit him to stand on the poop in his full dress and sing. However. Arion in that instant appeared before them just as he was when he leaped into the sea at which they were so astonished that. and taken his harp. On his recovery from sickness he was the second of his family that dedicated at Delphi a large silver bowl. afterward died. and hired a ship of certain Corinthians. They add. The seamen. carried to Tsenarus on the back of a dolphin.23-25] THE STORY OF ARION 9 posed. giving no credit to his relation.

Ionians. by making this reply. when Croesus inquired if he had any news from Greece " king. It was made by Glaucus the Chian. whom you hold in subjection? " It is related. first invented the art of inlaying iron. and made an alliance with the Ionians that inhabit the islands. all the other wise men of that time. Bias of Priene (or. tacked the Ephesians before any other Grecian people. except the Cilicians and Lycians. CLIO [25-29 the offerings at Delphi. The Ephesians. came from Greece who : O : . and against some of them alleging frivolous pretences. But what can you imagine the Islanders more earnestly desire. you appear to wish above all things to see the Islanders on horseback upon the continent and not without reason. After the death of Alyattes. than to catch the Lydians at sea. Dorians. and that. Phrygians. his son Croesus. Mariandynians. which was then besieged. and Croesus had added them to the Lydians. that Croesus was very much pleased with the conclusion. with intention to make war upon you and Sardis. and the temple is seven stadia. after having heard of your resolution to build a fleet in order to attack them. put a stop to his ship-building. Chalybians. alleging different pretences against different states. the Islanders are enlisting a large body of cavalry. Paphlagonians. being besieged by him. both the Thynians and Bithynians. Carians. he formed a design to build ships and attack the Islanders. as others say. for Croesus held all the rest in subjection: and they were the following: the Lydians. Pittacus of Mitylene). The distance between the old town. " May the gods put such a thought into the Islanders as to attack the sons of the Lydians with horse. In course of time nearly all the nation^ that dwelt within the river Halys. who was then He atthirty-five years of age. i . But when all things were ready for the building of ships. arriving at Sardis. being convinced (for he appeared to speak to the purpose). and Pamphylians. were subdued. imputing graver charges against those in whom he was able to discover greater causes of blame." Croesus.IO all HERODOTUS— BOOK I. as each had opportunity. said." The other answering said " Sire. by fastening a rope from the temple to the wall. consecrated their city to Diana. When these nations were subdued. Croesus then attacked these the first. Thracians. succeeded to the kingdom. he put a stop to the ship-building. yEolians. After he had reduced the Grecians in Asia to the payment of tribute. thinking he had spoken the truth. that they may revenge on you the cause of those Greeks who dwell on the continent. Mysians. and afterward the several cities of the Ionians and ^Eolians one after another.

and had withal such strength of body that they were both alike victorious in the public games. absented himself for ten years. Crcesus asked him " Athenian guest. eagerly asked him. without any flattery. speaking the truth freely. " Cleobis. answered. having made laws for the Athenians at their request. lived in a well-governed commonwealth had sons who were virtuous and good and he saw children born to them all. possessed a sufficient fortune. therefore. by order of the king. having sailed away under pretence of seeing the world. he put the enemy to flight.: 29-31] CROESUS QUESTIONS SOLON || to Sardis. The Athenians buried him at the public charge in the place where he fell. having gone abroad for enact for them. Crcesus. astonished at his answer. when he had lived as happily as the condition of human affairs For will permit. since they were bound by solemn oaths to observe for ten years whatever laws Solon should Solon." said he. " On what account do you deem Tellus the happiest ? " He replied " Tellus. how that as a philosopher you have travelled through various countries for the purpose of observation I am therefore desirous of asking you. . who is the most happy man you have seen ? " He asked this question. it was necessary that their mother should be drawn to the temple in a chariot the oxen : My . and when he had seen and examined everything sufficiently. and among them Solon. he ended his life in a most glorious manner." Crcesus. the attendants conducted him round the treasury. and died nobly. " and Biton. in the first place. because he thought himself the most happy of men. expecting at least to obtain the second place. asked whom he had seen next to him." When Solon had aroused the attention of Crcesus by relating many and happy circumstances concerning Tellus. . that he might not be compelled to abrogate any of the laws he had established: for the Athenians could not do it themselves. Crcesus. and afterward at that of Crcesus On his arrival he was hospitably entertained by at Sardis. these reasons. and all surviving in the next place. coming to the assistance of the Athenians in a battle with their neighbours of Eleusis. and on the third or fourth day. as well of your wisdom as of your travels. for they. and for the purpose of observation. But Solon. which had then attained to the highest degree of prosperity. And moreover the following story is related of them when the Argives were celebrating a festival of Juno. who. " Tellus the Athenian. . and honoured him greatly. being natives of Argos. and showed him all their grand and costly contents. your great fame has this question reached even to us. : : . an Athenian. arrived in Egypt at the court of Amasis.

being pressed for time. and king of many nations but as relates to what you inquire of me. put themselves beneath the yoke. if the number of intercalary days was 1. Now I put the term of man's life at seventy years these seventy years then give twentyfive thousand two hundred days. which will give 375 days to the year so that in spite of the precaution the seasons will be confused. the intercalary months will be thirty-five more in the seventy years. — . CLIO [31-32 did not come from the field in time. who had so highly honoured her. commended the strength of the youths. . the youths fell asleep in the temple itself. and never awoke more. do you inquire of me concerning human affairs of me.12 HERODOTUS— BOOK I.050 in 70 years. stood before the image and prayed that the goddess would grant to Cleobis and Biton." Thus Solon adjudged the second place of felicity to these youths. After they had done this in sight of the assembled people. there will be altogether 26. I can not say till I hear you have ended your life happily. caused their statues to be made and dedicated at Delphi. You appear to me to be master of immense treasures. in commemoration of their piety. who know that the divinity is always jealous. a most happy termination was put to their lives.259. without including the intercalary month and if we add that month ' to every other year. 1 If the first number 25. then. her own sons.200 is correct. and to suffer many things they would not willingly suffer. Yet in all this number of twenty-six thousand two hundred and fifty days. Larcher. My my slighted by you as nothing worth. " . O . man is altogether the sport of fortune. After this prayer. and the young men therefore. that you do not think me of so much value as private men ? " He answered " Croesus. . it follows that the year was 360 days. For — : . is enraged. being happiness then so Athenian friend. who stood round. but met with such a termination of life. Croesus. Thus. and the women blessed her as the mother of such sons but the mother herself. one day produces nothing exactly the same as another. said. and delights in confusion ? For in lapse of time men are constrained to see many things they would not willingly see. they reached the temple. and drew the car in which their mother sat and having conveyed it forty-five stadia. when they had sacrificed and partaken of the feast. the greatest blessing man could receive. and the days of these months will be one thousand and fifty. and in them the Deity clearly showed that it is better for a man to die than to live. transported with joy both on account of the action and its renown. that compose these seventy years. But Croesus. in order that the seasons arriving at the proper time may agree. Upon this the Argives. . For the men of Argos.

and if. Many men who abound in wealth are unhappy and many who have only a moderate competency are fortunate. and bade men look to the end of everything. 32-34] THE WISDOM OF SOLON 1 the richest of men is not more happy than he that has a sufficiency for a day unless good fortune attend him to the grave. in what way it will terminate for the Deity having shown a glimpse of happiness to many. and . because he overlooked present prosperity. he is free from disease and misfortune. he shall end his life well. whose name was Atys. Crcesus did not confer any favour on him. king. so that he ends his life in happiness. O We . dreading the dream. and he enjoys the full use of his limbs. he therefore who has constantly enjoyed the most of these. while sleeping. which pointed out to him the truth of the misfortunes that were about to befall him in the person of one For Crcesus had two sons. but his good fortune wards off these things from him. and holding him in no account. Now it is impossible for any one man to comprehend all these advantages: as no one country suffices to produce everything for itself. is better able to gratify desire. After the departure of Solon. and that which affords the most is the best. but possesses one advantage. but before he die we ought to suspend our judgment. but fortunate. for he was dumb but the other. He that abounds in wealth. Now the dream intimated to Crcesus that he would lose this Atys by a wound inflicted by the point of an iron weapon he. and then ends his life tranquilly. and had considered the matter with himself. when he awoke. dismissed him for he considered him a very ignorant man. surpasses the other only in two things. . A . provided a wife for his son. in my judgment.3. of whom one was of his sons. but . he is the man you seek. and is yet unhappy. has afterward utterly overthrown them. and not pronounce him happy. but affords some and wants others. this man. and to bear the blow of adversity. in addition to all these things." When he spoke thus to Crcesus. indeed. ought therefore to consider the end of everything. so no human being is in all respects self-sufficient. he is blessed with good children and a fine form. and is in need of another. the other surpasses the wealthy and the miserable in many things. the indignation of the gods fell heavily upon Crcesus. But the latter surpasses him in this he is not indeed equally able to bear misfortune or satisfy desire. grievously afflicted. far surpassed all the young men of his age. probably because he thought himself dream soon after visited him the most happy of all men. and may justly be called happy. deserves the name of happy. The former.

and am called Adrastus. but I will send with you chosen Lydians. While Croesus was engaged with the nuptials of his son. a boar of enorcome to Croesus. and you are come to friends. This man. At last deputies from the Mysians having king. if you will stay. and whose hands were polluted. sought permission to obtain purification according to the custom of the country. The Mysians. I am the son of Gordius. and of royal family.: 14 HERODOTUS— BOOK I. and ravages our fields though we have often endeavoured to take him. and. he had them laid up in private chambers. and that now occupies his attention. the palace of Croesus. could not hurt him. ravaged the fields of the Mysians. At this same time a boar of enormous size appeared in Mysian Olympus. speaking to him as follows " Stranger. arrived at Sardis. Croesus inquired whence he came. he did not ever after send him out on that business and causing all spears. and from what part of Phrygia hast thou come as a suppliant " to my hearth ? and what man or woman hast thou slain ? The stranger answered " Sire. remembering the warning of his dream." Such was their entreaty. a man oppressed by misfortune. having unwittingly slain my own brother. : : : : O We : . but suffered much from him. and such other weapons as men use in war to be removed from the men's apartments. though they often went out against him. we can not. lances. you shall want nothing. who art thou. and who he was. spoke as follows " mous size has appeared in our country. and being banished by my father and deprived of everything. that we may drive him from the country. but Croesus." Such was his answer and when the Mysians were content with this. among whom. having come to . CLIO [34-37 though he was accustomed to command the Lydian troops. that none of them being suspended might fall upon his son. son of Midas. therefore earnestly beg that you would send with us your son and some chosen youths with dogs. I am come hither. . and by bearing your misfortune as lightly as possible. you will be the greatest gainer. answered " Make no further mention of my son. who had heard of their ." So Adrastus took up his abode in the palace of Croesus. for I shall not send him with you. rushing down from that mountain. the son of Croesus. Croesus purified him (now the manner of expiation is nearly the same among the Lydians and the Greeks) and when he had performed the usual ceremonies. because he is lately married. and will order them to assist you with their best endeavours in driving the monster from your country." Croesus answered as follows " You are born of parents who are our friends. a Phrygian by birth. and the whole hunting train.

: you when smitten by a grievous misfortune. and you are besides in tus. addressed him as follows : How my My On : my . if after such a dream you take so much care of me. sake. you ought to go for your own to do him harm. and now refuse to send you on this expedition." " You have surpassed me. having thus spoken. where you may signalize yourself by your exploits for this was the glory of your ancestors. for you are my only son. when he goes to the chase. and supplied you with everything necessary. and permit you to go to the chase." answered Crcesus. and. who is deprived of his hearing. or something of like nature. and have received you into my house. came in and when Crcesus refused to send him with them." The youth answered " You are not to blame. sent for the Phrygian Adras" Adrastus. the other. but now you keep me excluded from both. my father.5 . and would die by the point account of this vision therefore of an iron weapon. ATYS AND ADRASTUS 1 request. the youth thus addressed him " Father." Crcesus. " I act thus. or anything else unbecoming in you but a vision in a dream appearing to me in my sleep warned me that you would be short-lived. I hastened your marriage. when he came. without having observed in me will men look on either cowardice or want of spirit. since I have first conferred a kindness on you) I beg you would be my son's guardian." " son. to occalife by sion such fears in you? Had it said I should lose a tusk. if by any means I can. " in explaining the import of the dream therefore. which I do not upbraid you with. me when I go or return from the forum ? What kind of man newly marshall I appear to my fellow-citizens ? What to What kind of man will she think she has for a ried wife? partner? Either suffer me then to go to this hunt. 37-40 . taking care to preserve you. or what pointed iron weapon has a boar. whereas it said by the point of a weapon since then we have not to contend against men. I change my resolution. or convince me that it is better for me to do as you would have me. not because I have seen any cowardice. what hand. let me go. Now therefore (for it is your duty to requite me with kindness. in time past I was permitted to signalize myself in the two most noble and becoming exercises of war and hunting. being overcome by you. but it is right for me to explain that which you do not comprehend. and take care that no skulking villains show themselves in the way Besides. and which has escaped your notice in the dream. You say the dream signiBut fied that I should die by the point of an iron weapon. I purified ." replied Crcesus. I consider as lost. as long as I live. you ought then to have done as you now do .. .

Adrastus answered have taken part in this enterprise. : . pen. named Adrastus. they went away. When Croesus heard this. Croesus. return to you uninjured. though his own affliction was so great. for I am bound to requite the benefits you have conferred on me. and. by the name of the god of hospitality and private friendship as the god of hospitality. and having found him and encircled him around. except as far as you were the involuntary agent but that god." : I. well provided with chosen youths and dogs and. because. they hurled their javelins at him. relating his former misfortune. Upon this. and behind it followed the murderer. I have often restrained myself. Croesus therefore buried his son as the dignity of his and Adrastus. lamented it the more bitterly because he fell by the hand of one whom he himself had purified from blood and vehemently deploring his misfortune. shall. gave him an account of the action and of his son's fate. he invoked Jove the Expiator. some one ran off to tell Croesus what had happened. having advanced in front of the corpse. He. the stranger. and that he ought to live no longer. bearing the corpse. stretching forth his hands and begging of him to kill him upon it. son of Midas. he found him his greatest enemy. having arrived at Mount Olympus. he had unawares fostered the murderer of his son as the god of private friendship. I am ready to do as you desire and rest assured that your son. sire. attesting what he had suffered by this stranger. : . : . exceedingly distressed by the death of his son. as far as his guardian is concerned. having sent him as a guardian. they sought the wild beast. and how in addition to that he had destroyed his purifier. fulfilled the warning of the dream. and said to him " You have made me full satisfaction by condemning yourself to die. delivered himself up to Croesus. indeed. CLIO [41-45 " On no other account.l6 full HERODOTUS— BOOK vigour. and I ought to oblige you. throwing his javelin at the boar. that long since foreshadowed what was about to hap. and having arrived at Sardis. But you are not the author of this misfortune. whom you bid me take care of. . Among the rest. would I . son of Gorgius." birth required. Now. nor do I desire to do so. since you urge me. After this the Lydians approached. missed him and struck the son of Croesus thus he being wounded by the point of the lance." When Adrastus had made this answer to Croesus. he pitied Adrastus. He invoked also the same deity. whoever he was. the same that had been purified of murder. because by receiving a stranger into his house. for it is not fitting that one in my unfortunate circumstances should join with his prosperous compeers.

who had been sent to other places. put an end to the grief of Croesus and he began to consider whether he could by any means check the growing power of the Persians before they became formidable.that from Delphi. He sent others also to consult that of Ammon in Libya. Croesus. make trial of the oracles with the following orders that computing the days from the time of their departure from Sardis. because it had discovered what he had done. he immediately adored it. 45-48] CRCESUS TESTS THE ORACLES 17 the murderer of his own brother. consolate for two years. . designing to make trial of what the oracles knew in order that if they should be found to know the truth. examined their contents." The Lydians. and ask the question enjoined them. killed himCroesus. Some time afterward. and sent different persons to different places. but none of them pleased him. than the Pythian answered in hexameter verse " I know the number of the sands. being convinced that the oracle at Delphi alone was a real oracle. : : . he heard . . bereaved of his son. And he sent them different ways. Now what were the answers given by the other oracles. and the measure of the sea I understand the dumb. returned to Sardis. son of Cambyses. by asking what Croesus. judging himself the most heavily afflicted of all men. : . by Cyrus. having opened each of them. they should consult the oracles on the hundredth day. is mentioned by none but no sooner had the Lydians entered the Temple of Delphi to consult the god. and the murderer of his purifier. however. continued disself on the tomb.. and hear him that does not speak the savour of the hardshelled tortoise boiled in brass with the flesh of lamb strikes on my senses brass is laid beneath it. son of Alyattes. and others to Branchidae of Milesia these were the Grecian oracles to which Croesus sent to consult. . and approved of it. was then doing. he might send a second time to inquire whether he should venHe despatched them to ture to make war on the Persians. and brass is put over it. and king of the Lydians. and the growing power of the Persians. some to Abae of Phocis. For when he had sent persons to consult the different oracles. having written down this answer of the Pythian. When. who had been . he determined to make trial as well of the oracles in Greece as of that in Libya. and that they should bring him the answer of each oracle in writing. some to Delphi. the overthrow of the kingdom of Astyages. and some to Dodona others were sent to Amphiaraus and Trophonius. . After he had formed this purpose. when all was silent round the tomb. And when the rest. son of Cyaxares. arrived bringing the answers.

and that of silver on the left but these also were removed when the temple was burned down and the golden one. LACEDAEMONIANS. and having heaped up beds of gold and silver. 1 HERODOTUS— BOOK I. He also of cattle of every kind fit for sacrifice. the other half bricks of pale gold weighed two talents each. the other of silver: that of gold was placed on the right hand as one enters the temple. the silver one. of which the longest were six palms in length. which stand in the treasury of the Corinthians and he dedicated two lustral vases. having melted down a vast quantity of gold. when the Temple of Delphi was burned talents. who performed the accustomed rites at the temple for nothing else is related than that he considered this also to be a : . he burned on . and is used by the Delphians for mixing the wine on the Theophanian festival. for it had been placed on them and it now lies in the treasury of the Corinthians. true oracle. weighing ten This lion. weighing eight talents and a half and twelve minae. he cast half bricks from it. containing six hundred amphorae. When the sacrifice was ended. I can not say what answer it gave to the Lydians." who say that it was their offering. having finished these things. He made also the figure of a lion of fine gold. the shortest three. one of gold. sent four casks of silver. and with them these following: two large bowls. of pure gold. he cut up a tortoise and a lamb. Crcesus. and boiled them himself together in a brazen caldron. is placed in the treasury of Clazomenae. .8 . OF THE : . . for it appears to be no common work. Such then was the answer given to Crcesus from Delphi: as regards the answer of the oracle of Amphiaraus. and robes of purple and garments hoping by that means more completely to conciliate the god he also ordered all the Lydians to offer to the god whatever he was able. . sent them to Delphi. weighing six talents and a half for three talents and a half were melted from it. lies in a corner of the vestibule. but wrongfully. CLIO [48-51 watching the appointed day. the other of silver: on the golden one is an inscription. After this he endeavoured to propitiate the god at Delphi by magnificent sacrifices for he offered three thousand head . he had recourse to the following contrivance having thought of what it was impossible to discover or guess at. vials of gold. fell from the half bricks. weighed each two talents and a half. for this also was given by Crcesus a cer. . : : . it a great pile. down. one of gold. The Delphians say it was the workmanship of Theodorus the Samian and I think so too. and in thickness one palm their number was one hundred and seventeen four of these. and put on it a cover of brass.

and if he should Accordingly. and whether he should join any auxiliary forces with his own ? " Such were their questions . through but neither of the lustral vases. they consulted the oracles. and the opinions of both oracles concurred. which the Delphians say is the image of Croesus's baking woman and to all these things he added the necklaces and girdles of his wife. in order to please the name. foretelling " that if Croesus should make war on the Persians. esteeming these to be the only oracles among men. King of the Lydians and of other nations. whether he should lead an army against the Persians. Lydians arrived at the places to which they were sent. Croesus having made these presents to the Delphians. he would destroy a mighty empire " and they advised him to engage the most powerful of the Grecians in his alliance. sent a third time to consult the oracle. and to Amphiaraus. the shaft as well as the points being of gold. and the privilege of being made citizens of Delphi. His demand now was. and having ascertained the number of the inhabitants. When Croesus heard the answers that were brought back. but forbear to mention it. and these are at Thebes in the Temple of Ismenian Apollo. and exemption from tribute. 19 tain Delphian Lacedaemonians boy. then. tender-footed . and moreover a statue of a woman in gold three cubits high. whether he should long enjoy the kingdom. In return for this. is their his . to as many as should desire it in all future time. to which the Pythian gave this answer " When gift . the Delphians gave Croesus and the Lydians the right to consult the oracle before any others. presented each of them with two staters of gold. For after he had ascertained the veracity of the oracle. . when the unite any other nation as an ally. These were the offerings he sent to Delphi. he had frequent recourse to it. and a lance of solid gold. 5 i-55] RICH GIFTS OF CRCESUS made the I know . At the same time Croesus sent many other offerings without an inscription among them some round silver covers. and the first seats in the temple. having ascertained his virtue and sufferings. sends these presents in acknowledgment of your discoveries and now asks. : a mule shall become King of the Medes. and had dedicated the offerings.. he dedicated a shield all of gold. To the Lydians appointed to convey these presents to the temples. he again sent to Delphi. he was beyond measure delighted with the oracles and fully expecting that he should destroy the kingdom of Cyrus. indeed. saying " Croesus. : . whose hand the water flows. : The inscription. Croesus gave it in charge to inquire of the oracles whether he should make war on the Persians.

chiefly by a union with many other barbarous nations. as appears to me. CLIO [55-58 Lydian. nor blush to be a coward. must at the time they changed into HelFor neither do the Creslenes have altered their language. the Attic race. called Histiaeotis : when they were driven out of Histiaeotis by the Cadmaeans. and who now inhabit the town of Crestona above the Tyrrhenians. Croesus was more than ever delighted. yet from a small beginning they have increased to a multitude of nations. and whatever other cities. being Pelasgic. . nor tarry. And if the whole Pelasgian body did so. . the coun. they were at first insignificant. and who were formerly neighbours to those now called Dorians. they settled on Mount Pidnus. : . . though really Pelasgian. : ." With this answer. What language the Pelasgians used I can not with certainty affirm but if I may form a conjecture from those Pelasgians who now exist. and at that time occupied the country at present called Thessaliotis and if I may conjecture from those Pelasgians settled at Placia and Scylace on the Hellespont. flee over pebbly Hermus. thinking that a mule should never be King of the Medes instead of a man. however. . which. In the next place he began to inquire carefully who were the most powerful of the Greeks whom he might gain over as allies and on inquiry found that the Lacedaemonians and the Athenians excelled the rest. when reported to him. but both use the same language by which it appears they have taken care to preserve the character of the language they brought with them into those places. Wherefore it appears to me that the Pelasgic race. 20 HERODOTUS— BOOK I. I say. being barbarous. the son of Hellen. the Pelasgians spoke a barbarous language. tonions use the same language with any of their neighbours. at a place called Macednum thence they again removed to Dryopis and at length coming into Peloponnesus. The Hellenic race. the other an Hellenic nation the latter had never emigrated. when separated from the Pelasgians. try at the foot of Ossa and Olympus. and who once dwelt with the Athenians. the former being of Dorian. have changed their name if. never increased to any great extent. but the former had very often changed their seat. the latter of Ionic descent for these were in ancient times the most distinguished. . for under the reign of Deucalion they inhabited the country of Phthiotis and in the time of Dorus.: . were called Dorians. nor do the people of Placia. I may be permitted to conjecture from these. and consequently that neither he nor his posterity should ever be deprived of the kingdom. from the time they became a people have used the same language though. the latter being a Pelasgian.

but club-bearers. the former headed by Megacles. which were full of flesh and water. son of Hippocrates. then reigning in Athens. who were not to be his javelin men. being reconciled. drove him out. when a quarrel happened between those who dwelt on the sea-coast and the Athenians. . and saw the prodigy. on condition of having the sovereignty. and besought the people to grant him a guard. who. To this Hippocrates. not to marry any woman by whom he might have children or. in order to his restitution. the Lacedaemonian. for they attended him with clubs of wood. they contrived the most ridiculous project that.59-60] PISISTRATUS 21 Of these nations then Croesus learned that the Attic was oppressed and distracted by Pisistratus. if he was already married. I think. especially if we consider that the Greeks have from old been Nisaea was the port of the Megarians. aiming at the sovereign power. who was accidentally there. : . gave him such of the citizens as he selected. joining in revolt with Pisistratus. These men. the latter by Lycurgus. he contrived this stratagem having wounded himself and his mules. ordering it liberally and well. then to put away his wife and if he happened to have a son. 1 . having before acquired renown in the expedition against Megara. Not long after. when Chilon gave this advice. first of all. about two miles from the city. In this manner Pisistratus first made himself master of Athens. would not be persuaded. son of Alcmaeon. therefore. who was at the time a private person. being deceived by this. formed a third party. son of Aristolaides. But those who expelled Pisistratus quarrelled anew with one another and Megacles. as if he had escaped from enemies that designed to murder him on his way to the country. However. 1 and displaying other illustrious deeds. and thereupon Pisistratus assumed the government of the Athenians. his power not being very firmly rooted. Hippocrates. was ever imagined. . For having killed a victim. Pisistratus having accepted the proposal and agreed to his terms. Chilon. . And having assembled his partisans under colour of protecting those of the mountains. advised Hippocrates. The people of Athens. seized the Acropolis. and had afterward this same Pisistratus. neither disturbing the existing magistracies nor altering the laws but he administered the government according to the established institutions. and a spectator at the Olympian games. the a great prodigy occurred. and. lost it. harassed by the sedition. the partisans of Megacles and Lycurgus. to disown him. he drove his chariot into the public square. sent a herald to Pisistratus to ask if he was willing to marry his daughter. bubbled up without any fire and boiled over. caldrons. by taking Nissea.

now conducts back to her own citadel. 1 consulted with his sons. and she to her husband. receive with kind wishes Pisistratus. wishing not to have any children by his newly married wife. Having set out from Eretria. whom Minerva herself. and having shown her beforehand how to assume the most becoming demeanour. they came back in the eleventh year of their exile. Pisistratus 1 There were two places of this name.22 HERODOTUS— BOOK from all I. Pisistratus. and in other respects handsome having dressed this woman in a . to recover the kingdom. one Eubcea." They then went about proclaiming this and a report was presently spread among the people that Minerva was bringing back Pisistratus and the people in the city. honouring above all men. and though many gave large sums. and in his rage instantly reconciled himself to those of the opposite faction. showed great zeal in the cause. four cubits high. but afterward. who had come as a volunteer. in Thessaly and another in . and as the Alcmaeonidae were said to be under a curse. He felt highly indignant at being dishonoured by Pisistratus. The woman at first kept the thing a secret. complete suit of armour. and brought both men and money. both adored a human being and received : . and everything was ready for their return. having sent heralds before. While they lay en. At length (not to give a detailed account) time passed. the Thebans surpassed the rest in liberality. withdrew entirely out of the country. proclaimed what was ordered in these terms " O Athenians. In the Paeanean tribe was a woman named Phya. — Larcher. and arriving in Eretria. Pisistratus retired to this last. for Argive mercenaries arrived from Peloponnesus and a man of Naxos. and more particularly as they played this trick upon the Athenians. CLIO [60-62 distinguished from the barbarians as being free more acute and foolish simplicity. she discovered it to her. believing this woman to be the goddess. and. on their arrival in the city. wanting three fingers. he. having recovered the sovereignty in the manner above described. married the daughter of Megacles in accordance with his agreement. they drove her to the city. but Pisistratus hearing of the designs that were being formed against him. . they immediately began to collect contributions from those cities which felt any gratitude to them for benefits received. who are esteemed among the wisest of the Grecians. But as he already had grownup sons. had intercourse with her unnaturally. and first of all possessed themselves of Marathon. The opinion of Hippias prevailed. and placed her on a chariot. who. named Lygdamis. whether questioned by her mother or not.

and settled them at Naxos which island Pisistratus had formerly subdued. he removed them to another part of Delos. soon put them to flight. purified the island of Delos. belonging to the tribe Antiochides. The Athenians of the city were then engaged at their breakfast. spoke as they were ordered by Pisistratus. and pronounced this oracle in hexameter verse " The cast is thrown. in obedience to an oracle. time Pisistratus was collecting money. In the meantime Pisistratus's party. and some of them after breakfast had betaken themselves to dice. bidding them be of good cheer. and others from the various districts. falling upon them by surprise. and given in charge to Lygdamis he. 62-64] PISISTRATUS. both their partisans from the city joined them. uttered this prophecy. as far as the prospect from the temple reached. and the net is spread by the moonlight the tunnies will rush in. : 1 Pallene was the name of one of the boroughs of Attica. Here Amphilytus. inspired by the god. TYRANT AT ATHENS 23 camped in this place. led on his army.. 2 He also seized as hostages the sons of the Athenians who had held out against him. and Pisistratus. and there took up their position. and had not immediately fled. on the road from Marathon to Athens. Thus Pisistratus ruled despotically . The Athenians of the city. and saying he accepted the omen. — . and thus Pisistratus. approached Pisistratus. advanced toward the city. crowded to them thus they were collected together. moreover. The army of Pisistratus. Larcher. from Marathon against the city. moved by divine impulse. having overtaken the fugitives. to whom a tyranny was more welcome than liberty. and arrived in a body at the Temple of the Pallenian * Minerva. others to sleep. : : . and they. having a third time possessed himself of Athens. secured his power more firmly both by the aid of auxiliary forces and by revenues partly collected at home and partly drawn from the river Strymon. a prophet of Acarnania. ' The country between the Strymon and the Nessus was celebrated for its mines." He. and as they were flying. He mounted his sons on horseback and sent them forward. had shown very little concern all the. The Athenians yielded a ready obedience. having set out from Marathon. Pisistratus contrived a clever stratagem to prevent their rallying again. or even when he took possession But when they heard that he was marching of Marathon. on the other hand. that they might be thoroughly dispersed. And he purified it in the following manner: having dug up the dead bodies. they at length went out to so they marched with their whole force against the resist him invaders. and to depart every man to his own home. comprehending the oracle.

they held him in the highest reverence. and a fair plain to measure out in peace. changed their laws. . There are many acorn-eating men in Arcadia who will hinder thee. and in holding no intercourse with strangers. and were worsted by the Tegeans only. the Lacedaemonians were successful in all other wars. beloved by Jove and tle. both as regarded their dealings with one another." Some men say that. And now they were no longer content to live : . no sooner entered the temple than the Pythian spoke as follows " Thou art come. 1 Croesus was informed at that time that such was the condition of the Athenians and that the Lacedaemonians. As they had a good soil and abundant population. having arrived at Delphi to consult the oracle. I think. Kings of Sparta. as the Lacedaemonians themselves affirm. Lycurgus. Lycurgus. the Pythian also communicated to him that form of government now established among the Spartans.24 HERODOTUS— BOOK I. he Crete. 2 King of Sparta. having extricated themselves out of great difficulties. they sent to consult the oracle at Delphi. But. and besides Thus. but . some had fallen in the batand others fled from their homes with the son of Alcmseon. the enomotiae. 1 * It is name of Lycurgus's nephew was not . a man much esteemed by the Spartans. . : all that inhabit Olympian mansions I doubt whether I shall pronounce thee god or man but rather god. and the syssitia. : . Megacles. they established good institutions in their stead and having erected a temple to Lycurgus after his death. Lycurgus. tions. But they changed to a good government in the following manner: Lycurgus. But I do not grudge thee all I will give thee Tegea to dance on with beating of the feet. proudly considering themselves superior to the Arcadians. had first gained the mastery over the Tegeans in war. CLIO [64-66 over the Athenians. brought those institutions from For as soon as he had taken the guardianship. they quickly sprang up and flourished. but of them. And long before their reign they had been governed by the worst laws of almost any people in Greece. generally agreed that the Leobotas. For during the reign of Leo and Hegesicles. being appointed guardian to his nephew Leobotas. and took care that no one should Afterward he established military regulatransgress them. besides this. to my wealthy temple. touching the conquest of the whole country of the Arcadians and the Pythian gave them this answer " Dost thou ask of me Arcadia ? thou askest a great deal I can not grant it thee. altered all their customs. but Charilaus. having these he instituted the ephori and senators. . the triecades.

The smith. they should become so when they had brought back the bones of Orestes. he. preserved in Tegea. But as they were unable to find the sepulchre of Orestes. and they became so in the following manner: when they had always been worsted in battle by the Tegeans. Lichas. and you will be victorious over Tegea." When the Lacedaemonians heard this. discovered it in Tegea. found it. Those fetters in which they were bound were. In the first war they had constantly fought against the Tegeans with ill success. one of the Spartans who are called Agathoergi. and the Pythian gave this answer to the inquiries of those who came to consult her " In the level plain of Arcadia lies Tegea. de" O Laconian stranger. as many of them as were taken alive were compelled to work. but go to different places where they are sent by the Spartan commonwealth. : : . led an army against Tegea only. perceiving his astonishment. it is their duty during the year in which they are discharged from the cavalry not to remain inactive. suspended around the Temple of Alean Minerva. though they searched everywhere till Lichas. five in every year. and stroke answers to stroke. carrying fetters with them. you sisted from his work. There lifeengendering earth contains Agamemnon's son convey him home. looked attentively at the iron being forged. even in my time. wearing the fetters they had brought. For : . who was one of these persons. and woe lies on woe. and said would certainly have been astonished had you seen what I saw. and during the reign of Anaxandrides and Ariston at Lacedaemon. such as are senior. they laid aside their design against all Arcadia. they were as far from the discovery as ever. they sent again to inquire of the god in what spot Orestes lay interred. but in the time of Crcesus.66-68] LICHAS AND THE BODY OF ORESTES 25 by the rod. both meeting with good fortune and employing sagacity. since you are so surprised at the working of iron. and relying on an equivocal oracle. But being defeated in an engagement. they had at length become superior in the war. and was struck with wonder when he saw what was done. Pythian answered. where two winds by hard compulsion blow. For as the Lacedaemonians had at that time intercourse with the Tegeans." When the Lacedaemonians heard this answer reported. as if they would surely reduce the Tegeans to slavery. they sent to inquire of the oracle at Delphi what god they should propiThe tiate. These Agathoergi consist of citizens who are discharged from serving in the cavalry. in order to become victorious over the Tegeans. the son of Agamemnon. and measuring the lands of the Tegeans with a rod. coming to a smithy.

were gratified at the coming of the Lydians. CLIO [68-70 was endeavouring to sink a well in this inclosure. and when they were arrived they spoke as follows " Crcesus. . since the Deity has directed me by an oracle to unite myself to a Grecian friend. but he would not let it. having given them orders what to say. and saw that the body was equal to the coffin in length. reflecting on what was said. Having that iron had been invented to the injury of man. wishing to use it in erecting the statue of Apollo that now stands at Thornax in Laconia. and wished to hire the inclosure from him. and having opened the sepulchre and collected the bones. he discerned in them the two winds. sent ambassadors to Sparta with presents. King of the Lydians and of other nations. but Lichas. ging : . and because I did not believe that men were ever taller than they now are. posal through his ambassadors. But in time. and exchanged pledges of friendship and alliance: and indeed certains favours had been formerly conferred on them by Crcesus. and to request their alliance. when he had persuaded him. related his misfortune to the smith. conjectured from the words of the oracle that this must be the body of Orestes." The man told him what he had seen. and after I had measured it I covered it up again. forming his conjecture on the following reasons seeing the smith's two bellows.' " And the Lacedaemonians.26 as I HERODOTUS— BOOK I. and the greater part of Peloponnesus had been already subdued by them. For this reason then. being desirous of becoming your friend and Crcesus made this proally. going back to Tegea. and because he had selected them from all the : ' : . He then. made this conjecture. and sent him into banishment. I opened it. who had before heard of the answer given by the oracle to Crcesus. in digI came to a coffin seven cubits long. whenever they made trial of each other's strength. for when the Lacedaemonians sent to Sardis to purchase gold. therefore (for I am informed that you are pre-eminent in Greece) I invite you in obedience to the oracle. has sent us with this message O Lacedaemonians. without treachery or guile. he returned to Sparta. he took up his abode there. Crcesus being informed of all these things. and in the anvil and hammer the stroke answering to stroke. he carried them away with him to Sparta. Crcesus gave it as a present to them when they were desirous of purchasing it. the Lacedaemonians were by far superior in war. and gave the Lacedaemonians an account of the whole matter they brought a feigned charge against him. From that time. and in the iron that was being forged the woe that lay on woe representing it in this way.

what will you take from them. you are (the name of this person was Sandanis) war against make a people preparing to who wear leather trousers. and heard that Sardis was taken. capable of containing three hundred amphorae. and feed not on such things as they choose. So it is then respecting this bowl. hoping to overthrow Cyrus and the power of the While Croesus was preparing for his expedition Persians. nor will they be driven from them.70-72] CHARACTER OF THE PERSIANS 27 Greeks. In the first place. being desirous of making Croesus a present in return. nor anything that is good. I thank the gods that they have not put it into the thoughts of the Persians to make war on the Lydians. prepared to invade Cappadocia. might say that they had been robbed of it by the Samians. before the establishment of the Persian power. For when they have tasted of our good things. if you should be conquered. and took On the other hand. consider what good things you will lose. As for me. gave him advice in these words " king. and Croesus a prisoner. : : O . misinterpreting the oracle. and that some private persons who bought it dedicated it in the Temple of Juno. And perhaps they who sold it. who before that time was esteemed a wise man. . a certain Lydian. But this bowl never reached Sardis. the Samians affirm that it away by force. they sent it to him. he did not persuade Croesus. for one of the two following reasons the Lacedaemonians say. having made a brazen bowl. sailed out in long ships. and the rest of their garments of leather. and covered it outside to the rim with various figures. but drink water nor have they figs to eat. who inhabit a barren country. the Samians having heard of it. were subject to the Medes. they sold the bowl in Samos. then. . was off Samos. but then to Cyrus. For the boundary of the Median empire and the Lydian was the river Halys. Besides. the Lacedaemonians accepted his offer of alliance and in the first place they promised to be ready at his summons and in the next. Croesus. . and afterward has . that when this bowl. against the Persians. they do not habitually use wine. when the Lacedaemonians who were conveying the bowl found they were too late. but such as they can get. when they returned to Sparta. and desired their friendship." In saying this. and on this occasion acquired a very great name in Lydia. Now before they subdued the Lydians. if you should conquer. The Cappadocians are by the Greeks called Syrians these Syrians. they will become fond of them. since they have nothing? On the other hand. the Persians possessed nothing either luxurious or good. which flows from the mountains of Armenia through Cilicia. on its way to Sardis.

In the sixth year. Thus the river Halys divides almost the whole of lower Asia. to serve it up to Cyaxares as if it were game and then to make their escape immediately to Alyattes. grandson of Deioces. 1 The long flowing dresses of the ancients made them up when they wished to move expeditiously. especially. at Sardis. had subjugated Astyages. For Cyrus. on one occasion took nothing. it necessary to gird . having met with this treatment from Cyaxares. and who always brought home something. son of Phraortes. ruled over the Medes he at first received these Scythians kindly. and considering it undeserved by them. 1 Croesus invaded Cappadocia for the following reasons. from his confidence in the oracle. as well from a desire of adding it to his own dominions. and during this time they had a kind of nocturnal engagement.. as being suppliants. as. time it happened that these Scythians. who were constantly going out to hunt. 28 HERODOTUS— BOOK I. it skirts the Syrian Cappadocians on one side. determined to kill one of the youths that were being educated under their care. it takes five days for a well-girt man. After this (for Alyattes refused to deliver up the Scythians to Cyaxares when he demanded them) war lasted between the Lydians and the Medes for five years during this period the Medes often defeated the Lydians. son of Cyaxares. and the Paphlagonians on the left. of a violent temThe per) treated them with most opprobrious language. son This accordingly was done: Cyaxof Sadyattes. at that time Cyaxares. and having prepared the flesh as they used to dress the beasts taken in hunting. Scythians. Cyaxares (for he was. he intrusted some youths to them to In course of learn their language and the use of the bow. it happened that in the heat of the battle day was suddenly turned into night. so much so that. This change of the day Thales the Milesian . on occasion of an engagement. who was brotherin-law of Crcesus. as to the length of the journey. ares and his guests feasted on this flesh. esteeming them very highly. CLIO [72-74 the Matienians on the right and the Phrygians on the other side . and often the Lydians defeated the Medes. On their returning emptyhanded. then passing these and flowing up toward the north. from the sea opposite Cyprus to the Euxine: this is the isthmus of that whole country. when they were carrying on the war with nearly equal success. as he proved. withdrew into Media. and a wish to punish Cyrus on account of Astyages. and King of the Medes. . He had become brother-in-law to Crcesus in the following manner: a band of Scythian nomads having risen in rebellion. son of Cambyses. and the Scythians having done this. became suppliants to Alyattes.

in Cappadocia. seeing night succeeding in the place of day. But the common opinion of the Grecians is that Thales the Milesian procured him a passage. might pass in the rear of the camp pitched where it then was. These nations in their federal contracts observe the same ceremonies as the Greeks. who was in the camp. they lick up his # one another's blood. having passed by the camp. Croesus. and afterward. says Prideaux. if he should make war on the Persians and when an ambiguous answer came back. and Labynetus Babylonian. came to a place called Pteria. alleging this against him. being turned into this. . (Now Pteria is the strongest position of the whole of this country. 1 . a city on the Euxine Sea. . .) Here he . for reasons which I shall hereafter relate. Syennesis seems to have been a name common to the kings of Cilicia. when they have cut their arms to the outer skin. interpreting it to his own advantage. while Croesus was in doubt how his army should pass over the river (for they say that these bridges were not at that time in existence). he dug a deep trench. Syennesis x the Cilician. were the mediators of their reconciliation these were they who hastened the treaty between them. and made a matrimonial connection for they persuaded Alyattes to give . from its old channel. after passing the river with his army. as I believe by the bridges which are now there. : . without strong necessity. Croesus transported his forces. he. Thales. desisted from fighting. and both showed a great anxiety 2 the to make peace. Cyrus had subdued this same Astyages. so that the river. caused the stream. which flowed along the left of the army. son of CyaxFor. In addition to the one here mentioned. to remain firm. * The same. sent to consult the oracle. with the Nebuchadnezzar of Scripture. and in addition. fixing beforehand this year as the very period in which the change actually took place.: 74-76] CRCESUS INVADES CAPPADOCIA 29 had foretold to the Ionians. led his army against the territory of the Persians. The Lydians and Medes. When he arrived at the river Halys. his grandfather by the mother's side. For. Some say that the ancient channel of the river was entirely dried up but this I can not assent to for how then could they have crossed it on their return? Croesus. daughter Aryenis in marriage to Astyages. we meet with another in the time of Darius. and a third in the time of Xerxes. might fall into its former course so that as soon as the river was divided into two streams it became fordable in both. to flow likewise on the right he contrived it thus having begun above the camp. in the shape of a half moon. and is situated over against Sinope. agreements are not wont ares.

\ which was composed of mercenary troops. and having taken with him all who inhabited the intermediate country. The Telmessians had pronounced as follows that Crcesus must expect a foreign army to invade his country which. on its arrival. and learned from the Telmessians what the prodigy portended. and expelled the inhabitants. as it really was. not imagining that Cyrus. a prodigy. before he had with the Lacedaemonians and to send for the Babylonians (for he had made an alliance with them also. and Labynetus at this time reigned over the Babylonians). he purposed. neither having been victorious. and took the city of the Pterians. when on the following day Cyrus did not attempt to attack him he marched back to Sardis. when winter was over. were unable to report it to Crcesus.30 HERODOTUS— BOOK I. who had given him no cause for blame. CLIO [76-78 encamped and ravaged the lands of the Syrians. and when they appeared. came and devoured them. and to require the presence of the Lacedaemonians at a fixed time having collected these together. how. refused. and enslaved the inhabitants he also took all the adjacent places. and that had fought with the Persians. and sent immediately to consult the interpreters at Telmessus but the messengers having arrived there. the two armies engage. he entirely disbanded. having assembled his own army. went to meet Crcesus. and assembled his own army. — . site Crcesus. But before he began to advance he sent heralds to the Ionians. for his forces that engaged were far fewer than those of Cyrus laying the blame on this. he despring. would . Then Cyrus. When . Cyrus had come up and encamped oppo- they made trial of each other's strength on the plains of Pteria but when an obstinate battle took place. : . they at last parted on the approach In this manner did of night. to persuade them to revolt from Crcesus . requiring them to meet at Sardis before the end of five months but the army that was with him. and many fell on both sides. for he had made an alliance with Amasis. the Ionians. would venture to advance upon Sardis. ever. spatched ambassadors to his different allies. to attack the Persians in the beginning of the With this design when he reached Sardis. who had come off on such equal terms. for before they sailed back to Sardis Crcesus had been taken prisoner. But Crcesus laying the blame on his own army on account of the smallness of its numbers. King of Egypt. the whole suburbs were filled with serpents. When Crcesus beheld this. forsaking their pastures. : . the horses. he considered it to be. designing to summon the Egyptians according to treaty. While Crcesus was forming these plans.

and he commanded his infantry to follow the camels. the horses no sooner smelt to . alarmed at the cavalry. yet without knowing what had happened with respect to Sardis or Croesus himself. When all were drawn up in order. he mounted men upon them. Such were the orders he gave. by which the Lydian expected to signalize himself. before the forces of the Lydians could be a second time assembled and when he had thus determined. having discovered that it was the intention of Crcesus to disband his army. . that the cavalry might be useless to Croesus. even if he should offer resistance when taken. and he placed the whole of his cavalry behind the infantry. . he brought this news of his own enterprise to Croesus. and can not endure either to see its form or to scent its smell for this reason. because. flowing through it. Accordingly. but the horse is an enemy and a stranger. seeing that matters had turned out contrary to his expectations. for having marched his army into Lydia. called the Hermus. on the suggestion of Harpagus. But Cyrus. he charged them not to spare any of the Lydians. The place where they met was the plain that lies before the city of Sardis. which. nevertheless drew out the Lydians to battle and at that time no nation in Asia was more Their mode of fightvaliant and warlike than the Lydians. he had recourse to this stratagem. equipped in cavalry accoutrements. a Mede collecting together all the camels that followed his army with pro. This answer the Telmessians gave to Croesus when he had been already taken . being thrown into great perplexity.1 7 8-8o] RETREAT OF CRCESUS 3 subdue the natives. but to kill every one they met but on no account to kill Croesus. : : . he put his plan into practice with all possible expedition. and managed their horses with admirable address. then. . and having furnished them. they said. : visions and baggage. force a passage into the greatest. when he saw the Lydians drawn up in order of battle. for this reason a horse is afraid of a camel. found. the serpent is the son of the earth. upon deliberation. flowing from the sacred mountain of mother Cybele. ing was from horseback they were armed with long lances. and having caused their burdens to be taken off. which is extensive and bare several rivers as well as the Hyllus. falls into the sea near the city of Phocaea. He drew up the camels in the front of the cavalry. Thereupon Croesus. when they joined battle. Here Cyrus. he ordered them go in advance of the rest of his army against the Lydian horse. that it would be to his advantage to march with all possible expedition on Sardis. as soon as Croesus had retreated after the battle at Pteria. had recourse to the following stratagem.

upon a conference. . and that their countryman had kept the field and spoiled their dead. At length. the Lacedaemonian. CLIO [8(^82 the camels and saw them than they wheeled round. . were besieged by the Persians. the Spartans had And indeed the country that lies westward as far as seized. ran to Argus with the news but Othryades. The Argians having advanced to the defence of their country which had been thus seized upon. thinking themselves victorious. sent other messengers from the city to his allies for those whom he had sent before requested them to assemble at Sardis on the fifth month. thinking it would last a long time. which properly belongs to the territory of Argos. the Lydians were not therefore discouraged. only three men were left alive. from words they betook themselves to blows and when many had fallen on both sides. but he sent out these last to request them to succour him with all speed. and the picked men on each side remaining behind engaged they fought with such equal success that of the six hundred. On the next day both armies. Othryades these survived when night came on. the armies withdrew. Having agreed to these terms. when many had fallen on both sides. being informed of the event. . Siege was then laid to them. lest. the Lacedaemonians obtained the vie. seeing their countrymen in distress. but when they perceived what had happened. : . and carried their arms to his own camp. and the island Cythera and the other islands. and of the Lacedaemonians. the other side urging that those survivors had fled. and especially to the Lacedaemonians but at that very time the Spartans themselves happened to have a quarrel with the Argians about a tract called Thyrea. having stripped the corpses of the Argians. . met again in the same place. both parties. should come to their assistance. if the armies were present. either side. and that whichever party was victorious should be entitled to the disputed territory: but it was stipulated that the main body of each army should withdraw to their own country. belongs to the Argians. both on the continent. He sent therefore to the rest of his allies. The two Argians. as he was already besieged. . . the Lydians were put to flight. leaped from their horses and engaged with the Persians on foot at last. Malea. and for a time both laid claim to the victory the one side alleging that the greater number of their men survived. continued at his post. Alcenor and Chromius. but Croesus. for this Thyrea. and not remain while the engagement was going on. of the Argians. and being shut up within the walls. Nevertheless. agreed that three hundred men on each side should engage. and the hopes of Croesus were destroyed.32 HERODOTUS— BOOK I.

Sardis was taken in the following manner: on the fourteenth day after Croesus had been besieged. But when they were prepared to set out. Cyrus sent horsemen throughout his army. . nor any woman wear ornaments of gold. tune. had not brought the lion which his concubine bore to him. noticed it carefully. this Hyrceades. : Now . . who was the only one that survived of the three hundred. endeavoured to climb that part of the citadel where no guard was stationed. enjoining all their people to wear long hair. for on that side the citadel was precipitous and impracticable. being ashamed to return to Sparta when all his fellow-soldiers had perished.a former King of Sardis. and requested them to assist Croesus. cutting off their hair. which they had never done before. 82-85] SARDIS IS TAKEN 33 From that time the Argians. which was confirmed by a curse. The son of whom 3 following incidents befell Croesus himself: he had a I have before made mention. and Croesus made prisoner. which they had before been compelled to wear long. deeming it a great misfortory. whose name was Hyrceades. who was besieged in Sardis they no sooner heard the ambassador's report than they made preparations to succour him. he put an end to himself at Thyrea. until after the rest had desisted. When the affairs of the Spartans were in this condition. followed by divers Persians. and the whole town plundered.Meles. they say that. as altogether unassailable and precipitous this is the quarter of the city that faces Mount Tmolus. where the citadel was exposed to assault. enacted a law. till they should recover Thyrea. Sardis was thus taken. and proclaimed that he would liberally reward the man who should first mount the wall upon this several attempts were made. and when great numbers had gone up. the Mardian. because there did not appear to be any danger that it would be taken at that part. and as often failed. they accordingly. for a helmet that had rolled down. and their ships were ready. As to Othryades. and carry it up again. the Sardian ambassador arrived. having caused it to be carried round the rest of the wall. desisted from their enterprise. the Lacedaemonians made a contrary law.. On the other hand. though the Telmessians had pronounced that if the lion were carried round the wall Sardis would be impregnable but Meles. who was in other . neglected this. Round this part alone. another message reached them that the citadel of the Lydians was taken. having seen a Lydian come down this precipice the day before. that no Argian should suffer his hair to grow. a Mardian. and reflected on it in his mind he thereupon ascended the same way.

having taken him. placed Croesus upon it. not knowing Croesus. as the first fruits of his victory. took no heed of him. Croesus had done everything he could for him. made no account of them. The Persians. thrice pronounced the name of Solon that when Cyrus heard him. and were very importunate. as the oracle had predicted. : : : : . and made Croesus prisoner. was about to kill him Croesus. through dread and anguish.. the words of Solon recurred to him. CLIO [85-86 respects proper enough." When the city was taken. though he saw him approach." When he gave them this obscure answer. he placed him on the pile for the purpose of discovering whether any deity would save him from being burned alive. being constrained to speak. one of the Persians. and among other expedients had sent to consult the oracle of Delphi concerning him but the Pythian gave him " O Lydian born. when he saw the Persian advancing against him. he at length told them that Solon. but dumb. conducted him to Cyrus and he. but Croesus for some time kept silence but at last. he commanded his interpreters to ask Croesus whom it was he called upon that they drew near and asked him. notwithstanding the weight of his misfortunes. king of many. burst into speech. they again inquired what he said and when they persisted in their inquiries. Now. having heaped up a great pile. . So the Persians got possession of Sardis. that no living man could be justly called happy. an Athenian. being besieged fourteen days. formerly visited him. nor did he care about dying by the blow but this speechless son of his. after he had reigned fourteen years. it is said that after a long silence he recovered himself. " I named a man whose discourses I more desire all tyrants might hear than to be possessor of the greatest riches. for he will first speak in an unhappy day. and said. ." These were the first words he ever uttered but from that time he continued to speak during the remainder of his life. very foolish this answer Croesus. said. and having viewed all his treasures. designing either to offer this sacrifice to some god. and lost his great empire. When this occurred to him. and uttering a groan. having heard that Croesus was a religious person. kill not Croesus. or wishing to perform a vow or perhaps. how . He accordingly did what has been related it is added that when Croesus stood upon the pile. bound with fetters. " Man. in a word. from his present misfortune. telling. wish not to hear the longed-for voice of thy son speaking within thy palace it were better for thee that this should be far off. and with him fourteen young Lydians. : : : . 34 HERODOTUS— BOOK I. as spoken by inspiration of the deity. in the time of his former prosperity.

with those who were about him. O king. and especially to those who imagine themselves happy. and moreover. children bury their fathers. which before was serene. It is related by the Lydians that Croesus. and the god of the Greeks who encouraged me to make war is the cause of all. I have done this for your good. " What is this vast crowd so earnestly employed about?" He answered. invoking Apollo. and a good man. bution. I suppose. when he had had him taken down from the pile. fathers bury their children. But Croesus. to tell you what is passing through my mind. and Cyrus. "They are sacking : . in the former. but my own evil fortune. " Does it become me. and that a violent storm burst forth and vehement rain fell and extinguished the flames by which Cyrus. and' considering that being but a man. but unable to get the better of it. shouted aloud. when he saw every man endeavouring to put out the fire. But." 86-88] CRCESUS PARDONED BY CYRUS 35 everything had befallen him as Solon had warned him. who had been no way inferior to himself in prosperity. perceiving that Cyrus had altered his resolution. it pleased the gods that these things should be so. he said. relented. the outer parts began to burn and that Cyrus. remained silent. or to keep silence on the present occasion? " Cyrus bade him say with confidence whatever he wished upon which Croesus asked him. absorbed in thought. saying." He thus spoke. and presently turning round and beholding the Persians sacking the city of the Lydians. informed by the interpreters of what Croesus had said. though his discourse related to all mankind as much as to himself. and showed him great respect. fearing retri. and Croesus. They say that Croesus gave this explanation. . asked him the following question " Who persuaded you. and reflecting that nothing human is constant. to be taken down . For no man is so void of understanding as to prefer war before peace. placed him by his own side. perceiving that Croesus was beloved by the gods. : : . he was yet going to burn another man alive. Croesus. commanded the fire to be instantly extinguished. and both he and all those that were with him were astonished at what they saw. and besought him. to protect and deliver him from the present danger they report that he with tears invoked the god. and to become my enemy instead of my friend ? He answered " O king. to invade my territories. for in the latter. and that the pile being now kindled. and that they with all their endeavours were unable to master the fire. having set him at liberty. if ever any of his offerings had been agreeable to him. and that on a sudden clouds were seen gathering in the air.

you may expect the following results whoso acquires the greatest possessions. " the most acceptable favour you can bestow upon me is to let me send my fetters to the god of the Grecians.36 HERODOTUS— BOOK I. " You shall not only receive this boon from me." The reply of Croesus attracted the attention of Cyrus. of which war such were the first fruits : : . if I perceive anything deserving of remark. but they are ravaging what belongs to you. and asked Croesus what he thought should be done in the present conjuncture. and to ask the god if he were not ashamed to have encouraged Croesus by his oracles to make war on the Persians. will readily obey. and to acquaint them that the tenth must of necessity be consecrated to Jupiter. he again besought him to grant him leave to reproach the god with these things. adopt the following plan: place some of your body-guard as sentinels at every gate." Croesus city." tain Lydians to Delphi with orders to lay his fetters at the entrance of the temple. since you are resolved to display the deeds and words of a true king. and ordered his guards to do what Croesus suggested. The Persians. said. and to ask him if it be his custom to deceive those who deserve well of him. if you approve what I say. for they no longer belong to me. are poor. my withdraw. : : . I think it my duty to acquaint you." he answered. you permit them to plunder and possess great riches." Cyrus asked him what cause he had to complain that induced him to make this request upon which Croesus recounted to him all his projects. whom I have honoured more than any other deity. ask whatever boon you desire on the instant. Therefore. smiling. CLIO [88-90 M Not so. as he thought the suggestion a very good one having therefore commended it highly. be assured. (commanding them at these words to show the fetters). and the answers of the oracles. who are by nature overbearing. when he heard this. When he had said this. assuring him that he would put an end to the power of Cyrus. and . was exceedingly delighted." replied " they are neither sacking my city nor plundering riches. he therefore ordered all the rest to your . acknowledging your intention to be just. therefore. thus you will not incur the odium of taking away their property. and they. he addressed Croesus as follows " Croesus. and particularly the offerings he had presented and how he was incited by the oracle to make war against the Persians. with orders to take the booty from all those who would go out. and plundering your riches." " Sir. But Cyrus." Cyrus. he sent cerat any time desire. If. He answered " Since the gods have made me your servant. but whatever else you may When Croesus heard this. will be ready to rebel.

and though in every respect inferior. the Pythian is reported to have made this answer " The god himself even can not avoid the decrees of fate. the oracle. subject to the Medes. he came to his relief when he was upon the point of being burned alive. Such is the account of the kingdom of Crcesus." The Pythian gave this answer to the Lydians. he did not understand the answer concerning the mule for Cyrus was that mule inasmuch as he was born of parents of different nations. but he was a Persian. All these were in existence in my day but others have been lost. Alyattes. he ought to have sent again to inquire whether his own or that of Cyrus was meant. which he dedicated to Isme. acknowledged the fault to be his. and in Ephesus. extremes for the fifth descendant of Gyges. for he delayed the capture of Sardis for the space of three years. For she was a Mede. But since he neither understood the oracle nor inquired again. The offerings he dedicated in Branchis. the golden heifers. therefore. and he. and Crcesus has atoned the crime of his : ancestor in the fifth generation. and had he desired to be truly informed. and several of the pillars. if we inciude the two house of the Mermnadae was as follows Gyges. Then. Croesus. gods to be ungrateful. Ardys. let him lay the blame on himself. But although Apollo was desirous that the fall of Sardis might happen in the time of the sons of Crcesus. and the first subjection of Ionia. when he heard it. and daughter of Astyages. and they carried it back to Sardis. was induced by the artifice of a woman to murder his master. married his own mistress. : Sadyattes. yet it was not in his power to avert the fates but so far as they allowed he accomplished. 1 who. besides those already mentioned. as to the prediction of the oracle. Many other offerings were also consecrated by Crcesus in Greece. 1 Croesus was the . the mother superior. no right to complain for Apollo foretold him that if he made war on the Persians he would subvert a great empire. and had delivered their message. . and to usurp his dignity. For at Thebes of Bceotia there is a golden tripod. and not the god's. and reported it to Crcesus. but the father inferior. being one of the bodyguard of the Heraclidae. to which he had no right. a city of . . And when he last consulted . Let Crcesus know. King of Media. that he was taken prisoner three years later than the fates had ordained: and in the next place. nian Apollo.90-92] THE ORACLE INTERPRETED When 37 at the same time to ask if it were the custom of the Grecian the Lydians arrived at Delphi. and in the Pronaea at Delphi a large golden shield. and conferred the boon on him. Crcesus had . and not during his reign.

and when measured the work of the women proved to be the greatest. and in breadth thirteen plethra. It exhibits. This . upon which were inscriptions. contiguous to it is a large lake. and it is called the Gygean Lake. like some other countries. may suffice for this subject. he dedicated it in the manner above described to the places I have mentioned. and they dispose of themThis monument is six stades and two selves in marriage. On the summit of this monument remained. : . but not of the same mother as Croesus. Now the offerings which he made to Delphi and to Amphiaraus were his own property and the but the rest were the first fruits of his patrimonial riches produce of the property of an enemy who. of the Lydians differ little from those of the Grecians. he put his opponent to death by tearing his flesh with a fuller's thistle and having already vowed all his treasure to the gods. however. son of Manes. : . as I am informed. except those of the Egyptians and Babylonians. They are the first of all nations We know of that introduced the art of coining gold and silver and they were the first retailers. and Pantaleon by an Ionian woman. showing how much of the work each class executed. endeavouring to raise Pantaleon to the throne now Pantaleon was the son of Alyattes. CLIO [92-94 the Milesians. one work the greatest of all. and prostitutes. which the Lydians say is fed by perpetual springs. were. The Lydian territory does not present many wonders worthy of description. had set up an adverse faction. equal in weight and similar to those at Delphi. of all which they give the following account: During the reign of Atys. before he came to the throne. five termini. plethra in circumference. artificers. for Alyattes had Crcesus by a Carian. father of Crcesus. except that they prostitute their women. for the purpose of providing themselves with dowries and they continue to do so until they marry. There is there a monument to Alyattes. The customs . except the gold dust brought down from Mount Tmolus. a great scarcity of corn pervaded all Lydia for some time the Lydi. the basis of which is composed of large stones the rest is a mound of earth. This fabric was raised by merchants. King of Lydia. .38 HERODOTUS— BOOK I. And this may suffice respecting the offerings. When therefore Crcesus by the will of his father obtained the kingdom. For the daughters of the Lydian common people all prostitute themselves. . The Lydians themselves say that the games which are now common to themselves and the Greeks were their invention and they say they were invented about the time they sent a colony to Tyrrhenia. even in my day.

they were again reduced under a despotic government in the following manner: There was among the Medes a man famous for wisdom. they employed them as follows used to play one whole day that they might not be in want of food. After the My . thus they passed eighteen years but when the evil did not abate. became free afterward the other nations also did the same as the Medes. And having made these inventions to they alleviate the famine. changed their name to one after the king's son. and over that part whose lot it should be to stay he appointed himself king. but to relate the plain truth though I am aware that there are three other ways of relating Cyrus's history. In which narration I shall follow those Persians who do not wish to magnify the actions of Cyrus. and having put all their movables which were of use on board. for the Lydians do not claim the invention of this last. of justice. their king divided the whole people into two parts. and cast lots which should remain and which quit the country. ball. they and dwell to this day. and on the next. history hence proceeds to inquire who Cyrus was that overthrew the power of Croesus. . and Deioces. 39 ans supported it with constancy but when they saw the evil still continuing they sought for remedies. aiming at absolute power. and over that part which was to emigrate he appointed his own son. and this applied himself with great zeal to the exercise he did. son of Phraortes. and how the Persians became masters of Asia. : . When all throughout the continent were independent. and some devised one thing. who led them out. This Deioces. set sail in search of food and land. they reached the Ombrici. built ships. Those to whose lot it fell to leave their country went down to Smyrna. Assyrians had ruled over upper Asia years. where they built towns. they ate and abstained from play. . named Deioces. who was already highly esteemed in Medes first .94-96] CUSTOMS OF THE LYDIANS . : his own district. the five hundred and twenty began to revolt from them and they it seems. until having passed by many nations. since great lawlessness prevailed . were invented. hucklebones. in their struggle with the Assyrians for liberty. on the contrary became still more virulent. proved themselves brave men. and having shaken off the yoke. The Lydians then were reduced under the power of the Persians. From being called Lydians. some another and at that time the games of dice. and all other kinds of games except draughts. whose name was Tyrrhenus. had recourse to the following plan the Medes were at that time distributed in villages. from him they gave themselves the appellation of Tyrrhenians.

The Medes of the same village. for that it was of no advantage to him to neglect his own affairs. when they heard of him. and this fortification is so contrived that each circle was raised above the other by the height of the battlements . in order to submit their quarrels to his decision and at last they would commit the decision to no one In the end. .. Being thus possessed of the power." By some such words they persuaded them to submit to a kingly government. and he knew that injustice and justice are ever at variance. he built lofty and strong walls. in this also. constantly keeping the sovereign power in view. would no longer occupy the seat where he used to sit to determine differences. showed himself upright and just. whom they should appoint king. 1 For the Scripture account of Ecbatana. . so much so that the inhabitants of other villages. let us constitute a king over us. i : 1-4. and we ourselves shall be able to attend to our business. Upon this. 40 HERODOTUS— BOOK I. and having carefully adorned that. having before met with unjust sentences. when the number of those who had reelse. as I suspect. Upon their immediately putting the question. CLIO [96-98 throughout the whole of Media. and refused to act as judge any more. to pay And as the Medes obeyed him less attention to the others. 1 one placed in a circle within the other. rapine and lawlessness growing far more frequent throughout the villages than before. chose him for their judge and he. hearing that Deioces was the only one who judged uprightly. and spend the day in deciding the quarrels of others. By this conduct he acquired no slight praise from his fellow-citizens. see Judith. The Medes accordingly did so and built him a spacious and strong palace in the part of the country that he selected. he compelled the Medes to build one city. and guards for the security of his person. course to him continually increased as men heard of the justice of his decisions. quired them to build him a palace suitable to the dignity of a king. : . and permitted him to choose guards for his person out of all the Medes. and so the country will be governed by good laws. Deioces was unanimously preferred and commended so that But he reat last they agreed that he should be their king. gladly came from all parts to Deioces. observing his conduct. the Medes called an assembly and consulted together about the present state of things. Deioces. the partisans of Deioces spoke to the following purpose " Since it is impossible for us to inhabit the country if we continue in our present condition. which now go under the name of Ecbatana. but. nor be any longer driven from our homes by lawlessness. seeing the whole devolved upon himself.

the king's palace and the treasury are situated within the innermost of them. and for this purpose he had spies and eavesdroppers in every part of : his dominions. 98-102] DEIOCES RULES THE MEDES The 41 only. When he had silver. moreover. . on the cases so laid before him. of the second black. Arizanti. Deioces then built these fortifications for himself. Thus the battlements of all the circles are painted with different colours but the last two have their battlements plated. The largest of these walls is about equal in circumference to the city of Athens the battlements of the first circle are white. that those who were his equals. Now Deioces collected the Medes into one nation. Parataceni. for this reason. for the first time. and settled himself in the tyranny. situation of the ground. Deioces had a son. of the fifth bright red. that it should be accounted indecency for any to laugh or spit before him. He established such ceremony about his own person. having made war on the Persians. when they saw him. Struchates. This then was his plan in reference to matters of litigation. But that which was particularly attended to is. and punish him in proportion to his offence. And the parties contending were obliged to send him their cases in writing. the other with gold. he was very severe in the distribution of justice. sent them back again. after a reign of fiftythree years. who. of the fourth blue. but every one should consult him by means of messengers. and who were brought up with him. Such are the tribes of the Medes. succeeded him in the kingdom but having so succeeded. but. Budii. the one with was very favourable to the design. and the Magi. And all other things were regulated by him so that if he received information that any man had injured another. he attacked them and . nor inferior to him in manly qualities. . might not. and of no meaner family. : established these regulations. when his father died. And when all the buildings were completed he. and round his own palace and he commanded the rest of the people to fix their habitations round the fortification. The following are the tribes of the Medes the Busse. established the following regulations that no man should be admitted to the king's presence. rising by an easy ascent. and he having come to a decision. of the third purple. and ruled over that. Phraortes. . but that he might appear to be of a different nature to them who did not see him. he would presently send for him. and that none should be permitted to see him. that there being seven circles altogether. and. he was not content to rule over the Medes only.: . grieve and conspire against him.

lost their dominion. attacking one nation after another. The Scythians. : 42 HERODOTUS— BOOK I. but who were otherwise in good condition Phraortes then. CLIO [102-105 reduced them under the dominion of the Medes. he subdued Asia. however. having Mount Caucasus on the right. He first divided the people of Asia into cohorts. grandson of Deioces. and marched against Nineveh to avenge his father and destroy that city. after he had reigned twenty-two years. archers. And afterward being master of these two nations. and there the Medes coming to an engagement with the Scythians. When Phraortes was dead. merians out of Europe. his son. as I find by inquiry. He is said to have been more warlike than his ancestors. as the Cyprians them- . both of them powerful. but turned to the higher road by a much longer route. under the conduct of their king Madyes. lies between them : one finds one's self in Media. and cavalry whereas before they had been confusedly mixed together. their return. This temple. and who had before been supreme though at that time they were abandoned by their confederates (who had revolted). succeeded him. is the most ancient of all the temples dedicated to this goddess for that in Cyprus was built after this. but the route from Colchis to Media is not long. These Scythians had driven the Cimson of Protothyas. and when they reached Palestine in Syria. when one has passed over this. a great army of Scythians came upon him. a city of Syria. and while he was besieging Nineveh. and first divided them into spearmen. did not pass by this way. and pursuing them into Asia. for only one nation. perished with the greater part of his army. Cyaxares. when he had obtained a victory over the Assyrians. and pires. King of Egypt. However. when the day was turned into night as they were fighting. and who subjected the whole of Asia above the river Halys. pillaged the Temple of Celestial Venus. being worsted in the battle. some few. who inhabited the city of Nineveh. until at last he invaded the Assyrians. having met them with presIn ents and prayers. who were left behind. they came to Ascalon. by that means entered the territories of the Medes. He assembled the forces of all his subjects. The distance from the lake Maeotis to the river Phasis and to Colchis is a journey of thirty days to a well-girt man. however. and the Thence they proScythians became masters of all Asia. having made war on them. ceeded to Egypt. the Sas. diverted them from advancing farther. Psammitichus. It was he that fought with the Lydians.. and when most of them had marched through without doing any injury.

to no one of the Medes who was worthy of her. through dread of the vision. and all they had possessed before. For twenty-eight years. . and everything was overthrown by their licentiousness and neglect for besides the usual tribute. a female disease so that the Scythians confess that they are afflicted with it on this account. succeeded him in the kingdom. and those who visit Scythia may see in what a state they are whom the Scythians call Enarees. and. 1 Several passages of our author seem to prove that Herodotus wrote other histories than those which have come down to us. Now Cyaxares and the Medes invited the greatest part of them to a feast. the goddess inflicted on the Scythians who robbed her temple at Ascalon. then. and they took Nineveh (how they took it. Cyaxares died. IN ASIA 43 and that in Cythera was erected by Phoenicians the same part of Syria. and having made them drunk. and that the vine covered all Asia. they exacted from each whatever they chose to impose. and he afterward gave this Mandane. . 1 I will relate in another work ). . and reduced the Assyrians selves confess who came from . they rode round the country and plundered them of all their possessions. and upon her arrival he put her under a guard. Astyages. in addition to the tribute. and on all their posterity. named Cambyses. He dreamed that she made so great a quantity of water as not only filled his own city. Having seen this and communicated it to the interpreters of dreams. put them to death and so the Medes recovered their former power. And having communicated this dream to those of the Magi who interpret dreams. with the exception of the Babylonian district. In this book he speaks of his Assyrian history in the second of the Libyan. Having accomplished these things. and of a peaceful disposition. Astyages saw another vision it appeared to him that a vine grew up from his daughter's womb. but to a Persian. he was exceedingly alarmed when informed by them of every particular. the son of Cyaxares. including the time of the Scythian dominion. In the first year after Mandane was married to Cambyses. after he had reigned forty years. but overflowed all Asia. when she had arrived at a marriageable age. deeming him far inferior to a Mede of moderate rank. who was then near her time of delivery. However. He had a daughter. he sent to Persia for his daughter. . into subjection. resolving to destroy whatever should be born of her for the Magian interpreters had signified to him from his vision that the issue of his daughter would reign : .105-108] THE SCYTHIANS . whom he found descended of a good family. to whom he gave the name of Mandane. the Scythians governed Asia.

adorned as if for death. by preferring another. and expose him on the bleakest part of the mountains. and not one of mine. when the child had been put into his hands. and afterward bury him in whatever way you think fit. and because Astyages is old. after his death. The foot of the mountains at which this herdsman grazed his cattle lies to the north of Ecbatana. that he may speedily perish and has charged me to add that if thou by any means : O : . : . His name was Mitradates. you have never yet observed any pagus answered " ingratitude in me." Harking. on no account fail to affairs. in the language of Greece was Cyno. as in his stead. and on mountains abounding with wild beasts. and covered with forests whereas all the rest of Media is level. For the Medic territory on this side toward the Saspires is very mountainous. . and said to him perform the business I now charge you with nor expose me to danger by deceiving me nor. and immeditioner. sent for Harpagus." ately sent a messenger for one of Astyages's herdsmen. I will not comply with his wishes. for my safety that the child should die. and upon his arrival he told his wife all that Astyages had said. but as necessary that one of Astyages's people should be the execuThus he spoke. and I shall take care never to offend you If therefore it is your pleasure that this thing in the future. returned home weeping. whose son he would now murder by my means. arrived. toward the Euxine Sea. She asked him. nor will I submit to him by performing such a murder: and for many reasons I will not murder the child. When therefore the herdsman. ruin upon thy own head. draw : . being summoned in great haste. the sovereignty should devolve on this daughter. soon as Cyrus was born. guarding against this. and in that of the Medes Spaco. and has no male offspring besides. and he had married his fellowservant. " What then do you propose to do ? " He answered " Not as Astyages has commanded though he should be yet more outrageous and mad than he is.. carry him to your own house and kill him. whom he knew grazed his cattle on pastures most convenient for the purpose. 44 HERODOTUS— BOOK I. should be done. Take the child that Mandane has given birth to. what else remains for me but the greatest danger ? It is necessary." Harpagus. The name of the woman to whom he was married. both because he is my own relation. and the manager of all his " Harpagus. . for the Medes call a bitch Spaca. having given this answer. lofty. Harpagus addressed him as follows " Astyages bids thee take this infant. it is fitting that I readily obey you. a kinsman of his. the most faithful of all the Medes. if. however. CLIO [108-110 Astyages therefore.

took the infant. had then no suspicion whence he came death. greatly alarmed. returned back by the same way. do this at least. though I was astonished at seeing him dressed in gold and fine apparel and also at the sorrow which evidently prevailed in the house of Harpagus. The woman. she seeing him thus unexpectedly. having heard these words." As the herdsman uttered these last words. : : . and the woman because Harpagus.. And each had been in a state of anxiety for the other. I saw and heard what . who had not been accustomed to do so. panting and crying. I can not persuade you not to expose the child. and carry him away. dressed in gold and a robe of various When Harpagus saw me. nor had ever befallen our masters. It so happened that his wife. whose confinement had been daily expected. I learned the whole truth from a servant who accompanied me out of the city and delivered the child into my hands that he was born of Mandane. thou shalt die by the most cruel death and I am appointed to see the child exposed. . of Harpagus was filled with lamentations went in. and threatening the severest punishment if I took up the infant and carried him I should fail to do it. he ordered me to take colours. and reached his cottage. and that Astyages had commanded him to be put to . and delivered of a still-born child. no-112] THE BIRTH OF CYRUS 45 shouldst save the child. he being alarmed about his wife's delivery. and as soon as I entered I saw an infant lying before me. Astyages's daughter. was brought to bed while he was absent in the city. But soon after. " when I reached the city. again addressed him as follows " Since. . and expose him in the part of the mountain most frequented by wild beasts telling me at the same time that it was Astyages who imposed this task on me. embraced the knees of her husband. When he returned and came up to her. and of Cambyses. first asked him why Harpagus had sent for him in such haste. had sent for her husband. supposing him to belong to one of the servants for I . away. on my way home. up the child directty. I wish I had never The whole house seen. I. for that spies would come from Harpagus to see the thing done. he uncovered the child and showed it to his wife she seeing that the child was large and of a beautiful form." The herdsman. if it is absolutely necessary that he should be seen exposed now I too have been delivered. . then. " Wife." said he. and he must himself die the most cruel death if he should fail to do it. son of Cyrus. and with tears besought him by no means to expose it. He said that it was impossible to do otherwise. finding she could not persuade her husband.

considering that he had been treated with great indignity. took it very much to heart. and buried the herdsman's child. Cyrus scourged the boy very severely. who afterward had the name of Cyrus. assigning to each his proper duty. and by that means saw the body. in the road.. and let us bring up the son of Astyages's daughter as our own. and having dressed it in all the finery of the other child." The herdsman thought his wife spoke very much to the purpose under existing circumstances. are we insulted by your be borne. he put into the basket in which he had brought the other. which was dead. having left one of his assistants as a guard. CLIO [112-114 then take this and expose it. and when they obeyed. and. " Thus. was brought up by the herdsman's wife. nor shall we have consulted ill for our own interests for the child that is dead will have a royal burial. went immediately to Astyages. When the child attained the age of ten years. But he appointed some of them to build houses. and others to be his body-guards. Harpagus accordingly sent some of the most trusty of his guards. one of them to be the king's eye. Thus you will neither be convicted of having wronged our masters. arriving at the house of Harpagus. slave. a circumstance of the following nature discovered him he was playing in the village in which the ox-stalls were. with boys of his own age. complained to his father of the treatment he had met with from Cyrus. refused to obey the orders of Cyrus he therefore commanded the others to seize him. the herdsman. Thus this child was buried. the son of a herdsman. went to the city. The boys who were playing chose this reputed son of the herdsman for their king. and immediately proceeded to act accordingly the child that he had brought for the purpose of putting to death he delivered to his wife. who gave him some other name. said that he suffered treatment that was not to king. a man of rank among the Medes. . and not that of Cyrus. told him he was ready to show the dead body of the infant. 46 HERODOTUS— BOOK I. On the third day after the infant had been exposed. in a transport of anger. : : O . and the one that survives will not be deprived of life. being son of Artembares. but from the son of Astyages's herdsman. Artembares. But the boy. Now one of these boys who was playing with him. adding. and to another he gave the office of bringing messages to him. as soon as he was let loose. and taking his son with him. not indeed saying from Cyrus (for he was not yet known by that name)." showing the boy's shoulders. and hastening to the city. The other. his own. he exposed it in the most desolate part of the mountains.

dared to treat the son of one of the principal persons my kingdom with such indignity ? " But Cyrus answered in For the boys of as I did with justice. son shall have any cause of complaint." As the boy was speaking who he was. Alarmed at this discovery. to avenge the indignity offered to the youth. having with difficulty recovered himself (being desirous of sending Artembares away in order that he might examine the herdsman in private). all the other boys performed what they were orfice. when the herdsman had confessed the truth. the time also of the exposure seemed to agree with the age of the boy.: 1 1 5-1 17] CYRUS IS DISCOVERED 47 Astyages having heard and seen what was done. but he alone refused to obey. on account of the rank of Artembares. Asty. because I appeared to them the most fitted to that ofNow. Astyages. he was for some time speechless and at last. Astyages. sent for the herdsman and his son. discovered the whole matter. said. . conducted Cyrus into an inner room and when the herdsman remained alone. both the character thus. Astyages recogof his face appeared like his own. seeing the herdsman present. he ordered his guards to summon him and when Astyages asked. The man. he asked him in the absence of witnesses. dered. and paid no attention to I " Sir. by what kind of a death did you dispose of the child which I delivered to you born of my daughter ? " Harpagus. looking upon Cyrus. in their play made me their king. " Have you. when brought to the torture. and his answer more free than accorded with his condition . and beginning from the outset he went through it. if then on this account I am deserving of punishment. and as he said this he made a signal to his guards to seize him. resolving. " Artembares. at the command of Astyages. and from whose hands he received him? He affirmed that the boy was his own son. . he said. speaking the truth throughout. and that the mother who bore him was still living with him. of whom my commands. did not concern himself much about him afterward but attaching great blame to Harpagus. I carefully considered how I could . when I had received the infant. but said " king. whence he had the boy. treated him our village. lest he should be detected and convicted. When both came into his presence. and concluded with prayers and entreaties for pardon. ages told him that he did not consult his own safety in wishing to be put to the torture. who are the son of such a man as this." Thus he dismissed Artembares but the servants. he was one. I will take care that neither you nor your . had not recourse to falsehood. here I am ready to submit to nised it. wherefore he was punished. " Harpagus. : O .

. went to his own home. except the head. Astyages asked him if he was pleased with the entertainment. In this manner I delivered the infant to him. I gave him the child. I might be free from the crime of murder both in your daughter's sight and in yours. When Harpagus seemed to have eaten enough. who was about thirteen years of age. to whom that honour is due). O king. having slain and cut him into act according to your wish : . and. I therefore acted as follows having sent for this herdsman. and the feet. and having had them well dressed. . kept them in readiness. on hearing these words. and bade him go to Astyages. again related to Harpagus the whole matter as he had heard it from the herdsman and afterward. on account of what had been done regarding this child. he told his wife what had happened. and buried it. and had congratulated himself that his fault had turned to so good account. and when Harpagus . CLIO [117-119 and command. for such indeed were your orders. these were laid apart in a basket covered over. Astyages roasted some parts of his flesh and boiled others. charging him to place it in some desert mountain. joints." Harpagus. and to stay and watch till the child was dead. I sent some of the most trusty of my eunuchs. . and the child was dead. " I suffered much alive and all was well. At the appointed hour. and by means of them beheld the body. and such was the fate of the child. and then. send your own son to accompany the boy I have recovered and. the hands. And as soon as he entered he sent his only son. therefore since fortune has taken a more favourable turn.48 HERODOTUS— BOOK I. threatening the severest punishment if he should not fully carry out these injunctions. when he had paid his homage. when he had repeated it throughout. in the first place. but before Harpagus all the body of his son. he ended by saying that the child was " For." he added. This is the whole truth. the son of Harpagus arrived. do you. and that he was invited to the feast under such auspicious circumstances. When he had executed these orders. tables full of mutton were placed before the rest and Astyages himself. without offending you. and could not easily bear the reproaches of my daughter." Thus Harpagus told the real truth but Astyages. being But when full of joy. dissembling the anger which he felt on account of what had been done. when the other guests and Harpagus were come. in the next place (for I purpose to offer a sacrifice for the preservation of the child to the gods. saying that you had commanded him to put it to death and in saying this I did not speak falsely. and do whatever he should command. do you be with me at supper.

" I too. that if the boy was still alive. and things like them. the boys of the village made him king. who are of our own country. but he expressed no alarm at the sight. summoned the Magi. and standing before Harpagus. shall be enslaved by Persians. the officers appointed brought him the head of his son covered up with the hands and feet. if we saw anything to occasion alarm we should tell you of it beforehand but now. . O ." The Magi answered " If the boy be living. for he For some of our predictions will not reign a second time. and while living in the country. did was agreeable to him. Astyages asked them in what way they had interpreted his vision. and had not already died. for he has appointed guards.U9-I20] ASTYAGES PUNISHES HARPAGUS 49 was highly delighted. and we. then. and now. Harpagus doing as they desired. he must of necessity be king. and that whatever a king ing. we have a share in the government. and retained his presence of mind whereupon Astyages asked him if he knew of what animal he had been eatHe said he knew very well. formerly interpreted his dream. it is of great importance to us that your empire should be firmly established. am very much of the same opinion. and held in no account as being foreigners whereas while you. and then considering what he should do with Cyrus. and he has already performed all such things as kings really do. that since the child has been named king. are king. who are Medes. saw the remains of his son's body. They gave the same answer as before and said. and uncovering the basket. are fulfilled by slight events. Astyages thus punished Harpagus. since the dream has . they bade him uncover the basket and take what he chose. terminate in trifling results and dreams. : . who is a Persian. and all other things in like manner and now I desire to know to what do these things appear to you to tend. who had replied that he for the purpose . and enjoy great honours at your hands. the dream is accomplished. as I conjecture. and has already been a king by no settled plan. purposing. After he had given this answer. 4 . we must on every account provide for your safety and that of your government. messengers. When they were come. and carefully weigh what will be the safest course for my family and yourselves. to collect all he could and bury it. passing over to this boy. : . you may take courage on his account and make your mind easy. Thus. door-keepers." The Magi answered " O king. plied. for otherwise it is alienated. and that the bo)r is no longer an object of alarm to me yet consider well. : . he gathered the remains of the flesh and went home." To this Astyages reMagi. He answered them as follows " The boy is and still survives.

Harpagus. persuaded them that they ought to place him at their head. and. having been assured that he had died immediately after his birth . upon his arrival at the house of Cambyses. that before he knew not.: . and proved the most manly and beloved of his equals in age. contrived the following artifice: having cunningly contrived a hare. and Cyno was the chief subject of his talk. his parents welcomed him and having received him. having spoken thus. CLIO [120-123 issued in a trifling event. saying. could be able to take vengeance on Astyages. by reason of a vain dream but you survive by your own destiny. And before this he had made the following preparations seeing Astyages severe in his treatment of the Medes. and having sewed up the belly . when they heard who he was they embraced him with the greatest tenderness. sending him presents. having called for Cyrus." When. . Harpagus paid great court to him. and to send the boy out of your sight to his parents in Persia. and tearing off none of the hair. into the body. he contracted a friendship with him. and having no other way left. He told them. wish: ing to discover his designs to Cyrus." Astyages. When Cyrus had reached man's estate. because the roads were all guarded. one after another. sent Cyrus away. therefore. He related that he had been brought up by the herdsman's wife and he went on constantly praising her. by opening its belly. who was but a private man. and. that Cyrus was growing up to be his avenger. said to him " Child. holding intercourse with the chief persons of the nation. for he did not see that he himself. we ourselves take courage. therefore. he put a letter. who resided in Persia. 50 HERODOTUS—BOOK I. His parents having taken up this name (in order that the Persians might suppose that the child was somewhat miraculously preserved for them). and they inquired of him by what means his life had been preserved. I have been unjust to you. Harpagus. Astyages heard this he was delighted. : was propagated. and all was ready. and I will send an escort to attend you when you arrive there you will find a father and mother very different from the herdsman Mitradates and his wife. comparing the sufferings of Cyrus with his own. When he had effected his purpose in this respect. and depose Astyages. containing what he thought necessary to write. from his desire to be avenged on Astyages. Now go in happiness to Persia. spread about a report that a bitch had nourished him when exposed hence this report : . . and advise you to do the like. but that on the road he had heard the whole case for that till that time he believed he was the son of Astyages's herdsman. Perceiving.

to open it with his own hand. dressed as a hunter. and invade Media. and what I suffered at the hands of Astyages. and it was to the following purport " Son of Cambyses. informed both as to what was done regarding yourself. This was accordingly done. he fixed upon the following as the most proper. and whether I or any other illustrious Mede be appointed to command the army opposed to you. the Pasargadae. everything will turn out as you wish. he called an assembly of the Persians. Dropicians. attend me. as he gave him the hare. having by word of mouth commanded him to bid Cyrus. Mardians. he read it. you shall rule over the whole terriPersuade the Persians to tory that Astyages now governs. Cyrus selected a tract of land in Persia. he said that Astyages had appointed him general " Now. after mature consideration. the Maraphians. and sent him to Persia. will endeavour to depose him.1 . having opened the letter and read it. but by the care of the gods and I suppose you have been long since of me you survive. and Sagartians. . . and do it quickly. on the first onset. from which the kings of Persia are descended. and some of them Cyrus assembled together." he continued. every man with a sickle. then. as had been ordered. : . : . everything is ready here. The rest are as follows: the Panthialaeans. you will follow my counsel. among them is the family of the Achaemenidae. having received this intelligence. " I require you to of the Persians. which was overgrown with briers. If. do you now avenge yourself on your murderer Astyages for as far as regards his purpose you are long since dead. having revolted from him. and the Maspians of these the Pasargadae are the most noble. then. and finding the letter which was in it. but gave you to the herdsman. and then. When all were come with their sickles." Cyrus then issued such an order." Cyrus. do as I advise. and Cyrus having received the hare. revolt. the Derusiaeans. . and accordingly he put it in practice having written such a letter as he thought fit. for they. he gave it with some nets to the most trusty of his servants. began to consider by what measures he could best persuade the Persians to revolt and. Now the Persians are divided into many tribes. and the Germanians these are all husbandmen the rest are pastoral Daians. and not to suffer any one to be present when he did so. and siding with you. : 123-126] HARPAGUS PLOTS WITH CYRUS 5 of the hare. because I did not put you to death. seeing the : gods watch over you (for otherwise you could never have arrived at your present fortune). and persuaded to revolt from the Medes these are they upon whom the rest of the Persians are dependent. opened it. Since.

he engaged the Persians. and advised him to let Cyrus go. or the present. as soon as the news was brought to Astyages. In the meantime Cyrus. the Medes came to an engagement with the Persians. innumerable hardships. and about eighteen or twenty stadia square. had them killed and dressed. The army of the Medes being thus shamefully dispersed. as purposing to entertain the Persian forces. for on the preceding day they had every hardship. and he lost all the Medes : . he armed all the Medes. and numberless other advantages. he made them lie down on the turf. being informed of what Cyrus was doing. but if you will not hearken to me. who had interpreted his dream. having for a long time felt indignant at being governed by the Medes. and was defeated. such of them as knew nothing of the plot. threatening Cyrus. were preferable. and directed them to clear it during the day when the Persians had finished the appointed task. like those of yesterday. and. and be free for I am persuaded I am born of divine providence to undertake this work and I deem you to be men in no way inferior to the Medes. " Not even so Having so said. therefore. . when the Persians were assembled. await you. having received this answer. either in other respects or in war: since then these things are so. as if the gods had deprived him of understanding. then he armed all the Medes that were left in the city. you may enjoy these. obey me." The Persians having obtained a leader. discovered his intentions. both old and young. sent a messenger and summoned him but Cyrus bade the messenger take back word that he would come to him sooner than Astyages desired. he shall Cyrus have occasion to rejoice. fought. and said " Men of Persia. revolt with all speed from Astyages. Now. and leading them out. When Astyages heard this. Astyages. The next day. CLIO [126-128 . having collected together all his father's flocks and herds. And when utterly forgetting the outrage he had done him. : : . . he exclaimed. Astyages himself was made prisoner. and feasted them and after the repast was over. 52 HERODOTUS— BOOK I. made Harpagus their general. the case stands thus if you will hearken to me. but others went over to the Persians and the far greater part purposely behaved as cowards and fled. They answered that the difference was great. Cyrus asked them whether the treatment they had received the day before. and he provided wine and bread in abundance. gladly asserted their freedom. but on the present everything that was good. Cyrus therefore. he next told them to come again on the next day." first impaled the Magi. without any kind of servile labour. having first washed themselves..

Astyages. in giving the kingdom to another. without doing him any further injury. came to the throne and after these events he conquered Crcesus. — . Harpagus said he did. who were not at all in fault. . : 1 According to Herodotus. observe the following customs it is not their practice to erect statues. had now become their masters. Deioces reigned 53 years Phraortes . but being conquered in battle. Larcher. If . there remain but 122 so that in all probability a mistake has been made in the text by some copyist. 22 Cyaxares . if indeed he had effected this change and the most unjust. were again subdued but now in the time of Astyages. which he might have assumed to himself. and revolted from Darius. and the Persians. as he had written. the time that the Scythians reigned. Astyages thereupon proved him to be the weakest and most unjust of all men the weakest. according to my own knowledge. and by reason of his cruelty the Medes bent under the Persian yoke. they repented of what they had done. asked in return whether he thought himself the author of Cyrus's success. Harpagus. who before were slaves to the Medes. the Persians. as I have already related.128-131] REVOLT OF THE PERSIANS 53 whom he had led out. Cyrus therefore. The Persians. standing by Astyages after he was taken. . he became master of all Asia. At a later period. 1 excepting the interval of the Scythian dominion. and not to take it himself. the achievement was justly due to himself. however. Cyrus kept him with him till he died. after they had ruled over all Asia beyond the river Halys for the space of one hundred and . and having subdued him. who gave the first provocation. after he had reigned thirty-five years. : . having been thus born and educated. he might with more justice have conferred this benefit on some one of the Medes than on a Persian whereas now the Medes. So Astyages. For if it were absolutely necessary to transfer the kingdom to some one else. he asked him also about the supper. and inquired how he liked slavery in exchange for a kingdom. under the conduct of Cyrus. had become slaves instead of masters. looking steadfastly on Harpagus. exulted over him and jeered him and among other galling words. because he had enslaved the Medes on account of the supper. at which he had feasted him with his son's flesh. . As for Astyages. 40 Astyages . was thus deposed. . 35 150 from this number we subtract 28. twenty-eight years. for. : . have from that time been masters of Asia. having risen against the Medes.

The Persians are much addicted to wine. roasted whole in an oven but the poor produce smaller cattle. They are accustomed to debate important affairs when intoxicated. and an ass. proposed to them by their master of the house where they have met to consult. or fillets. he strews under it a bed of tender grass. a camel. and offer sacrifice to Jupiter. They are accustomed to ascend the highest parts of the mountains. . Mitra. CLIO [131-133 or temples. and the Persians. He that sacrifices is not permitted to pray for blessings for himself alone but he is obliged to offer prayers for the prosperity of all the Persians. water.. and invokes the god. They are moderate at their meals. a horse. for he is himself included in the Persians. because. they do not think the gods as the Greeks do. and if they do so. the Arabians. and that if anything were brought in. and the winds. . : : . When he has cut the victim into small pieces. and boiled the flesh. It is their custom to honour their birthday above all other days and on this day they furnish their table in a more plentiful manner than at other times. one of the Magi standing by sings an ode concerning the original of the gods. to the earth. they are not allowed to vomit or make water in presence of another. These customs are observed to this day. when they are sober. . but eat of many after-dishes. as have human forms. or altars. he that has sacrificed carries away the flesh and disposes of it as he thinks fit. because nothing worth mentioning is brought in after dinner. when any one wishes to offer sacrifice to any one of these deities. or cakes but. and the king. which they say is the incantation and without one of the Magi it is not lawful for them to sacrifice. To these alone they have sacrificed from the earliest times but they have since learned from the Arabians and Assyrians to sacrifice to Venus Urania. they would not leave off eating. On this account the Persians say that the Greeks rise hungry from table. fire. or flutes. generally trefoil. and then lays all the flesh upon it when he has put everything in order. he leads the victim to a clean spot. 54 HERODOTUS— BOOK I. The following is the established mode of sacrifice to the above-mentioned deities they do not erect altars nor kindle fires when about to sacrifice they do not use libations. but whatever they have determined on in such deliberations is on the following day. but they charge those with folly who I conjecture. whom the Assyrians call Venus Mylitta. usually having his tiara decked with myrtle. . They sacrifice to the sun and moon. The rich then produce an ox. and they call the whole circle of the heavens by the name of Jupiter. After having waited a short time. : . Alitta. and those not served up together.

. . each of them. he may occasion no grief to his father. over the bordering people. to be able to exhibit many children. many wives. 133-137] CUSTOMS OF THE PERSIANS it 55 . . above all. and to such as can exhibit the greatest number the king sends presents every year. and the last in like manner over their next neighbours and in the same gradations the Persians honour. one may discover by the following custom whether those who meet are equals for instead of accosting one another. that not even the king is allowed to put any one to death for a single crime. — : . nor any private Persian exercise extreme severity against any of his domestics for one fault. then they adopt it if not. as also of the following. that if he should die in childhood. but that they are the worst who live farthest from them. During the empire of the Medes. . as they go further off. but lives entirely with the women the reason of this custom is. they reconsider when intoxicated. they honour in proportion and least of all they honour those who live at the greatest distance. they kiss on the mouth if one be a little inferior to the other. . The Persians are of all nations most ready to adopt foreign customs for they wear the Medic costume. they instruct their sons in three things only to ride. they kiss the cheek but if he be of a much lower rank. the Medes over all. each nation ruled over its next neighbour. Before he is five years of age.. esteeming themselves to be by far the most excellent of men in every respect and that others make approaches to excellence according to the foregoing gradations. They honour. and keep a still greater number of concubines. Next to bravery in battle. and to speak the truth. . a son is not admitted to the presence of his father. Between the ages of five years and twenty. to use the bow. but if on examination he should find that his misdeeds are more numerous and greater than his services. . those who live nearest to themselves. in the second degree. this is considered the greatest proof of manliness. when sober And whatever : . for numbers are considered strength. When they meet one another in the streets. . . they have learned from the Greeks a passion for boys they marry. those that are second in nearness and after that. they they have first resolved on when sober. And they practise all kinds of indulgences with which they become acquainted among others. he prostrates himself before the other. thinking it handsomer than their own and in war they use the Egyptian cuirass. he may in that also. Now I much approve of the above custom. for that nation went on extending its government and guardianship. approve of reject it. and especially over those that were nearest to them these again.

let it remain as I will now return to my former subit existed from the first. but not of us. And with regard to this custom. and particularly from the Egyptian priests. nor wash their hands in a river. . conceal it in the ground. nor do they allow any one else to do so. The Persians then. for they hold it utterly improbable that a true father should be murdered by his own son. without exception. Their names. CLIO [137-141 case give vent to his anger. having covered the body with wax. and other reptiles and birds. relating to the dead. To tell a lie is considered by them the greatest disgrace.56 HERODOTUS— BOOK I. to be in debt and this for many other reasons. and they say that from having committed some offence against the sun a man is afflicted with these diseases. namely. is not permitted to stay within a town. which correspond with their personal forms and their rank. nor spit. . since I myself know them. is only secretly mentioned and not openly. making the same charge against them. Every stranger that is seized with these distempers many of them even drive out of the country and they do the same to white pigeons. They say that no one ever yet killed his own father or mother. nor defile the stream with urine. and the Ionians Sigma. ject. The Magi differ very much from all other men. but they pay extreme veneration to all rivers. The Ionians and ^Eolians. except such things as they offer in sacrifice whereas the Magi kill everything with their own hands. They neither make water. which has escaped the notice of the Persians themselves. These things I can with certainty affirm to be true. . for they do it openly. all terminate in the same letter which the Dorians call San. But what follows. And if you inquire into this you will find that all Persian names. They are not allowed even to mention the things which it is not lawful for them to do. for the latter hold it matter of religion not to kill anything that has life. that the dead body of a Persian is never buried until it has been torn by some bird or dog. but whenever such things have happened they affirm that if the matter were thoroughly searched into they would be found to have been committed by supposititious children or those born in adultery. . as soon as the Lydians were . Another circumstance is also peculiar to them. but especially because they think that one who is in debt must of necessity Whosoever of the citizens has the leprosy or scrofula tell lies. but I know for a certainty that the Magi do this. nor to have communication with other Persians. next to that. except a dog or a man and they think they do a meritorious thing when they kill ants. serpents. end in the same letter.

were ready to listen to him. and now. sent ambassadors to Cyrus at Sardis. and inclosed a great number of fishes. others by heat and drought. and met together at the Panionium. ' . Lebedus. but have four varieties of dialect. . when the business was done. And these are the four different forms these Ionians. of language. for some of them are oppressed by cold and rain. on the same terms as the Lydians had done. refused to consent. But the Ionians. seeing some fishes in the sea. but the Samians have one is peculiar to themselves. . and one. he took a casting-net. therefore. when they heard this message brought back to their cities. There are three remaining of the Ionian cities. under the influence of anger.141-143] THE IONIAN CITIES 57 subdued by the Persians. These Ionians do not all use the same language. Erythraeans use the same dialect. to whom the Panionium belongs. two inhabit islands. Cease your dancing. Now the Chians and situated on the continent. next are Myus and Priene these are lies toward the south The following are situate in Caria. Colophon. The rest of the Ionians resolved unanimously to send ambassadors to Sparta to implore them to succour the Ionians. Now the Milesians had seceded from the rest of the Ionians only for this reason. The islanders also had nothing to fear. that weak as the Of ger. Samos and Chios. and use the same dialect. Lydia Ephesus. with the exception of the Milesians for Cyrus made an alliance with them only. Teos. began to pipe. When he saw them leaping about. dance. since when I piped you would not come out and Cyrus told this story to the Ionians and ^olians. These Ionians. nor were the Persians themselves at all acquainted with maritime affairs. Phocsea these cities do not at all agree with those before mentioned in their language. severally fortified themselves with walls.' " because the Ionians. . when Cyrus pressed them by his ambassador to revolt from Crcesus. expecting that they would come to shore but finding his hopes disappointed. Miletus. for the Phoenicians were not yet subject to the Persians. the first of them. are at all equal to Ionia. gave them this answer. when he heard their proposal. told : them this story " A piper. and drew them out. he said to the fishes. as they . nor those that are below. wishing to become subject to him. nor the . He. But he. but they speak a dialect common to themselves. on the same terms as they had been to Croesus. in : : of which Erythrse. the Milesians were sheltered from danhad made an alliance. Clazomenae. parts to the east or west. have built their cities under the finest sky and climate of the world that we know of for neither the regions that are above it.

and the Athenians shunned the name. and would not be called Ionians and even now many of them appear to me to be ashamed of the name. Rhypes. from participation on them. and it was usual for those who gained them not to carry them out of the temple. . and Cadmaeans. and Minyan-Orchomenians are intermixed with them. Pharees. but to dedicate them there to the god however. For to say that these are more properly Ionians. the Ionian was weakest of all. from which the river in Italy derived its name. But these twelve cities gloried in the name. Cameirus. These now are the twelve divisions of the Achaeans. they imposed this punishment. having won the prize. for the following reason. whose name was Agasicles. excluded the sixth city. Dyma and Tritaees. . which formerly belonged to the Ionians and on that account the Ionians erected twelve cities. . Cos. and to have refused to admit more. except the Smyrnaeans. In the same manner the Dorians of the present Pentapolis. the only inland places among them. . and Mge. CLIO [143-146 Grecian race then was. Pellene is the first toward Sicyon. who had no connection even in name with Ionia. Phocians (who separated themselves from the rest of their countrymen). disregarded their custom. next Mgyra. and Olenus. . The Ionians appear to me to have formed themselves into twelve cities. 58 HERODOTUS— BOOK I. Dryopians. there was no other city of note. or of more noble origin than other Ionians. in which is the great river Pirus lastly. Lindus. desired to participate in them. because when they dwelt in Peloponnesus there were twelve divisions of them. take care not to admit any of the neighbouring Dorians into the temple at Triopium. to which the Ionians fled when they were defeated by the Achaeans JEgium. Ialyssus.. and Molossians. as now there are twelve divisions of the Achaeans. in which is the everflowing river Crathis. . and built a temple for their own use. but excluded from participation such of their own community as have violated the sacred laws. who drove out the Ionians. Pelasgians of Arcadia. Patrees. are no inconsiderable part of this colony. would be great folly since the Abantes from Euboea. Halicarnassus. and of account for except Athens. therefore. . hung it up in his own house for this offence the five cities. a man of Halicarnassus. least . For in the games in honour of Triopian Apollo they formerly gave brazen tripods to the victors.. to which they gave the name of Panionium and they resolved not to communicate privileges to any other of the Ionians nor indeed have any others. therefore. The other Ionians. then Bura and Helice. Dorian Epidaurians. and carrying away the tripod. : . and Cnidus. which was before called Hexapolis.

. son of Hippolochus others Cauconian Pylians. Temnos. and who deem themselves the most noble of the Ionians. their husbands. sacred place in Mycale. and transmitted it to their daughters. on some pretext of a murder. they are others again from both those families. the Colophonian exiles. At this place the Ionians. 59 and many other people. Larissae. more attached to the name of Ionians than any others let it be allowed then that they are genuine Ionians still. but seized a number of Carian women. but all the festivals of all the Greeks terminate. after they had killed their men: and on account of this massacre these women established a law and imposed on themselves an oath. . Notium. son of Melanthus. These . Myrina. descended from Codrus. . like the Persian names. assembling from the various cities. all are Ionians who derive their original from Athens and celebrate the Apaturian festival but all do so except the Ephesians and Colophonians for these alone do not celebrate the Apaturian The Panionium is a festival. are intermixed with them and those of them who set out from the Prytaneum of Athens. ^Egsese. who were unsuccessful in a sedition and driven from their country. But when all the Cohans came to the assistance of : : . . Pitane. The Cohans lost Smyrna in the following manner: They received into their city certain Colophonians. This was done in Miletus. The following are the ^olian Cyme. The Ionians appointed kings to govern them some choosing Lycians. and Mycale is a headland on the continent. then are the Ionian cities. Smyrna. having watched the opportunity while the Smyrnaeans were celebrating a festival to Bacchus outside the walls. in the same letter. called also Phriconis. that they would never eat with their husbands. However. and then after so doing had forced them to become their wives. but not equal in climate.146-150] THE IONIAN CITIES . But some time afterward. brought no wives with them when they came to settle in this country. stretching westward toward Samos. . Cilia. and not only do the festivals of the Ionians. : . and Grynia these are eleven of the ancient cities of the ^Eolians for one of them. JEgivoessa. . looking to the north. and seized the city. These Cohans have settled in a more fertile country than the Ionians. nor ever call them by the name of husband because they had killed their fathers. was taken away from them by the Ionians for they too had twelve cities on the continent. Neon-teichos. of the posterity of Glaucus. were accustomed to celebrate the festival to which they gave the name of Panionia. and their children. shut to the gates. and by the Ionians consecrated in common to Heliconian Neptune.

to warn Cyrus. the other eleven cities distributed them among themselves and gave them the privilege of citizens. not the calamities of the Ionians shall be talked about. to Sardis. despatched men in a penteconter. imploring their assistance. and how many in number. for in that case they would not pass it by unnoticed. a Lydian. not to injure any city in the Grecian territory. and having stood forward. though they were of kindred blood. al. . for the Persians themselves are not accustomed to use markets. the Lesbians and Tenedians. he said to the Spartan herald " I was never yet afraid of those who in the midst of their city have a place set apart in which they collect and cheat one another by false oaths and if I continue in health. the ambassadors of the Ionians and iEolians arrived done with all possible speed). Nevertheless the Lacedaemonians. nor have they such a thing as a market. to keep an eye upon the affairs of Cyrus and Ionia. When the Smyrnaeans did this. but their own. and determined not to assist the Ionians: they therefore returned home. who have markets for the purposes of buying and selling. And when informed. arriving in Phocaea. But the Lacedaemonians would not listen to him. having intrusted Tabalus. addressed them at length. . besides those settled on Mount Ida. a Persian. sent the most eminent person among them. When whose name was Pythermus. But of those that occupy islands. and that the vEolians should abandon Smyrna. Accordingly." This taunt of Cyrus was levelled at the Grecians in general. having put on a purple robe. one city is situated in Tenedos and another in what are called the Hundred Islands. in the name of the Lacedaemonians. should lead the way.60 HERODOTUS— BOOK I. These men. five cities are situated in Lesbos for the sixth in Lesbos. for these are altogether distinct. After this. the Methymnaeans reduced to slavery. in order that as many as possible of the Spartans might hear of it and assemble. as well as the Ionians of the islands. Arisba. with the government of Sardis. These then are the yEolian cities on the continent. had nothing to fear but all the other cities resolved with one accord to follow the Ionians wherever they . CLIO [150-153 the Smyrnaeans. to speak he then. and appointed Pactyas. it is related that Cyrus inquired of the Grecians who were present who the Lacedaemonians were. Cyrus. an agreement was made that the Ionians should restore the movable property. whose name was Lacrines. When the herald gave this message. : at Sparta (for this was choice of a Phocaean. as I conjecture. that they sent him such a warning. they made . though they had rejected the Ionian ambassadors. to in behalf of all .

. having killed the father. and the Egyptians to lead an army in person. : . if they should escape the present danger." Crcesus suggested this plan. When Cyrus heard this news on his march. Pactyas prevailed on the Lydians to revolt from Tabalus and Cyrus and going down to the sea-coast. and have intrusted their city to the Lydians themselves and then I wonder at their rebellion Now he said what he had in contemplation to do but Croesus. to the end that they may never more revolt. answered " Sir. and enjoin them to observe the following regulations. and require them to teach their sons to play on the cithara. it seems. for I appear to have acted like one who. to whom you intrusted Sardis. nor utterly destroy an ancient city. he said to Crcesus " Croesus. But pardon the Lydians. who was shut up in the citadel. and buskins on their feet. and departed for Ecbatana. nor be troublesome to you send to them and order them to keep no weapons of war in their possession and enjoin them to wear tunics under their cloaks. the Sacae. But as soon as Cyrus had marched from Sardis. ! : : : . and to themselves. he should not prevail with him to alter his resolution and he dreaded also. has spared the children I am carrying away you. I am in doubt whether it will not be better to reduce them to slavery. and to send some other general against the Ionians. so that they will never give you any apprehensions about their revolting. But Babylon was an obstacle to him.1 " 153-156] REVOLT OF THE LYDIANS 6 bring away the gold. : . which is innocent as well of the former as of the present offence: for of the former I myself was guilty. lest the Lydians. with all the gold taken from Sardis in his possession. is the culprit let him therefore pay the penalty. to strike the guitar. you have but too much reason for what you say. what will be the end of these things ? the Lydians. . who have been something more than a father to the Lydians. : . he besieged Tabalus. . will never cease to give trouble to me. thinking it would be more desirable for the Lydians than that they should be sold for slaves and being persuaded that unless he could suggest some feasible proposal. and to sell by retail and then you will soon see them becoming women instead of men. and now bear the punishment on my own head but in the present instance . . for from the first he took no account of the Ionians. . took Croesus with him. yet do not give full vent to your anger. both that belonging to Croesus and to the other Lydians. he hired mercenaries and persuaded the inhabitants of the coast to join him and then having marched against Sardis. as were also the Bacagainst whom he resolved trians. Pactyas. fearing lest he should utterly destroy Sardis.

1 It will and that this — . above the port of Panormus. a man of high repute among the citizens. Cyrus then having given these orders on his way. inquiring in these words " king. he commanded him to order the Lydians to conform themselves to the regulations proposed by Croesus. having sent persons to consult the oracle at Branchidae. that they should deliver up Pactyas to the Persians. of Heraclides. having marched against Sardis with an inconsiderable division of Cyrus's army. But Pactyas. asked what course they should pursue respecting Pactyas that would be most pleasing to the gods. : O be proper to remark that there were two places of that name must not be confounded with the port of Panormus. The answer to their question was. a Lydian. Beloe. When the Cymaeans heard this answer reported. therefore. resolved to refer the matter to the deity at Branchidae." Such . among whom was Aristodicus. When they arrived at Branchidae. 62 HERODOTUS—BOOK I. in order to come to a decision. laid aside his anger. has come to us as a suppliant. and Mazares the Mede. changed their mode of life after this Mazares despatched messengers to Cyme. distrusting the oracle. to avoid a violent death at the hands of the Persians. and bring utter ruin on themselves. though we dread the Persian power. hearing that the army which was coming against him was close at hand. a Mede. which all the Ionians and Cohans were in the practice of consulting this place 1 is situated in Milesia. Pactyas. and suspecting the sincerity of the consuiters. The Cymaeans. CLIO [156-159 might hereafter revolt from the Persians. they determined to give him up but though most of them came to this determination. have not yet dared to surrender the suppliant till it be plainly declared by thee what we ought to do. when he found that Pactyas and his party were no longer there. and require the Cymaeans to give him up. however. proceeded to the settlements of the Persians. and said that he would follow his advice then having sent for Mazares. in the first place compelled the Lydians to conform to the injunctions of Cyrus and by his order the Lydians completely : . . erected in former times. pleased with the expedient. They now demand him. fled in great consternation to Cyme. the son : : . But the Cymaeans. went to inquire a second time concerning Pactyas. in the vicinity of Ephesus. and moreover to enslave all the others who had joined the Lydians in the attack on Sardis but by all means to bring Pactyas to him alive. Aristodicus. We. requiring them to deliver up Pactyas. Aristodicus consulted the oracle in the name of all. for there was there an oracular shrine. Cyrus. prevented them from doing so till at last other messengers..

. . whence he was torn by violence from the Temple of Minerva Poliuchus by the Chians. I am unable to say precisely. and delivered up. . spoke as follows: "O most impious of men. they kept him under guard in order that they might deliver him up to Cyrus. how darest thou do this? Dost thou tear my suppliants from my temple ? " Aristodicus without hesitation answered. and gave it to his army to pillage and he treated Magnesia in the same manner: and shortly afterward he fell sick and died. and. were preparing to do so for some remuneration what. marched against those who had assisted in besieging Tabalus and in the first place he reduced the Prienians to slavery.. And for a long time after this none of the Chians would offer barley meal from Atarneus to any of the gods. 63 was the inquiry of Aristodicus but the oracle gave the same answer as before. the same whom Astyages. they. opposite Lesbos. This man. and transported Pactyas to Chios. addressing Aristodicus. sent him away to Mitylene. King of the Medes. Thus the Chians gave up Pactyas. The Chians delivered him up in exchange for Atarneus this Atarneus was a place situated in Mysia. but biddest the Cymaeans to deliver up theirs?" The oracle again rejoined: "Yes. art thou then so careful to succour thy suppliants. . and in the next overran the whole plain of the Maeander. or to subject themselves to a siege by pro. it is reported that a voice issued from the sanctuary. for the proposal was never completed. But the Mitylenaeans." When the Cymaeans heard this last answer. and who assisted Cyrus in ascending the throne. I bid you do so. ye may the sooner perish. tecting him.. Mazares. and never more come and consult the oracle about the delivering up of suppliants. not wishing to bring destruction on themselves by surrendering Pactyas. being informed of what was being done by the Mitylenaeans. and bade them surrender Pactyas to the Persians.: 159-162] PACTYAS . : . For the Cymaeans. On his death Harpagus came down as his successor in the command he also was by birth a Mede. Upon this Aristodicus deliberately acted as follows walking round the temple. entertained at an impious feast. or make any cakes of the fruit that came from thence but all the productions of that country were excluded from the temples. In this manner Pactyas fell into the hands of the Persians therefore having got possession of Pactyas. he took away the sparrows and all other kinds of birds that had built nests in the temple and while he was doing this. after this. despatched a vessel to Lesbos. that having acted impiously. " O king. when Mazares sent a message to them requiring them to deliver up Pactyas. .

but afterward.64 HERODOTUS— BOOK I. on his arrival in Ionia. and would then give their answer. When they arrived at Tartessus they were kindly received by the King of the Tartessians. . finding he could not prevail with the Phocaeans to accept his offer. and embarked themselves. whose name was Arganthonius he reigned eighty years over Tartessus. thereupon directed their 1 Tartessus was situated between the two branches of the Bcetis (now Guadalquiver). and goods on board. detesting one house to the king's use. 1 They made their voyages in fifty-oared galleys. having heaped up mounds against the walls. having put everything on board. for fear they should become the seat of trade. These Phocaeans were the first of all the Grecians who undertook long voyages. and lived to the age of one hundred and twenty. slavery. said that they wished for one day to deliberate. and having put their wives. when the Chians refused to sell them the CEnyssae Islands. except works of brass or stone. yet he would permit them to consult together. abandoned by all its inhabitants. during which Harpagus withdrew his army from the wall. having first offered terms: That he would be content if the Phocaeans would throw down only one of their battlements. took several cities by means of earthworks for he forced the people to retire within their fortifications. In the sign. and is entirely built of large and wellcompacted stone. Phocaea was the first place in Ionia that he attacked. but when Harpagus marched his army against them. the Phocaeans launched their fifty-oared galleys. then. though he well knew their dewall. and he gave it unsparingly. he gave them money for the purpose of building a wall around their city. and then. through which it discharges itself into the sea. and hearing from them the increasing power of the Mede. interval. — : The session of Phocaea. and not in merchant ships. The Phocaeans became such great favourites with him that he at first solicited them to abandon Ionia. or pictures with these exceptions. children. together with the images from the temples. but while they were deliberating they required him to draw off his forces from the Harpagus said that. and their own island be thereby excluded. he carried the cities by storm. he besieged them. they set sail for Chios and the Persians took pos. and Iberia. and consecrate The Phocaeans. and they are the people who discovered the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas. CLIO [162-165 being appointed general by Cyrus. Phocaeans. for the wall is not a few stades in circumference. and to settle in any part of his territory they should choose. . and other offerings. Now the wall of the Phocaeans had been built in the above manner. and Tartessus.

having manned their ships. on their way toward Cyrnus. Afterward. having first sailed down to Phocaea. named Alalia. and men. with what property their ships were able to carry. : : . and took on board their wives and children. sent to Delphi and the Pythia enjoined them to use those rites which the Agyllaeans still observe. On their arrival at Cyrnus they lived for five years in common with the former settlers but as they ravaged the territories of all their neighbours. as beasts of burden. But afterward all animals belonging to the Agyllaeans that passed by the spot where the Phocaeans who had been stoned lay. by the admonition of an oracle. sailed to Rhegium. and violating their oaths. and the twenty that survived were disabled. where. As to the men belonging to the ships destroyed. and crippled. they had twenty years before built a city. on their part. which is now called Hyela. maimed. they put to death the Persian garrison which had been left by Harpagus to guard the city. being anxious to expiate the guilt. But Arganthonius was at that time dead. and got possession of that town in the territory of (Enotria. as well sheep. as they were ing mass should appear again. and have established gymnastic and equestrian contests. who took them on shore and stoned them to death. who told them the Pythia had directed them to establish 1 A proverbial expression. consisting of sixty in number.165-167] THE WANDERINGS OF THE PHOCAEANS 65 course to Cyrnus. weighed anchor and sailed from the CEnyssae Islands. sailed back to Phocaea but such of them as kept to their oath. they pronounced terrible imprecations on any who should desert the fleet: besides this. when this was accomplished. On their passage to Cyrnus. and they colonized this town by the advice of a certain Posidonian. They therefore sailed back to Alalia. importing "that the victors suffered more than the vanquished. This was the fate of these Phocaeans. and having engaged. and swore that they would never return to Phocaea till this burnNevertheless. more than one half of the citizens were seized with regret and yearning for their city and dwellings in the country. and leaving Cyrnus. for their prows were . blunted. met them in the Sardinian Sea. they sunk a mass of red-hot iron." . : for they commemorate their death with great magnificence. left that place. The Agyllaeans therefore. but the others who fled to Rhegium. the Tyrrhenians and Carthaginians combined together to make war against them. each with sixty ships and the Phocaeans. be- came distorted. most of them fell into the hands of the Carthaginians and Tyrrhenians. the Phocaeans obtained a kind of Cadmean victory * for forty of their own ships were destroyed.

he saw no hope of recovering their liberty. would have made them the most flourishing of all the Grecians. they severally remained in their own countries. But the Milesians. Ionians. Harpagus. they occupied the islands without paying any tribute. The Teians Abdera. except the Milesians. and sailed away to Thrace. having weighed anchor. 66 HERODOTUS— BOOK name. who was of Phoenician extraction. gave. marched against the Carians.. remained quiet. inhabiting the most considerable of the islands. . Of these the Carians had come from the islands to the continent. CLIO [167-171 sacred rites to Cyrnus as being a hero. proved themselves brave men. I. and Cohans. did not enjoy. should sail in one common fleet to Sardinia. This was the advice of Bias the Prienean after the Ionians were ruined. which stands in the centre of Ionia and that the rest of the inhabited cities should nevertheless be governed Such was the advice they severally as independent states. whereas if they remained in Ionia. Thus then was Ionia a second time enslaved and when Harpagus had subdued the Ionians on the continent. But before Ionia was ruined the advice of Thales the Milesian. and as well as those who abandoned their country. When the Ionians were brought to this wretched condition. and submitted to the commands imposed on them. Lycians. if they had hearkened to him. For when Harpagus by means of his earthworks had made himself master of their walls. These were the only Ionians who abandoned their country rather than submit to servitude. tude. which. and there settled in the city of Abdera which Timesius of Clazomense having formerly founded. they all went on board their ships. and anciently called Leleges. was also good. The rest. For being subjects of Minos. as far as I . gave battle to Harpagus. having subdued Ionia. and is now honoured as a hero by the Teians of . made their submission to Cyrus. and nevertheless still held assemblies at Panionium. and governing the rest. but being defeated and subdued. those that occupied the islands. I am informed that Bias of Priene gave them most salutary advice. but was driven out by the Thracians. as I have before mentioned. each fighting for his own. having made a league with Cyrus. dreading the same fate. but not to colonize the island of that also acted nearly in the same manner as the Phocaeans. Caunians. He advised the Ionians to constitute one general council in Teos. and then build one city for all the Ionians thus being freed from servi. He advised that the Ionians. they would flourish.

and boys to meet together to drink according to their age and intimacy. do not admit its correctness but consider themselves to be aboriginal inhabitants of the continent. are allowed to share it. they manned his ships. and always to have gone under the same name as they now do. both young and old. even from the Carians for they account it very becoming for men. are aboriginals. when they changed their minds (for they resolved to have none but their own national deities). but. when Minos got the upper hand in the struggle. . in my opinion. and as Minos subdued a large territory. and was successful in war. respecting the sovereign power. all the Caunians armed themselves. whenever he required them. are totally distinct from those of other nations. . : . For the Carians set the example of fastening crests upon helmets and of putting devices on shields they are also the first who put handles to shields but until their time all who used shields carried them without handles. Now they do share the temple. But a dispute having arisen between Sarpedon and Minos. as kinsmen to the Carians. which the Mysians and Lydians share. So long as Sarpe. and beating the air with their spears. And in testimony of this they show an ancient Temple of Jupiter Carius at Mylasa. After a long time had elapsed. They had formerly erected temples to foreign deities. : .. but afterward. The Caunians. for they say that Lydus and Mysus were brothers to Car. sons of Europa. marched in a body to the Calindian They confines. 171-173] HARPAGUS SUBDUES IONIA 67 am able to discover by inquiring into the remotest times. having them slung round their necks and left shoulders. their language to that of the Carians. he drove out Sarpedon with his partisans and they being expelled came to the land of Milyas in Asia for the country which the Lycians now occupy was anciently called Milyas but the Milyans were then called Solymi. though of the same language with the Carians. the Dorians and Ionians drove the Carians out of the islands. but none who are of a different nation. or the Carians to theirs Their customs for this I can not determine with certainty. the Carians were by far the most famous of all nations in those They also introduced three inventions which the times. women. The Lycians were originally sprung from Crete. This then is the account that the Cretans give of the Carians the Carians themselves. they have assimilated say they are from Crete. though they However. and said they were expelling strange gods. Greeks have adopted. then have such customs. for in ancient time Crete was entirely in the possession of barbarians. and so they came to the continent. guiding them with leathern thongs. however. .

while Harpagus was subduing Ionia. for all Cnidia. and surrendered without resistance to Harpagus as soon as he approached with his army. or cohabit with a concubine. who was likewise driven out by his brother JEgeus. by the chipping of the rock they therefore sent deputies to Delphi to inquire what was the cause of the obstruction and. except a small space.68 HERODOTUS— BOOK I. Their customs are partly Cretan and partly Carian but they have one peculiar to themselves. When any mischief is about to befall : : . and reckon up his ma. the children are accounted of pure birth. and on the south the sea by Syme and Rhodes now this small space. the Pythia answered as follows. the Cnidians. and the Lycians are still called by that name by their neighbours. is surrounded by water. . . : . but if a man who is a citizen. designed to dig through. even though of high rank. in trimeter verse " Build not a tower on the isthmus. they went by the name of Termilae. son of Pandion. and is called the Triopean: but the region of Bybassus extended from the Peninsula. he will describe himself by his mother's side. got to be called Lycians after him. behaved themselves with as little courage. But when Lycus. in course of time. colonists from the Lacedaemonians. whose territory juts on the sea. as the Cnidians say. both in other parts of the body. For the whole of their dominions were within the isthmus and where the Cnidian territory terminates toward the continent there is the isthmus that they designed to dig through. the workmen appeared to be wounded to a greater extent and in a more strange manner than usual. which they brought with them. CLIO • [»73~i7S don reigned over them. for Jove would have made When the Pythia had given it an island had he so willed. and particularly in the eyes. And among others settled there are the Cnidians. And if a free-born woman marry a slave. . for the Ceramic Gulf bounds it on the north. wishing to make their territory insular. the Cnidians desisted from their work. the children are in- famous. But as they were carrying on the work with great diligence. which is about five stades in breadth. came from Athens." this answer. ternal ancestry in the female line. in which they differ from all other nations for they take their name from their mothers and not from their fathers so that if any one ask another who he is. . nor dig it through. The Pedasians were situated inland above Halicarnassus. Now the Carians were subdued by Harpagus without having done any memorable action in their own defence and not only the Carians. marry a foreigner. but all the Grecians that inhabit those parts. the Termilae under Sarpedon.

all the Xanthians went out and died fighting. the Pedasians were subdued. next. Then making use of hot asphalt for cement. taken out of the moat. but the most renowned and the strongest. and when they had moulded a sufficient number. which is of the following description the city stands in a spacious plain. who are said to be Xanthians. After some time. and gave him much trouble. for the Caunians generally followed the example of the Lycians. and shows a front on every side of one hundred and twenty stades these stades make up the sum of four hundred and eighty in the whole circumference. children.175-179] THE CITY 0F BABYLON 69 their neighbours. Now these were the only people about Caria who opposed Harpagus for any time. the priestess of Minerva has a long beard. and in what manner the wall was built. In the first place. Now Assyria contains many large cities. and laying wattled weeds between the thirty bottom courses of : . Such is the size of the city of Babylon. and is quadrangular. when Harpagus marched his army toward the Xanthian plain. where the seat of government was established after the destruction of Nineveh. they collected their wives. went out to meet him. and in height two hundred. subduing every nation without exception. and are most worthy of being recorded. The Lycians. therefore. was Babylon. . deep. are strangers but these eighty families happened at the time to be away from home and so survived. he attacked the Assyrians. and servants within the citadel. was consumed. and then set fire to it and burned it to the ground. and them or . there is a wall fifty royal cubits in breadth. however. and shut up within their city. a moat. And here I think I ought to explain how the earth. all. Of the modern Lycians. and full of water. It was adorned in a manner surpassing any city we are acquainted with. reduced the lower parts of Asia. and engaged themselves by the strongest oaths. property. wide. they baked them in kilns. except eighty families. displayed great feats of valour. When they had done this. . engaging with very inferior numbers. and. Thus Harpagus got possession of Xanthus. but the royal cubit is larger than the common one by three fingers' breadth. As they dug the moat they made bricks of the earth that was taken out. this has occurred three times. But being defeated. When Cyrus had reduced all the other parts of the continent. but Cyrus conquered the upper parts. The greatest part of these I shall pass by without notice but I will make mention of those which gave him most trouble. by fortifying a mountain called Lyda. runs entirely round it. and Caunia almost in the same manner. Harpagus.

except only a native woman. brazen gated and in the other. is cut up into straight streets all the others as well as the transverse ones that lead to the river. they built dwellings of one story. a large couch. nor does any mortal pass the night there. and afterward same manner. on either bank has an elbow carried down to the river from thence along the curvatures of each bank of the river runs a wall of baked bricks. who are priests of this deity. at the edges. and by its side a table of gold. and lead down to the edge of the river. flows from Armenia. they first built the wall itself in the ficient for turning a chariot with four horses. . fronting each other. handsomely furnished. and they are all made of in number equal to the streets This outer brass. wall is the chief defence. from whence the bitumen used in the wall of Babylon was brought. a square building of two stades on every side. . About the middle of the ascent there is a landing-place and seats to rest on. The wall. and another upon that. therefore. running spirally round all the towers. and in this temple is placed. and in the uppermost tower stands a spacious temple. And an ascent to these is outside. the royal palace. and they left a space between these dwellings sufbricks. now. The city itself. on which those who go up sit down and rest themselves. with a spacious and strong inclosure. CLIO [179-182 up the sides of the moat. but another wall runs round within. to the number of eight. midst of this precinct is built a solid tower of one stade both in length and breadth. called Is. which discharges its stream into the Euphrates. which in my time was still in existIn the ence. No statue has been erected within it. deep. In the circumference of the wall there are a hundred gates. say. though narrower.70 HERODOTUS—BOOK I. In the middle of each division of the city fortified buildings were erected in one. . which is full of houses three and four stories high. this river brings down with its water many lumps of bitumen. and falls into the Red Sea. and on this tower rose another. Babylon stands another city. and rapid. In this manner Babylon was encompassed with a wall. the precinct of Jupiter Belus. that the god himself comes to the temple and . for a river called the Euphrates separates it in the middle: this river. . At the end of each street a little gate is formed in the wall along the river-side. not much inferior to the other in strength. which is broad. These same priests assert. all of brass. And the city consists of two divisions. chosen by the god out of the whole nation. and on the top of the wall. . though I can not credit what they say. as the Chaldseans. Eight days' journey from as also are the posts and lintels. on a small river of the same name.

she made so winding that in its course it touches three times at one and the same village in Assyria the name of this village at which the Euphrates touches is Arderica and to this day those who go from our sea to Babylon. which together weigh eight hun- there. in the same manner as the Egyptians say happens at Thebes in Egypt. which I shall presently describe and in the next place. and near it is placed a large table of gold the throne also and the step are of gold. dred talents. caution for her own defence. formed a design to take away this statue. First of all. for there is not an oracle there at all times. which are worthy of admiration for before the river used to overflow the whole plain like a sea. and both are said to have in the same manner also the priest- ess. whom mention in my Assyrian history. as the Chaldaeans affirm. for there also a woman lies in the Temple of Theban no intercourse with men . Outside the temple a golden altar. son of Darius. On the great altar the Chaldaeans consume yearly a thousand talents of frankincense when they celebrate the festival of this god. she god. There was also at that time within the precincts of this temple a statue of solid gold. twelve cubits high I indeed did not see it. and whose name was Nitocris (she was much more sagacious than the queen before her). when she saw the power of the Medes growing formidable and restless. : . in it is a large golden statue of Jupiter seated. by having channels dug above. : . this. . when the god there. but when is shut up during the night in the temple with the There is also another temple below. many private offerings. among other cities. I only relate what is said by the Chaldaeans. Nineveh was captured by them. There were many others who reigned . and another large altar. and that. sides there are I shall over Babylon. lived five generations before the other she raised mounds along the plain. and among them were two women. within the precinct at Babylon. named Semiramis. come three times to this river Euphrates. who beautified the walls and temples. Thus. in the first place left monuments of herself. .: 182-185] SEMIRAMIS AND NITOCRIS 71 reclines on the bed. if they travel by the Euphrates. The first of these. where full-grown sheep are sacrificed for on the golden altar only sucklings may be offered. but Xerxes. took it. with respect to the which before ran in a straight line. she took every possible pre. Jupiter. and killed the priest who forbade him to remove it. who was queen next after her. But the other. but dared not do so. then. Darius. this temple was adorned and beis . and which flows through the middle of the city. son of Hystaspes. is who utters the oracles at Patarse in Lycia.

: 72 HERODOTUS— BOOK I. and the ancient channel had become dry. She also raised on either of the river a mound. which were separated by the river. in order that the current. She had both these works done. and the descents that lead from the gates In the next to the river. on which the Babylonians might pass over but at night these planks were removed. . she built a bridge with the stones she had prepared. he was obliged to cross in a boat and this. and the navigation to Babylon tedious. square planks of timber. for after she had dug the reservoir for the lake. At a considerable distance above Babylon she had a reservoir for a lake dug. All this was done in that part of the country where the approach to Babylon is nearest. carrying it out some distance from the river. she turned the whole stream of the river into the place she had dug: while this was filled. she lined with burned bricks the banks of the river throughout the city. might be more slow. diately afterward made the following addition: as the city consisted of two divisions. She had large blocks of stone cut. and the bridge was finished. appeared to answer the purpose for which it was made. therefore. and where is the shortest way for the Medes in order that the Medes might not. Upon these stones she laid. and that after the voyage a long march round the lake might follow. was very troublesome she therefore provided for this. she left this other monument built by similar toil. in my opinion. and bound them together with plates of lead and iron. in the first place. by holding intercourse with her She inclosed people. And thus. When the hollow that was dug had become a lake filled by the river. and a bridge was built for the use of the inhabitants. astonishing for its magnitude and height. when any one had occasion to cross from one division to the other. herself. the river made winding. and in depth digging down to water. and when they were ready and the place was completely dug out. and when it was completely dug she had stones brought and built a casing to it all round. in the same manner as the walls. CLIO [185-187 village on three successive days. with these defences by digging. become acquainted with her affairs. during the reign of former kings. she brought back the river to its ancient channel from the lake. being broken by frequent turnings. about the middle of the city. : : . place. during the day. and the whole excavation a lake. the excavation having been turned into a marsh. and in width making its circumference of four hundred and twenty stades bank she consumed the soil from this excavation by heaping it up on the banks of the river. to prevent people from crossing by night and robbing one another. and imme.

but the stream having carried him away and drowned him. the king drinks. high up above the gate itself and on the sepulchre she had engraved: Should any one of my successors. A great number of four-wheeled carriages drawn by mules carry the water of this river. whose fountains are in the Matienian Mountains. on each side of the river. and . who bore name of his father Labynetus. find himself in want of money. When Cyrus. for that were not well. deferring his expedition against Babylon. . of which alone. but no use was made of this gate for this reason. but it seemed hard to Darius that this gate should be of no use. — his it stream so weak that henceforth women should easily cross without wetting their knees. the Tigris. and greedy of the most sordid gain. in his march against Babylon.187-189] CYRUS AT THE GYNDES 73 This same queen also contrived the following deception: over the most frequented gate of the city she prepared a sepulchre for herself. when money was lying there. he carries with him from home provisions well prepared and cattle and he takes with him water from the river Choaspes. one of the sacred white horses through wantonness plunged into the stream and attempted to swim over. and instead of money found only the body. Cyrus was much enraged with the river for this affront. he divided his army into two parts and having so divided it. Kings of Babylon. and follow him from place to place wherever he marches. di. which flows past Susa. arrived at the river Gyndes. Cyrus made war against the son of this queen. but if he be not in want. and threatened to make the . when Cyrus was endeavouring to cross this river Gyndes. discharges itself into the Red Sea now. and falls into another river. let him not open it. and these words written: Hadst thou not that been insatiably covetous. and this money inviting him to take it. let him open this sepulchre and take as much as he chooses. Now when the great king leads his army in person. thou wouldst not have opened the chambers of the dead. and no other. which latter. and had the empire of Assyria. and which flows through the land of the Dardanians. he marked out by lines one hundred and eighty channels. After this menace. Such then is the account given of this queen. that a dead body was over the head of any one who passed through it. after it has been boiled in silver vessels. This monument remained undisturbed until the kingdom fell to Darius. which can be passed only in boats. he should not do so. He therefore opened the sepulchre. flowing by the city of Opis.

having advanced against Babylon. he gave orders to his forces to enter the city as soon as they should see the stream fordable. and when he had advanced near the city. they had laid up provisions for many years and therefore were under no apprehensions about a siege. CLIO [189-191 verging every way. entered Babylon by this passage. he commanded them to dig. diverted the river. those of the Babylonians who inhabited the centre knew nothing of the capture (for it happened to be a festival) but they were dancing at the time. Having thus stationed his forces. Whether therefore some one else made the suggestion to him in his perplexity. When Cyrus had avenged himself on the river Gyndes. he then But the Babylonians. His design was indeed executed by the great numbers he employed but they spent the whole summer in the work. Cyrus found himself in difficulty. : . and his affairs were not at all advanced. and mounting the walls that extend along the banks of the river. which was before a swamp. however. by reason of its great extent. awaited his coming. and given these directions. the Babylonians had been aware of it beforehand. they would have caught them as in a It net. but would have utterly destroyed them for having shut all the little gates that lead down to the river. the Babylonians gave battle. he had recourse to the following stratagem stationed the bulk of his army near the passage of the river where it enters Babylon. whereas the Persians came upon them by surprise. Cyrus did the same with respect to the river and the lake as the queen of the Babylonians had done. he made the ancient channel fordable by the sinking of the river.. taken the field. and. For having . which had now subsided to about the middle of a man's thigh. he himself marched away with the ineffective part of his army and having come to the lake. When this took place. by means of a canal. . But as they had been long aware of the restless spirit of Cyrus. If. and enjoying themselves. being defeated. then having distributed his army. or whether he himself devised having the plan. the Persians who were appointed to that purpose close to the stream of the river. and again having stationed another division beyond the city. when they who were at the extremities were taken. . is related by the people who inhabited this city that. and the second spring began to shine. and saw that he attacked all nations alike. or had known what Cyrus was about. On the other hand. were shut up in the city. . they would not have suffered the Persians to enter the city. since much time had elapsed. by distributing it into three hundred and sixty channels. 74 HERODOTUS— BOOK I. into the lake. where the river makes its exit.

neither the fig. . They use no other oil than such as is drawn from sesame. and when it produces its best it yields even three hundred fold. . two hundred fold. 1 How great was the power of the Babylonians I can prove by many other circumstances. They have palm . in addition to the usual tribute now. who held this district from the king: the artabe is a Persian measure. The blades of wheat and barley grow there to full four fingers in breadth and though I well know to what a height millet and sesame grow. The land of Assyria is but little watered by rain.. son of Artabazus. of all lands with which we are acquainted. such a number of Indian dogs that four considerable towns in the plains were exempted from all other taxes. southeast. 191-193] CYRUS TAKES BABYLON . and the grain comes to maturity. of eight hundred stallions and sixteen thousand mares for each stallion served twenty mares. and especially by the following the whole territory over which the great king reigns is divided into districts for the purpose of furnishing subsistence for him and his army. is intersected by canals and the largest of these is navigable. by being irrigated from the river. on which the city of Nineveh stood. and the government of this region. : is considerable since it yielded a full artabe of silver every day to Tritsechmes. too. : . : . . whereas there are twelve months in the year. as in Egypt. ' That is. containing three Attic chcenices more than the Attic medimnus And he had a private stud of horses. in addition to those used in war. for I am well assured that to those who have never been in the Babylonian country what has been said concerning its productions will appear to many incredible. stretching in the direction of the winter sunrise 2 and it extends from the Euphrates to another river. the Babylonian territory provides him with subsistence for four months. 75 they received certain information of the truth and thus Babylon was taken for the first time. nor the olive yet it is so fruitful in the produce of corn that it yields continually satrapy. not. . which the Persians call a till . 1 It was again taken by Darius. by far the best for the growth of corn but it does not carry any show of producing trees of any kind. and appointed to find food for the dogs. Such were the advantages accruing to the governor of Babylon. nor the vine. but it is irrigated by the hand and by engines. For the Babylonian territory. This is. and all the rest of Asia for the remaining eight thus the territory of Assyria amounts to a third part of the power of all Asia. and that little nourishes the root of the corn the stalk grows up. I shall not mention it. by the river overflowing the fields. like Egypt. the river Tigris. He kept.

but they chiefly take down casks of palm wine. ]6 trees HERODOTUS—BOOK . They wear long hair. then having lined this vessel throughout with reeds. For their dress. of Illyria. was the wisest. but making them circular like a buckler. and over all a short white cloak they have sandals peculiar to the country. and a staff curiously wrought and on every staff is carved either an apple. and anoint the whole body with perfumes. they suffer it to be carried down by the river freighted with merchandise. they wear a linen tunic that reaches down to the feet. Such. just like wild fig trees. is what I now proceed to describe sail down the river to Babylon are circular. Such. a lily. one of whom draws his spar in and the other thrusts his out. they cover them with hides extended on the outside. Every vessel has a live ass on board. is the description of their boats. and two men standing upright. they sell the ribs of the boat and all the reeds by public auction then having piled the skins on the asses. . These they cultivate as fig trees. Once in every year the following course was : . . a rose. For after they arrive at Babylon. Every man has a seal. and they also tie the fruit of that which the Grecians call the male palm about those trees that bear dates. next to the city their vessels that itself. wine. then. . I. For when they have cut the ribs out of willows that grow in Armenia above Babylon. nor contracting the prow. neither making any distinction in the stern. by way of a bottom. is their manner of adorning the body. they return by land to Armenia. and made of leather. and honey. also practise. then. and at their return to Armenia with their asses they construct other vessels in the same manner. both in other respects. very like the Boeotian clogs. in my opinion. and others of a smaller size but the largest of them carry a cargo of five thousand talents. The most wonderful thing of all here. in order that the fly entering the date may ripen it. or something of the kind for it is not allowable to wear a stick without a device. Some of these vessels are made very large. The vessel is steered by two spars. binding their heads with turbans. over this they put another garment of wool. CLIO [193-196 growing all over the plain most of these bear fruit from which they make bread. for it is not possible by any means to sail up the river by reason of the rapidity of the current: and for this reason they make their vessels of skins and not of wood.. which I hear the Venetians. and the larger ones more. and have disposed of their freight. : . The following customs prevail among them this. an eagle. lest otherwise the fruit fall before maturity for the males have flies in the fruit.

BABYLOXIAX MARRIAGE MARKET. . Photogravure from an engraving after a painting bv Edwin Long.

city that made of jws that udes •her makthe prow.: £0 I 'I ^ torn Hey cultie i the about ing the naturity.es. ned ied <-fly . d of their by public neans rrent i put with Every every or sotnea stick withadorning the T out a (lev 'urse was . but e larger ones more. .



second to the former in wisdom. 196-198] CUSTOMS OF THE BABYLONIANS : jj pursued in every village whatever maidens were of a marriageable age. a law was enacted that the money should be repaid. They embalm the dead in honey. sirous of marrying used to bid against one another. And they are not allowed to pass by a sick person in silence without inquiring into the nature of his distemper. since the taking of the city. and purchase the handsomest.. he put up another who was next in beauty. . . they have been harshly treated. and their funeral lamentations are like those of the Egyptians. or carrying them away to another city for now that. They were sold on condition that they should be marSuch men among the Babylonians as were rich and deried. and advise him to have recourse to the same treatment as that by which they escaped a similar disease. but he was first obliged to give security that he would certainly marry her. This money was obtained from the sale of the handsome maidens and thus the beautifather ful ones portioned out the ugly and the crippled. and then he might take her away. they used to collect together and bring in a body Then a to one place around them stood a crowd of men. for they have no physicians then those who pass by the sick person confer with him about the disease to discover whether they have themselves been afflicted with the same disease as the sick person. all the meaner sort. or have seen others so afflicted thus the passers-by confer with him. But such of the lower classes as were desirous of marrying did not require a beautiful form. . he made the ugliest stand up. They bring out their sick to the market-place. It was also lawful for any one who pleased to come from another village and purchase. offered them for and when she had sale. continued to exist. however. : . They have also this other custom. having made them stand up one by one. . If they did not agree. and put her up to auction for the person who would marry her with the least sum until she was adjudged to the man who offered to take the smallest sum. or as they have known cure others. but were willing to take the plainer damsels with a sum of money. prostitute their daughters. A . was not allowed to give his daughter in marriage to whom he pleased. Such was their best institution it has not. from want of a livelihood. They have lately adopted another regulation to prevent them from ill treating the women. and ruined in fortune. neither might a purchaser carry off a maiden without security. Whenever a Babylonian has had intercourse with his wife. crier. For when the crier had finished selling the handsomest of the maidens. or one that was a cripple. beginning with the most beautiful been sold for a large sum.

come in covered carriages. kneads them into a cake. CLIO [198-202 over burning incense. Those that are endowed 'nth beauty and symmetry of shape are soon set free but the deformed are detained a long time. and refuses no one. The silver small. you will not gain possession of her. for they will not touch any vessel till they have washed. or bakes them like bread. toms. . woman follows the first man that throws. : the Assyrians call Venus Mylitta. and others are going out. whoever pleases. wearing a crown of are continually coming in. dwelling toward the east and the rising sun beyond the river Araxes. from inability to satisfy the . The same practice is observed by the Arabians. In some These cusparts of Cyprus there is a custom very similar. When a woman has once seated herself. He who throws the silver must say thus. inasmuch as may it is be ever so not lawful The for her to do so. and his wife does the same in place. over against the Issedonians there are some who say that this nation is Scythian. But the far greater part do thus he some other of Venus. but she will not reject it. Passages marked out in a straight line lead in every direction through the women. And many disdaining to mix with the rest. when they have taken and dried them in the sun. for some wait for a space of three or four years. and take up their station at the temple with a numerous train of servants attending them. When Cyrus had conquered this nation. once in her life. law. There are three tribes among them that eat nothing but fish] these.. The Araxes is reported by some persons to be : . to sit in the Temple of Venus and have intercourse with some stranger. along which strangers pass and make their choice. being proud on account of their wealth. But when she has had intercourse and has absolved herself from her obligation to the goddess. : 78 HERODOTUS— BOOK sits I. they treat in the following manner they put them into a mortar. this nation is said to be both powerful and valiant. she returns home md after that time. prevail among the Babylonians. at break of day both wash. she must not return home till some stranger has thrown a piece of silver into her lap and lain with her outside the temple. he was anxious to reduce the Massagetae to subjection. however great a sum you may give her. The most disgraceful of the Babylonian customs is the following: every native woman is obliged. for such silver is accounted sacred. then. " I beseech the goddess Mylitta to favour thee " for sit many down in the cord round their heads Temple some . and having pounded them with a pestle. Now. sift them through a fine cloth then. .

whence also springs the river Gyndes. which they dig out of the ground and that they store up for food ripe fruits which they find on the trees. having no communication with any other sea for the whole of that which the Grecians navigate. there are trees which produce leaves . which the inhabitants. They add that they have discovered other trees that produce fruit of a peculiar kind. being in leng* '1 a fifteen days' voyage for a rowing-boat and in breadth. by others less. as with cattle. in which it is said men live who feed on raw fish and clothe themselves in the skins of sea-calves but the one stream of the Araxes flows through an unobstructed channel into the Caspian Sea. discharge themselves into fens and swamps. and it gushes out from forty springs. who for the most part live upon the produce of wild fruit trees. until they rise up to dance and betake themselves to singing. toward the rising sun. except one. they say. some nearly equal in size to Lesbos . then. and in height the loftiest of all mountains it contains within itself many and various nations of men. and have lit a fire. are all one But the Caspian is a separate sea of itself. succeeds a plain in extent unbounded in the prospect. three hundred and sixty trenches . and the Red Sea. against whom Cyrus resolved to make war for the motives that urged and incited him to this . The Caspian is a sea by itself. do not wash out. sexual intercourse among these people takes place openly. when they meet together in companies. . an eight days' voyage. of such a nature chat by rubbing them and mixing them with water the people paint figures on their garments these figures. all of which.. Araxes flows from the Matienian Mountains. A great portion of this extensive plain is inhabited by the Massagetae. where it is widest. . throw on the fire. . which Cyrus distributed into the . which is called the Caspian and on the east. and feed upon these during the winter. . . and that in them are men who during the summer feed upon all manner of roots. called the Atlantic. 202-204] THE MASSAGET^E . The Caucasus. On the western shore of this sea stretches the Caucasus. but grow old with the wool. In The river this manner these islanders are reported to live. and that beyonc the Pillars. . 79 greater. just as the Greeks do by wine and that the more fruit is thrown on the more intoxicated they become. as they sit round in a circle and that by inhaling the fumes of the burning fruit that has been thrown on they become intoxicated by the odour. In this country. than the Ister they say that there are many islands in it. it is said. which is in extent the largest. It is said that as if they had been woven in from the first. bounds the western side of this sea. .

" When Cyrus heard this proposal. reign over your own dominions. For if we shall receive the enemy into this country. and said " king. But if you know that you too are a man. A woman whose husband was sagetae. nation to escape. continually revolving. and having desisted. wholly at variance with that already given. he laid the matter before them. forbade their approach. Now. and openly prepared to make war on the Massagetae. he called a council of the principal Persians and having assembled them. . since Jupiter delivered me into your hands. therefore. sad as they are. While he was employed in this work. and made her an offer of . have been lessons to me. But Tomyris. her dors marriage. and that you command an army that is so too. Upon this Cyrus. or if you had rather receive us on your side. perceiving his artifice ineffectual. there is this all. being aware that he was not wooing her. which. and secondly. But if you will not attend to my advice. I would to the utmost of my power avert whatever misfortune I should see impending over your house and my own calamities. : dead was Queen of the Masname was Tomyris. and Cyrus sent ambassaunder pretence of wooing her. learn this first of that there is a wheel in human affairs. I. Tomyris sent a herald to him with this message " King of the Medes. it were needless for me to make known to you my opinion. If you think yourself immortal.. . CLIO [204-207 many and powerful first of all his birth. and that you command such . but the kingdom of the Massagetae. do you the like. delivered a contrary opinion to that which was put forward. marched to the Araxes. who was present and disapproved this advice. I assured you long ago that. does not suffer the same persons to be always successful. by throwing bridges over the river and building turrets on the boats which carried over his army. desist from your great exertions for you can not know if they will terminate to your advantage. toil no longer in throwing a bridge over the river but do you cross over to our side. I hold an opinion touching the matter before us. But Croesus the Lydian. and bear to see me governing what is mine. and prefer everything before peace in a word. and demanded their opinion as to what he should do: they unanimously advised him to let Tomyris pass with her army into his territory. while we retire three days' march from the river. the good fortune which had attended him in his wars for wherever Cyrus directed his arms it was impossible for that . . if you are very anxious to make trial of the Massagetae. : O as are men. 80 enterprise were HERODOTUS—BOOK . which he thought was something more than human.

bade Tomyris retire. he saw the following vision. Cyrus awoke. bowls of unmixed wine without stint. and approving that of Croesus. When. when they see so much excellent fare. was the eldest son of Hystaspes. Persia. he sum6 . who was then about twenty years of age. if you are defeated. . But Cyrus having placed Croesus in the hands of his son Cambyses. has been now stated. and night came on. for it is plain that if the Massagetae are victorious. and are unused to the comforts of life. to whom he also intrusted the kingdom. therefore. that if you are victorious over your adversaries you will march In addition to what directly into the dominions of Tomyris. ments. When he had passed the Araxes. your victory is not so complete as if. if I mistake not. : . as she had promised at first. besides. your whole empire. besides. and pursue them in their flight for I will carry the comparison throughout. having cut up and dressed abundance of cattle. he himself crossed the river . She accordingly retired. but will march upon your territories and if you are victorious. for that he would cross over to her. it is plain. the Massagetae are unacquainted with the Persian luxuMy opinion then ries. and all other provisions and that having done this. is that. they will not flee home again. in case his inroad on the Massagetae should fail having given these injunctions. and sent them back to Persia. the rest should return again toward the river. should give way and retreat before a woman. you should lay out a feast in our camp for these men. he considered his dream with attention . Cyrus. for he had not yet attained the age of military service. as he was sleeping in the country of the Massagetae Cyrus fancied in his sleep that he saw the eldest son of Hystaspes with wings on his shoulders and that with one of these he overshadowed Asia. the son of Cambyses. and treat him well. and. Now Darius. My opinion therefore is that you should pass over and advance as far as they retire and then by the following stratagem endeavour to get the better of them: as I hear.1 207-209] CYRUS CROSSES THE ARAXES 8 danger in so doing. will turn to immediately. for the Massagetae. it were a disgrace and intolerable that Cyrus. and having strictly charged him to honour Croesus. rejecting the former. you should conquer the Massagetae. having crossed over into their territory. . and as it seemed to him of great moment. and having left the weakest part of your army behind. son of Arsames. and with the other Europe." Now these two contrary opinions were given. one of the Achaemenides and he had been left in with his army. and after that there remains for us the display of mighty achieve: . you will lose. .

seeing the feast laid out. that a Persian should be born who would plot against you But if any such there be. be not elated that by such a : . be not elated with what has now happened. as I was sleeping. and with one of these he overshadowed Asia. however. and among them the son of Queen Tomyris. Then. Cyrus having advanced one day's march from the Araxes. may sudden destruction overtake him. and. Hystaspes. but the deity forewarned him that he himself would die in that very expedition. put many asleep. O king. Now. when Cyrus and the effective part of the Persian army had marched back to the Araxes." Cyrus spoke thus under a persuasion that Darius was plotting against him. . from this vision it can not be otherwise than that your son is forming designs against me. in the past night. and that his kingdom would devolve on Darius. for the purpose of keeping his son Darius in custody for ! : Cyrus. when filled with it. that when it descends into your bodies evil words float on your lips. I saw the eldest of your sons with wings on his shoulders. repassed the Araxes and went to Persia. fell But the Persians having attacked them." Hystaspes. and take care. you bring your son before me to be examined. after some resistance. and instead of being ruled over by others. and forewarn me of everything that is about to befall me. for you have made the Persians free instead of being slaves. a third division of the army of the Massagetae attacked those of Cyrus's forces that had been left behind. to rule over all but if any vision informs you that my son is forming any plot against you. that when I have conquered these people and return home. leaving the ineffective part behind. said " Hystaspes. so rave. After this. with which ye yourselves. insatiate with blood. the Massagetae.: 82 HERODOTUS—BOOK and. having given this answer. and Europe with the other. your son has been detected plotting against me and my empire and I will show you how I know it for a certainty. who commanded . and whose name was Spargapises. sent a herald to Cyrus with the following message " Cyrus. proceeded to act according to the suggestion of Crcesus. when she heard what had befallen her army and her son. The gods watch over me. as soon as they had overcome their enemies they lay down and feasted and being filled with food and wine. She. and took a still greater number prisoners. answered in these words " God forbid. taking I. of them to death. do you therefore go back to Persia with all speed. I freely surrender him to you to deal with as you please. him aside. that by the fruit of the vine. put them to death. CLIO : [209-212 moned Hystaspes.

But Tomyris. In like manner with regard to the chests of horses. and belts. having filled a skin with human blood.212-216] THE DEATH OF CYRUS 83 poison you have deceived and conquered my son. and neither were willing to give way but at length the Massagetse got the better. he put himself to death. paid no attention to this message but Spargapises. and found his hands at liberty. instead of by prowess in battle. : . but they have brass and gold in abundance. and battle-axes. begged of Cyrus that he might be freed from his fetters but as soon as he was set free. Their manners . and bowmen. But Tomyris. that. howsatiable as you are. said " Thou hast indeed ruined me though alive and victorious in battle. Now. and engaged with him. and shoulder-pieces. . and javelin-men. take the good advice Restore my son depart out of this counthat I offer you. and Cyrus himself killed. . I think that this battle was the most obstinate that was ever fought between barbarians. but the bridle-bit and cheek-pieces are ornamented with gold. first of all. they are ornamented with gold. assembled all her forces. . and. they stood at a distance and used their bows. try unpunished for having insolently disgraced a third division of the army of the Massagetse. I will glut you with blood. : . the son of Queen Tomyris. they use brass but for the head. and that afterward. I swear by the sun. they engaged in close fight with their swords and spears. having found it. after he had reigned twenty-nine years. and insulting the dead body. as I threatened." ever. the Lord of the Massagetse. for in whatever concerns spears." Of the many accounts given of the end of Cyrus. who are accustomed to carry battle-axes they use gold and brass for everything. however. They make no use of silver or iron. And I am informed that it took place in the following manner it is related that. and that thus they continued fighting for a long time. as soon as he recovered from the effects of the wine. this appears to me most worthy of credit. . thrust the head into the skin. Such was the end he met with. and arrowpoints. But if you will not do this. sought for the body of Cyrus among the slain of the Persians. they put on breastplates of brass. inCyrus. since thou hast taken my son by stratagem but I will now glut thee with blood. : . . The Massagetse resemble the Scythians in their dress and mode of living they have both horse and foot for they have some of each. for neither of those metals is found in their country. and the greater part of the Persian army was cut in pieces on the "spot. when they had emptied their quivers. and perceived in what a plight he was. finding Cyrus did not listen to her.

together with cattle of several kinds and when they have boiled the flesh. which the river Araxes yields in abundance. for they do it not. they feast on it. and they are drinkers of milk. No particular term of life is prescribed to them. but bury them in the earth. all his kinsmen meet. and has intercourse with her without shame.84 HERODOTUS— BOOK I. but live on cattle and fish. . and think it a great misfortune that they did not reach the age to be sacrificed. and sacrifice horses to him and this is the reason of this custom they think it right to offer the swiftest of all animals to the swiftest of all the gods. They sow nothing. and sacrifice him. but the Massagetse. CLIO [216 man marries a wife. for when a Massagetan desires to have the company of a woman he hangs up his quiver in front of her chariot. are as follows: each women : . They worship the sun only of all the gods. : . but when a man has attained a great age. What the Grecians say the Scythians do is a mistake. but they use the promiscuously. This death they account the most happy but they do not eat the bodies of those who die of disease.

The Egyptians. having come to the throne. But afterward Psammitichus. and that he should bring goats to them at certain times. the of Pharnaspes. to discover any solution of this question. and that when he had satisfied them with milk he should attend to his other employments. having died some time before. being the son of this lady and Cyrus. Cambyses. For when the shepherd had pursued this plan for the space of two years. and holding out their hands. and themselves before all others. when Psammitichus was unable. one day as he opened the door and went in. considered themselves to be the most ancient of mankind. for the purpose of hearing what word the children would first articulate after they had given over their insignificant mewlings and such accordingly was the result. who were the most ancient of men. before the reign of Psammitichus. he made an expedition against Egypt. therefore. and Cassandane. 85 . to be brought up among his flocks in the following manner: he gave strict orders that no one should utter a word in their presence. who. daughter II EUTERPE death of Cyrus. but when this same word was constantly repeated to him whenever he went and tended the . Cambyses succeeded to the he was the son of Cyrus. that they should lie in a solitary room by themselves." The shepherd when he first heard it said nothing. he devised the following expedient: He gave two new-born children of poor parents to a shepherd.BOOK A FTER the /\ kingdom J V. when. Cyrus both deeply mourned for her himself. he took with him others of his subjects. endeavoured to ascertain who were the most ancient. Psammitichus contrived and ordered this. Now. both the children falling upon him. cried " Becos. and also some of the Greeks over whom he bore : rule. and commanded all his subjects to mourn. by inquiry. from that time they consider the Phrygians to have been before them. considered the Ionians and Cohans as his hereditary slaves.

priests of Vulcan at Memphis.. in order to ascertain whether they would agree with the accounts given at Memphis for the Heliopolitans are esteemed the most learned in history of all the Egyptians. : . but sees it. and that in his time all Egypt. This relation . Such is the account they gave of the nurture of the children. me to give a good account of this region. they act more wisely than the Grecians. I shall relate from a necessity to keep up the thread of my story. and moreover that Psammitichus. . except the district of Thebes. When Psam- mitichus heard the same. EUTERPE [2-5 children. having had the tongues of some women cut out. convinced by the above experiment. The parts of the narration that I heard concerning divine things I am not willing to relate. and by his command brought the children into his presence. on account of the seasons whereas the Egyptians. Thus the Egyptians. and to carve the figures of animals on stone and most of these things they proved were so in fact. I think. and temples to the gods. he at length acquainted his master. : 86 HERODOTUS— BOOK II. was a morass. add five days each year above that number. he inquired what people call anything by the name of " Becos " and on inquiry he discovered that the Phrygians call bread by that name. They say also that the Egyptians were the first who introduced the names of the twelve gods. allowed that the Phrygians were more ancient than themselves. in that the Grecians insert an intercalary month every third year. they agree with one another in the following account: That the Egyptians were the first to discover the year. . They added. then had the children brought up by these women. that Menes was the first mortal who reigned over Egypt. that the part of Egypt which the Greeks freI had from the tell many . And on this very account I went also to Thebes. For it is evident to a man of common understanding. . and that the Greeks borrowed those names from them that they were the first to assign altars. I heard other things also at Memphis in conversation with the priests of Vulcan. But as concerns human affairs. But the Greeks other foolish things. and to Heliopolis. and that no part of the land that now exists below Lake Myris was then above water to this place from the sea And they seemed to is a seven days' passage up the river. who has not heard it before. which they divided into twelve parts and they say that they made this discovery from the stars and so far. reckoning twelve months of thirty days each. images. and so with them the circle of the seasons comes round to the same point. except only their names and with these I suppose all men are equally well acquainted but what more I shall relate of these matters.

and covered with sand. Libya extends another rocky mountain. Egypt is wide. but the road from the sea to From Heliopolis Heliopolis amounts to just that number. . from the altar of the twelve gods to Pisa and For whoever will comthe Temple of Olympian Jupiter. I have heard that it is a two months' journey from east to west. by schceni. a parasang is equal to thirty stades. without water. for on one side the mountain of Arabia extends from north to south and southwest. and the parts above this lake. The distance to Heliopolis. deviating. pare these roads will find. is about equal in length to the road from Athens that is to say. not exceeding fifteen stades for the road from Athens to Pisa is only fifteen stades short of one thousand five hundred stades.5-8] EGYPT 87 quent with their shipping is land acquired by the Egyptians. Now. however. that the difference between them is but little. during a three days' passage. upward Egypt is narrow. near which Mount Casius stretches from this point then the length is sixty schoeni. and each schcenus. So that from Heliopolis. if you cast the lead you will bring up mud. and that eastward its confines produce frankincense. of which. . as one goes up from the sea. is equal to sixty stades. the territory which belongs to Egypt is not very extensive. Between the mountains . but for four days' sail up the river it is very narrow. From thence. by stades and those who have much. as far as Heliopolis. For the nature of the soil of Egypt is of this kind when you are first sailing to it. Now. they said nothing. inland. The length of Egypt along the sea-coast is sixty schceni. stretching up continuously to that which is called the Red Sea. the pyramids at Memphis turns to the parts above mentioned. all men who are short of land measure their territory by fathoms but : . which is an Egyptian measure. on which the pyramids stand and this stretches in the same direction as that part of the Arabian mountain that runs southward. . In this mountain are the quarries whence the stone was cut for here the mountain. and are at the distance of a day's sail from land. and will find yourself in eleven fathoms water: this so far shows that there is an alluvial de- and a : posit. — are less short of land. On that side of Egypt which borders upon those who . are of the same description. according as we reckon it to extend from the Plinthinetic Bay to Lake Serbonis. So the whole coast of Egypt is three thousand six hundred stades in length. being all flat. by computation. and such as have a very great extent. But where its length is the greatest. by parasangs. gift from the river. and a swamp.

not one . Such. in . Now. which. . has been acquired by the Egyptians. seem to me to have been formerly a bay of the sea as is the case also with the parts about Ilium. . then. not far from Egypt. and as appeared to me also to be the case. which I am describing. But there are other rivers not equal in size to the Nile. and the plain of the Maeander. which have wrought great works of these I could mention the names. if we compute these stades together. flowing through Acarnania. . and from Thebes to the city called Elephantine. one thousand eight hundred stades. . Ephesus. is the character of this country. from the south toward Syria and that they almost perforated their recesses so as to meet each other.. in the Arabian territory. that are situated beyond the city of Memphis. branching from the Red Sea. which amounts to eighty-one schoeni. and among them one of the most remarkable is the Achelous. what could hinder it from being filled with soil by the river within twenty thousand years? For my part. How. as the priests informed me. namely. overlapping to some small extent. The greater part of all this country. : . can justly be brought into comparison. I think it would be filled within ten thousand. six thousand one hundred and twenty stades. a bay of the sea. if I may be permitted to compare small things with great. from the Arabian mountain to that called the Libyan but above this Egypt again becomes wide. of the length and width I shall here describe the length of the voyage. contains in length three thousand and six hundred stades: how far it is from the sea inland as far as Thebes I will next show. half a day's passage and in it an ebb and flow takes place daily and I am of opinion that Egypt was formerly a similar bay. has already converted one There is also half of the Echinades Islands into continent. as I before explained. Now. 88 HERODOTUS— BOOK II. where the bay is widest. this stretching from the Northern Sea toward Ethiopia and the Arabian Bay. EUTERPE [8-u before mentioned the land is level. From Heliopolis to Thebes is a voyage up of nine days the length of this journey is in stades four thousand eight hundred and sixty. with any one of the five mouths of the Nile. for of the rivers that have thrown up the soil that forms these countries. Teuthrania. then. as to size. beginning from the innermost part of this bay to the broad sea. and in the narrowest part appeared to me to be not more than two hundred stades in breadth. : . the coast of Egypt. For the space between the abovementioned mountains. occupies forty days for a vessel with oars and the width. if the Nile were to turn its stream into this Arabian gulf. and falling into the sea.

but visit them with a long drought. by reason of the Nile not overflowing their land. And the Egyptians are right in saying this to the Greeks but now let me state how the matter stands with the Egyptians themselves if. they said that the Grecians at some time or other would be disappointed in their great expectations. For having heard that all the lands of Greece were watered by rain. as a great proof of what they related concerning this country. nor Libya. the Greeks must perish by famine. . since they had no other resource for water except from Jupiter only. that in the reign of Moeris. those Egyptians below Lake Moeris. unless the river rises sixteen cubits. as I said before. as if it were mud and alluvial deposit brought down by the river from Ethiopia. : . that Egypt. . who inhabit other districts and that which is called Delta. that if the soil continues to grow in height. indeed. is neither like Arabia or its confines. and that of Arabia and Syria is more clayey and flinty. it does not overflow the country. if their land shall neither be watered by rain nor the river be able to inundate the fields? Now. therefore. : . and not by rivers. but is black and crumbling. It appears to me. whereas we know that the earth of Libya is reddish. and suffer miserably from famine. that if the Deity should not vouchsafe rain to them. The priests told me this also. it irrigated all Egypt below Memphis and yet Moeris had not been nine hundred years dead when I received this information. and to contribute in like manner toward its increase. and somewhat more sandy. might not even a much greater bay than this have been filled up by such a great and powerful river? I therefore both give credit to those who relate these things concerning Egypt. or fifteen at least. nor Syria (Syrians occupy the sea-coast of Arabia). when the river rose at least eight cubits. in its soil.11-14] EGYPT 89 the time that has elapsed before I was born. as their own was. they gather in the fruits of the earth with less labour than . what else will happen but that the Egyptians who inhabit this part will starve. But now. forever suffer the same calamity which they used to say the Greeks would suffer from. meaning. and am myself persuaded of their truth when I see that Egypt projects beyond the adjoining land that shells are found on the mountains that a saline humour forms on the surface so as even to corrode the pyramids and that this mountain which is above Memphis is the only one in Egypt that abounds in sand add to which. must. . in the same proportion. the land below Memphis (for this it is that increases) should continue to increase in height in the same proportion as it has in time past.

and Libya. is alluvial. I judge correctly of these things. Assyria. and (if I may so express myself) has lately come to light. the Ionians are mistaken with respect to Egypt. since men have been. But I will dismiss the opinion of the Ionians. . then each man sows his own land and turns swine into it and when the seed has been trodden in by the swine. if it be not a part either of Asia or of Libya. then. by this account. the Nile does not separate Asia from Libya. anciently. EUTERPE [14-17 any other people. I consider that the whole country inhabited by Egyptians is Egypt. as the Egyptians themselves acknowledge. many of them remained in For. who say that the Delta alone is properly Egypt. they formerly had no country. but is divided at the point of Delta. for the Delta. nor of hoeing. and who say that from the sea inland it stretches to the city of Cercasorus. he afterward waits for harvest-time: then having trod out the corn with his swine. then I will show that neither the Greeks nor the Ionians themselves know how to reckon. And. when they say that the whole earth consists of three divisions. ing Egypt. but if their opinion is correct. as that inhabited by Cilicians is Cilicia. — ! . If. Asia. therefore. and as I think. and flows toward Pelusium and Canopus . the Delta of Egypt. and who attribute the rest of Egypt partly to Libya and partly to Arabia if we adopted this account. and is six thousand one hundred and twenty stades in circumference.. stating that its sea-coast extends from what is called the Tower of Perseus to the Tarichaea of Pelusium. where the Nile divides. But if we should adopt the opinion of the Ionians respect. I am not of opinion that the Egyptians began their existence with the country which the Ionians call Delta but that they always were. and having irrigated them has subsided. we should show that the Egyptians had not formerly any country of their own . for they have not the toil of breaking up the furrows with the plough. 90 HERODOTUS— BOOK II. their former habitations. For my own part. and than the rest of the Egyptians. and proceed to give my own account of the matter. and that as the soil gradually increased. for they ought to add a fourth. and that by Assyrians. If. nor of any other work which all other men must labour at to obtain a crop of corn for when the river has come of its own accord and irrigated their fields. how foolish they were to think themselves the most ancient of all people nor was there any use in their having recourse to the experiment of the children to ascertain what language they would first speak. Europe. so that it must be between Asia and Libya. forty schceni in length. For. Thebes was called Egypt. he gathers it in. and many came lower down.

and being discontented with the institutions regarding victims. beginning from the cataracts. Now. beginning at the summer solstice. My opinion that Egypt is of the extent I have above declared it to be is confirmed by an oracle delivered at Ammon. as far as to the sea. : : . it comes to the point of the Delta. either from the priests or any one else. And the Nile. nor that the least renowned this is called the Sebennytic mouth. not by any means the least quantity of water.. but also part of the country said to belong to Libya and Arabia. and drink of that river. did not permit them to do so. I was unable to gain any information. dividing Egypt in the middle. The Bolbitine and Bucolic mouths are not natural but artificial. 17-19] EGYPT 91 speaking. saying that they had no relation to the Egyptians. and discharges itself into the sea. we shall suppose that all Egypt. deeming themselves Libyans and not Egyptians. inundates not only Delta. : . and that all those were Egyptians who dwell below the city Elephantine. For the people who inhabit the cities of Marea and Apis. however. and partakes of both names. I know of no other boundary to Asia and But if we follow the Libya. and that one part belongs to Libya. to these the following names are given to one the Saitic. the Nile flows in one stream but from that point it is divided into three channels and that which runs eastward is called the Pelusiac mouth. fills and overflows for a hundred days and when it has nearly completed this numstrictly . of learning from them why the Nile. because they lived out of Delta. and is called the Canopic mouth but the direct channel of the Nile is the following descending from above. however. supplying by this channel. in the part of Egypt bordering on Libya. and desired to be allowed to eat all manner of food. . to the extent of about two days' journey on either side. I was very desirous. except the frontier of Egypt. There are also two other mouths that diverge from the Sebennytic and flow into the sea. and the other For the Nile. to the other the Mendesian mouth. The god. more or less. beginning from the cataracts and the city of Elephantine. saying that all the country which the Nile irrigated was Egypt. and did not speak the same language with them. were desirous not to be restricted from the use of cow's flesh. and therefore sent to Ammon. Such was the answer given them. when full. another of the channels bends westward. opinion received by the Greeks. the city of Cercasorus. is divided into two parts. flows to Asia. and after this it divides the Delta in the middle. which I heard after I had formed my own opinion respecting Egypt. Respecting the nature of this river.

of knowing what was said about this matter. For by saying that the Nile flows from melted snow it says nothing. until the return of the summer solstice.92 HERODOTUS—BOOK II. migrate to these parts as winter quarters if. is more marvellous. ever so little snow fell in this country through which the Nile flows. then. falls short in its stream and retires. but. But frequently the Etesian winds have not blown. and the cranes. then. EUTERPE [19-23 ber of days. and even so much the more as they are less and have weaker currents yet there are many rivers in Syria. it would also rain in these regions. so that if snow fell. The first and chief proof is derived from the winds. Of these particulars I could get no information from the Egyptians. some of the Greeks. it must of necessity rain within five days. : . by preventing the Nile from discharging itself into the sea. which blow hot from those regions the second is. is always free from ice but after snow has fallen. so that it continues low all the winter. Being anxious. produces this effect. wishing to be distinguished for their wisdom. and many in Libya. One of them says that the Etesian winds are the cause of the swelling of the river. But the person who speaks about the ocean. that the country. but most untrue. except that I wish to show what they are. The second opinion shows still more ignorance than the former. have attempted to account for these inundations in three different ways two of these ways are scarcely worth mentioning. destitute of rain. if the Etesian winds were the cause. : . Nevertheless. and from which it derives its source. though I inquired whether this river has any peculiar quality that makes it differ in nature from other rivers. and that the ocean flows all round the earth. : . I made inquiries. therefore. kites and swallows continue there all the year. . since it runs from a very hot to a colder region. flowing from the ocean. It says that the Nile. none of these things would happen. can it flow from snow? Many reasons will readily occur to men of good understanding to show the improbability of its flowing from snow. yet the Nile produces the same effects besides. which are not at all affected as the Nile is. as necessity proves. and also how it comes to pass that this is the only one of all rivers that does not send forth breezes from its surface. for this river flows from Libya through the middle of Ethiopia and discharges itself into Egypt. to avoid the cold of Scythia. if I may so say. The third way of resolving this difficulty is by far the most specious. how. the inhabitants become black from the excessive heat. In the third place. all other rivers that flow opposite to the same winds must of necessity be equally affected and in the same manner as the Nile.

and the soil always hot. rethis in few words compretires to the upper parts of Libya hends the whole matter. but the Nile. for it is natural that that country which this god is nearest to. however. as he usually does in the summer. being driven by storms from his former course. causes the Nile to overflow in summer. having much rainwater mixed with them. the sun. and attracted by the sun. Yet if. The same cause in my opinion occasions also the dryness of the air in these parts. is the only river that with good reason flows much weaker than usual at this time than in summer. are by far the most rainy of all. since he has referred his account to . for in summer it is attracted equally with all other waters. and they are attracted in summer by the sun. but that some remains about him. introduced it into poetry. But if the order of the seasons were changed. and having so attracted it. I do not think. since there are no cold winds passing over. being destitute of rain. he produces just the same effect. or some other ancient poet. with good reason. however. they become weak. . and that part of the heaven where the north and winter are now placed could be made the position of the south and midday. and that the native river streams should be dried up. should be most in want of water. having invented the name. the winds that blow from this country. When. produces no conviction at all for I do not know any river called the Ocean but suppose that Homer. in my opinion. Thus I consider that the sun is the cause of these things. when the showers fail them. from the south and southwest. for he attracts the water to himself. melt it and therefore. But to explain my meaning more at length. but in winter it alone is hard pressed. flow with full streams but as the country has been watered by showers and torn up by torrents. produces the following effect: as the air in these regions is always serene. after I have found fault with the opinions advanced by others.: 23-26] THE NILE 93 some obscure fable. throws it back upon the higher regions there the winds. : : . During the winter season. and over which he is. and from that time attracts water equally from all rivers. Up to this time those other rivers. the sun returns again to the middle of the heavens. when passing through the middle of the firmament. : : . heat always prevails in the upper parts of Libya. that the sun on each occasion discharges the annual supply of water from the Nile. the case is this The sun passing over the upper parts of Libya. the winter grows mild. I will describe what. it becomes me to declare my own concerning so obscure a question. taking it up and dispersing it. the sun scorching everything in his passage in consequence of this.

Ethiopians inhabit the country immediately above Elephan.94 HERODOTUS— BOOK II. then. . would go to the upper parts I supof Europe. flow from between these mountains and that half of the water flows over Egypt. Psammitichus. here. the one Crophi. no . that there are strong whirlpools and an eddy here so that the water beating against the rocks. the country is steep . the boat is carried away by the force This kind of country lasts for a four days' of the stream. As one ascends the river. Then with regard to the reason why no breezes blow from the Nile my opinion is. situated between the city of Syene in Thebais and Elephantine the names of these mountains are. driven from the middle of the firmament by the winter and the north wind. except the He indeed registrar of Minerva's treasury at Sais in Egypt. can not reach the bottom. a sounding line. he said. EUTERPE [26-29 and the north were transferred to the south. therefore. and the Nile here winds as much as the Maeander. when let down. where the Nile flows round an island its name is Tachompso. Libyans. . the other Mophi. for having caused a line to be twisted many thousand fathoms in length. it is necessary to attach a rope to both sides of a boat as one does with an ox in a plough. which it is necessary to sail through in this manner and after that you will come to a level plain. passage. as he now does through those of Libya pose he would produce in his passage the same effects on the Ister which he now does on the Nile. was the opinion the registrar gave. and beyond that obtaining information from hearsay. above the city of Elephantine. for they generally blow from some cold one. But this much I learned by carrying my researches as far as possible. There are twelve schoeni. yet his account was as follows: that there are two mountains rising into sharp peaks. but could not find a bottom. that it is very improbable they should blow from hot countries. having gone and made my own observations as far as Elephantine. That the fountains of the Nile are bottomless. With respect to the sources of the Nile. truth proving. seemed to be trifling with me when he said he knew perfectly well. which are bottomless. the other half over Ethiopia and the south. he let it down. Such. in my opinion. and as they were at the beginning. . if indeed he spoke the real . that the sources of the Nile. . or Grecians with whom I have conversed ever pretended to know anything. if such a change were made. and to the north. proved by experiment. and so proceed but if the rope should happen to break. man of all the Egyptians. . King of Egypt. the sun. I was unable to learn anything more from any one else. . But I leave these things as they are. .

and even in my time garrisons of the Persians are stationed in the same places as they were in the time of Psammitichus. Near to this island lies a vast lake. through which it is tine. : . for sharp rocks rise in the Nile. . having consulted together. 95 and one half of the island the other half is inhabited by Egyptians. These men. on the borders of which Ethiopian nomads dwell after sailing through this lake. and another at Marea against Libya. in a space of time equal to that which you took in coming from Elephantine to the capital of the Ethiopians. and there are many sunken ones. Now for a voyage and land journey of four months the occasion : . whenever that god bids them by an oracular warning. by many arguments. pursued them. which in the language of Greece signifies " those that stand at the left hand of the king. they all revolted from Psammitichus and went to Ethiopia. Psammitichus. he entreated them. were not relieved therefore. 29-31] THE NILE . after they had been on duty three years. . and sail for twelve days and then you will arrive at a large city. called Meroe this city is said to be the capital of all Ethiopia. and come to a unanimous resolution. The inhabitants worship no other gods than Jupiter and Bacchus but these they honour with great magnificence they have also an oracle of Jupiter and they make war. you will come to the channel of the Nile. who made them the following recompense there were certain Ethiopians disaffected toward him these he bade them expel and take possession of their land by the settlement of these men among the Ethiopians. which flows into it then you will have to land and travel forty days by the side of the river. These Automoli are called by the name of Asmak. offered their services to the King of the Ethiopians." These.: . and when he overtook them. the tian number war : of two hundred and forty thousand of the Egyp- tribe. and their children and wives. and another at the Pelusian Daphnae against the Arabians and Syrians. Sailing from this city. for they maintain guards at Elephantine and Daphnae. : not possible to navigate a boat: having passed this country in the forty days. when they arrived in Ethiopia. the Ethiopians became more civilized. and adjured them not to forsake the gods of their fathers. Now these Egyptians. hearing of this. revolted to the Ethiopians on the following in the reign of King Psammitichus garrisons were stationed at Elephantine against the Ethiopians. and against whatever country he bids them. . you must go on board another boat. you will arrive at the country of the Automoli. and learned the manners of the Egyptians. to .

they conducted them through vast morasses. this nation is Libyan and inhabits the Syrtis. — : They sand. in addition to the part of the stream that is in Egypt. having reached man's estate. some diminutive men. and that they. This river flows from the west and the setting of the sun but beyond this no one is able to speak with certainty. among other subjects. and when they had traversed much sandy ground. less than men of middle stature. so many months are known to be spent by a person who travels from Elephantine to the Automoli. Libyans and various nations of Libyans reach all along it. and that. carried them away. they answered that there were some daring youths among them. EUTERPE [31-32 Nile is known. in the upper parts Libya is infested by wild beasts. and were asked if they could give any further information touching the deserts of Libya. for the rest of the country is desert by reason of the excessive heat. they happened to discourse about the Nile that nobody knew its sources: whereupon Etearchus said that certain Nasamonians once came to him. However. came up. and when they had passed these they . formed many other extravagant plans. they came to the region infested by wild beasts and after this they crossed the desert. and having seized them. who say that they went to the oracle of Ammon. and all beyond . except those parts which are occupied by Grecians and Phoenicians but as respects the parts above the sea. dreadfully short of water.. nor those who carried them off the lanthat is . (For as respects the parts of Libya along the Northern Sea. they passed first through the inhabited country. But I have heard the following account from certain Cyrenseans. during a journey of many days. sons of powerful men. and had a conversation with Etearchus. 96 HERODOTUS— BOOK II. where is the extremity of Libya. and moreover chose five of their number by lot to explore the deserts of Libya to see if they could make any further discovery than those who had penetrated the farthest.) further related that when the young men deputed by their companions set out. they at length saw some trees growing in a plain and that they approached and began to gather the fruit that grew on the trees and while they were gathering. and utterly desolate. making their way toward the west. and those nations which reach down to the sea. . guage of the Nasamonians. beginning from Egypt to the promontory of Solois. King of the Ammonians. well furnished with water and provisions. and having traversed this. and the country for no great distance eastward of the Syrtis and that when these Nasamonians arrived. For upon computation. . and that the Nasamonians did not at all understand their language.

Other nations. and exhibits works greater than can be described. . but the men stay at home and weave. Among them the women attend markets and traffic. throw the wool upward the Egyptians. They ease themselves in their houses. is generally known but no one is able to speak about the sources of the Nile. as it flows through a well-peopled country. opposite to the mountains of Cilicia. and border on the territories of the Cynesians. is the Nile and reason so evinces for the Nile flows from Libya. I have already spoken. and the city of Pyrene. So I think that the Nile. : 32-35] THE NILE 97 came to a city. The men carry burdens on their heads the women. running from the west to the east. then. have adopted customs and usages in almost every respect different from the rest of mankind. . on the Euxine Sea. as near as may be. The Egyptians. 7 . downward. It discharges itself into Egypt. but eat out of doors alleging that. inferring . as far as I was able to reach by inquiry. that he said the Nasamonians all returned safe to their own country. on their shoulders.. therefore. who lie in the extremity of Europe to the westward and the Ister terminates by flowing through all Europe into the Euxine Sea. and : that crocodiles were seen in it. because Libya. Now the Ister. in weaving. is a five days' journey in a straight line to an active man and Sinope is opposite to the Ister. whatever things unknown from corresponding with the . and that the men whom Etearchus also conthey came to were all necromancers. is uninhabited and desolate. and intersects it in the middle. which flows by their city. is the account that I am able to give respecting the Nile. . where a Milesian colony is settled in Istria. divides Europe in its course but the Celts are beyond the Pillars of Hercules. Such. in comparison with all other regions therefore more must be said about it. where it discharges itself into the sea. and Egypt lies. as the Cyrenaeans assured me. I now proceed to give a more particular account of Egypt it possesses more wonders than any other country. For the Ister. traversing the whole of Libya. besides having a climate peculiar to themselves. and black in colour flowed a great river. Respecting this stream. to which may be added. through which it flows. beginning from the Celts. in which all the inhabitants were of the same and by the city size as their conductors. V things known) it sets out from a point Ister. may be properly compared with the Ister. Thus far I have set forth the account of Etearchus the Ammonian. and a river differing in its nature from all other rivers. from Cilicia to Sinope. jectured that this river. . and (as I conjecture. . .

Other men live apart from Others feed on beasts. nor taste them when The priests. in a word. On the other hand. one of which is called sacred. they enjoy no slight advantages. Beans the Egyptians do not sow at all in their country. the other common. that neither lice nor any other impurity may be found upon them when engaged in the service of the gods. and shoes of byblus. The Grecians write and cipher. The EgypEvery man wears two garments the tians are circumcised. but daughters are compelled to do so. With other men it is customary in mourning for the nearest relations to have their heads shorn the Egyptians. for they do not consume or expend any of their private property but sacred food is cooked for them.: 98 is HERODOTUS—BOOK indecent. but it is a very great disgrace for an Egyptian to make food of them but they make bread from spelt. and wine from the grape is given them but they may not taste of fish. The priests wear linen only. but one. . abhor the sight of that pulse. whether they choose or not. . constantly fresh washed. but all do it. on occasions of death. and the Greeks left-ways. but mix clay and take up dung with their hands. which they scour every day. and are not permitted to wear any other garments. indeed. ought to be done . thinking it better to be clean than handsome. in Egypt they have it shaved. but what . and a great quantity of beef and geese is allowed each of them every day. . moving the hand from left to right but the Egyptians. is II. EUTERPE [35-37 though necessary. which some call zea. . neither do they eat those that happen to grow there. openly. nor is this custom practised by some and neglected by others. not indecent. from right to left and doing so they say they do They have two sorts it right-ways. They are circumcised for the sake of cleanliness. wheat and barley. although accustomed to shave. . dressed. In other countries the priests of the gods wear long hair. and observe the following ceremonies they drink from cups of brass. The priests shave their whole body every third day. They knead the dough with their feet. let the hair grow both on the head and face. less they choose. No woman can serve the office for any god or goddess but men are employed for both Sons are not compelled to support their parents unoffices. they use a number of ceremonies. or other shoes. inside. Other men fasten the rings and sheets of their sails outside but the Egyptians. and they pay particular attention to this. of letters. and twice every night and. : They are of all men the most excessively attentive to the worship of the gods. women. but the Egyptians live with them. in private. . . They wash themselves in cold water twice every day. They wear linen garments. .

he adjudges him to be unclean and one of the priests appointed for this purpose makes this examination. which I shall mention in another part of my history. and after they have killed it. and leave the vitals with the fat in the carcass. pouring . When they have flayed the bullocks. they burn it. they kill it. they take out all the intestines." With respect. myrrh. figs. to the altar where they intend to sacrifice. . they who have a market and Grecian merchants dwelling among them. all the Egyptians observe the same customs in all sacrifices alike: and from this custom no Egyptian will taste But a different mode of disemof the head of any animal. they fill the body of the bullock with fine bread. but they flay the body of the animal then having pronounced many imprecations on the head. with the shoulders and neck. and to that end prove them in the following manner: If the examiner finds one black hair upon him. but by many priests. and to the making libations of wine. I proceed therefore to speak of the practice with regard to the goddess whom they consider the greatest. they usually sell it. and having invoked the god. and other perfumes and after they have filled it with these. and they then cut off the legs and the extremity of the hip. or Egypt in general. they kindle a fire. frankincense. but they who have no Grecians among them. and in whose honour they celebrate the most magnificent festival. raisins. The male kine they deem sacred to Epaphus. : : : . carry it there. The service of each god is performed. may it be averted on this head. He also looks at the hairs of his tail. and having done this. whether they grow naturally. they cut off the head.. 37-4°] CUSTOMS OF THE EGYPTIANS 99 accounting it impure. to the heads of beasts that are sacrificed. Any one who sacrifices one that is unmarked is punished with death. having first offered up prayers. The established mode of sacrifice is this having led the victim. to see if it is pure as to the prescribed marks. honey. near the victim. and then having put on it some sealing earth. properly marked. If the beast is found pure in all these respects. when any one of them dies. bowelling and burning the victims prevails in different sacrifices. and having so done. he impresses it with his signet. Then having poured wine upon the altar. and so they drive him away. he marks it by rolling a piece of byblus round the horns. throw it into the river: and they pronounce the following imprecations on the head " If any evil is about to befall either those that now sacrifice. not by one. then. both when the animal is standing up and lying down and he draws out the tongue. In this manner the animal is proved. his son is put in his place. of whom one is chief priest and.

or belong to the Theban district. . So that no Egyptian man or woman will kiss a Grecian on the mouth. who. many persons go about to other towns and having dug up the bones. and held it before himself.. they spread a banquet of what remains of the victims. abstain from goats. having put on the fleece. who are a colony of Egyptians and Ethi- on fasted . For the Egyptians do not all worship the same gods in the same manner. and sacrifice goats only. and all Egyptians alike pay a far greater reverence to cows than to any other cattle. those who frequent the Temple of Mendes. with one horn. a raft comes to each city from the island called Prosopitis this island is in the Delta. but they are not allowed to sacrifice the females. is Bacchus but these deities they all worship in the same manner. Jupiter had recourse to the following contrivance having flayed a ram. or taste of the flesh of a pure ox that has been divided by a Grecian knife. . IOo HERODOTUS— BOOK it II. Now the Thebans. for they are sacred to Isis for the image of Isis is made in the form of a woman with the horns of a cow. and then. or use the knife. EUTERPE [40-42 a great quantity of oil. as the Grecians represent Io. From this city. say that this custom was established among them in the following way that Hercules was very desirous of seeing Jupiter. he in that form showed himself to Hercules. On the other hand. appearing above the ground for a mark. but Jupiter was unwilling to be seen by him. spit. or caldron of a Greek. . they say. . All those who have a temple erected to Theban Jupiter. They bury the kine that die in the following manner: the females they throw into the river. however. and when they have done beating themselves. at last. he cut off the head. and belong to the Mendesian district. and the males they severally inter in the suburbs. When it is putrefied and the appointed time arrives. and is nine schceni in circumference now in this island Prosopitis there are several cities but that from which the rafts come to take away the bones of the oxen is called Atarbechis in it a Temple of Venus has been erected. All the Egyptians sacrifice the pure male kine and calves. and such as abstain from sheep after their example. . and from the Egyptians the Ammonians. : . abstain from sheep. except Isis and Osiris. as Hercules persisted. then. They sacrifice after they have and while the sacred things are being burned they all beat themselves . and sacrifice sheep. all carry them away. . : : . and bury them in one place and they bury all other cattle that die in the same way that they do the oxen for they do not kill any of them. or both. From this circumstance the Egyptians make the image of Jupiter with a ram's face.

since even at that time they made voyages. therefore. if they had derived the name of any deity from the Grecians. sacred vault. it was seventeen thousand years before the reign of Amasis. and put it on the image of Jupiter. and because the Egyptians say they do not know the names of Neptune and the Dioscuri. And that the Egyptians did not derive the name of Hercules from the Grecians. I inquired how long this temple had been built. however. . and that two thousand three hundred years had elapsed since the foundation of Tyre. one of fine gold. on one day in the year. that ke-' is dne of the twelve gods but of the other Hercules who is known to the Grecians. the Ammonians from hence derived their name. and then bury him in a. so that I believe. and am persuaded. Ammon. to Thasos. In this city I also saw another temple dedicated to Hercules by the name of Thasian I went. and then they bring another image of Hercules to it. when they have done this. at the festival of Jupiter. For they said that the temple was built at the time when Tyre was founded. they kill and flay one ram. and found there a Temple of . And being desirous of whom Hercules was accounted one. as I conjecture. when the number of their gods was increased from eight to twelve. The Thebans then do not sacrifice rams. . and some of the Grecians were sailors.. . they would certainly have mentioned these above all others. but rather the Grecians (and especially those who gave the name of Hercules to the son of Amphitryon) from the Egyptians. the other of emerald stone. and as they say themselves. all who are in the temple beat themselves in mourning for the ram. and that they have never been admitted into the number of their gods yet. I have both many other proofs to show. but they are for the above reason accounted sacred by them. . and I found that neither did they agree with the Greeks. and in it were two pillars. having heard that there was there a temple dedicated to Hercules and I saw it richly adorned with a great variety of offerings. of obtaining certain information from whatever source I could. that the parents of this Hercules. for the Egyptians call Jupiter. both shining exceedingly at night. But Hercules is one of the ancient gods of the Egyptians. and who speak a language between both. and moreover the following. 42-44] CUSTOMS OF THE EGYPTlA opians. Conversing with the priests of this god.. rather than that of Hercules. I sailed to Tyre in Phoenicia. Amphitryon and Alcmene. Of this Hercules I have heard this account. that the Egyptians must have learned the names of these gods. I could never hear in any part of Egypt. have adopted the same practice and. were both of Egyptian descent.

on whose death public mourning is observed throughout the whole Mendesian district. the son of Amphitryon. and who sacrificed to one as an immortal. although native Egyptians are the only men who are not allowed to enter any of their . except swine. and. how is it probable And in thus speakthat he should slay many thousands? ing of them may I meet with indulgence both from gods and heroes. The Mendesians pay reverence to all goats._~^o uuilt by the Phoenicians.: . is as follows Mendesians consider Pan one of the eight gods. led him in procession. and more to the males than to the females (and the goatherds who tend them receive greater honour). and. if a man in passing by a pig should touch him only with his garments. and geese. : : . and slew every one of them. for they think him like other gods but why they represent him in this way I had rather not mention. as the Grecians do: not that they imagine this to be his real form. The Egyptians consider the pig to be an impure beast. this is a silly story of theirs which they tell of Hercules that when he arrived in Egypt. he forthwith goes to the river and plunges in and in the next place. The researches then that I have made evidently prove that Hercules is a god of great antiquity. therefore. founded Thasos and this occurred five generations before Hercules. having set sail in search of Europa. but when they began the preparatory ceremonies upon him at the altar. For how can they who are forbidden to sacrifice any kind of animal. both a goat and Pan are called Mendes. and they say that these eight existed prior to the twelve gods.DOTUS— BOOK II. sacrifice human beings? Moreover. The reason why the Egyptians above mentioned do not The sacrifice the goat. and such bulls and calves as are without blemish. and particularly one he-goat. under the name of Olympian/ and paid honour to the other as a hero. since Hercules was but one. . therefore. either male or female. as they confess. and that for some time he remained quiet. EUTERPE [44-47 ~. he set about defending himself. and besides a mere man. In the language of Egypt. the Egyptians having crowned him with a garland. But the Grecians say many other things on this subject inconsiderately for instance. Now the Greeks who tell this story appear to me to be utterly ignorant of the character and customs of the Egyptians. who. those Grecians appear to me to have acted most correctly who have built two kinds of temples sacred to Hercules. appeared in Greece. swineherds. . as designing to sacrifice him to Jupiter. And indeed their painters and sculptors represent Pan with the face and legs of a goat.

they have invented certain images. in size not much less than the rest of the body. as much as a cubit in height. giving an account why they abhor swine on all other festivals. but perfectly well acquainted with it for Melampus is the person who first introduced among the Greeks the name and sacrifices of Bacchus. The poor among them through want of means form pigs of dough. offer them in sacrifice. son of Amytheon. Now Melampus. though I know it. a pipe leads the way. singing the praises of Bacchus. The Egyptians. This sacrifice of pigs to the moon is performed in the following manner When the sacrificer has slain the victim. but only.. which women carry about the villages. A tradition is related by the Egyptians in relation to this matter. and the procession of the phallus he did not. 103 temples to neither will any man give his daughter in marriage one of them. being a wise man. : . But why it has the member so large. . — — : . appears to me not to have been ignorant of this sacrifice. . . Melampus. having learned it. is the person who introduced the procession of the phallus in honour of Bacchus. 47-49] CUSTOMS OF THE EGYPTIANS . he puts together the tip of the tail. and particularly the worship of Bacchus. however. and from him the Greeks. not to mention it. On the eve of the festival of Bacchus. and. instead of phalli. nor take a wife from among them but the . For my part. deities that is. I think that Melampus. but it is more becoming for me. having learned many other things in Egypt. but other learned persons who lived after him revealed them more accurately. that he may carry it away. and sacrifice them in that. except as regards the pigs. do as they do. The rest of this festival to Bacchus. the Egyptians celebrate much in the same manner as do the Greeks. fully explain every particular. and which have the member nodding. changing only some few particulars for I can not admit that the cere. both acquired the art of divination. and having baked them. and moves no other part of the body. at the same full moon and then at the same time they eat of the flesh. is accounted for by a sacred story. moved by strings. then. introduced them among the Greeks. every one slays a pig before his door. and then covers them with the fat found about the belly of the animal and next he consumes them with fire the rest of the flesh they eat during the full moon in which they offer the sacrifices but in no other day would any one even taste it. do not think it right to sacrifice swine to any other but to the moon and Bacchus they do sacrifice them. swineherds intermarry among themselves. with the spleen and the caul. therefore. and the women follow. and then restores it to the swineherd that sold it.

knows what I mean. and those who accompanied him from Phoenicia to the country now called Boeotia. as I was informed at Dodona. made the images of Mercury with the member erect. And indeed the names of almost all the gods came from Egypt into Greece for that they came from barbarians I find on inquiry to be the case and I think they chiefly proceeded from Egypt. but they gave no surname or name to any of them. having learned the practice from the Pelasgians. the Grecians received from the Egyptians. with the exception of Neptune this god they learned from the Libyans. Themis. except the Libyans. coincide by chance.. Moreover. and those the Greeks. . These. : . monies adopted among . EUTERPE [49-52 in Egypt in honour of this god. and they have always worshipped him. 104 HERODOTUS— BOOK II. which the Samothracians have adopted from the Pelasgians. : . and Juno. but they called them gods. and other customs besides. and not have been lately introduced. : . I think. who were already ranked among Greeks. For with the exception of Neptune and the Dioscuri. for they had not yet heard of them. they did not learn from the Egyptians. Vesta. but from the Pelasgians the Athenians were the first of all the Greeks who adopted this practice. in that case they would be conformable to Grecian customs. as I before mentioned. neither can I admit that the Egyptians borrowed either this or any other usage from the Greeks. which I shall hereafter mention. But I am of opinion that Melampus obtained his information respecting the ceremonies of Bacchus chiefly from Cadmus the Tyrian. for no people. Formerly the Pelasgians sacrificed all sorts of victims to the gods with prayer. and from them the Samothracians learned the mysteries the Athenians therefore were the first of the Grecians who. which is explained in the mysteries of Samothrace. Whoever is initiated in the mysteries of the Cabiri. the Egyptians pay no religious honour to heroes. originally possessed the name of Neptune. but the Pelasgians assign a certain sacred reason for this. the Graces. For these Pelasgians dwelt in the same country as the Athenians formerly inhabited. Then. Somathrace. derived their names from the Pelasgians. because they had set in order and ruled over all things. and the Nereids. the names of all the others have always existed among the Egyptians in this I repeat what the Egyptians themselves affirm but the gods whose names they say they are not acquainted with. The practice of making the images of Mercury with the member erect. whence they also began to be reckoned as Grecians. and others from them for the Pelasgians dwelt in the same country as the Athenians.

and the Grecians afterward received them from the Pelasgians. Concerning the names they consulted the oracle of Dodona. thereoracle answered that they should.. is the account I heard from the priests at Thebes but the prophetesses at Dodona say that two black pigeons flew away from Thebes in Egypt that one of them went to Libya. said to have been before them. whether they existed always. I say on my own authority. and not more. Concerning the two oracles. they answered that they made diligent search for these women. proclaimed in a human voice that it was fitting an oracle should be erected there to Jupiter and that the people believed this to be a divine message to them. and did accordingly. they learned the names of the other gods that were brought from Egypt. and the youngest Nicandra. and declared their several forms. gave this account and the rest of the Dodonseans. . they adopted the names of the gods in their sacrifices. was. the second Timarete. the From that time. of this also belongs to Jupiter. and assigned to them honours and arts. and were never able to find them but had afterward heard the account they gave of them. for this oracle is accounted the most ancient of those that are in Greece. . When I inquired how they knew this for a certainty. fore. engaged in the service of the temple. Whence each of the gods sprung. and gave names to the gods. This. and was then the only one. one in Greece. and after some time. the Egyptians give the following account: The priests of the Theban Jupiter say that two women. were after them. the other to the Greeks and that these two women were the first who established oracles in the nations above mentioned. . in my opinion. which flew into Libya. . and of what form they were. But the poets. then. . When therefore the Pelasgians inquired at Dodona whether they should receive the names that came from barbarians. the other in Libya. employed in the temple. For I am of opinion that Hesiod and Homer lived four hundred years before my time. sitting perched on an oak tree. 52-55] CUSTOMS OF THE EGYPTIANS 105 in course of time. . so to speak. . and the other to them that this last. that relates to Hesiod and Homer. that of Bacchus. The first part of the above statement is derived from the Dodonaean priestesses but the latter. commanded the Libyans to found the oracle of The priestesses of Dodona. unknown till yesterday. and that one of them was discovered to have been sold into Libya. They add that the other pigeon. whom the eldest is named Promenia. were carried away from Thebes by certain Phoenicians. and these were they who framed a theogony for the Greeks. Ammon . .

is very similar and the art of divination from victims came likewise from Egypt. and it is situated in the middle of the Egyptian Delta. . and the men play on the flute during the whole voyage. in that part which is now called Hellas. And afterward. at the city of Buto. . The manner in which oracles are delivered at Thebes in Egypt. EUTERPE : [55-60 My opinion of these things is this If the Phoenicians did really carry off the women employed in the temple. : : . When in the course of their passage they come agreed with them. were called doves by the Dodonaeans. and great numbers of both sexes in every barge some of the women have castanets on which they play. at the city of Papremis. she instituted an oracle and she said that her sister in Libya had been sold by the same Phoenicians by whom she herself was sold.. processions. being reduced to slavery. The women. is in honour of Isis for in this city is the largest Temple of Isis. but those in Greece have been lately introduced. and sold the one of them into Libya and the other into Greece. . as I think. she erected a temple to Jupiter. and solemn supplications and the Greeks learned them from them for these rites appear to have been established for a very long time. in honour of Latona. . because they were barbarians. . : . 106 HERODOTUS— BOOK II. in honour of Diana the second. in the city of Busiris. when they are being conveyed to the city Bubastis. when the woman spoke intelligibly to them. . when she had learned the Greek language. The Egyptians hold public festivals not only once in a year. the rest of the women and men sing and clap their hands together at the same time. this last woman. should retain the memory of it wherever she came. at Heliopolis. The Egyptians were also the first who introduced public festivals. they presently reported that the dove had spoken with a human voice for as long as she used a barbarous language. she appeared to them to chatter like a bird for how could a dove speak with a human voice? But in saying that the dove was black. and at Dodona. in honour of the sun the fifth. they act as follows for men and women embark together. they show that the woman was an Egyptian. the sixth. in honour of Mars. The third festival is held at Sais. who had been an attendant in the Temple of Jupiter at Thebes. and they seemed to them to chatter like birds but after a time. but was formerly called Pelasgia: then. Now. in honour of Minerva the fourth. : : . but several times that which is best and most rigidly observed is in the city of Bubastis. Isis is in the Grecian language called Demeter. I conjecture. under an oak that grew there nothing being more natural than that she. was sold to some Thesprotians.

and they break one another's heads. but the greater number stand. . All the Carians that are settled in Egypt do still more than this. bringing succour to the god. in the city of Sais. besides children. to the number of seven hundred thousand. and then strike. and this not only in Sais. offering up great sacrifices and more wine is consumed at this festival than in all the rest of the year. a few priests are occupied about the image. 60-64] CUSTOMS OF THE EGYPTIANS 107 any town. and the wick floats on the surface. : . gilded all over. in that they cut their foreheads with knives. . and. : . they congregate. at the entrance of the temple while others accomplishing their vows. all the men and women. throughout all Egypt. oppose. The inhabitants say they instituted this festival on the following occasion they say that the mother of Mars dwelt in this temple. around their houses the lamps are flat vessels filled with salt and oil. and that Mars. whereupon an obstinate combat with clubs ensues. religious reason is given why this night is illuminated and so honoured. stand in a body on the opposite side. But in Papremis they offer sacrifices and perform ceremonies.. and this burns all night and the festival is thence named " the lighting of lamps. But the image. and others stand up and pull up their clothes this they do at every town by the river-side. and all kindle lamps. But the priests. each armed in like manner. placed in a small wooden temple. as in other places but when the sun is on the decline. they celebrate the feast. containing the temple and the image that is in it. and thus show themselves to be foreigners and not Egyptians. . When they arrive at Bubastis. beat themselves after the sacrifice but for whom they beat themselves it were impious for me to divulge." The Egyptians who do not come to this public assembly observe the rite of sacrifice. many die of their wounds though the Egyptians deny that any one dies. . they carry out to another sacred dwelling: then the few who were left about the image draw a fourwheeled carriage. When they are assembled at the sacrifice. A . with wooden clubs. but . I have already related how they celebrate to : . . With men and women. refuse to give them admittance and the votaries. who stand at the entrance. amounting to more than a thousand men. Those who assemble at Heliopolis and Buto perform sacrifices only. and do as follows Some of the women do as I have described others shout and scoff at the women of the place some dance. . they lay their barge near to land. as I conjecture. to the number of many myriads. they all on a certain night kindle a great number of lamps in the open air. the festival of Isis in the city of Busiris and besides. as the inhabitants say.

of these beasts. But if I should give the reasons why they are consecrated. They who argue thus act in a manner that I can not approve. but repelled him whereupon he. are appointed to feed every kind separately and the son sucestate. But whoever kills an ibis or a hawk. they give to the superintendent of the animals and she in return cuts up some fish. . handled the servants roughly. : . have intercourse in sacred places. They have a custom of the following kind relating to animals Superintendents. when he reached to man's came. or a third part of the head. except the Egyptians and Grecians. they conclude that if this were displeasing to the god. they would be much more ceeds the father in this : office. and whatever the weight may be. The Egyptians. : . EUTERPE [64-66 educated abroad. are beyond measure scrupulous in all things concerning religion. I have mentioned from necessity. does not abound in wild beasts but all that they have are accounted sacred. they shave either the whole heads of their children. or a half. domesticated animals are many. and that his mother's attendants. For almost all other nations. if wilfully. . since they see other animals and birds coupling in the shrines and temples of the gods. and enter them unwashed thinking mankind to be like other animals therefore. who had been . and especially in the above-mentioned particulars. even the brute creatures would not do it.108 HERODOTUS— BOOK II. having collected men from another city. . and got access to his mother. death is the punishment if by accident. and wished to converse with his mother. and then weigh the hair in a scale against silver. as well those that are domesticated as those that are not. as they had never seen him before. and gives it as food to the animals such Should any one kill one is the usual mode of feeding them. he pays such fine as the priests choose to impose. I must descend in my history to religious matters. then. whether wilfully or by Although the accident. though bordering on Libya. which I avoid relating as much as I can and such as I have touched upon in the course of my narrative. In consequence of this. : . they say that they have instituted this combat on this festival in honour of Mars. . All the inhabitants of the cities perform their vows to the superintendents in the following manner having made a vow to the god to whom the animal belongs. Egypt. did not allow him to pass them. The Egyptians were likewise the first who made it a point of religion that men should abstain from women in the sacred precincts and not enter unwashed after the use of a woman. must necessarily be put to death. . consisting both of men and of women.

the Egyptians. . and the young is at first in proportion to the egg but when grown up it reaches to the length of seventeen cubits. Of all living things with which we are acquainted. though when they have killed them they do not The females being deprived of their young. For takes place. where. which are not much larger than foxes. All cats that die are carried to certain sacred houses. and carried them away secretly. again seek the company of the males for When a conflagration this animal is very fond of its young. but he is at fire. making their escape. all the family shave their eyebrows only. It has strong claws. they no longer seek the company of the males. but the cats. it is amphibious. its mouth is filled with leeches. All other birds and beasts avoid him. the ibis to Hermopolis . but very quick-sighted on land and because it lives for the most part in the water. hatches them. grows to be the largest. they : . the bears. they bury -^ wherever they are found lying. desirous of others. crocodile During the The following is the nature of the four coldest months it eats nothing. large teeth. in proportion to the body: it is the only animal that has no tongue it does not move the lower jaw. In whatever house a cat dies of a natural death. and though it has four It lays its eggs on land. It spends the greater part of the day on the dry ground. and projecting tusks. they are buried in the city of Bubastis. and a skin covered with scales. persons bury their dogs in sacred vaults within their own city and ichneumons are buried in the same manner as the dogs but field-mice and hawks they carry to the city of Buto. It is blind in the water. For it lays eggs little larger than those of a goose. and there feet. them. a supernatural impulse seizes on the cats. but if a dog die. standing at a distance. which are few in number. but the whole night in the river for the water is then warmer than the air and dew. they shave the whole body and the . this. are not able to do so wherefore they have recourse to the following artifice: having taken the young from the females. : . and the wolves. and neglect to put out the fire. . and eat them. > this happens great lamentations are made the Egyptians. and leaping over the men..head. and they. : 66-68] CUSTOMS OF THE EGYPTIANS 109 numerous were it not for the following accidents which befall the cats When the females have littered. being desirous of having intercourse with them. that can not be broken on the back. throw themselves into the kill . being All first embalmed. and when among : . but is the only animal that brings down its upper jaw to the under one. It has the eyes of a pig. and even more. take care of the cats. from the least beginning.

With some of the Egyptians crocodiles are sacred. with others not. . and the eel. and they put crystals and gold ear-rings into their ears. . he lets it down into the middle of the river. Otters are also met with in the river. The modes of taking the crocodile are many and various. he is of the follow. he has a great deal of trouble. has the mane of a horse. which it does most commonly toward the west. projecting In size he is equal tusks. and bury them in sacred vaults. but not so by the rest of the Egyptians. HO HERODOTUS— BOOK II. to a very large ox his hide is so thick that spear-handles are made of it when dry. only once in five hundred years. . because he receives benefit from For when the crocodile gets out of the water on that bird. as the Heliopolitans affirm they say that it comes on the death of its sire. land. snub-nosed. which are deemed sacred and among fish. : . but they treat them as enemies. afterward manages it very easily but until he has done this. This is the nature It is a quadruped. holding a young live pig on the brink of the river. and when dead they embalm them. and then opens its jaws. and the tail and neigh of a horse. hearing the noise. with the hoofs of its shape of an ox. the vulpanser. If he is like the picture. and. The hippopotamus is esteemed sacred in the district of Papremis. and bracelets on their fore paws and they give them appointed and sacred : . But the people who dwell about the city of Elephantine eat them. but I shall only describe that which seems to me most worthy of relation. When the fisherman has baited a hook with the chine of a pig. called the phoenix. food. but " champsae the name of crocodiles. swallows it but the men draw it to land when it is drawn out on shore. . : : : . which for it seldom makes I have never seen except in a picture its appearance among them. they consider that which is called the lepidotus.. and among birds. the trochilus enters its mouth and swallows the leeches the crocodile is so well pleased with this service that it never hurts the trochilus. which are also so called. goes in its direction. They are not called crocodiles the Ionians gave them by the Egyptians. Those who dwell about Thebes and Lake Mceris consider them to be very sacred and they each of them train up a crocodile. EUTERPE [68-73 peace with the trochilus. and treat them not considering them sacred. : . There is also another sacred bird. beats it the crocodile. which is taught to be quite tame. because they thought they resembled lizards. cloven-footed. and meeting with the chine. sacred these they say are sacred to the Nile. the sportsman first of all plasters its eyes with mud and having done this. as well as possible while alive. and which are found in the hedges in their country.

situated very near the city of Buto.73-76] CUSTOMS OF THE EGYPTIANS : IU ing size and description The plumage of his wings is partly golden-coloured. The place in less which these spinal bones lay scattered is of the following description It is a narrow pass between two mountains into there. which in my opinion is not credible. having inclosed him in myrrh. and brings the body of his father to the temple of the sun. : . and when he has made the experiment. The form of the serpent is like : . to which I went. They say that he has the following contrivance. meet them at the pass. They say that he comes from Arabia. and others still and there were great numbers of them. he hollows out the egg. and there buries him in the temple. and stops up with some more myrrh the hole through which he had introduced the body. that at the beginning of spring. and it is about the size of the crex. : a spacious plain. saw bones and spines of serpents. Such is the form But those of the black ones. some large. that are commonly conversant among men (for there are two species) are bare on the head and the whole neck have white plumage. that fight with the serpents. having covered it over. this plain is contiguous to the plain of Egypt it is reported. : . winged serpents fly from Arabia toward Egypt but that ibises. the weight then. . . and do not allow the serpents to go by. . he caris the same as before This they say is ries him to the temple of the sun in Egypt. and the tips of the wings and extremity of the tail in all these parts that I have mentioned they are of a deep black in their legs and beak they are like the other kind. and puts his parent into it. There is a place in Arabia. The ibis is of the following description over a deep black. a sort of bird. : done by this bird. some smaller. but kill them: for this service the Arabians say that the ibis is highly reverenced by the Egyptians and the Egyptians acknowledge that they reverence these birds for It is all this reason. He brings him in this manner first he moulds an egg of myrrh as large as he is able to carry then he tries to carry it. . and carry two horns that grow on the top of the head. When these serpents die they bury them in the Temple of Jupiter. I : . and partly red in outline and size he is very like an eagle. the throat. . on hearing of some winged serpents and when I arrived : . In the neighbourhood of Thebes there are sacred serpents not at all hurtful to men they are diminutive in size. except on the head. its beak is much curved. in such quantities as it would be impossible to describe there were heaps of these spinal bones. for they say they are sacred to that god. it has the legs of a crane. so when his father is put inside.

as I think. next to the Libyans. which is sung in Phoenicia. when they have finished supper. except such as are accounted sacred. In this other particular the Egyptians resemble the Lacedaemonians and as : . but it agrees so exactly as to be the same which the Greeks sing. and elsewhere in different nations it bears a different name. he says " Look upon this. because they are not liable to change. EUTERPE [76-80 that of the water-snake. : . like as possible to the wings of a bat. : only among all the Grecians : the young men when they meet . having all other things. in that they cultivate the memory of past events more than any other men. So that among the many wonderful things seen in Egypt. whether birds or fishes. Cyprus. The Linus in the Egyptian language is called Maneros and the Egyptians say that he was the only son of the first King of Egypt." This practice they have at their drinking parties. and above all others at the change of the seasons. . they eat either roasted or boiled. under the name of Linus. made into loaves. They feed on bread of spelt. first salted them that they have. and that happening to die prematurely. seeking to preserve health by emetics and clysters. Of the Egyptians. made as like as possible in colour and workmanship. ducks. Their manner of life They purge themselves every month. three days sucis this cessively. for when dead you will be like this. They observe their ancient customs. for men are most subject to disease at periods of change. a man carries round in a coffin the image of a dead body carved in wood. those who inhabit that part of Egypt which is sown with corn. but acquire no new ones. and smaller birds raw. for they have no vines in that country. among the wealthy classes. and eat raw. . And indeed in other respects the Egyptians. then drink and enjoy yourself. At their convivial banquets. .112 HERODOTUS— BOOK II. : . are the most healthy people in the world. which they call cyllestis and they use wine made of barley. he was honoured by the Egyptians in this mourning dirge and this is the first and only song they have. others salted with brine and of birds they eat quails. whence they got this Linus for they seem to have sung it from time immemorial. for they suppose that all diseases to which men are subject proceed from the food they use. Among other memorable customs. but he has wings without feathers. and in size generally about one or two cubits in length and showing this to each of the company. are the best informed of all with whom I have had intercourse. Linus. on account of the seasons. they have one song. this is especially wonderful. Some fish they dry in the sun. This must suffice for the description of sacred animals.

When they have done this. and Jupiter and that which they honour above all others is the oracle of Latona in the city of Buto. however. On the other hand. : . some physicians are for the eyes. and exposing their breasts. others for the head. and over these they throw white woollen mantles woollen clothes. however. the men beat themselves. . they determine what will befall him. they. . are not carried into the temples. but differ from each other. and all their relations accompany them. For they have among them an oracle of Hercules. being girt up. Their manner of mourning and burying is as follows: When in a family a man of women of that family besmear any consideration dies. The art of divination is in this condition it is attributed to no human being. The art of medicine is thus divided among them each physician applies himself to one disease only. and when they approach. which they call calasiris. are not all alike. all the their heads and faces with mud. Apollo. . In this respect they agree with the worshippers of Orpheus and Bacchus. Mars. There are persons who are appointed for this very purpose. who are Egyptians and Pythagoreans. and a religious reason is given for this custom. rise from their seats. Their modes of delivering oracles. for that is accounted profane. Diana. others for the parts about the belly. in like manner. In the following custom they do not resemble any nation of the Greeks instead of addressing one another in the streets. and then leaving the body in the house. having their clothes girt up. They wear linen tunics fringed round the legs. They have also discovered more prodigies than all the rest of the world for when any prodigy occurs. but only to some of the gods. they carry out the body to be embalmed. nor are they buried with them. All places abound in physicians. And these things the Grecian poets have made use of. they salute by letting the hand fall down as far as the knee. they wander about the city. For it is considered profane for one who is initiated in these mysteries to be buried in woollen garments. and not more.: 80-86] CUSTOMS OF THE EGYPTIANS 113 their elders give way and turn aside. they carefully observe and write down the result and if a similar occurrence should happen afterward they think the result will be the same. and what kind of person he will be. how he will die. others for the teeth. : for internal disorders. when the dead 8 . These other things were also invented by the Egyptians each month and day is assigned to some particular god and according to the day on which each person is born. Minerva. and others : . and beat themselves.

make a wooden case in the shape of a man. When they have done this they return the body without any further operation. having fastened it up. Then with a sharp Ethiopian stone they make an incision in the side. and then the third. Having explained them all. and wrap the whole body in bandages of flaxen cloth. After this the relatives. leaving it under for seventy days. and having prevented the injection from escaping. which is inferior and less expensive. Those who. and cassia. then the relatives. they steep the body in natrum for the prescribed number of days. and other perfumes. which is the cheapest. they steep it with . for a longer time than this it is not lawful to steep it. taking part of it out in this manner. The third method of embalming is this. they inclose the body and thus. smearing it with gum. EUTERPE [86-88 body is brought to them. they steep it in natrum. they sew it up again. frankincense excepted. First they draw out the brains through the nostrils with an iron hook. Then having filled the belly with pure myrrh pounded. the rest by the infusion of drugs.114 HERODOTUS— BOOK II. they store it in a sepulchral chamber. and on the last day they let out from the abdomen the oil of cedar which they had before injected. . show to the bearers wooden models of corpses. At the expiration of the seventy days they wash the corpse. And they show that which they say is the most expensive manner of embalming. and take out all the bowels and having cleansed the abdomen and rinsed it with palm-wine. In this manner they prepare the bodies that are embalmed in the most expensive way. . but inject it at the fundament. and it has such power that it brings away the intestines and vitals in a state of dissolution. and having made it. the name of which I do not think it right to mention on such an occasion . which the Egyptians commonly use instead of glue. having taken the body back again. setting it upright against the wall. they learn from them in what way they wish the body to be prepared. they prepare in the following manner: When they have charged their syringes with oil made from cedar. the natrum dissolves the flesh. made exactly like by painting. they then show the second. when they have agreed on the price. desire the middle way. . they next sprinkle it with pounded perfumes. avoiding great expense. they fill the abdomen of the corpse without making any incision or taking out the bowels. depart but the embalmers remaining in the workshops thus proceed to embalm in the most expensive manner. and when they have done this. and nothing of the body remains but the skin and the bones. which is used only for the poorer sort: Having thoroughly rinsed the abdomen in syrmaea.

But there is a large city called Chemmis. they give as prizes. as being something more than human. and. they affirm that he came to them also and acknowledged all his kindred. the customs of all other people whatsoever. statue of Perseus. they answered that Perseus derived his origin from their city for that Danaus and Lynceus. bury it in the sacred vaults. be found to have been seized by a crocodile. having heard it from . They adopt the fol- lowing Grecian customs in honour of Perseus they celebrate gymnastic games. and that he coming to Egypt. they came to Perseus. that the embalmers may not abuse the bodies of such women for they say that one man was detected in abusing a body that was fresh. when they die. Nor is it lawful for any one whether relatives or friends. . and that a fellow-workman informed against him. . palm trees grow round it. to whatever city the body may be carried the inhabitants are by law compelled to have the body embalmed. nor such women as are very beautiful and of celebrity. to touch him but the priests of the Nile bury the corpse with their own hands. and that a sandal worn by him is sometimes found. and that after its appearance all Egypt flourishes. or drowned in the river. When I inquired why Perseus appeared only to them. Should any person. All the other Egypto else. situated in the Thebaic district. who were both natives of Chemmis. cloaks. tians are particular in this. This they affirm. in order to bring away the Gorgon's head from Libya.. in a word. the son of Danae. no matter which. They avoid using Grecian customs. . and skins. sailed from them into Greece and tracing the descent down from them. near Neapolis. whether Egyptian or stranger. and the portico is of stone. but when they have been dead three or four days they then deliver them to the embalmers and they do this for the following reason. having adorned it in the handsomest manner. they do not immediately deliver to be embalmed. and. very spacious. cattle. natrum . in holding gymnastic games. and in it is placed a statues. which is two cubits in length. and frequently within the temple. But the wives of considerable persons. 88-91] CUSTOMS OF THE EGYPTIANS 115 for the seventy days. and why they differed from the rest of the Egyptians. and then deliver it to be carried away. for the same reason as the Greeks allege. embracing every kind of contest and : . The Chemmitse affirm that Perseus has frequently appeared to them on earth. and over it are placed two large stone In this inclosure is a temple. in which is a quadrangular temple dedicated to Perseus. and that when he came to Egypt he was well acquainted with the name of Chemmis.

When they find themselves full in the sea. they swim back. Those who are anxious to eat the byblus dressed in the most delicate manner. which they catch. the males lead the way. great numbers of lilies. which the Egyptians call lotus. for fear of losing their : : : . The root also of this lotus is fit for food. : . The byblus. do as the males did before. they cut off the top of it and put to some other uses. and when they swim back again they keep to the same shore. gym- The Egyptians who dwell above the morasses observe all these customs. Any of these fish that happen to be taken in their passage toward the sea are found bruised on the left side of the head. they proceed as follows When the desire of engendering comes upon them. but the lower part that is left. they swim out in shoals to the sea. but those who live in the morasses have the same customs as the rest of the Egyptians. Il6 HERODOTUS— BOOK II. spring up in the water these they gather and dry in the sun . and has made the plains like a sea. .. they eat and sell. they have the following inventions When the river is full. when they have pulled it up in the fens. the fruit of which is contained in a separate pod. Some of them live entirely on fish. and are thus impregnated. Fishes that are gregarious are seldom found in the rivers. : . but this is done by females they. EUTERPE [91-93 his mother: they add that by his order they instituted nastic games in honour of him. and gut. so in this. stew it in a hot pan and then eat it. like the Greeks. and the males following devour them but from the spawn that escapes and are not devoured. scattering the sperm and the females following swallow it. in this there are many berries fit to be eaten. that springs up from the root in form very like a wasp's nest . but being bred in the lakes. and they are eaten both fresh and dried. then having pounded the middle of the lotus. and as in other things. that grow in the river. for they scatter their spawn by degrees. and of the size of an apple. There are also other lilies. they make bread of it and bake it. to the length of a cubit. the males no longer take the lead. and is tolerably sweet and is round. the fish that grow up are engendered. leading the way in shoals. like roses. hugging it and touching it as much as possible. and dry in the sun. which is an annual plant. which resembles a poppy. But to obtain food more easily. each to their accustomed haunts however. . and then eat them dried. but those that are taken on their return are bruised on the right and this proceeds from the following cause they swim out to the sea. that each man has but one wife. of the size of an olive stone. keeping close to the land on the left side.

which abound very much the towers are of great service to those who inhabit the upper parts of the marshes for the mosquitoes are prevented by the winds from flying high but those who live round the marshes have contrived another expedient instead of the towers. when the Nile retreated. they lay benches across them. . and collect the liquid that flows from it this is fat. : . the reason of which. but they never attempt to bite through the net. but are towed from the shore. building their ships in the following manner: they fasten the planks of two cubits length round stout and long ties when they have thus built the hulls. and its exudation is gum. as the time came round. with which in the day he takes fish. They are thus carried down the stream there is a hurdle made of tamarisk. . and join them together like bricks. plant these sillicypria. wattled with a band of reeds. he throws the net around it. and then getting in. sleeps under it: if he should wrap himself up in his clothes or in linen. : . but calk the seams inside with byblus. the mosquitoes would bite through them. is this: in the preceding year. the hollow parts of the land and the marshes near the river first begin to be filled by the water oozing through from the river and as soon as they are full. From this acacia they cut planks about two cubits in length. Every man has a net. When the Nile begins to overflow. and a stone bored it : : make in the following manner They . Thus it happens with respect to the fishes. the water has risen again. which in shape is very like the Cyrensean lotus. and at night uses it in the following manner: In whatever bed he sleeps.:. . . They have the following contrivance to protect themselves from the mosquitoes. as I conjecture. They make no use of ribs. which they call cici and they . They use a mast of acacia. 93-96] CUSTOMS OF THE EGYPTIANS 117 way by the stream. though of an offensive smell. and that is driven through the keel. Their ships in which they convey merchandise are made of the acacia. on the banks of the rivers and lakes these. they are immediately filled with little fishes. These vessels are unable to sail up the stream unless a fair wind prevails. the fish that had deposited their eggs in the marshy ground went away with the last of the waters but when. which in Greece grow spontaneous and wild. when planted in Egypt. and sails of byblus. some bruise it and press out the oil others boil and stew it. When they have gathered it. bear abundance of fruit. They make only one rudder. fishes are immediately produced from these eggs. and no less suited for lamps than olive-oil but it emits an offensive smell. The Egyptians who live about the fens use an oil drawn from the fruit of the sillicypria.

and grandson of Achseus. is assigned to purchase shoes for the wife of the reigning King of Egypt and this has been so as long The other city as Egypt has been subject to the Persians. who first ruled over Egypt. EUTERPE . indeed. [96-99 through the middle. and what I have learned by inquiry: but from this point I proceed to give the Egyptian account according to what I heard and there is added to it something also of my own observation. keeps the vessel in its course. Hitherto I have related what I have seen. . Archander. the hurdle is fastened to a cable. beginning about a hundred stades above Memphis. what I have thought. but across the plain. however. the cities alone ents. but the stone being dragged at the stern. son of Phthius. and some of them carry many thousand talWhen the Nile inundates the country. : . very like the islands in the JEgean Sea. and conducted the river into a canal. is not the usual course. he in the first . this. To a person sailing from Naucratis to Memphis. have been another Archander. but the name is certainly not Egyptian. . you will pass by the city of Anthylla and that called Archandropolis. so as to make it flow between the mountains 1 this bend of the Nile. for all the rest of Egypt becomes a sea. filled in the elbow toward the south. and sunk to the bottom. dried up the old channel. and the cities alone are above the surface. They have very many of these vessels. . When this happens. but by the point of the Delta and the city of Cercasorus and in sailing from the sea and Canopus to Naucratis across the plain. moves quickly and draws along " the baris " (for this is the name given to these vessels). by the stream bearing hard upon it. is still carefully upheld by the Persians. those of Arabia and Libya. . and let down at the prow of the vessel to be carried on by the stream and the stone by another cable at the stern and by this means the hurdle.118 HERODOTUS— BOOK II. are seen above its surface. they navigate no longer by the channel of the river. The priests informed me that Menes. who was first king. When the part cut off had been made firm land by this Menes. . . of about two talents in weight of these two. the passage is by the pyramids. 1 That is. . appears to me to derive its name from the son-in-law of Danaus. Anthylla. being made secure every year for if the river should break through and overflow in this part there would be danger lest all Memphis should be flooded. which flows excluded from its ancient course. There may. Of these. which is a city of importance. for it is called Archandropolis. in the first place protected Memphis by a mound for the whole river formerly ran close to the sandy mountain on the side of Libya but Menes.

. Mceris but he accomplished some memorable works. when she had done this. then. except one. whom the Egyptians had slain. nor that they were in any respect renowned. through a large concealed channel. . . and she. The priests said that he was the first who. This is all they related of her. subduing every nation that he fell in with and wherever he met with any who were valiant. After this the priests enumerated from a book the names of three hundred and thirty other kings. she threw herself into a room full of ashes in order that she might escape punishment. achieved these several works. the size of which I shall also mention when I come to speak of the lake itself. subdued those nations that dwell by the Red Sea until sailing onward. . except that. In so many generations of men there were eighteen Ethiopians and one native queen the rest . whose name was Sesostris. when he came back to Egypt. he assembled a large army. which is vast and well worthy of mention. the last of them. and who were very ardent in defence of their liberty. reigned was the same as that of the Babylonian queen. destroyed many of the Egyptians by stratagem: for having caused an extensive apartment to be made under ground. He. I shall proceed to make mention of the king that came after them. In the next place. setting out in ships of war from the Arabian Gulf. he arrived at a sea which was not navigable on account of the shoals and afterward. Of the other kings they did not mention any memorable deeds. as the portal of Vulcan's temple. for the Nile itself bounds it toward the east. she pretended that she was going to consecrate it. but in reality had another design in view: and having invited those of the Egyptians whom she knew to have been principally concerned in the murder. The name of this woman who : . and outside of it he excavated a lake from the river toward the north and the west. he erected columns in their territory. according to the report of the priest. . for Memphis is situated in the narrow part of Egypt. with inscriptions de- were Egyptians. and marched through the continent. Having therefore passed them by. to avenge him. they then delivered the kingdom to her. they relate that he built in it the Temple of Vulcan. while reigning over them and after they had slain him. facing the north wind and dug a lake (the dimensions of which I shall describe hereafter). .99-102] SESOSTRIS II9 place built on it the city that is now called Memphis. Nitocris they said that she avenged her brother. but none of the others achieved anything. and built pyramids in it. and when they were feasting she let in the river upon them. she gave a great banquet.

EUTERPE [102-105 and how he had conquered subdued any cities without fighting and easily. and I say this. I inquired of both people. until. for all the Phoenicians who have any commerce with Greece no longer imitate the Egyptians in this usage. But of the Egyptians and Ethiopians I am unable to say which learned it from daring them by . because others are so likewise. crossed from Asia. but nowhere beyond them. or whether some of the soldiers. and no farther. have practised circumcision. with their neighbours the Macrones. of their own accord remained by the river Phasis. wheeling round. and thus appear evidently to act in the same manner as the Egyptians. For the Phoenicians. having ardly. Egyptians. . : . but chiefly from the following circumstances. he made inscriptions on columns in the same way as among the nations that had proved themselves valiant and he had besides engraved on them the secret parts of a woman. having myself observed it before I heard it from others and as it was a matter of interest to me. acknowledge that they learned the custom from the Egyptians. not only because they are swarthy and curly-headed. he traversed the continent. They alone and the Egyptians manufacture linen in the same the other. for this amounts to nothing. I am unable after this to say with certainty whether King Sesostris himself. having detached a portion of his army. And this a strong proof that the Phoenicians learned this practice through their intercourse with the Egyptians. he went back again and when he arrived at the river Phasis. . his power: but when he II. being wearied with his wandering expedition. left them there to settle in that country. but abstain from circumcising their children. and the Syrians in Palestine. For the Colchians were evidently Egyptians. confess that they very lately learned And these are the the same custom from the Colchians. wishing to mke it known that they were cowThus doing. for in their country the columns appear to have been erected. because the Colchians.120 HERODOTUS—BOOK his own name and country. . I will now mention another fact respecting the Colchians. only nations that are circumcised. and the Syrians about Thermodon and the river Parthenius. for it is appears to me . and Ethiopians are the only nations of the world who. how they resemble the Egyptians. he subdued the Scythians and Thracians to these the Egyptian army appears to me to have reached. evidently a very ancient custom. and the Colchians had more recollection of the Egyptians than the Egyptians had of the Colchians yet the Egyptians said that they thought the Colchians were descended from the army of Sesostris and I formed my conjecture. into Europe. from the first. From thence.

and the inscriptions before mentioned still on them. and his sons with him. carved on rocks. and taken revenge on his brother. Sesostris having returned to Egypt. holding a spear in his right hand. sian Daphnse. were saved. Some who have truth. in the following works these were the persons who drew the huge stones which. invited many men from the nations when he arrived at the Pelu- he had committed the to an entertainment. one on the way from Ephesia to Phocsea. and the language. the other from Sardis to Smyrna. In both places a man is carved. erected in the different countries. set it on fire but that Sesostris. and in his left a bow. There are also in Ionia two images of this king. were conveyed to the Temple of Vulcan. King of is called Egyptian. were compelled to dig all the canals now seen in Egypt. for it is partly Egyp. and the rest of his equipment in unison. employed the multitude of prisoners whom he brought from the countries he had subdued. and form a bridge over the burning mass. though that which comes from Egypt As to the pillars which Sesostris.105-108] EXPEDITION OF SESOSTRIS 121 manner. unfit for these purposes. and the whole way of living. for from that time Egypt. and having caused it to be piled up. became impassable for horses or car- whom him : . that returning and bringing with him whose territories he had subdued. and that the rest should step on them and make their escape. which before was throughout practicable for horses and carriages. most of them are evidently no longer in existence. Egypt. too. though it was one level plain. Sesostris did so. together with their father. but the rest. for he took his wife with him and she advised him to extend two of his six sons across the fire." or whence he . which have the following meaning this region by my own shoulders. being informed of this. is similar in both nations but the Colchian linen is called by the Greeks Sardonic. they. seen these monuments have conjectured them to be images of Memnon. and two of his sons were in this manner burned to death. : . and caused wood to be piled up round the house. immediately consulted with his wife. by their involuntary labour they made Egypt. to government of Egypt. in the time of this king. four cubits and a half high. herein being very far from the is. The priests said moreover of this Egyptian Sesostris. : Who he does not here show. his brother. but in Syrian Palestine I myself saw some still remaining. tian and partly Ethiopian from one shoulder to the other across the breast extend sacred Egyptian characters en" I acquired graved. but has elsewhere made known.

but inland. But the king intersected the country for this reason such of the Egyptians as occupied the cities not on the river. . that in future he might pay a proportionate part of the appointed tax. wherefore it was not right for one who had not surpassed him in achievements to place his statue before his offerings. Hence land-measuring appears to me to have had its beginning. come to him and make known what had happened whereupon the king sent persons to inspect and measure how much the land was diminished. ruled over Ethiopia and he left as memorials before Vulcan's Temple statues of stone. and that immediately afterward he was seized with a pain in his eyes. time afterward. the Greeks learned from This king was the only Egyptian that the Babylonians. . not fewer than Darius had done. saying that deeds had not been achieved by him equal to those of Sesostris the Egyptian: for that Sesostris had subdued other nations. the priest of Vulcan would not suffer Darius the Persian to place his statue before them. were forced to use a brackish beverage which they drew from wells. and threw it into the midst of the eddies of the river. to eighteen cubits. but if the river happened to take away a part of any one's allotment. when the river receded. EUTERPE [108-111 and this is caused by the canals. giving an equal square allotment to each and from thence he drew his revenues. a storm of wind arose. and for this reason Egypt was interThey said also that this king divided the country sected. After the death of Sesostris. A . He continued blind for ten years. and to have passed over into Greece for the pole and the sun-dial. importing that the time of his punishment was expired. which are numerous every direction. among all the Egyptians. sion of the day into twelve parts. and the river was tossed about in waves whereupon they say that the king with great arrogance laid hold of a javelin. and he should re. and the Scythians besides but that Darius was not able to conquer the Scythians. . two of thirty cubits. he was and : . HERODOTUS— BOOK in II. that Darius pardoned these observations. They relate. . being in want of water. having required them to pay a fixed tax every year. himself and long his wife and his four sons. but in the eleventh year an oracle reached him from the city of Buto. they said that his son Pheron succeeded to the kingdom that he undertook no military expedition. and became blind. and the divito . and happened to become blind through the following occurrence: The river having risen a very great height for that time. . when it overflowed the fields.122 riages . each of twenty cubits. however.

except the one by washing with whose urine he had recovered his sight. he came to Egypt. and in Egypt to that which is now called On that the Canopic mouth of the Nile. situated to the south side of the Temple of Vulcan. and at length having recovered his sight. This custom continues the same to my time. by washing in whose urine he recovered his sight. In this inclosure of Proteus is a temple which is called after the foreign Venus: and I conjecture that this is the Temple of Helen. whose name in the Grecian language is Proteus there is to this day an inclosure sacred to him at Memphis. together with the city but the woman. if the slave of any person whatsoever takes refuge and has sacred marks impressed on him. m-113] PHERON AND PROTEUS 123 cover his sight by washing his eyes with the urine of a woman who had had intercourse with her own husband only. the priests told me that the case was thus That when Paris had carried Helen off from Sparta. when he did not recover his sight. He therefore made trial of his own wife first. When I inquired about Helen. and to Taricheae. none is anywhere called by the name of foreign. and each a hundred cubits in length and eight cubits in breadth. he collected the women of whom he had made trial. he took to himself to wife. it is not lawful to lay hands on him. and the whole tract is called the Tyrian camp. accused Paris with a view to injure him. therefore. as it was from the first. he made trial of others indifferently. he dedicated other offerings throughout all the celebrated temples. which remains to this day in which. and from thence. and had known no other man. and sitting as suppliants of the god. shore stood a Temple of Hercules. and also because it is named from the foreign Venus for of all the other temples of Venus. revolted from him. violent winds drove him out of his course into the Egyptian Sea. into one city. he sailed away to his own country. : : . and afterward. and. and when he had assembled them together he had them all burned. the daughter of Tyndarus. two stone obelisks. relating the whole account how things stood . which is very beautiful and richly adorned. Tyrian Phoenicians dwell round this inclosure. when informed of the custom that prevailed respecting the temple. for the gale did not abate. which is now called Erythrebolus. so devoting himself to the god.: . The attendants of Paris. and when he was in the yEgean. both because I have heard that Helen lived with Proteus. he dedicated to the temple of the sun works worthy of admiration. Having escaped from this calamity in his eyes. each consisting of one stone. what is most worthy of mention. They said that a native of Memphis succeeded him in the kingdom.

having been driven by winds Whether. but having excited her passions. I will not suffer you to carry away this woman or this treasure. and from whence he had set sail. immediately sent a message to Proteus at Memphis. and did not speak the truth. seized Paris. then. I bid you depart out of my territory to some other within three days if not. . These accusations were made to the priests. : : : not to put a stranger to death. but I will keep them for your Grecian host until he please to come himself and take them away. and detained his ships. after you had met with hospitable treatment. to the following effect " A stranger of Trojan race has arrived. When all were carried up. and very great treasures. but you have also robbed the house of your host. and this did not content you. that I may know what he will say for himself. moment . Nor even did this content you. . And Homer appears to me to have heard this relation but it was not equally suited to epic poetry as the other which he has made use of. since I deem it of : . " unmolested. Proteus asked Paris who he was. and told him the name of his country. they who had become suppliants accused him. relating the whole account of his crime. for. whoever he may be. and besides the suppliants also. shall we allow him to depart to this land. EUTERPE [113-116 with regard to Helen. and whence he had sailed and he gave him an account of his family. he has brought her with him. and moreover described his voyage. and then sent him up to Memphis with Helen and his treasures. and come hither with the spoils now." Thonis having received this message. as for you and your shipmates. wherefore he has regreat . has come to my territory. you shall be treated as enemies." The priests gave this account of the arrival of Helen at the court of Proteus. Then Proteus asked him whence he got Helen and when Paris prevaricated in his account. . Thonis having heard this. who. whose name was Thonis. saying " If I did not think it of great moment not to put any stranger to death who. and bring him to me. being prevented by the winds from pursuing his course. therefore. that has acted so wickedly toward his host. have committed the most nefarious deed you seduced the wife of your host. I would take vengeance on you on behalf of the Grecian. At last Proteus pronounced this judgment. or shall we seize what he has brought with him ? messenger with the following answer: Proteus sent back a " Seize this man.124 HERODOTUS— BOOK II. havafter having committed a nefarious deed in Greece ing beguiled the wife of his own host. and his injustice toward Menelaus. you basest of men. you have taken her away by stealth. and the governor of that mouth.

many excellent when mixed. works of Sidonian women. though he has plainly shown that he was acquainted with this account also. which godlike Paris himself brought from Sidon. a vast army of Grecians came to the land of Teucria to assist Menelaus." in the following lines " Such well-chosen drugs had the daughter of Jove." 2 Menelaus also says the following to Telemachus " The gods detained me in Egypt. . When I asked the priests whether the Greeks tell an idle story about the Trojan war. and satisfaction for the injuries done that the Trojans told the same story then and ever after. they demanded the restitution of Helen. and this first passage especially. inhabit Syria. . his verses are as follows " Where were the variegated robes. iv: 227. For in the Cyprian verses it is said that Paris reached Ilium from Sparta on the third day. And this is evident. the Egyptian wife of Thonis. and the treasures that Paris had stolen from him. both when put to the oath and when not swearing. iv: 351. And now I take my leave of Homer and the Cyprian verses. while he was carrying off Helen. and that when the army had landed and pitched their camp. saying that they knew it by inquiry from Menelaus himself: That after the rape of Helen. to whom Sidon belongs." 3 He shows in these verses that he was acquainted with the wandering of Paris in Egypt for Syria borders on Egypt and the Phoenicians. of excellent quality. From these verses. and how he arrived at Sidon of Phoenicia and he has mentioned it in the exploits of Diomede. vi: 289.Ii6-n8] jected HELEN IN EGYPT 125 it. or not. and that Menelaus himself went with them when they reached the walls. how." x He mentions it also in the " Odyssey. which Polydamna gave her. that they had neither Helen nor the treasures about which they were accused. the Egyptian king. they sent ambassadors to Ilium. : : 1 Iliad. where the fruitful earth produces many drugs. it is clear that Homer was not the author of the Cyprian verses. but that they were all in Egypt. they gave me the following answer. and many noxious. sailing over the wide sea. he was driven out of his course. having met with a favourable wind and a smooth sea whereas Homer in the " Iliad " says that he wandered far while taking her with him. . : : : : . when he carried off Helen. along the course by which he conveyed high-born Helen. but some other person. since he has described in the " Iliad " (and has nowhere else retraced his steps) the wanderings of Paris. and that they could not with justice be answerable for what Proteus. though anxious to return hither because I did not offer perfect hecatombs to them. 3 Odyssey. and wandered to other places. ' Odyssey.

she would have been restored to the Grecians. their children. two or three or even more of Priam's own sons fell. but they heard the same story as before. : — . thinking they were derided by them. he sacrificed them but afterward. he had recourse to a nefarious expedient. and related the real truth he both met with very hospitable entertainment. Menelaus. I think. as to be willing to expose their own persons. EUTERPE [118-120 had in his possession but the Greeks. who was both older and more a man than he was. having taken place among themselves. the administration of affairs should fall upon him but Hector.126 HERODOTUS— BOOK : II. however. and in addition all his treasures. Helen city. and that on every occasion when a battle took place. in order that But even if at first they Paris might cohabit with Helen. and the city to danger. whether Paris were willing or not. . the Egyptians were unable to say. if we may speak on the authority of the epic poets when such things happened. and this too when through his means so many evils were falling on himself. after they had taken the fortifications. they were able from their own knowledge to speak of with certainty. from the following considerations If Helen had been in Ilium. and others. laus himself to Proteus. whenever they engaged with the Greeks. and on all the rest of the Trojans. he sailed up to Memphis. These things the priests of the Egyptians related and I myself agree with the account that is given respecting Helen. that if Priam himself were cohabiting with Helen. in order to be delivered from such present evils. . and fled with his ships to Libya: whither he bent his course from thence. For surely Priam could not have been so infatuated. then they gave credit to the first account. so that when Priam was now old. was nowhere found. would succeed to the throne on the death of Priam nor did it become him to give way to his brother when acting unjustly. But indeed : : . he would have restored her to the Greeks. . . when it was discovered that he had done this deed. and sent MeneWhen Menelaus reached Egypt. therefore besieged them until they took their When. but of the above particulars they said they knew some by inquiry. had taken this resolution. behaved very iniquitously to the Egyptians for when he was desirous of sailing away. yet seeing that many of the other Trojans perished. he was detested and persecuted by the Egyptians. Neither would the kingdom devolve upon Paris. contrary winds detained him and when this continued the same for a long time. for having taken two children of the people of the country. though he met with this treatment. nor the others his relatives. and received back Helen unharmed.

but the one called Winter. Thus these things have been related as they appear to me. the treasures were always evidently diminished (for the thieves did not cease plundering). they worship and do honour to. or even one. did the Greeks give credit to them providence ordaining. When. And when the thieves came as before. possessed a great quantity of money. and placed them round the vessels in which the treasures were. forming a plan against it. they said. as the seals were unbroken. The priests also informed me that Rhampsinitus succeeded Proteus in the kingdom: he left as a monument the portico of the Temple of Vulcan. that they. fronting to the west and he erected two statues before the portico. and he. This king. should make it clear to all men that for great crimes great punishments at the hands of the gods are in store. and described to them how (providing for them that they might have abundant sustenance) he had contrived when building the king's treasury and having clearly explained to them everything relating to the removal of the stone. Winter: and the one that they call Summer. the king laid up his treasures in it but in course of time the builder. they would be stewards of the king's riches. and the sons were not long in applying themselves to the work and having come by night to the palace. wishing to treasure up his wealth in safety. if they would observe his instructions. and the chamber well secured. When the chamber was finished. When the king happened to open the chamber.I20-I2I] THE TROJAN WAR 1 27 they had it not in their power to restore Helen. the one standing to the north the Egyptians call Summer. and one of them had entered. as I am of opinion. they treat in a quite contrary way. : . Of these. and carried off a great quantity of treasure. they easily removed it. built a chamber of stone. by utterly perishing. for he had two. of which one of the walls adjoined the outside of the palace. . called his sons to him. he adopted the following plan He ordered traps to be made. or even nearly come up to. twenty-five cubits high. and that to the south. But the builder. as soon as he went near a vessel he was straightway caught in the trap. : . : . . . on his opening it two or three times. and having found the stone in the building. such as no one of the succeeding kings was able to surpass. He accordingly died. he gave them its dimensions. perceiving. devised the following contrivance He fitted one of the stones so that it might be easily taken out by two men. therefore. he was astonished at seeing the vessels deficient in treasure but he was not able to accuse any one. finding his end approaching. and told them. nor when they spoke the truth.

he contrived the following plan Having got some asses. EUTERPE [121 therefore. he gave them another of the skins and they. having fitted in the stone. commanded him. he at length pretended to be pacified. he put them on the asses. When more conversation passed. he loosened them and when the wine ran out. was astonished at seeing the body of the thief in the trap without the head. . he gave them another of the skins and the sentinels. perplexity he contrived the following plan he hung up the body of the thief from the wall. lest. forsooth. and coming to words with her surviving son. having taken very copious draughts. became exceedingly drunk. and having filled some skins with wine. . caught the wine that was being spilt. should he neglect to do so. feigning anger. ran into the road. railed bitterly against them all however. and to forego his anger. thinking it all their own gain but the man. by any means he could. he returned home. he ordered them to seize and bring before him whomsoever they should see weeping or expressing commiseration at the spectacle. : . but when he came near the sentinels that guarded the suspended corpse. as if he knew not to which of the asses he should turn first and the sentinels. and then drove them along. and when with many entreaties he was unable to persuade her. and bade him enter as quick as possible. but the chamber In this secure. just as they were. When the mother treated her surviving son harshly. he beat his head. . . in what a predicament he was. with vessels in their hands. The mother was greatly grieved at the body being suspended. and did as he was advised then. having drawn out two or three of the necks of the skins that hung down. he should ruin him also: the other thought that he spoke well. when they saw wine flowing in abundance. he immediately called to his brother. to contrive how he might take down and bring away the corpse of his brother. and cried out aloud. hav- ing entered the chamber. and having placed sentinels there. and one of the sentinels joked with him and moved him to laughter. if he was seen and recognised. and without any means of entrance or exit.. fell : : . taking with him his brother's head. and inform him that he had the treasures. she threatened to go to the king. 128 HERODOTUS— BOOK II. as the sentinels soothed him. and being overpowered by the wine. at last he drove his asses out of the road. and remained with them and as they treated him kindly during the drinking. and invited him to stay and drink with them he was persuaded. and cut off his head. and told him what had happened. the king. and set them to rights again. . but. When day came. lay down and set to to drink and joined him to their party. .

if he would discover himself. having ascertained for what purpose this contrivance was had recourse to. as it is said. but before they had intercourse with her. sending throughout all the cities. account of the descent of : : : . she was to seize. but he was superior to the Egyptians. accounting him the most knowing of all men for that the Egyptians are superior to all others. having performed his mother's injunctions. and other times lost. endeavoured to seize him. The king. and ordered her to admit all alike to her embraces. The thief. and she seized it and held it fast. was exceedingly indignant. but the thief in the dark held out to her the dead man's arm. and there played at dice with Ceres. . and by way of insult shaved the right cheeks of all the sentinels . asleep on the spot where they had been drinking. and being desirous to outdo the king in craftiness. had recourse. went to the king's palace and Rhampsinitus greatly admired him and gave him his daughter in marriage. . the daughter did what her father commanded. and being asked the same questions as all the rest were. he related that he had done the most wicked thing when he cut off his brother's head who was caught in a trap in the king's treasury. offering a free pardon. when he was informed that the body of the thief had been stolen. a design which to me seems incredible He placed his own daughter in a brothel. and that he came up again and brought with him as a present from her a napkin of gold. the thief. and the most clever thing when. and resolving by any means to find out the contriver of this artifice. and promising great reward to the man. and whosoever should tell her the facts relating to the thief. On 9 . and sometimes won. imagining that she had got hold of the man's own arm then the thief. as the night was far advanced. made his escape through the door. he caused a proclamation to be made. having made the sentinels drunk. did as follows Having cut off the arm of a fresh corpse at the shoulder. he was astonished at the shrewdness and daring of the man and at last. they said that this king descended alive into the place which the Greeks call Hades.121-122] THE TREASURE OF RHAMPSINITUS 129 But he. took down the body of his brother. he took it with him under his cloak. he drove home. having let it go. when she heard this. and having gone in to the king's daughter. When this also was reported to the king. to the following plan. he took away the corpse of his brother that was hung up she. then having laid the corpse on the asses. relying on this promise. therefore. When. . to compel each one to tell her what he had done during his life most clever and most wicked. and not suffer him to escape. After this.

.130 HERODOTUS— BOOK II. and it is of polished stone. where it is the highest. to write what I hear from each people. since he came back again they said that the Egyptians celebrated a festival this I know they observed even in my time. Any person to whom such things appear credible may adopt the accounts given by the Egyptians. I am unable to However. but whether they held this feast for some other reason. however. they told me that in the reign of Rhampsinitus there : . and aerial beings. marine. others later. bind the eyes of one of their number with a scarf. this priest with his eyes bound is led by two wolves to the Temple of Ceres. The time during which the people were thus harassed by toil lasted ten years on the road which they constructed. and having conducted him with the cloak on him to the way that leads to the Temple of Ceres. or for that above mentioned. and its width ten orgyse. they then return: upon which they say. was a perfect distribution of justice. and afterward the wolves lead him back to the same place. it again enters into the body of a man that is born and that this revolution is made in three thousand years. it is my object. with figures carved on it: on this road then : . on that same day. a work. each party during three months. a cloak. having shut up all the temples. along which they drew the stones. others he ordered to receive the stones when transported in vessels across the river. and afterward he ordered all the Egyptians to work for himself. not much less than the pyramid for its length is five stades. and that all Egypt was in a high state of prosperity. plunged into every kind of wickedness. coming to reign over them. but that after him Cheops. eight orgyse. Some of the Greeks have adopted this opinion. And they worked to the number of a hundred thousand men at a time. accordingly. some. and that when the body perishes it enters into some other animal. some earlier. in my opinion. and its height. he first of all forbade them to offer sacrifice. Now. throughout the whole history. and when it has passed through the different kinds of terrestrial. The Egyptians say that Ceres and Bacchus hold the chief sway in the infernal regions and the Egyptians also were the first who asserted the doctrine that the soul of man is immortal. twenty stades distant from the city. constantly springing into existence. were appointed to draw stones from the quarries in the Arabian mountain down to the Nile. For that. as if it were their own but although I knew their names I do not mention them. having woven say. . the priests. and to drag them to the mountain called the Libyan. EUTERPE [122-124 Rhampsinitus.

.BUILDING THE PYRAMIDS. Photogravure from a painting bv Gustavc Richter.

. since he uted a came ?• time bu other reason.. or for wever. w: on this . 01 even in my . 130 "USnpsinitus. an 1 stone. east for t n enters revoluti< the Greeks ater. s -. as if it do not n I anfi ^re ti stones.



how much more was probably expended in iron tools. And if this be really the case. and in forming the subterranean excavations It is related that Cheops reached such a degree of infamy that. . in Egyptian characters. and the height is the same. were first finished. The highest parts of it. : . and she contrived to leave a monument of herself. which the interpreter. to each range in succession. and no short time besides. and asked every one that came in to her to give her a stone toward the edifice she designed of these stones they said the pyramid was built that stands in the middle of the three. he prostituted his own daughter in a brothel. This pyramid was built thus in the form of steps. others bomides. which was only one. . as much as her father ordered her. therefore. When they had first built it in this manner. whenever they wished to raise the stone higher for I should relate it in both ways. and in forming the subterranean apartments on the hill. . when the stone arrived there. before the great pyramid. and ordered her to extort. On the pyramid is shown an inscription. : : . Twenty years were spent in erecting the pyramid itself: of this. in an island. how much was expended in radishes. and afterward they completed the parts next following.124-127] BUILDING THE PYRAMIDS 131 ten years were expended. which some call crossse. and garlics for the workmen. it was put on another machine that stood ready on the first range and from this it was drawn to the second range on another machine for the machines were equal in number to the ranges of steps or they removed the machine. and that were lowest. told me amounted to one thousand six hundred talents of silver. being in want of money. formed by draining a canal from the Nile. they raised the remaining stones by machines made of short pieces of wood having lifted them from the ground to the first range of steps. but last of all they finished the parts on the ground. privately. as I think. they did not say how much but she exacted a certain sum of money. The Egyptians say that this Cheops reigned fifty years and when he died. each side of which is a plethron and a half in length. each face is eight plethra. it is composed of polished stones. which is square. as I well remember. as it is related. in bread. his brother Chephren succeeded to the kingdom and he followed the same practices as . and jointed with the greatest exactness none of the stones are less than thirty feet. and portable. onions. reading the inscription. and in clothes for the labourers. in cutting and drawing the stones. ! . which he had made as a burial vault for himself. . since they occupied in building the works the time which I mentioned. on which the pyramids stand. .

except what was told me. They both stand on the same hill. his only child: whereupon he. of all the kings that ever reigned in Egypt. as the priests of Sais affirmed and indeed wooden statues. to return to their employments. both in other respects. and moreover. as to who they are. he used to make him some present out of his own treasury and pacify his anger. nor has it subterranean chambers. being extremely afflicted with the calamity that had befallen him. he built it near the large pyramid. as to the other. but even in my time was exposed to view. who . but call the pyramids after Philition. Chephren. and that he opened the temples. To this Mycerinus. who were worn down to the last extremity. he put the body of his deceased daughter into it. and wishing to bury her in a more costly manner than usual. caused a hollow wooden image of a cow to be made. in a richly furnished chamber. a shepherd. and in building a pyramid which does not come up to the dimensions of his brother's. the Egyptians are not very willing to mention their names. In another chamber near to this cow are placed the images of Mycerinus's concubines. Thus one hundred and six years are reckoned. EUTERPE [127-131 the other. and to sacrifices and that he made the most just decisions of all their kings. and a lamp is kept burning by it throughout each night. they said. reigned fiftysix years. during which the Egyptians suffered all kinds of calamities. and then. On this account. but this flows through an artificial aqueduct round an island within. and permitted the people. having covered it with gold. and for this length of time the temples were closed and never opened. . who at that time kept his cattle in those parts. for I myself measured them. nor does a channel from the Nile flow to it. From the hatred they bear them. placed in the royal palace. being in the city of Sais. for he both judged well in other respects. Having laid the first course of variegated Ethiopian stones. they praise him most. Some people give the following ac- was . less in height than the other by forty feet. They said that after him. son of Cheops.. This cow was not interred in the ground. are placed there however. the first beginning of misfortunes was the death of his daughter. in which they say the body of Cheops is laid. reigned over Egypt. that the conduct of his father was displeasing to him. which is about a hundred feet high. and who followed these practices. about twenty in number. . Mycerinus. I am unable to say. when any man complained of his decision. 132 HERODOTUS— BOOK II. and they burn near it all kinds of aromatics every day. who was thus beneficent toward his subjects. all formed naked.

are trifling fables. complaining that his father and uncle. both in other respects and in what relates to the hands of the statues. But a second message came to him from the oracle. but her mother cut off the hands of the servants who had betrayed her daughter to the father and now their images have suffered the same that they did when alive. wherever he could hear of places most suited for pleasure and he had recourse to this artifice for the purpose of convicting the oracle of falsehood. . they say. which were seen lying at their feet even in my time. never ceasing night or day. whereas he who was religious must die so soon. When the Egyptians beat themselves for the god that is not to be named by me on this occasion. sent a reproachful message to the god. roving about the marshes and groves. because he had not done what he ought to have done. It is carried every year out of the chamber. this second calamity befell this king: An oracle reached him from the city of Buto. that by turning the nights into days. but kneeling in size it is equal to a large living cow. seeing that this sentence was now pronounced against him. thinking this very hard. The cow is in other parts covered with a purple cloth. and should die in the seventh: but he. for I myself saw that they had lost their hands from age. the girl strangled herself through grief. After the loss of his daughter. and paid no regard to the gods. stating that for this very reason his life was shortened. and having lighted them. and moreover had oppressed men. whenever night came on. covered over with very thick gold. . had lived long. but shows the head and the neck. and the orb of the sun imitated in gold is placed between the horns. they then carry out the cow to the light for they say that she. . he drank and enjoyed himself. entreated her father Mycerinus to permit her to see the sun once every year. he ordered a great number of lamps to be made. but he did not. This king also left a pyramid much less than that of his being on each side twenty feet short of three plethra. But these things. . The cow is not standing up. father. When Mycerinus heard this. when she was dying. as I conjecture. : of six. and he entombed her in this cow. importing that he had no more than six years to live. and had intercourse with her against her will but afterward. .131-134] MYCERINUS 133 count of this cow and these statues: That Mycerinus fell in love with his own daughter. who had shut up the temples. he might have twelve years instead . for it was needful that Egypt should be afflicted during one hundred and fifty years and the two who were kings before him understood this.

Rhodopis flourished in the reign of Amasis. another. under the conduct of Xanthus the Samian and having come to gain money by her person. the priests said that Asychis became King of Egypt. As for Charaxus. of the Grecians erroneously say that this pyramid is the work of the courtesan Rhodopis but they evidently appear to me ignorant who Rhodopis was for they would not else have attributed to her the building such a pyramid. no one else appeared. there is no need to attribute any great wealth to her. By birth she was a Thracian. a Samian. for he too belonged to Iadmon. of whom this account is given. as is clearly proved by this circumstance: When the Delphians frequently made proclamation. and brother of Sappho the poetess. acquired great riches for a person of her condition. though less talked about than the former. and not at this time for she was very many years later than those kings who left these pyramids. to offer it at Delphi as a memorial of herself: having therefore made from the tenth of her wealth a great number of iron spits for roasting oxen. in obedience to the oracle. as far as the tenth allowed. and continued in Egypt. so to speak. After Mycerinus. she was ransomed for a large sum by Charaxus of Mitylene. . EUTERPE [134-136 quadrangular. Thus Rhodopis was made free. The courtesans of Naucratis are generally very lovely for in the first place this one. became celebrated throughout Greece.<Esop. and. the writer of fables. . when. For Rhodopis was desirous of leaving a monument to herself in Greece. and fellowservant with ^Esop. which is by far the most beautiful and the Some . Now I have done speaking of Rhodopis. became so famous that all the Greeks became familiar with the name of Rhodopis. whose name was Archidice. on which. required it. servant to Iadmon.134 it is HERODOTUS— BOOK II. having had such a work made as no one ever yet devised and dedicated in a temple. . which the Chians dedicated opposite the temple itself. having ransomed Rhodopis. she sent them to Delphi which are still piled up behind the altar. for any one who would require satisfaction for the death of . . though no way sufficient to erect such a pyramid. thus ^Esop must have belonged to Iadmon. . son to Scamandronymus. and built half-way up of Ethiopian stone. . but another Iadmon. he returned to Mitylene. besides. son of Hephaestopolis. after her. and in the next place. and being very lovely. For as any one who wishes may to this day see the tenth of her wealth. Sappho gibed him very much in an ode. numberless thousands of talents were expended. the grandson of this Iadmon. Rhodopis came to Egypt. and that he built the eastern portico to the Temple of Vulcan.

for first had been raised by those who dug the canals in King Sesostris. answers to Diana. and collecting the mire that stuck to the pole. and it was also added to this law that the lender should have power over the whole sepulchre of the borrower and that on any one who gave this pledge the following punishment should be inflicted if he afterward refused to repay the debt. The portico is of all they the time of : . : . in my opinion. men made bricks. during which time he performed the following actions When any Egyptian committed any crime. should be buried in his family sepulchre. as a memorial. made of bricks on which is an inscription carved on stone. secondly. After him. but each reaches as far as the entrance of the precinct. when he died. This king being desirous of surpassing his predecessors who were Kings of Egypt. he would not have any of them put to death. in the following words " Do not despise me in comparison with the pyramids of stone. and. or in any other. invaded Egypt with a large force whereupon this blind king fled to the fens and the Ethiopian reigned over Egypt for fifty years. for though other temples may be larger and more costly. Bubastis. the other on the other. For by plunging a pole into a lake. left a pyramid." Such were the works that this king performed. not mingling with each other.136-138] THE TEMPLE OF BUBASTIS 135 porticoes have sculptured figures. enjoining them to heap up mounds against their own city to which each of the offenders belonged and largest: for all the infinite variety of related that during culation of money. might borrow money. During his reign the Ethiopians. one flowing round it on one side. in which is a Temple of Bubastis well worthy of mention. but this most of all. and shaded with trees. there reigned a blind man of the city of Anysis. there being a great want of cira law was made by the Egyptians that a man. that neither he himself. and an They architecture. and in this manner built me. and Sabacon. : : by this means the cities were made much higher. : . nor have the liberty of burying any other of his own dead. Each is a hundred feet broad. whose name was Anysis. under the Ethiopian they were made very high. the greatest mounds were thrown up about the city of Bubastis. . but passed sentence upon each according to the magnitude of his offence. Although other cities in Egypt were carried to a great height. for I excel them as much as Jupiter the other gods. in the Grecian language. . . by giving the dead body of his father in pledge. yet none is more pleasing to look at than this. his reign. Her sacred precinct is thus situated All except the entrance is an island for two canals from the Nile extend to it. King of the Ethiopians.

: : . for while he was yet in Ethiopia. but for more than seven hundred years the kings who preceded Amyrtaeus were unable to find it out the name of this island was Elbo . the Ethiopian departed from Egypt. therefore. having seen this vision. advised him to assemble all the priests in Egypt. it is conspicuous as it was originally built. then. When. whose name was Sethon he held in no account and despised the military caste of the Egyptians. as they were severally ordered unknown to the Ethiopian. : . then. and to cut them in two down the middle. about three stades in length. standing by him. this period had elapsed. This precinct. in order that he. that are deserving of notice. among other indignities. of his own accord. planted around a large temple in which the image is placed. fled away it appeared to him that a man. The width and length of the precinct is each way a stade. and is adorned with figures six cubits high. having formed an island of ashes and earth. having been guilty of impiety in reference to sacred things. where he had lived fifty years. but the temple has not been moved. Since. but he. having returned from the fens. No one before Amyrtaeus was able to discover this island. he bade them bring some ashes also as a present. Sabacon.136 HERODOTUS— BOOK II. is visible on every side to a person going round it for as the city has been mounded up to a considerable height. Along the entrance is a road paved with stone. said that he thought the gods held out this as a pretext to him. For when any of the Egyptians came to him bringing provisions. but as the time was expired during which it was foretold that he should reign over Egypt. leading through the square eastward. wall sculptured with figures runs round it and within is a grove of lofty trees. its size is about ten stades in each direction. and in width it is about four plethra: on each side of the road grow trees of enormous height: it leads to the Temple of Mercury. EUTERPE [138-141 ten orgyae in height. the blind king resumed the government. having seen a vision of the following kind in his sleep. withdrew from Egypt. is the situation of this precinct. might draw down some evil on himself from gods or from men he would not therefore do so . being in the middle of the city. as not having need of their services and accordingly. After him reigned the priest of Vulcan. . the oracles which the Ethiopians have recourse to answered that he was fated to reign over Egypt fifty years. and the vision of the dream troubled him. he took away their : A . he would depart from the country. Such. They related that the final departure of the Ethiopian occurred in the following manner: That he.

and the priest. they said. King of the Arabians and Assyrians. for he would himConfiding in this vision. Now. . a . sleep fell upon him. : . when he was tracing his own genealogy. either with regard to the productions of . in eleven thousand three hundred and forty years no god had assumed the form of a man neither. number of field-mice. effect priests showing that from the first king to this priest of Vulcan who last reigned. but none of the military caste followed him. Sennacherib. Conducting me into the interior of an edifice . with a mouse in his hand. marched a large army against Egypt. and encamped in Pelusium. they said. statue of this king stands in the Temple of Vulcan. During this time they related that the sun had four times risen out of his usual quarter. and that he had twice risen where he now sets." Thus much of the account the Egyptians and the related. pouring in upon their enemies. the same as they did to me. and twice set where he now rises yet. for three generations of men are one hundred years and the forty-one remaining generations that were over the three hundred make one thousand three hundred and forty years. with him such of the Egyptians as were willing to follow him. let him revere the gods. and moreover. or afterward. and connecting his family with a god in the sixteenth degree. or with regard to diseases. in the time of the remaining Kings of Egypt. were three hundred forty and one generations of men and during these generations. the handles of their shields . many of them fell. though I did not trace my genealogy. being reduced to a strait. and it appeared to him in a vision that the god stood by and encouraged him. but tradesmen. of suffering. had any such thing happened before. there were the same number of chief priests and kings. Thus. devoured their quivers and their bows. whereupon the Egyptian warriors refused to assist him. assuring him that he should suffer nothing disagreeable in meeting the Arabian army. the earth or the river. for here the entrance into Egypt is. or with respect to deaths. under former kings. and sutlers. that no change in the things in Egypt was occasioned by this. and bewailed before the image the calamities he was in danger While he was lamenting.: 141-143] THE KINGS OF EGYPT 1 37 lands to each of whom. When they arrived there. After this. when they fled bereft And to this day a stone of their arms. In former time the priests of Jupiter did to Hecataeus the historian. entered the temple. and an inscription to the following " Whoever looks on me. mechanics. so that on the next day. he took self send assistants to him. twelve chosen acres had been assigned. three hundred generations are equal to ten thousand years.

Piromis means. and that Orus. and that one of them always had the supreme power. going through them all. . that all those of whom there were images were of that character. until they had pointed them all out. was the last who reigned over it he. before the time of these men gods had been the rulers of Egypt. . and they did not connect them with any god or hero. because they always compute and register the years. indeed. . was the last who reigned over Egypt. and connected himself with a god in the sixteenth degree. and one of the eight gods called original but Hercules is among the second. among those called the twelve. to my time. to my time. pointed out that each was the son of his own father. the daughter of Cadmus. saying that each of the colossuses was a Piromis. who is said to have been born of Semele. the most recent of the gods are thought to be Hercules. Osiris in the Grecian language means Bacchus. . about eight hundred. The Egyptians say they know these things with accuracy. whom the Greeks call Apollo. in the Grecian language. from the image of him that But when died last. about nine hundred years from Pan. Now from Bacchus. sprung from a Piromis until they pointed out the three hundred and fortyfive colossuses. thousand years to the reign of Amasis. therefore. and Bacchus is of the third. who were sprung from the twelve gods. and from Herbut cules. they reckoned them up high priest places an image of himself there during his lifetime. " a noble and good man. and had dwelt among men. . Hecatseus traced his own genealogy. . they controverted his genealogy by computation. not admitting that a man could be born from a god and they thus controverted his genealogy. the son of Alcmena. Among the Greeks. therefore. the priests. and from Bacchus fewest of all and from him there are computed to have been . I have already declared how many years the Egyptians say there were from Hercules to the reign of Amasis but from Pan a still greater number of years are said to have intervened. is about sixteen hundred years. but were very far from being gods that. . Now. . Of these two accounts. Bacchus. the son of Osiris. EUTERPE [143-146 that ' number Y was spacious. each person may adopt fifteen . each a Piromis sprung from a Piromis.1 38 HERODOTUS— BOOK II. is a less number of years than from the siege of Troy. and Pan but by the Egyptians Pan is esteemed the most ancient. born of Penelope (for Pan is said by the Greeks to have sprung from her and Mercury). . reckoning them and showing them to me. having deposed Typhon. and showing me wooden colossuses to the for every I have mentioned." They pointed out to me.

and not higher. adopting the following regulations That they would not attempt the subversion of one another. and found it greater than can be described. For if any one should reckon up the buildings and public works of the Grecians. who was borne by Penelope. 1 39 that which he thinks most credible opinion respecting them. they It is are unable to say whither he was taken at his birth. evident to me. The Egyptians having become free. the son of Semele. Yet the labyrinth surpasses even the pyramids. though mere men. . that whoever among them should offer a libation in the Temple of Vulcan from a brazen bowl should be King of all Egypt. and had grown old in Greece. I my own For have therefore declared if these deities had been well known. for they used to assemble in all the temples. . These having contracted intermarriages.146-148] THE TWELVE KINGS . with doors opposite each other. this I have myself seen. therefore. and six . What things both other men and the Egyptians agree in saying occurred in this country. bore Now. as Hercules. some one might say that these later ones. and that they should maintain the : strictest friendship. and carried him to Nyssa. I shall now proceed to relate and shall add to them some things of my own observation. reigned. and especially Bacchus. after the reign of the priest of Vulcan. and Pan. the names of the gods who were long before them. For it has twelve courts inclosed with walls. for they were at no time able to live without a king. they would be found to have cost less labour and expense than this labyrinth though the temple in Ephesus is deserving of mention. therefore they asThese cribe their generation to that time. things then the Egyptians themselves relate. Now. The pyramids likewise were beyond description. who was sprung from Amphitryon. and also that in Samos. having divided all Egypt into twelve parts. nor one seek to acquire more than another. . for the following reasons It had been foretold them by an oracle when they first assumed the government. they determined to leave in common a memorial of themselves and having so determined. six facing the north. which is above Egypt in Ethiopia and concerning Pan. established twelve kings. they built a labyrinth a little above the lake of Mceris. situated near that called the city of Crocodiles. that the Grecians learned their names and from the time when later than those of the other gods . They made these regulations and strictly : upheld them. and each of them comparable to many of the great Grecian structures. the Greeks say of Bacchus that Jupiter sewed him into his thigh as soon as he was born. they learned them they trace their origin.

north and south. The water in this lake does not spring from the soil. and from the rooms to halls. but it is conveyed through a channel from the Nile. And during the six months that it flows out it yields a talent of silver every day to the king's treasury from the fish but when the water is flowing into it. show me them. The roofs of all these are of stone. on which large figures are carved. on no account. presented a thousand occasions of wonder as I passed from a court to the rooms. seated on a throne. yet the lake named from Mceris. and a way to it has been made under ground. the foot being four palms. forty orgyae in height. . Although this labyrinth is such as I have described. The people of the country told me that this lake discharges itself under . It contains two kinds of rooms.I 4 HERODOTUS— BOOK II. closely fitted. and relate from personal inspection. and for six months it flows into the lake. and the cubit six palms. or four cubits. That it is made by hand and dry. for about the middle of the lake stand two pyramids. EUTERPE [148-150 the south. I myself saw. saying that there were the sepulchres of the kings who originally built this labyrinth. The rooms above ground I myself went through and saw. and the same exterior wall incloses them. to the number of three thousand. And adjoining the extremity of the labyrinth is a pyramid. near which this labyrinth is built. for these parts are excessively dry. each rising fifty orgyae above the surface of the water. from their great variety. this circumstance proves. for the passages through the corridors. twenty minae. and to other corridors from the halls. court is surrounded by a colonnade of white stone. . some under ground and some above ground over them. and the part on each of these built under water extends to an equal depth Thus these is placed a stone statue. But the underground rooms I only know from report for the Egyptians who have charge of the building would. as also are the Each walls but the walls are full of sculptured figures. being in depth in the deepest part fifty orgyae. or sixty schceni. . : . and to other courts from the rooms. fifteen hundred of each. occasions greater wonder: its circumference measures three thousand six hundred stades. contiguous to one another. pyramids are one hundred orgyae in height: and a hundred orgyae are equal to a stade of six plethra the orgya measuring six feet. and the windings through the courts. The lake stretches lengthways. and of the sacred crocodiles. . I can therefore only relate what I have learned by hearsay concerning the lower rooms but the upper ones. which surpass all human works. equal to the sea-coast of Egypt. and six months out again into the Nile.

running westward toward the interior by the mountain above Memphis. for this was an object of curiosity to me. Whereupon he who stood last of them. which was of brass. the Egypfather Neco tians. when night came on. the high priest. since he had not a bowl. — . without any sinister intention. that flows by Nineveh and so they proceeded until they had effected their purpose. who had killed his having at that time fled into Syria. this lake is said to have been excavated in this way. as they were sacrificing in the Temple of Vulcan. but during the day for the Egyptians who dug out the soil carried it to the Nile. dug under ground by estimated measurement to the royal palace. King of Nineveh. and were about to offer a libation on the last day of the festival. held out his helmet: but they having taken into consideration what was done by Psammitichus.150-152] PSAMMITICHUS 141 ground into the Syrtis of Libya. mistaking the number. For certain thieves formed a design to carry away the treasures of Sardanapalus. and preserved in subterranean treasuries the thieves. brought out eleven of the twelve golden bowls with which he used to make the libation. who had before fled from Sabacon the Ethiopian. who belong to the Saitic district. having taken off his helmet. All the other kings were in the habit of wearing helPsammitichus. and easily persuaded me. I inquired of the people who lived nearest the lake where the soil that had been dug out was to be found. The same method I heard was adopted in digging the lake in Egypt. except that it was not done by night. But they determined to banish him to the marshes. or have any intercourse with the rest of Egypt. they did not think it right to put him to death. therefore. they told me where it had been carried. and they forbade him to leave the marshes. brought back when . . Now. Psammitichus. because I had heard that a similar thing had been done at Nineveh. in course of time. But when I did not see anywhere a heap of soil from this excavation. and the river receiving it soon dispersed it. and at that time had them on. theremets. which were very large. they threw into the river Tigris. beginning from their own dwellings. This Psammitichus. and the soil that was taken out of the excavations. and the oracle that had foretold to them that whoever among them should offer a libation from a brazen bowl. since upon examination they found that he had done it by no premeditated design. should be sole King of Egypt calling to mind the oracle. held it out and made the libation. fore. in Assyria. While the twelve kings continued to observe justice. having divested him of the greatest part of his power. : .

. was very incredulous that men of brass would come to assist him. he was a second time constrained by the eleven kings to go into exile among the marshes on account of the helmet. in the language of the Greeks. to bear away to Egypt. and told him that men of brass. and they are situated near the sea. who had never before seen men clad in brass. with the Nile flowing between to these lands was given the name of Camps. Psammitichus. and when they had disembarked and were clad in brazen armour. Knowing. in after time. . having been made king. Apis. and having promised them great things. a little below the city of Bubastis. having arrived from the sea. To the Ionians. He perceiving that the oracle was accomplished. an Egyptian. . surrounded by a colonnade. he thus. . means Epaphus. were ravaging the plains. to be instructed in the Greek language and from those who learned the language the present interpreters in Egypt are descended. From the time of we Greeks have had . on that which is called the Pelusiac mouth of the Nile these. the settlement of these people in Egypt. an answer came That vengeance would come from the sea. when men of brass should appear. overcame the other kings. And besides these lands he gave them all that he had promised and he moreover put Egyptian children under their care. treated these Ionians and Carians in a friendly manner.: . And afterward. in which he is fed whenever he appears. . who had sailed out for the purpose of piracy. that he had been exceedingly injured by them. and full of sculptured figures and instead of pillars. King Amasis removed and settled at Memphis. making them his body-guard against the Egyptians. EUTERPE [152-154 the Ethiopian withdrew in consequence of the vision in a dream. statues twelve cubits high are placed under the piazza. stress of weather compelled some Ionians and Carians. and those who with them had assisted him. then. that faces the south wind and he built a court for Apis. . with the help of such Egyptians as were well affected to him. persuaded them to join with him and when he had succeeded in persuading them. having made himself master of all Egypt. I 42 HERODOTUS— BOOK II. He. The Ionians and the Carians continued for a long time to inhabit these lands. constructed the portico to Vulcan's Temple at Memphis. opposite the portico. and with these allies. Psammitichus gave lands opposite each other. went to the marshes to Psammitichus. But : when no long time had elapsed. however. he entertained the design of avenging himself on his persecutors and when he sent to the city of Buto to consult the oracle of Latona. where is the truest oracle that the Egyptians have.

There is in this inclosure a Temple of Latona made from one stone. Now. Apollo is caled Orus Ceres. . Bubastis. and saved him by concealing him in this. For they say that Apollo and Diana are the offspring of Bacchus and Isis.. derived the traten orgyae in height. precinct sacred to Apollo and Diana and the Temple of Latona. and the ruins of their time in the places from buildings. were to be seen in my which they were removed. The name of this city. Isis and Diana. will describe that . where this oracle of hers now is. Latona. These were the first people of a different language who settled in Egypt. add the following story: They say that in this island. . having a cornice four cubits deep. another stone is laid over it. The docks for their ships. and that Latona was their nurse and preserver: in the language of Egypt. which before did not float. in which the oracle is. when Typhon arrived. is Buto. then. and hoping to find the son of Osiris. Thus then Psammitichus became Of the oracle that is in Egypt. The Egyptians. where the oracle is. . alone among the earlier poets. master of Egypt. and in it three altars are placed and there grow in it great numbers of palms. and has a portico : But of all the things I saw there. is the most wonderful thing that I saw about this precinct: next to it is the island called Chemmis. and I was astonished when I heard that there really was a floating island. received Apollo as a deposit from the hands of Isis. : . who was one of the eight primary deities dwelling in Buto. as well deserving notice. both in height and length and each wall is equal to them each of these measures forty cubits for the roof. I have already made frequent mention and I shall now give an account of it. the son of Euphorion. This oracle in Egypt is a temple sacred to Latona. then. and no other. when they affirm that it floats. is a spacious Temple of Apollo. 154-156] THE ORACLE AT BUTO I43 such constant communication with them that we are accurately informed of all that has happened in Egypt beginning from the reign of Psammitichus to the present time. yEschylus. near that which is called the Sebennytic mouth of the Nile. situated in a deep and broad lake near the precinct in Buto. This temple. This is said by the Egyptians to be a floating island. as one sails upward from the sea. There is also in this Buto a as I have already mentioned. In this. but I myself saw it neither floating nor moving. and many other trees. situated in a large city. which is now called the floating island. is spacious. both such as produce fruit and such as do not. I which occasioned most astonishment. searching everywhere. from this account. .

and after the battle took Cadytis. and others in the Arabian Gulf. having put a stop to his excavation. made to float. Along the base of this mountain. and became King of Egypt he first began the canal that leads to the Red Sea. Afterward. turned his attention to military affairs and triremes were constructed. above this plain is situated the mountain that . II. in that it is more winding. the canal is carried lengthways from the west to the east. passing from the mountain toward the meridian and the south inward. This Azotus. Psammis. The parts of the Egyptian plain that lie toward Arabia were dug first. conquered them. having reigned sixteen years in all. Its length is a voyage of four days. having sent them to Branchidse of the Milesians. until he took it. some on the northern sea. which is a large city in Syria. The garments he wore during these actions he consecrated to Apollo. but the canal is very much longer. and it enters it a little above the city Bubastis. ambassa: . Such is the account they give. These he used as he had occasion and Neco. and in width it was dug so that two triremes might sail rowed abreast. or the Red Sea. namely. On Psammitichus reigned in Egypt fifty-four years during twenty-nine of which he sat down before and besieged Azotus. The water is drawn into it from the Nile. . . from Mount Casius. from this point the distance is a thousand stades to the Arabian Gulf: this. which is the same as that called the Red Sea. and reaches to the Red Sea. he died and left the kingdom to his son. Neco was son of Psammitichus. in the digging of which one hundred and twenty thousand Egyptians perished in the reign of Neco. in which are the quarries. of all the cities we know of. therefore. Neco stopped digging it in the middle of the work.: 144 HERODOTUS— BOOK . held out against a siege the longest period. EUTERPE [156-160 dition that I will mention for he made Diana to be the daughthis account they say that the island was ter of Ceres. as far as the Arabian Gulf. a large city of Syria. stretches toward Memphis. then. But Neco. While this Psammis was reigning over Egypt. that separates Egypt from Syria. is the most direct way. having come to an engagement with the Syrians on land at Magdolus. the following oracle having caused an impediment that he was working for a barbarian for the Egyptians call all men barbarians who do not speak the same language as themselves. and then it stretches to the defiles. Now. . But in the part where is the shortest and most direct passage from the northern sea to the southern. of which the docks are still to be seen. which Darius' the Persian afterward completed. passes near the Arabian city Patumos.

. having arrived in Egypt. his son. during a reign of five-and-twenty years. one of the Egyptians standing behind him placed a helmet on his head. Apries. having come to them. and believing that not even the Egyptians. He. having heard of this. met with a signal defeat and the Egyptians. next to his grandfather Psammitichus. asked the Eleans whether their own citizens were permitted to enter the lists they said that they and all other Grecians. and he might govern the rest of the Egyptians with greater security both those that returned and the friends of those who perished. openly revolted against him. and to allow no Elean to enter the lists. having met together. they advised them to establish games for foreign candidates. suspecting that Apries had designedly sent them to certain ruin. sent Amasis to appease them by persuasion. and briefly in this place. When Psammis had reigned only six years over Egypt. And they. and made an expedition into Ethiopia. having consulted together. could invent anything surpassing them. in order that they might be destroyed. Apries. revolted from him. heard the Eleans relate what was settled for them to do with regard to the games and they. in which period he marched an army against Sidon. But when he. . enjoyed greater prosperity than any of the former kings. being very indignant at this.. was endeavouring to restrain them. having sent an army against the Cyrenseans. were allowed to contend but the Egyptians replied. mentioned for what purpose they had come. . When the Eleans. For Apries. boasting that they had established the Olympian games under the most just and excellent regulations in the world. and engaged the Tyrians by sea. this king thereupon summoned those who were reputed to be the wisest among the Egyptians and the Egyptians. complaining of this. who wished. zo . it happened on an occasion which I shall narrate more fully in my Libyan history. the wisest of mankind. Such was the suggestion that the Egyptians made to the Eleans. and had come into Egypt for this purpose. That in making such enactments they had totally deviated from the rules of justice. 160-162] APRIES AND AMASIS 145 dors arrived from the Eleans. But when it was destined for him to meet with adversity. and shortly afterward died. But if they really wished to make just enactments. succeeded to the kingdom. for that they could not contrive so as not to favour a citizen of their own to the prejudice of a stranger. and as he put it on said that he put it on him to make . said they had come to inquire whether the Egyptians could invent anything more equitable. having mentioned everything. . as he was urging them to desist from their enterprise.

and. the island called Prosopitis. for that he would not only appear himself. and seeing preparations being made. Now Apries's party advanced against the Egyptians. but he answered. Apries. and that Apries should have no cause of complaint. and they are of the following districts. taking no time for deliberation. others swineherds. such are the classes of Egyptians they take their pilots names from the employments they exercise. with orders to bring Amasis alive into his presence. Papremis. Sais. when they are most numerous. For when the revolters had appointed him King of the Egyptians. That he had been some time preparing to do so. being of Natho. in a transport of passion commanded his ears and nose to be cut off. They met near the city Momemphis. he prepared to lead an army against Apries but Apries. did not delay a moment. Their warriors are called Calasiries or Hermotybies. . sent to Amasis a considerable person among the Egyptians that adhered to him. as he presently showed. Nevertheless. lastly. who still adhered to him. and the party of Amasis against the foreigners. but went immediately over to the others and gave themselves to Amasis. in number. a hundred and sixty thousand. however. Amasis. for all Egypt is divided into districts. and prepared to engage with each other. others herdsmen.I 46 HERODOTUS— BOOK If. being informed of this. he came to Apries without bringing Amasis. When Patarbemis arrived and summoned Amasis. The following are the districts of the Hermotybies Busiris. EUTERPE [162-166 him king. to go to him. . These next are . : . Patarbemis. as he wished to inform the king as soon as possible of what was going on when. Patarbemis begged of him. Chemmis. but apply themselves wholly to military affairs. and the half From these districts are the Hermotybies. that was spacious and magnificent. There are seven classes of Egyptians. and of these some are called priests. : . others tradesmen. And this action was not at all disagreeable to Amasis. since the king had sent for him. whose name was Patarbemis. The rest of the Egyptians. When Apries heard of this. others warriors. raising his leg (for he happened to be on horseback). others interpreters. he armed his auxiliaries and marched against the Egyptians but he had with him Carian and Ionian auxiliaries to the number of thirty thousand and he had a palace in the city of Sais. perceiving his design from what was said. but would bring others with him. . seeing one of the most distinguished among them treated in so unworthy a manner. broke wind and bade him carry that to Apries. returned in haste. None of these learn any mechanical art.

. Lydians. being in number. but which now belonged to Amasis here he was maintained for some time in the royal palace. and particularly those who devote themselves to war.166-169] AMASIS MADE KING : 147 the districts of the Calasiries Thebes. and the Egyptian cubit is equal to that of Samos these privileges were attached to them all. and as many of the Hermotybies. but they devote themselves to military pursuits alone. To these alone of all the Egyptians. When therefore Apries. the following special privileges are attached twelve chosen acres free from tribute the acre contains a square of one hundred Egyptian cubits. defeated. Apries is said to have been of opinion that not even a god could deprive him of his kingdom. and four arysters of wine. this district is situated in an island opposite the city Bubastis. neither are these allowed to practise any art. have adopted the same notion. but others enjoyed them by turns. Mycephoris . the son succeeding to his father. and Amasis treated him well. Athribis. Anysis. when they are most numerous. Aphthis. two minae of beef. persons never more than once. but deem such to be noble as abstain from handicrafts. Onuphis. Whether the Greeks learned this custom from the Egyptians I am unable to determine with certainty. leading his auxiliaries. two hundred and fifty thousand men. and the same thousand of the Calasiries. but being far inferior in numbers. and the foreigners fought well. But at length the Egyptians complaining that he did not act rightly in preserving a man who was the greatest enemy both to them and to him. All the Greeks. moreover. and almost all barbarous nations hold in less honour than their other citizens those who learn any art and their descendants. all the Egyptians. and Amasis. seeing that the Thracians. : : : A : : : . in addition to the acres. Mendes. Thmuis. besides the To each priests. each served for a year as the king's body-guard to these accordingly was given the following allowance daily. to each five minae in weight of baked bread. and being taken prisoner. and they strangled him. Sebennys. This was the constant allowance of the bodyguard. and especially the Lacedaemonians but the Corinthians hold handicraftsmen in least disesteem. were. on that account. These are the districts of the Calasiries. he thereupon delivered Apries to the Egyptians. however. Bubastis. Tanis. Pharbaethis. he was carried back to Sais. to that which was formerly his own palace. met together at Momemphis. they came to an engagement. so securely did he think himself established now. Scythians. when he came to an engagement he was beaten. Persians.

And respecting the sacred rites of Ceres. consisting of a large stone chamber. is the tomb of one whose name I consider it impious to divulge on such an occasion. and within the doors is the sepulchre. Danaus were they who introduced these ceremonies from Egypt. the tomb of Amasis is further from the temple than that of Apries and his progenitors. this is in the sacred precinct of Minerva. At first the Egyptians despised. In this lake they perform by night the representation of that person's adventures. as having been formerly a private person. and all his guests. these rites were lost but the Arcadians. ornamented with a stone margin. I must observe a discreet silence. adorned with columns. and placed it in the most suitable part of the city. formed in a circle. . in which Amasis himself. On these matters. however. Amasis. Apries being thus dethroned. He had an infinite number of other treasures. alone preserved them. which they call mysteries. and besides a golden foot-pan. he had made from it the statue of a god. although I am acquainted with them. but afterward he conciliated them by his address. very near the temple. without any arrogance. informed of their behaviour. reigned in his stead the name of the city from which he came was Siuph. The Saitae used to bring all the kings sprung from this district within the sacred precinct. and the Egyptians. but even this is in the court of the sacred precinct. and of no illustrious family. . though accurately acquainted with the particulars of them. behind the chapel and joining the whole of the wall.I48 HERODOTUS— BOOK II. EUTERPE [169-172 in his ancestral sepulchre. were accustomed to wash their feet. Amasis. in the sacred precinct of Minerva. saying that the statue was made out of the foot-pan in which the Egyptians formerly . and afterward buried him folding doors. however. as appeared to me. paid it the greatest reverence. on the left hand as you enter. and there is a lake near. and in size. and not expelled. who were the only Peloponnesians left. which the Greeks call Thesmophoria. much the same as that in Delos. But flocking to the image. And in the inclosure stand large stone obelisks. when almost the whole Peloponnese was depopulated by the Dorians. and taught them to the Pelasgian women: but afterward. made in imitation of palm trees. and held him in no great estimation. which is called the Circular. and with other ornaments inside this chamber are placed . At Sais also. Having then broken this in pieces. who was of the Saitic district. I must observe silence except so far The daughters of as it is lawful for me to speak of them. and explained the matter to them. called the Egyptians together.

on his denying it. and as having only lying responses to give. He adopted the following method of managing his affairs Early in the morning. he would unawares become mad or stupefied. conFor trol yourself properly. size. . built far surpassing all others .: . it becomes you. so that he could not use it when he had need. and offer sacrifices. the same had happened to him as to the foot-pan for though he was before but a private person. to pass the day in transacting public business thus the Egyptians would know that they are governed by a great man. Such persons as accused him of having their property. I. admonished him. livering authentic responses. therefore. he assiduously despatched the business brought before him after that he drank and jested with his companions. But now you act in a manner not at all becoming a king. " You do not. and he talked loosely and sportively. and washed their feet. they unbend them. offended at this. he proceeded to say. he acted as follows Whatever gods had absolved him from the charge of theft. : . he therefore required them to honour and respect him by this means he won over the Egyptians. and he was oftentimes convicted by the oracles. it would break. an admirable portico to the Temple of both in height and as well as in the dimensions and quality of the stones. nor contributed anything toward their repair. neither did he frequent them." But he answered them as follows " They who have bows. and which they then so greatly reverenced now then. when they want to use them. and oftentimes acquitted. he came to the throne. and by no means inclined to serious business and when the means failed him for drinking and indulging himself. and de. fond of drinking and jesting. When. yet he was now their king. Moreover. 172-175] THE REIGN OF AMASIS 149 vomited. considering them as truly gods. But his friends. who sit on a venerable throne. so that they thought fit to obey him. saying. bend them but when they have done using them. even when a private person. being well aware of this. until the time of fullmarket. he used to go about pilfering. and you would be better spoken of. in making yourself too common. and not give himself up sometimes to sport. . Such is the condition of man if he should incessantly attend to serious business. to them he paid the highest respect. : : . of their temples he neither took any heed." Thus he answered his friends. for if it were kept always bent. used to take him to the oracle of the place. But as many as had convicted him of the charge of theft. give up a portion of my time to each. he Minerva at Sais. O king. considering them of no consequence at all. . made water. Amasis is said to have been.

say that one of the men employed at the levers was crushed to death by it. both bestowed . the length is eighteen cubits and twenty digits. and if he failed to do this. having brought this law from Egypt. for they say that he did not draw it within the precinct for the following reason the architect. is this: he brought a building of one stone from the city of Elephantine. the reclining colossus before the Temple of Vulcan. as being an unobjectionable regulation. Some persons. This is the measure of the outside of the one-stoned chamber. The length of this chamber. and from the land to the people and it is said to have contained at that time twenty thousand inhabited cities. It was Amasis also who built the temple to Isis at Memphis. and the height eight. being wearied with the : work. chamber is placed near the entrance of the sacred precinct. lying in the same manner as that at Memphis. and brought other stones of a prodigious size for repairs: of these he brought some from the quarries near Memphis but those of the greatest magnitude. . But of these. would not suffer it to be drawn any farther. both in respect to the benefits derived from the river to the land. were occupied three whole years in its transport. being partial to the Greeks. and the height five cubits. over which so long a time had been spent. of which the length is seventy-five feet and on the same base stand two statues of Ethiopian stone. that every Egyptian should annually declare to the governor of his district by what means he maintained himself. This . he should be punished with death. outside. and two thousand men. is twenty-one cubits. and huge andro-sphinxes. or did not show that he lived by honest means. distant from Sais a passage of twenty days. whereupon Amasis. rather the most admire. Amasis dedicated in all the most famous temples works admirable for their magnitude and among them at Memphis. . and the width twelve cubits. established it at Athens and that people still continue to observe it. . Amasis it was who established the law among the Egyptians. that which I not the least. from the city of Elephantine. making a religious scruple of this.150 HERODOTUS—BOOK II. however. the breadth fourteen. one on each side of the temple. There is also at Sais another . Under the reign of Amasis Egypt is said to have enjoyed the greatest prosperity. But inside. similar statue. each twenty feet in height. and these men were all pilots. and that on that account it was not drawn into the precinct. Solon the Athenian. heaved a deep sigh. EUTERPE [175-178 he likewise dedicated large statues. Amasis. as the chamber was being drawn along. which is spacious and well worthy of notice. who were appointed to convey it.

Amasis also contracted a friendship and an alliance with the Cyrenaeans and resolved to take a wife from that country. So great were the privileges of Naucratis. . 178-181] THE REIGN OF AMASIS 151 other favours on various of the Greeks. Amasis said to this : . Naucratis was anciently the only place of resort for merchants. the daughter of Battus. Mitylene alone. you have used charms against me. was erected at the common charge of the following cities Of the Ionians. and the Milesians one to Apollo. Halicarnassus. of Critobulus. of Arcesilaus. he was obliged to swear that he had come there against his will and having taken such an oath. : . or from some peculiar affection to the Cyrenaeans. Rhodes. He therefore married. and the Grecians who were settled in Egypt twenty minae. but only to trade by sea. he must sail in the same ship to the Canopic mouth but if he should be prevented by contrary winds from doing so. which was not the case with respect to other women upon the continuance of this for a long time. Phocaea. the most spacious of these sacred buildings. and Clazomenae. he was forced to unload his goods. either out of a desire of having a Grecian woman. Chios. who was called Ladice O woman. and moreover gave the city of Naucratis for such as arrived in Egypt to dwell in and to such as did not wish to settle there. and it fell upon the Delphians to supply a fourth part of the sum). a person of distinction among the citizens her name was Ladice. the in it. Cnidus. For Amasis gave them a thousand talents of alum. and these cities appoint officers to preside over the mart and whatever other cities claim a share Besides this. and no contrivance can prevent your perishing by the most cruel death of all women. . Whenever Amasis lay with her he was unable to have connection with her. the Delphians went about from city to city and solicited contributions . which is also the most renowned and frequented. . : . When the Amphyctions contracted to build the temple that now stands at Delphi for three hundred talents (for the temple that was formerly there had been burned by accident. and there was no other in Egypt: and if a man arrived at any other mouth of the Nile. Phaselis and of the ^olians. called the Hellenium. of the Dorians. . claim what does not belong to them. : woman. Now. and carry them in barges round the Delta until he reached Naucratis. though others. So that this temple belongs to them. people of ^gina built a temple to Jupiter for themselves and the Samians another to Juno. and doing this they brought home no small amount from Egypt. Teos. he granted places where they might erect altars and temples to the gods.. as some say. others." But Ladice.

on account of the friendship that subsisted between himself and Polycrates. and from that time forward. When Cambyses had conquered Egypt. and subjected it to the payment of tribute. secondly. behind the doors. thirdly.152 HERODOTUS— BOOK II. facing out of the city of Cyrene. made a mental vow to Venus that if Amasis should have intercourse with her that night (for this was the onlyremedy left) she would send a statue of the goddess to Cyrene. Immediately after the vow Amasis had intercourse with her. But Ladice performed her vow to the goddess. In the first place. but because it is reported that the daughters of Danaus founded the Temple of Minerva at Lindus. she sent it to Cyrene. . Amasis also dedicated offerings in Greece. Now he made this offering at Samos. not on account of any friendship. He was the first who conquered Cyprus. to Minerva in Lindus two stone statues and a linen corselet well worthy of notice. for. whenever he came to her. to Juno at Samos two images of himself carved in wood. and it was still safe in my time. he was able to have connection and after this he was exceedingly fond of her. when they touched there in their flight from the sons of Egyptus and these were the offerings that Amasis made. the son of ^Eaces but those at Lindus. : . which stood in the large temple even in my time. and learned who this Ladice was. . EUTERPE [181-182 finding that Amasis was not at all appeased by her denial of the fact. having caused a statue to be made. he sent her back unharmed to Cyrene. a gilded statue of Minerva at Cyrene. and his own portrait painted.

made /\ war. After a time. knew not whether to give or to deny. son of Cyrus. being greatly enraged. The cause of the war was this Cambyses. his own subjects. put to death. in truth. presenting me as his own daughter. having this spite against him. saygive. gold. the damsel said to him " king. whereas. AGAINST this Amasis. he did as follows: tress.BOOK III THALIA an d of the Grecians. not as his wife. Ionians. bidding him demand the daughter of Amasis. or if he refused he might incur the hatred of Cambyses. and this accusation. sent me to you. The Egyptian therefore. having sent a herald into Egypt. and ^Eolians. . because. Cambyses. having adorned with cloth of Nitetis. urged on Cambyses by his suggestions. who. to invade Egypt. There was a daughter of Apries. when Cambyses saluted her. when Cyrus. the son of Cyrus. Such is the account the Persians But the Egyptians claim Cambyses as their own. I am the daughter of Apries. : / . the former king. the only survivor of the family her name was This damsel. But Amasis. having dressed in rich attire. he had sent him as a present to the Persians. you do not perceive that : O you have been imposed upon by Amasis. me i53 . sent to Persia as his own daughter. after he had incited the Egyptians to revolt." These words. who out of spite served Amasis in this manner. and being alarmed. demanded the daughter of Amasis and he made this demand at the suggestion of an Egyptian physician. having selected him out of all the physicians in Egypt. Y. addressing her by her father's name. leading with him both others. required of him the best oculist in Egypt. having sent to Amasis. Amasis. very tall and beautiful. induced Cambyses. though he was his own master. for he was well aware that Cambyses purposed to take her. dreading the power of the Persians. whom he. in order that if he should comply he might be grieved. but his misHaving considered these things. and torn him from his wife and children.

: . that Cambyses was the son of Cassandane. first of all. I will turn all Egypt upside down. And this is the real state of the case. . claiming to be related to the family of Cyrus. did not bring him back to Egypt. and not of the Egyptian woman. and was in doubt about his route. which belongs A . Nor indeed could it escape their notice (for if any people are well acquainted with the Persian customs. Cambyses. he informed him both of other affairs of Amasis. This Phanes. This other story is also certain Persian lady told. standing by her. ." He said this when he was about ten years of age. daughter of Pharnaspes. said. wife of Cyrus. But they pervert the truth. the Egyptians are so) that. bearing it in mind when he grew up and was possessed of the kingdom. accordingly invaded Egypt. which to me seems incredible. advising him to send to the King of the Arabians.I5 4 HERODOTUS— BOOK III. [2-5 ing that he was born from this daughter of Apries for that it was Cyrus. and secondly. and honours her whom he has obtained from Egypt. when I am a man. But as he was a man of no small consequence among the auxiliaries. one able in counsel and valiant in war. one of the Achaemenidae. he got away to the Persians and coming over to Cambyses as he was preparing to march against Egypt. said. with a design to confer with Cambyses. and not Cambyses. The following other incident also occurred to promote this invasion There was among the auxiliaries of Amasis a man by birth an Halicarnassian. but having taken him." This she said through envy of Nitetis but the eldest of her sons. mother. and was very accurately acquainted with the affairs of Egypt. THALIA . it is not customary with them for a natural son to reign when there is a legitimate son living. Amasis sent in pursuit of him. being exceedingly struck with them but Cassandane. escaped in a ship from Egypt. Cyrus holds me in disdain. and the women were much astonished but he. who caught him in Lycia. " Therefore. " Though I am the mother of such children. for Phanes overreached him by artifice. with a trireme. . but in saying this they err. whose name was Phanes. For from Phoenicia to the confines of the city of Cadytis. By this way only is there an open passage into Egypt. praised them highly. how he should pass the arid desert. who sent to Amasis for his daughter. . owing some spite to Amasis. and explained to him the route. for having intoxicated his guards. visited Cyrus's women. and when she saw the children of Cassandane. and ask him to grant him a safe passage through his territories. making every effort to take him and he sent the most trusty of his eunuchs in pursuit of him. beautiful and tall.

and the friends also hold themselves obliged to observe the engagement. Every magistrate is obliged to collect all the vessels from his own city. as soon as they became masters of Egypt. was not provided. but about a circumthree days' journey. and send them to Memphis. then. not a single one of these wine jars is afterward to be seen. From every part of Greece. in which Typhon is reported to have been concealed. and from opinion not much less than Cadytis.. near the longest fingers. but the people of that city. They acknowledge no other gods than Bacchus and Urania. and requested a safe passage. with the blood and as he does this he invokes Bacchus and Urania. 5-8] ARABIA 1 55 to those who are called the Syrians of Palestine. by the advice of the Halicarnassian stranger. his faith binds his friends as sureties to the stranger. my . is utterly destitute of water. belongs to the Syrians and from the Lake Serbonis. stance that few of those who have made voyages to Egypt have noticed. Egypt begins. or the citizen if the contract be made with a citizen. as far as the Lake Serbonis. and also from Phoenicia. Thus the Persians. and they say that their hair is cut in the same way as Bacchus's is cut . which is no small tract. In what way. sent ambassadors to the Arabian. which is a city in Sardis. makes an incision with a sharp stone in the palm of the hand. a third person. . so the earthen vessels continually imported and landed in Egypt are added to those already in Syria. but they cut it in a circular form. are they disposed of? This I will also relate. giving to and receiving A from him pledges of faith. the person who pledges . The Arabians observe pledges as religiously as any people and they make them in the following manner: When any wish to pledge their faith. placed between them. near which Mount Casius stretches to the sea. and Urania. of both the contractors then taking some of the nap from the garment of each. water the manner above mentioned. having filled them with water. They call Bacchus. at that time. facilitated the passage into that country by supplying it with water in But as. which he obtained. shearing it round the temples. convey them to those arid parts of Syria. from Jenysus. . When this ceremony is completed. so to speak. standing between the two parties. Mount Casius. Now. the seaports as far as the city of Jenysus belong to the Arabian king and again. I shall now proceed to mention. he smears seven stones. and yet. some one may ask. Cambyses. Orotal . the country between the city of Jenysus. earthen vessels rilled with wine are imported into Egypt twice every year. : and the Lake Serbonis.

When they slaughtered all the children. lay encamped at that called the Pelusiac mouth of the Nile awaiting Cambyses for Cambyses did not find Amasis alive when he marched against Egypt. Here I saw a very surprising fact. consisting of Greeks and Carians. and there awaited the army of Cambyses. THALIA [9-12 When. the arid region. 156 Alilat. This is the most credible of the accounts that are given. HERODOTUS— BOOK III. the Arabian had exchanged pledges with the ambassadors who came from Cambyses. during which no great calamity had befallen him. they immediately joined battle. since it is likewise affirmed. and when great numbers had fallen on both sides. the son of Amasis. he loaded them on all his living camels. these they brought to the camp.. halted near the Egyptians. condemning Phanes because he had led a foreign army against Egypt. yet it is right that one less credible should be mentioned. they poured wine and water into the bowl and after all the auxiliaries had hard drunk of the blood. son of Amasis. which the people of the country informed me of. then. for rain fell at Egyptian Thebes. the Egyptians were put to flight. . adopted the following expedient against him: Phanes had left his sons in Egypt. A . . within sight of their father. conveyed the water through it and that in the arid region he dug large reservoirs to receive and preserve the water. but at that time rain The Persians having marched through fell in drops at Thebes. There is a large river in Arabia called Corys. a most remarkable prodigy befell the Egyptians . battle having been fought. but Amasis died after a reign of forty-four years. which he himself had built. then dragging the children one by one. and placed a bowl midway between the two armies. It is a twelve days' journey from the river to the arid region he therefore conveyed water through three several pipes into three different places. they slew them over the bowl. therefore. to my time. and having done this he drove them to the arid region. it is said that the King of the Arabians having sewn together a pipe of ox-hides and other skins. there the auxiliaries of the Egyptians. From this river. But having died. For no rain ever falls in the upper regions of Egypt . which discharges itself : into that called the Red Sea. and being embalmed. reaching in length to the arid region. which had never happened before. he adopted the following contrivance Having filled camels' skins with water. For as the bones of those who were killed . nor since. During the reign of Psammenitus. as if with a design of engaging. as the Thebans themselves affirm. Psammenitus. he was buried in the sepulchre that is in the sacred precinct.

they told me. with a Persian herald on board. — : . they carried them into the citadel. and I readily assented That the Egyptians begin from childhood and shave their heads. with loud lamenta. having seated Psammenitus. The cause of this. being equally alarmed with the Libyans. to invite the Egyptians to But they. at the entrance of the city. son of Darius. and he sent with her other virgins selected from the principal families. The neighbouring Libyans. as I suppose. which he grasped and dispersed with his own hand among the soldiers. This. by way of insult having seated him with other Egyptians. and the reason is the cause of their having such strong skulls why the Persians have weak skulls is this they shade them from the first. and the bone is thickened by exposure to the sun: from the same cause. and those of the Egyptians in another). is as follows. dressed in the same manner as the king's daughter. As the virgins. wearing tiaras for hats. phis. and submitted to pay a tribute. But Cambyses received very graciously the presents that came from the Libyans but was displeased with those of the Cyrenaeans. they are less subject to baldness. The Egyptians. when they were defeated. when they saw the bark entering Memterms. destroyed the ship. he sent her with a pitcher to fetch water. gave themselves up. for one sees fewer persons bald in Egypt than in any other country. rushed in a mass from the wall. he made trial of his courage by the following means Having dressed his daughter in the habit of a slave. : : : . saw that such was the case. myself. with respect to those who were slain with Achaemenes. and I also observed the same thing at Papremis. by Inarus the Libyan. they were inconsiderable. On the tenth day after Cambyses had taken the citadel of Memphis. fearing what had befallen Egypt. because. did as they had done. without resistance. then. Now I. the King of the Egyptians. who had reigned only six months. After this the Egyptians were besieged. For the Cyrenaeans sent only five hundred minae of silver. and having torn the crew to pieces limb by limb. When they had shut themselves up in Memphis.12-14] CAMBYSES CONQUERS EGYPT 157 in that battle lie scattered the Persians lay apart in about separately (for the bones of one place as they did at first. Cambyses sent a Mitylenaean bark up the river. fled in complete disorder from the battle. In like manner the Cyrenaeans and Barcseans. the skulls of the Persians were so weak that if you should hit them only with a single pebble you would break a hole in them whereas those of the Egyptians are so hard that you could scarcely fracture them by striking them with a stone. and sent presents. and at length surrendered. also.

. and your son led to execution. with two thousand Egyptians of the same age. only bent his eyes to the ground." When this answer was brought back by the messenger. when he saw and knew what was going on. however." He then asked this question. asking alms of the soldiery. having fallen from abundance and prosperity. and knew that his son was being led out to death. There were. : . as he is informed. Yet he. when he saw them passing by. THALIA [14-15 and weeping. has come to beggary on the threshold of old age. smote his head. with halters about their necks and a bridle in their mouths and they were led out to suffer retribution for those Mitylenseans who had perished at Memphis with the ship.158 tion HERODOTUS—BOOK III. he next sent his son. did the same as he had done in his daughter's case. the calamities of my family are too great to be expressed by lamentation but the griefs of my friend were worthy of tears. and gave immediate orders to preserve his son out of those who were to perish. Those who were sent found the son no longer alive. passed by Psammenitus. they conducted him to Cambyses. who is in no way related to you. and the Egyptians seated in the suburbs but . Croesus wept. When these had passed by. having been the first that suffered but having removed Psammenitus himself. but Psammenitus answered as follows " Son of Cyrus. and to remove him and bring him from the suburbs into his presence. sent a messenger. with whom he afterward lived. who had lost his all. and inquired of him as follows " Psammjenitus. But Psammenitus alone. Psammenitus. and Cambyses himself was touched with pity. surprised at this behaviour. all the other fathers answered them with wailing and weeping when they beheld their children thus humiliated. though all the rest of the Egyptians who sat round him wept and made loud lamentations. as the Egyptians relate. with: : . when you saw your daughter humiliated. For the royal judges had given sentence that for each man ten of the principal Egyptians should be put to death. . and the Persians that were present wept also. a man somewhat advanced in years. . . your master Cambyses inquires why. came into the presence of their fathers. When these water-carriers had passed by. for he had attended Cambyses into Egypt. spies there who communicated to Cambyses everything that was done by him at each procession but Cambyses. it appeared to Cambyses to be well said and. the son of Amasis. you did not bewail or lament and have been so highly concerned for a beggar. it happened that one of his boon companions. and calling his companion by name. when he saw him weeping bitterly. and possessed nothing but such things as a beggar has. who.






out experiencing any violence. And had it not been suspected that he was planning innovations, he would probably have recovered Egypt, so as to have the government intrusted to him. For the Persians are accustomed to honour the sons of kings, and even if they have revolted from them, nevertheless bestow the government upon their children that such is their custom may be proved from many other examples, and among them by that of Thannyras, the son of Inarus the Libyan, who recovered the government which his father had and by that of Pausiris, son of Amyrtseus, for he also recovered his father's government yet none ever did more mischief to the Persians than Inarus and Amyrtaeus. But now Psammenitus, devising mischief, received his reward, for he was discovered inciting the Egyptians to revolt and when he was detected by Cambyses he was compelled to drink the blood of a bull, and died immediately. Such, then, was his end. Cambyses proceeded from Memphis to the city of Sais, purposing to do what he did effect; for when he entered the palace of Amasis, he presently commanded the dead body of Amasis to be brought out of the sepulchre and when this was done he gave orders to scourge it, to pull off the hair, to prick But when they it, and to abuse it in every possible manner. were wearied with this employment (for the dead body, since it was embalmed, resisted, and did not at all fall in pieces), Cambyses gave orders to burn it, commanding what is impious. For the Persians consider fire to be a god therefore to burn the dead is on no account allowed by either nation; not by the Persians, for the reason above mentioned, for they say it is not right to offer to a god the dead body of a man and by the Egyptians fire is held to be a living beast, and that it devours everything it can lay hold of, and when it is glutted with food it expires with what it has consumed therefore it is their law, on no account to give a dead body to wild beasts, and for that reason they embalm them, that they may not lie and be eaten by worms. Cambyses, therefore, commanded a thing repugnant to the customs of both nations. However, as the Egyptians say, it was not Amasis that was thus treated, but some other Egyptian of the same stature as Amasis whom the Persians insulted, thinking they insulted Amasis. For they say that Amasis, having been informed by an oracle of what should happen to him after death, in order to remedy the impending evil, buried the body of this very man who was scourged near the door of his own sepulchre, and charged his son to deposit his own in the remotest part of the vault. Now, these commands of Amasis, touch;
: ;









ing his own burial, and this man, appear to me never to have been given, but the Egyptians falsely boast of them. Afterward, Cambyses planned three several expeditions: one against the Carthaginians, another against the Ammonians, and a third against the Macrobian Ethiopians, who inhabit that part of Libya which lies upon the South Sea. And in forming his plans he determined to send a naval force against the Carthaginians, and against the Ammonians a detachment of his land forces ; and against the Ethiopians, spies in the first instance, who were to see the table of the sun, which was said to exist among the Ethiopians, and besides to explore other things, and to cover their design they were to carry presents to the king. The table of the sun is said to be of the following description: There is a meadow in the suburbs filled with the cooked flesh of all sorts of quadrupeds; in this the several magistrates of the city, for some purpose, place the flesh at night, and in the daytime whoever chooses comes and feasts on it. The inhabitants say that the earth itself, from time to time, produces these things. Such is the description given of what is called the table of the sun. When Cambyses had determined to send the spies, he immediately sent to Elephantine for some of the Ichthyophagi, who understood the Ethiopian language and while they were fetching these, he commanded the naval force to sail against Carthage. But the Phoenicians refused to obey, for that they were bound by solemn oaths, and that they should act impiously if they made war against their own descendants. As the Phoenicians would not go, the rest were not fit for such an enterprise thus, therefore, the Carthaginians escaped slavery at the hands of the Persians. For Cambyses did not think it right to employ force toward the Phoenicians, because they had voluntarily submitted to the Persians, and the whole naval force depended on them. The Cyprians, too, having given themselves up to the Persians, joined the expedition against Egypt. When the Ichthyophagi came to Cambyses from Elephantine, he despatched them to the Ethiopians, having instructed them what to say, carrying presents consisting of a purple cloak, a golden necklace, bracelets, an alabaster box of ointment, and a cask of palm wine. These Ethiopians, to whom Cambyses sent, are said to be the tallest and handsomest of all men and they say that they have customs different from those of other nations, and especially the following, with regard to the regal power; for they confer the sovereignty upon the man whom they consider to be of the largest stature, and to possess strength proportionable to his size.






When, therefore, the Ichthyophagi arrived among this people, they gave the presents to the king, and addressed him as follows " Cambyses, King of the Persians, desirous of becoming your friend and ally, has sent us, bidding us confer with you, and he presents you with these gifts, which are such as he himself most delights in." But the Ethiopian, knowing that they came as spies, spoke thus to them " Neither has the King of the Persians sent you with presents to me, because he valued my alliance; nor do you speak the truth; for ye are come as spies of my kingdom. Nor is he a just man ; for if he were just, he would not desire any other territory than his own nor would he reduce people into servitude who have done him no injury. However, give him this bow, and say The King of the Ethiopians advises the these words to him King of the Persians, when the Persians can thus easily draw a bow of this size, then to make war on the Macrobian Ethiopians with more numerous forces; but until that time let him thank the gods, who have not inspired the sons of the Ethiopians with a desire of adding another land to their own.'" Having spoken thus and unstrung the bow, he delivered it to the comers. Then taking up the purple cloak, he asked what it was, and how made and when the Ichthyophagi told him the truth respecting the purple, and the manner of dyeing, he said that the men are deceptive, and their garments are deceptive also. Next he inquired about the necklace and bracelets, and when the Ichthyophagi explained to him their use as ornaments, the king, laughing, and supposing them to be fetters, said that they have stronger fetters than these. Thirdly, he inquired about the ointment and when they told him about its composition and use, he made the same remark as he had on the cloak. But when he came to the wine, and inquired how it was made, being very much delighted with the draught, he further asked what food the king made use of, and what was the longest age to which a Persian lived. They answered, that he fed on bread, describing the nature of wheat and that the longest period of the life of a Persian was eighty years. Upon this the Ethiopian said that he was not at all surprised if men who fed on dung lived so few years and they would not be able to live so many years if they did not refresh themselves with this beverage, showing the wine to the Ichthyophagi for in this he admitted they were surpassed by the Persians. The Ichthyophagi inquiring in turn of the king concerning the life and diet of the Ethiopians, he said, that most of them attained to a hundred and twenty years, and some even exceeded that term, and that their food
: :














flesh, and their drink milk. And when the spies expressed their astonishment at the number of years, he led them to a fountain, by washing in which they became more sleek, as if it had been of oil, and an odour proceeded from it as of violets. The water of this fountain, the spies said, is so weak that nothing is able to float upon it, neither wood, nor such things as are lighter than wood; but everything sinks to the bottom. If this water is truly such as it is said to be, it may be they are long-lived by reason of the abundant use of it. Leaving this fountain, he conducted them to the common prison, where all were fettered with golden chains; for among these Ethiopians brass is the most rare and precious of all metals. After having viewed the prison, they next visited that which is called the table of the sun. After this, they visited last of all their sepulchres, which are said to be prepared from crystal in the following manner When they have dried the body, either as the Egyptians do, or in some other way, they plaster it all over with gypsum, and paint it, making it as much as possible resemble real life they then put round it a hollow column made of crystal, which they dig up in abundance, and is easily wrought. The body, being in the middle of the column, is plainly seen, nor does it emit an un-

was boiled



pleasant smell, nor is it in any way offensive: and it is all The nearest relations keep the visible * as the body itself. column in their houses for a year, offering to it the first fruits of all, and performing sacrifices after that time they carry it out and place it somewhere near the city. The spies, having seen everything, returned home; and when they had reported all that had passed, Cambyses, being greatly enraged, immediately marched against the Ethiopians, without making any provision for the subsistence of his army, or once considering that he was going to carry his arms to the remotest parts of the world but as a madman, and not in possession of his senses, as soon as he heard the report of the Ichthyophagi, he set out on his march, ordering the Greeks who were present to stay behind, and taking with him all his land forces. When the army reached Thebes, he detached about fifty thousand men, and ordered them to reduce the Ammonians to slavery, and to burn the oracular Temple of Jupiter, while he with the rest of his army marched against the Ethiopians. But before the army had passed over a fifth part of the way, all the provisions that they had were ex;


1 The Egyptian mummies could only be seen in front, the back being covered by a box or coffin the Ethiopian bodies could be seen all round, as the column of glass was transparent.




hausted, and after the provisions, the beasts of burden were and likewise failed. Now if Cambyses, when he learned this, had altered his purpose, and had led back his army, even after his first error, he would have proved himself to be a wise man. But now, without any reflection, he still continued advancing. The soldiers, as long as they could gather any from the earth, supported life by eating herbs but when they reached the sands, some of them had recourse to a horrid expedient, for taking one man in ten by lot, they devoured him when Cambyses heard this, shocked at their eating one another, he abandoned his expedition against the Ethiopians, marched back and reached Thebes, after losing a great part from his army. From Thebes he went down to Memphis, and suffered the Greeks to sail away. Thus ended the expedition against the Ethiopians. Those who had been sent on the expedition against the Ammonians, after having set out from Thebes, marched under the conduct of guides, and are known to have reached the city Oasis, which is inhabited by Samians, said to be of the ^Eschrionian tribe; and they are distant seven days' march from Thebes, across the sands. This country in the Greek language is called the Island of the Blessed. It is said then that the army reached this country; but afterward none, except the Ammonians and those who have heard their report, are able to give any account of them for they neither reached the Ammonians, nor returned. But the Ammonians make the following report: When they had advanced from this Oasis toward them across the sands, and were about half-way between them and Oasis, as they were taking dinner, a strong and vehement south wind blew, and carrying with it heaps of sand, covered them over, and in this manner they disappeared. The Ammonians say that such was the fate of this army. When Cambyses arrived at Memphis, Apis, whom the Greeks call Epaphus, appeared to the Egyptians and when this manifestation took place, the Egyptians immediately put on their richest apparel and kept festive holiday. Cambyses, seeing them thus occupied, and concluding that they made these rejoicings on account of his ill success, summoned the magistrates of Memphis ; and when they came into his presence, he asked " why the Egyptians had done nothing of the kind when he was at Memphis before, but did so now, when he had returned with the loss of a great part of his army." They answered, that their god appeared to them, who was accustomed to manifest himself at distant intervals, and that when he did appear then all the Egyptians were used to reeaten,








and keep a feast. Cambyses, having heard this, said they lied, and as liars he put them to death. Having slain them, he next summoned the priests into his presence; and when the priests gave the same account, he said that he would find out whether a god so tractable had come among the Egyptians; and having said this, he commanded the priests to bring Apis to him they therefore went away to fetch him. This Apis, or Epaphus, is the calf of a cow incapable of conceiving another offspring; and the Egyptians say that lightning descends upon the cow from heaven, and that from thence it brings forth Apis. This calf, which is called Apis, has the following marks It is black, and has a square spot of white on the forehead and on the back the figure of an eagle and in the tail double hairs and on the tongue a beetle. When the priests brought Apis, Cambyses, like one almost out of his senses, drew his dagger, meaning to strike the belly of Apis, but hit the thigh then falling into a fit of laughter, he said to the priests Ye blockheads, are there such gods as these, consisting of blood and flesh, and sensible of steel? This truly is a god worthy of the Egyptians. But you shall not mock me with impunity." Having spoken thus, he commanded those whose business it was to scourge the priests, and to kill all the Egyptians whom they should find feasting. Thus the festival of the Egyptians was put an end to, and the priests were punished. But Apis, being wounded in the thigh, lay and languished in the temple and at length, when he had died of the wound, the priests buried him without the







say, immediately became consequence of this atrocity, though indeed he was not of sound mind before. His first crime he committed against his brother Smerdis, who was born of the same father and mother; him he sent back from Egypt to Persia through envy, because he alone of all the Persians had drawn the bow, which the Ichthyophagi brought from the Ethiopian, within two fingers' breadth of the other Persians no one was able to do this. After the departure of Smerdis for Persia, Cambyses saw the following vision in his sleep he imagined that a messenger arrived from Persia and informed him that Smerdis was seated on the royal throne, and touched the heavens with his head. Upon this, fearing for himself, lest his brother should kill him, and reign, he sent Prexaspes, who was a man the most faithful to him of the Persians, to Persia, with orders to kill Smerdis. And he, having gone up to Susa, killed Smerdis some say, when he had taken him out to

knowledge of Cambyses. But Cambyses, as the Egyptians





Photogravure from a painting by Frederick Arthur Bridgman in the

Corcoran Art Gallery





ourge the pr
horn they should find feas ;rians was put an end to,









who w
to Persia,








but others, that he led him to the Red Sea and drowned ; him. This, they say, was the first of the crimes of Cambyses the second he committed against his sister, who had accompanied him into Egypt, and whom he married, and who was his sister by both parents. He married her in the following way for before, the Persians were on no account accustomed to intermarry with their sisters. Cambyses became enamoured of one of his sisters, and then being desirous of making her his wife, because he purposed doing what was not customary, he summoned the royal judges, and asked them if there was any law permitting one who wished to marry his sister. The royal judges are men chosen from among Persians, who continue in office until they die, or are convicted of some injustice. They determine causes between the Persians, and are the interpreters of the ancient constitutions, and all questions When, therefore, Cambyses put the are referred to them. question, they gave an answer that was both just and safe; saying that they could find no law permitting a brother to marry his sister, but had discovered another law which permitted the King of Persia to do whatever he pleased. Thus they did not abrogate the law through fear of Cambyses but that they might not lose their lives by upholding the law, they found out another that favoured his desire of marrying his sister. Thereupon, Cambyses married her of whom he was enamoured, and shortly afterward he had another sister. The youngest of these, then, who followed him into Egypt, he put to death. With respect to her death, as well as that of Smerdis, a twofold account is given. The Greeks say that Cambyses made the whelp of a lion fight with a young dog; and that this wife was also looking on and that the dog being overmatched, another puppy of the same litter broke his chain, and came to his assistance, and thus the two dogs united got the better of the whelp. Cambyses was delighted at the sight, but she, sitting by him, shed tears. Cambyses, observing this, asked her why she wept. She answered, that she wept seeing the puppy come to the assistance of his brother, remembering Smerdis, and knowing that there was no one to avenge him. The Greeks say that for this speech she was put to death by Cambyses. But the Egyptians say that, as they were sitting at table, his wife took a lettuce, and stripped off its leaves, and then asked her husband, " Whether the lettuce stripped of its leaves, or thick with foliage, was the handsomer ? " he said, " When thick with foliage " whereupon she remarked, " Then you have imitated this lettuce, in dismembering the house of Cyrus." Whereupon he, being






; ;






enraged, kicked her

when she was with

and she miscar-

Thus madly did Cambyses behave toward his own family whether on account of Apis, or from some other cause, from
ways, misfortunes are wont to befall manis said, even from infancy, to have been afflicted with a certain severe malady, which some called the sacred disease. 1 In that case, it was not at all surprising that when his body was so diseased his mind should not be sound. And toward the other Persians he behaved madly in the following instances for it is reported that he said to Prexaspes, whom he highly honoured, and whose office it was to bring messages to him, and whose son was cup-bearer to Cambyses, and this is no trifling honour, he is reported to have spoken as follows " Prexaspes, what sort of man do the Persians think me? and what remarks do they make about me?" He answered, "Sir, you are highly extolled in every other respect, but they say you are too much addicted to wine." Prexaspes said this of the Persians, but the king, enraged, answered as follows " Do the Persians indeed say that, by being addicted to wine, I am beside myself, and am not in my senses? Then their former words were not true." For, on a former occasion, when the Persians and Crcesus were sitting with him, Cambyses asked what sort of man he appeared to be in comparison with his father Cyrus they answered that he was superior to his father, for that he held all that Cyrus possessed, and had acquired besides Egypt and the empire of the sea. Crcesus, being present, not being pleased with this decision, spoke thus to Cambyses " To me now, O son of Cyrus, you do not appear comparable to your father, for you have not yet such a son as he left behind him." Cambyses was delighted at hearing this, and commended the judgment of Crcesus. Therefore, remembering this, he said " Observe now yourself, whether the in anger to Prexaspes spoken the Persians have truth, or whether they who say such things are not out of their senses for if I shoot that son of yours who stands under the portico, and hit him in the heart, the Persians will appear to have said nothing to the purpose but if I miss, then say that the Persians have spoken truth, and that I am not of sound mind." Having said this, and bent his bow, he hit the boy; and when the boy had fallen, he ordered them to open him and examine the wound and when the arrow was found in the heart, he said to the boy's father, laughing " Prexaspes, it has been clearly shown to
which, in


For Cambyses












and then ruined Cyrus. and being in fear for his own life. but I will have them put to death. that if Cambyses should repent. Croesus the Lydian thought fit to admonish him in the following terms " king. Cambyses. and wise to have forethought. and inquire for Croesus. both against the Persians and his allies. concealed Croesus for the following reason." So saying. when they were willing to cross over into our territory ? You have first ruined yourself by badly governing your own country. and derided the image. said. however. and put him to death. then. knowing this. and examining the dead bodies he also entered the Temple of Vulcan. he had them buried alive up to the head. If you persist in such a course. having. . on which Cambyses said " I am rejoiced that Croesus is still alive they. but that the Persians are out of their me. when he was unable to shoot him. It is a good thing to be You put men to provident. do not yield entirely to your youthful impulses and anger. I believe that a god himself could not have shot so well. but possess and restrain yourself. Not long afterward Cambyses did regret Croesus. . and suggest whatever I might discover for your good. perceiving him to be out of his mind." He then manifested his good. while he stayed at Memphis. . and at another time. committed many such mad actions." And he made good his word. acquainted him that he was still living. when you persuaded him to pass the river Araxes." At that time he committed such an atrocity. who so wisely managed your own country. Now tell : O . and advance against the Massagetae. He. : . by producing him. commanded his attendants to seize him. While he was acting in this manner. . But the attendants. without any just cause. both opening ancient sepulchres. you. they. did you ever see a man take so true an aim ? " But Prexaspes. he took up his bow for the purpose of shooting him but Croesus jumped up and ran out.. or regret him. : . and the attendants. beware lest the Persians revolt from you. might receive rewards for preserving him alive or if he should not repent. knowing his temper. death who are your own subjects.will in giving this advice but Cambyses answered " Do you presume to give me advice. you that I senses. " Sir. and so well advised my father. seized twelve Persians of the first rank. who was persuaded by your advice. 35-37] MADNESS OF CAMBYSES am 1 67 not mad. who saved him shall not escape with impunity. then they would put him to death. Your father Cyrus strictly charged me to admonish you. But you shall have no reason to rejoice for I have long wanted to find a pretext against you. having seized them without any just cause and you slay their children.

the Lacedaemonians expedition against Samos and Polycrates. . Such. having put one of them to death. and was noised abroad throughout Ionia and the rest of Greece for wherever he turned his arms everything turned out prosperously. he shared it with his brothers Pantagnatos and Syloson but afterward. They answered that they would not do it for any sum. after considering them all." made an of While Cambyses was invading Egypt. is the effect of custom and Pindar appears to me to have said rightly. Darius afterward having summoned some of the Indians called Callatians. the son ^Eaces. made a treaty of friendship with Amasis. begged he would speak words of good omen. I will describe them it is a representation of a pigmy. asked them for what sum they would feed upon the dead bodies of their parents. their own institutions may be inferred from many and various proofs. and expelled Syloson. It is not therefore probable that any but a madman would make such things the subject of ridicule. In a very short time the power of Polycrates increased. each. King of Egypt. who were present. for what sum they would consent to burn their fathers when they die. then. It is then in every way clear to me that Cambyses was outrageously mad. THALIA [37-39 image of Vulcan is very like the Phoenician Pataici. . and these images he burned. and who were informed of what was said by an interpreter. and they say that they are the for the . he held the whole of Samos and holding it. And he plundered all without distinction for he said that he . which the Phoenicians place at the prows of their triremes. He likewise entered the temple of the Cabeiri (into which it is unlawful for any one except the priest to enter).: 1 68 HERODOTUS—BOOK III. and among them by the following: Darius having summoned some Greeks under his sway. At first. That all men are of this mind respecting . the younger. making loud exclamations. sending presents and receiving others from him in return. But they. and a thousand archers. having divided the state into three parts. . : sons of this latter. after he had ridiculed them in various ways these also are like that of Vulcan. For if any one should propose to all men to select the best institutions of all that exist. would choose their own so certain is it that each thinks his own institutions by far the best. otherwise he would not have attempted to deride sacred things and established customs. For the benefit of any one who has not seen them. . He had a hundred fifty-oared galleys. who had made an insurrection and seized on Samos. who are accustomed to eat their parents. that " custom is the king of all men. asked them in the presence of the Greeks.

: : as I do. being put in chains." Polycrates. did not at last utterly perish. but was the cause of uneasiness to him and when his successes continued to increase. again have recourse to the remedy I have suggested. having caught a large and beautiful fish. : . your too great good fortune does not please me. and said " O king. set in gold. meeting with vicissitudes of fortune. and in the sight of all on board. that the divinity is jealous. and partly suffer reverses and so pass life. and then ordered to put out to" sea and when he was a considerable distance from the island. He accordingly took many of the islands. : . and act thus with regard to your good fortune. having been constantly successful. and took prisoners. : . This done. that it may never more be seen of man: and if after this successes are not mingled interchangeably with reverses. threw it into the sea. and conceived that Amasis had given him good advice. when therefore he had determined to cast this away. Having considered what you can find that you value most. But on the fifth or sixth . rates did not escape the notice of Amasis. and on inquiry. I would rather choose that both I and those for whom I am solicitous should be partly successful in our undertakings. As for me. made of an emerald. he did as follows Having manned a fifty-oared galley. day after this the following circumstance occurred A fisherman. than being prosperous in all things. and said that he wished to be admitted to the presence of Polycrates and when this was granted. having read this letter. and many cities on the continent. the son of Telecles. knowing. having caught this. came : . he took off the seal. a Samian. he sailed back again . For I can not remember that I ever heard of any man who. inquired of himself by the loss of which of his valuables he should most afflict his soul . he despatched it to Samos " Amasis to Polycrates says thus It But is pleasant to hear of the successes of a friend and ally. who gratified a friend to assist the Milesians with all their forces these. having written a letter in the following terms. . thought it a present worthy to be given to Polycrates he accordingly carried it to the gates. and the loss of which would most pain your soul. dug the whole trench that surrounds the walls Somehow the exceeding good fortune of Polycof Samos. he moreover overcame in a sea-fight. he presented the fish. Be advised therefore by me. he went on board it. the Lesbians. and having reached his palace. this cast away. and it was the workmanship of Theodorus. he mourned it as a great misfortune. he discovered the following: He had a seal which he wore.39-42] POLYCRATES 1 69 more by restoring what he had seized than by taking nothing at all.

replied. begged that he would send to him at Samos and demand some troops. went away to his own home but the servants. they carried it with great joy to Polycrates. as for a friend. sent them away in forty galleys." . although I get by hard labour but it seemed to me worthy of you and your empire I bring it. But Amasis. and present it to you. and finding themselves watched. therefore." He. . my questing Polycrates to furnish a naval force to attend him Whereupon he. then. they were worsted. he despatched the account t0""" Egypt. at the solicitation of those Samians who afterward founded Cydonia in Crete. he might himself be grieved for him. since he was fortunate in everything." The fisherman. he wrote an account of what he had done. But when it occurred to him that the event was superhuman. re. . who was so universally prosperous. and that Polycrates would not come to a good end. Others say that. and there having fought on land. those citizens whom he most suspected of seditious designs. they conferred together and resolved to sail no farther. enjoining Cambyses not Now. and so set sail for Lacedsemon. 170 I HERODOTUS— BOOK it III. [42-45 did not think living right to take . they made their escape from thence. some say that these Samito send them home again. and taken it out. —T"— Against this Polycrates. and having written. having read the letter that came from Polycrates. it to market. and as they gave him the seal they acquainted him in what manner it had been found. found the seal of Polycrates in its belly and as soon as they had seen it. as he was collecting an army for the invasion of Egypt. felt persuaded that it was impossible for man to rescue man from the fate that awaited him. lest if some dreadful and great calamity befell Polycrates. pleased with these words. There are some who say that the party from Egypt conquered Polyc. opening the fish. having arrived in Egypt. and I invite you to supper. he readily sent to Samos. he said that he must renounce his friendship. having sent to Cambyses. having selected in his invasion of Egypt. and even found what he had thrown away having therefore sent a herald to Samos. thinking a great deal of this. When Cambyses heard this. ans who were sent out by Polycrates never reached Egypt. and came to an engagement and they who were returning gained the victory and landed on the island. THALIA . " You have done well. and as they were sailing back to Samos. and I give you double thanks for your speech and your present. He did this for the following reason. the Lacedaemonians made war. Polycrates. and of what had happened. Polycrates met them with a fleet. but when they were off Carpathius. . the son of Cyrus.

. as people very much in earnest. having ascertained for what purpose they were . they undertook this expedition not so much for the purpose of assisting the Samians who entreated them as from a desire to revenge the seizure of the bowl which they sent to Croesus. and did not understand the last. that they had forgotten the first part of their speech.45-48] EXPEDITION AGAINST SAMOS : 171 in my opinion. Such another is that which Amasis dedicated to Minerva at Lindus. had them ready to burn. who were few in number. . : . answered them. King of Egypt. had sent three hundred youths. decreed that they should assist them. For Periander. numerous body of foreign mercenaries. the Samians. done about the same time as the seizure of the bowl. it is not at all probable that one who had a rates. son of Cypselus. and said nothing else than " the sack wants meal " but the Lacedaemonians replied that the word " sack " was superfluous it was. set out with an army against Samos as the Samians say. and adorned with gold and cotton wool and on this account each thread of the corselet makes it worthy of admiration for though it is fine. Moreover. having made preparations. in case they should go over to those who were returning. to Alyattes at Sarbut when the Corindis. When the Samians. This corselet was made of linen. for the purpose of emasculation thians who were conducting the youths touched at Samos. and the corselet which Amasis. they brought a sack. Then the Lacedaemonians. having shut up together in the arsenals the children and wives of the citizens who were subject to him. made a long harangue. at this first audience. before the magistrates. together with the arsenals themselves. But they. requiting a former kindness. . and of native archers. having presented themselves a second time. The Corinthians readily assisted in abetting the expedition against Samos because an injury had been also done to them by the Samians in the age preceding this expedition. should be beaten by the Samians who returned. of the noblest families of the Corcyraeans. expelled by Polycrates. with many figures of animals inwrought. they . giving an erroneous account for there would have been no need for their calling in the Lacedaemonians if they were themselves able to get the better of PolycBesides. having presented themselves rates . arrived at Sparta. Polycrates. . because they had formerly assisted them with some ships against the Messenians but as the Lacedaemonians say. had sent to them as a present for the Samians had robbed them of the corselet the year before they took the bowl. : . however. it contains three hundred and sixty threads. After this. all distinct.

went away and left them then the Samians sent home the youths to Corey ra. For when night came on. THALIA [48-51 being conducted to Sardis. he said. which they still observe in the same way. nor entered into conversation with him. and when the Corinthians denied the youths any sustenance. But when he sent them home. who had charge of the youths. whose name was Lycophron. At last Periander. one seventeen. Having driven him out. the Corinthians had been on friendly terms with the Corcyrseans. " Do you know. nor answered a word to his questions. and resolvhis mother. sent for. Periander. and mentioned this also. . as long as the youths continued suppliants. He related to him how kindly he had received them but he did not mention the words Procles said as he was escorting them. therefore. being exceedingly angry. the Corinthians grudge against the Samians. my sons. the Samians instituted a festival. in order that the Corcyraean youths might This was continued until the seize them and have food. who killed your mother? " The elder of them took no notice of these words but the younger. regarding him as the murderer of for this reason. These their maternal grandfather. Now : island.YJ2 HERODOTUS—BOOK III. as he escorted them on their way. Corinthians. and treated affectionately. when he heard it. they instituted choruses of virgins and young men. they being the sons of his own daughter. . Procles. reflecting on this. drove him from the palace. and afterward would not suffer the Corinthians to remove the suppliants from the sanctuary. was so grieved at hearing this that on his return at Corinth he neither addressed his father. first of all instructed the youths to touch the Temple of Diana. and made a law that they should carry cakes of sesame and honey. till the young man recovered his memory. after the death of Periander. But Periander affirmed that it was impossible but that he had suggested something to them and he persevered in his inquiries. for he had paid no attention to them. for the Corcyrseans had first committed an outrageous deed against him. from the first colonization of the . he inquired of the elder one what their grandfather had said to them. He had two sons by Melissa. they would not have assisted in the expedition against Samos for the above-mentioned cause but in fact. . it happened that another calamity succeeded the former. and sent them to Sardis to be emasculated. as was natural. When Periander had killed his own wife Melissa. . the other eighteen years of age. if. they have always been at variance with one another: remembered their But Periander had selected the sons of the Corcyraean nobles. in revenge of an insult offered him. who was tyrant of Epidaurus.

But he. no one would either converse with him or receive him into their houses besides. and at the same time what it is to be angry with parents and superiors. strayed among the porticoes. for he did not perceive in his eldest son any capacity for government. was driven from this also. he recalled Lycophron to assume the government. but said that he had made himself liable to pay the sacred fine to the god by having spoken to him. you ought so to treat. : . he himself did not think it right to attempt what was forbidden. But when. At last Periander made a proclamation that whoever should either receive him in his house. for he was also master of that island. who are my son. which of these is preferable. For if any calamity has occurred in our family on account of which you have conceived any suspicion of me. should pay a sacred fine to Apollo. gave his father no other answer. and relaxing his anger. driven about. since Periander threatened all that Being thus received him. therefore. persisting in his purpose. and sent him out of his sight to Corcyra. return to your home. inasmuch as I murdered her. and required them to expel him. and I bear the chief burden of it. He. In consequence of this proclamation. . and forbade them to receive him in their houses. and took Procles himself and kept him prisoner. it has fallen upon me. have chosen a vagabond life. sent a messenger to the persons by whom the son who was driven out was entertained. and a prince of wealthy Corinth. he went to some other of his friends and they. approached him. in lapse of time. therefore. Do you. but he appeared to him ." With these words Periander endeavoured to restrain him. made war on his father-in-law Procles. Periander therefore perceiving that the distemper of his son was impracticable and invincible. . and said " My son. mentioning the amount. having sent to Corcyra. Periander grew old. and became conscious that he was no longer able to superintend and manage public affairs. by accommodating yourself to your father's wishes. Periander having sent him away.51-53] PERIANDER 173 ing not to show any indulgence. by opposing and snowing anger toward him whom. felt compassion. but. or converse with him. to succeed to the power and riches which I now possess? You. yet received him as the son of Periander. put him on board a ship. as being the principal author of the present troubles and he took Epidaurus. your present mode of life or. seeing him reduced to a state of filth and starvation. when being driven out from one house he came to another. though in dread. having learned how much better it is to be envied than pitied. On the fourth day Periander. least of all. however.

and the enemy pursued them with great slaughter. rather than yourself return and possess it? Come home. next sent to him his sister. and past the vigour of life. Do not give your own to others. said what was most likely to persuade him. and said that the surname of Samian : : : . the auxiliaries and many of the Samians poured down from the upper tower. in He esteemed the Samians Pitane. they were driven back. THALIA [53-55 dull of intellect. and having attacked the fortifications. and cease to punish yourself. then." Thus she. who was his own daughter. son of Archias. arriving with a great armament. they had passed beyond the tower that faced the sea near the suburbs but afterward. and his son for Corinth. having a strong affection for the youth. the third in descent from this Archias. Immediately after. Samos would have been taken. Obstinacy is a sorry possession think not to cure one evil by another. and that your father's family should be utterly destroyed. besieged Samos. for he was of that tribe. above all other strangers. if all the Lacedaemonians who were present on that day had behaved as well as Archias and Lycopas. ere this.. Many have preferred equity to strict justice. killed the young man and in return for this Periander took vengeance on the Corcyraeans. But he in answer said that he would never return to Corinth so long as he should hear his father was living. and many are suitors for it. But Lycophron did not deign to give an answer to the bearer of the message. thinking she would be most likely to persuade him. Now. On her arrival she thus addressed him " Brother. and many. in order that Periander might not come to their country. they fled back again. For Archias and Lycopas alone rushing on with the Samians as they fled to the wall. and being shut out from retreat. died in the city of the Samians. the son of Samius. having been instructed by her father. The Lacedaemonians. Another Archias. when Polycrates himself advanced with a large force. He is now old. which stands on the ridge of the mountain and having withstood the Lacedaemonians for a short time. and urged him to return to Corinth and become his successor in the kingdom. Periander sent a third time by a herald to say that he himself intended to go to Corcyra. but the Corcyraeans being informed of each particular. 174 HERODOTUS— BOOK III. would you that the government should pass to others. The son consenting to this proposal. Periander prepared to set out for Corcyra. When she brought back this answer. A kingdom is an uncertain possession. Nevertheless Periander. . I myself met with. in seeking their mother's rights have lost their father's inheritance.

Siphnians were at that time in a flourishing condition. returned to Peloponnesus though a groundless report has gone abroad. This was the first expedition that the Lacedaemonian Dorians undertook against Asia. . when the Lacedaemonians were about to abandon Siphnus. having in the island gold and silver mines. having received it. they established this treasure. and they were the richest of all the islanders. after forty days . set sail for The affairs of the .. the Samians ravaged But the Siphnians having heard of it. : conveying ambassadors to the city. having engaged. because he 175 was given who fell so gloriously at Samos the Samians. were beaten. and they used every year to divide the riches that accrued from the mines. Polycrates. having arrived. bidding them beware of a wooden ambush and a crimson herald. The at the public charge. and they afterward exacted from them a hundred talents. though they did not sail thither for that . and. Formerly all And this it was that the Pythian ships were painted red. and gave it in charge to the Trcezenians and they themselves founded Cydonia in Crete. and many of them were cut off from the city by the their ships Samians. so that from the tenth of the money accruing from thence a treasure is laid up at Delphi equal to the richest. out to protect their property. forewarned the Siphnians. because his was son to that Archias and he said that he honoured grandfather had been buried by them . Those of the Samians who had fomented the war against . For as soon as the Samians reached Siphnus they sent one of them. had it gilded and gave it to them and that they. When. then. thereupon took their departure. These ambassadors. From the Hermionians they received an island instead of money. came their territory. This response they were unable to comprehend. they consulted the oracle. Samos. for they were in want of money." The market and Prytaneum of the Siphnians were then adorned with Parian marble. having coined a large quantity of the country money in lead. finding their affairs were not at all advanced. 55-59] EXPEDITION AGAINST SAMOS to his father. near Peloponnesus. for it is said that Polycrates. whether their present prosperity should continue with them for a long time but the Pythian answered as follows " When the Prytaneum in Siphnus shall be white. either then on the moment or when the Samians arrived. and the market white-fronted. had been spent in besieging Lacedaemonians. Thyrea. then there is need of a prudent man to guard against a wooden ambush and a crimson herald. requested the Siphnians to lend them ten talents but when the Siphnians refused the loan. therefore.

with an opening at each side. i. and having done this. One of these Cambyses had left steward of his palace. he sent heralds in various directions. through which the water conveyed by pipes reaches the city. and was acting madly. revolted. and the Temple of Dictynna. he determined to make an attempt on the throne. The magus Patizithes.. for the generTherefore. and that there were few of the Persians who were acquainted with it. two magi. because they have three works the greatest that have been accomplished by all the Greeks. one hundred and fifty orgyae in height. They continued in this settlement. and dedicated them in the Temple of Minerva in TEg'ma. and three feet broad. joined him in the revolt. . the first architect was Rhoecus. had put to death. in depth about one hundred orgyse. reduced them to slavery. having formed the ality thought him still alive. following design. Eupalinus. who. but to expel the Zacynthians from the island. He had a brother. This. for former Samians. son of Naustrophus. the largest of all we have ever seen of this. beginning from the base. The ^Eginetae did this on account of a grudge they bore the Samians. and the height and breadth eight feet each through the whole length of it is dug another excavation twenty cubits deep. drawn from a copious fountain. then. On account of these things I have dwelt longer on the affairs of the Samians. The length of the excavation is seven stades. in person very like Smerdis. is one of the three. and the length of the mound is more than two stades. The third work of theirs is a temple. whom Cambyses. The second is a mound in the sea round the harbour. a native. having persuaded this man that he would manage everything for him. together with the Cretans. who were brothers. set him on the throne. and that it was kept secret.6 HERODOTUS— BOOK III. having' been informed of the death of Smerdis. in this is dug a tunnel. This. But in the sixth year the ^Eginetae. when Amphicrates reigned in Samos. He accordingly revolted. son of Phileus. THALIA [59-61 purpose. While Cambyses. son of Cyrus. was the cause. . The architect of this excavation was a Megarian. having made war against iEgina. I have dwelt longer on the affairs of the Samians. son of Cyrus. I have said. tarried in Egypt. did the yEginetae much mischief. and suffered in return. then.. which represented the figure of a boar. although he was his own brother. and they cut off the prows of their ships. and were prosperous for five years so much so that these are the people who erected the sacred precincts that are now in Cydonia. having vanquished them in a sea-fight. . The first is of a mountain.

" Prexaspes. Perceiving. was the person who charged me to deliver this message to you. that he had destroyed his brother without a cause. but the magus whom Cambyses appointed steward . with him. and find out by inquiry from whom he comes to proclaim to us that we are to obey King Smerdis. seated on the royal throne. that we should pursue the herald. Patizithes. Cambyses having heard this from the herald. the herald was immediately pursued. nothing new can spring up to you from him." When Cambyses heard the name of Smerdis." When Prexaspes had spoken thus. moreover. saying that Smerdis. hast thou thus performed the business I enjoined thee ? " But he answered " Sir. now speak the truth. usurping the name of Smerdis ? " : : He : understand the whole matter. and depart in peace. and buried him with my own hands. the dead rise again. son of Cyrus. he I : . man. When he arrived Prexaspes questioned him as follows " Friend. standing in the midst. as the advice was approved by Cambyses. nor that you can have any quarrel. like a faithful truth. therefore. who was appointed to Egypt. had not done so). and give these orders. looked toward Prexaspes. and said. since you say that you come as the messenger of Smerdis. If." Thus the man spoke without adding any unBut Cambyses said " Prexaspes. But if it is now as formerly. Whether did Smerdis himself appear in person before you. For I myself put your order in execution. and brought back. whom you left steward of the palace. and his brother Smerdis. son of Cyrus. : : : of his palace gave me these orders. or some one of his He answered " I have not so much as seen ministers ? " Smerdis.61-64] REVOLT OF THE MAGI 177 and particularly to Egypt. have escaped all blame but what Persian can this be who has revolted against replied " I think me. therefore. finding Cambyses and his army at Ecbatana in Syria. however. touched the heavens with his head. having executed your instructions. however. The other heralds. proclaimed what had been ordered by the magus. it is not true that your brother Smerdis has revolted against you. since King Cambyses marched for Egypt. son of Cyrus. son of Cyrus. O king: the magi are the persons who have revolted against you. expect that Astyages the Mede will rise up against you. the truth of this account and of the dream struck him for he fancied in his sleep that some one announced to him that Smerdis. It appears to me. and not Cambyses. and that he had himself been betrayed by Prexaspes (for that he. you. and believing that he spoke the truth. great or small. when sent to kill Smerdis. made this proclamation and he. to proclaim to the army that they must in future obey Smerdis.

though smitten by his misfortune. who of right should have revenged the indignity I suffer from the magi.. he is no more. that Smerdis. where all his treasures were but the oracle in truth meant in Ecbatana of Syria. Now. They said it was Ecbatana. . I acted with more precipitation than wisdom for in truth it belongs not to human nature to avert what is destined to happen. and am nevertheless deprived of my kingdom. asked what was the name of the city. has perished impiously by the hand Since. seated on the royal throne. . of the name of the city. and bitterly deplored the whole calamity. The deed. the next place. But as he was leaping on his horse. as well that proceeding from the magus as from the wound. he. never considering whether. has been perpetrated by me consider. on inquiry. now that Smerdis was removed. For Smerdis the magus was the person whom the deity forewarned me in the vision would rise up against me. And it had been before prophesied to him from the city of Buto that he should end his life in Ecbatana. I thought that in my sleep. resolving with all speed to march to Susa against the magus. in of his nearest relation. therefore. But I foolishly sent Prexaspes to Susa to put Smerdis to death since that crime was perpetrated I have lived in security. struck the thigh being wounded in that part where he himself had formerly smitten the Egyptian god Apis. son of Cyrus. Fearing lest I should be deprived of my kingdom by my brother. son of Cyrus. he returned to his right mind and comprehending the oracle said. having summoned the principal men of the Persians who were with him. he whom I left steward of my palace and his brother Smerdis." So much he said at that time but about twenty days after. the chape of his sword's scabbard fell off. of the other injunctions that I have to lay upon . is no more but the magi have possessed themselves of the throne. and after he had lamented him. touched the heavens with his head. : . I became a fratricide to no purpose. when he thought that he was mortally wounded. which I wish I had never seen. should die. When he had thus been informed. . " Here it is fated that Cambyses. 178 HERODOTUS— BOOK III. THALIA [64-65 wept for Smerdis. he leaped upon his horse. He therefore imagined he should die an old man in Ecbatana of Media. then. and the blade. therefore. . some other mortal might not rise up against me. being laid bare. . Cambyses. a messenger arrived from my palace and announced to me that Smerdis. But utterly mistaking what was about to happen. he addressed them as follows " I am constrained to disclose to you a matter which above all others When I was in Egypt I saw a vision I desired to conceal.

may the earth bring forth her increase may your wives and your flocks be fruitful. the son of Cyrus. Prexaspes. son of to him. relying on his having the same name as Smerdis. Great incredulity stole over the Persians who were present. And if you do thus. the most necessary is. : . as to the story that the magi had possession of the government but they thought that Cambyses said what he did calumniously. nor attempt to win back the sovereign power. moreover. to own that he had killed the son of Cyrus with his own hand. respecting the death of Smerdis. when they saw their king weep. by force. charge you. when the bone became infected and the thigh mortified. son of Pharnaspes. after he had reigned in all seven years and five months. after the death of Cambyses. and gave themselves to abundant lamentation. to let you know what would have you do after my death. all rent the garments they had on." When Cambyses had spoken thus. the magus. Accordingly. 65-68] DEATH OF CAMBYSES 1 79 you. For the magus. and all of you. especially those of the Achsemenidae who are present. now that Cambyses was dead. in order that the whole Persian nation might be made hosit . This Otanes first suspected the magus not to be Smertile : . except the Persians. But afterward. had risen up and seized the kingdom moreover. They therefore believed that Smerdis. The Persians. proclaimed a general exemption from military service and tribute for the space of three years and he made this proclamation immediately on assuming the sovereignty. I O Persians. and you remain forever free. But if you do not win back. by force to the utmost win it back again. in the name of the gods who protect the throne. by craft be it recovered by you . : . was by birth and fortune equal to the first of the Persians. either male or female. may such an end befall every Persian as has befallen me. having despatched messengers to every nation he ruled over. he deplored his whole fortunes. reigned securely during the seven months that remained to complete the eighth year of Cambyses in which time he treated all his subjects with such beneficence that at his death all the people of Asia. regretted his loss. I imprecate upon you the contrary of all these things and. never to permit the government to return into the hands of the Medes: and if they have possessed themselves of it by or if they accomplish craft. vehemently denied that he had killed Smerdis for it was not safe for him. Cyrus. I therefore. having never had any children. it carried off Cambyses. But in the eighth month he was discovered in the following manner: Otanes. son of Cyrus..

" To this message Phaedyma answered. saying that she did not know. to undertake any peril that your father may require you to incur. the magus. forming his conjecture from this circumstance.: l8o HERODOTUS—BOOK III. for if he had no ears. during his Smerdis. son of Cyrus. Cyrus. son of Cyrus." To " I can neither have any conversathis his daughter replied tion with Atossa. Now. Having conceived suspicion of him. as well as with all the rest of the wives of Cambyses. it becomes you. whether with Smerdis. be assured that you cohabit with Smerdis. . but the person he really was. son of Cyrus. saying. therefore. then inquire of Atossa who this man is with whom she as well as you cohabits. " If you do not yourself know Smerdis. for that she had never seen Smerdis. and you know him to be sound asleep. she well knew that he would put her to death nevertheless she would make the attempt. daughter of Otanes." When Otanes heard this. lying with you and possessing the empire of the Persians. with Smerdis the magus. saying that she should incur very great danger by doing so. should escape with impunity. touch his ears and if you find he has ears. had cut off the ears of this : . but if he has none. and she should be discovered touching him. whoever he is. Now reign. This Phaedyma. assigning us separate apartments. but suffer the punishment due to his offences. and perceiving without any diffithis for her father. for some grave offence. being of noble birth. inquired with what man she lay. whose name was Phsedyma. son of Cyrus. succeeded to the throne. therefore. the therefore had her as his wife. it is not fit that he. Otanes. son of Cambyses. and he sent a third message to her in these words " Daughter. when her turn came to approach the magus (for in Persia the wives visit their husbands in regular succession). he contrived the following artifice: Cambyses his daughter. the son of Cyrus. for she must of necessity know her own brother. and that he never summoned any of the principal men of Persia to his presence. she felt for his ears. that he never went out of the citadel. nor see any of the women who used to live with me for as soon as this man. sending to this daughter. For if this Smerdis is not the son of Cyrus. She accordingly promised to accomplish had married magus : : . but the person whom I suspect. the matter appeared more plain . THALIA [68-69 dis. determining to execute all that she had promised her father. or some other person she sent back word to him. Otanes sent a second time. therefore. went and slept with him and when the magus was sound asleep. \/ much/> : . he dispersed us all. nor knew who it was that cohabited with her. follow my directions When he sleeps with you.

Darius. had themselves suspected that the case was so. he arrived. but set about it with more caution for we must increase our numbers.. so inconsiderately hasten this enterprise. that guards are stationed and how shall we pass them ? at intervals Darius answered Otanes " There are many things that can not be made clear . These seven having met." Otanes. and persons on whom he could best rely. having taken with him Aspathines and Gobryas. arrived at Susa from Persia." " Son of Hystaspes. seeing Darius so eager. if not having seen them. and not I only. as soon as it was day she sent and made known to her father what the case was. . and ye have disclosed it to me. But since it proves that you also are acquainted with the fact. . let us carry it out this very day. son of Cyrus. and then attempt it. and that Smerdis. yet surely by report. : . and not put it off. or be assured that if this day passes over no one shall be beforehand with me and become my accuser. it appears to me that we should act immediately. accordingly introduced Intaphernes Gobryas. son of Hystaspes. : . the six Persians determined to admit Darius to the confederacy. but I myself will denounce you to the magus. they admitted their force and they agreed that each should associate with himself Otanes a Persian in whom he could place most reliance. do you tell us in what way we are to enter the palace and attack them for you yourself know. too. When it came to the turn of Darius to declare his opinion. you for some one will discover it to the will all miserably perish magus. replied " Since you compel us to precipitate our enterprise. When. if you adopt the plan proposed by Otanes. and will not permit us to defer. Otanes said to this for that would be of no advantage. where his father was governor. and show yourself not at all inferior to him do not. you are born of a noble father. related to them the whole affair they. who were the noblest of the Persians. Thereupon Otanes. Hydarnes. and Aspathines. come. and when Otanes had adduced his reasons. : : 69-72] DISCOVERY OF SMERDIS l8l culty that the man had no ears. exchanged pledges with each other and conferred together." Darius replied to this " Be assured. without communicating it to any one else but since you have thought fit to refer it to others. is dead and for this very reason I hastened hither in order to contrive the death of the magus. : : : . : . ye men who are here present. Megabyzus These six being associated. however. consulting his own private advantage: and indeed you ought to have carried out your project immediately. therefore. he addressed them as follows " I thought that I was the only person who knew that it was the magus who reigns.

moreover. partly from respect. and wish to report a message to the king from my father. but whoever offers to oppose us must instantly be treated as an enemy. for I will say that I am just arrived from Persia. While they were deliberating on these things. shall be rewarded in due time. Those among you who were present with Cambyses when he lay sick well remember the imprecations he uttered at the point of death against the Persians if they should not attempt to repossess themselves of the sovereign power we did not then believe his story. son of Cyrus. binding him by pledges and : . I have a most specious pretext by which we shall gain admission. while others speak the truth. are governed by a Medic magus. Whoever of the doorkeepers. determined to make Prexaspes their friend both because he had suffered grievous wrongs from Cambyses. who shot his son dead with an arrow. therefore. to die? seeing we who are Persians. and in the next place. . THALIA [72-74 by words. in order that by the truth they may acquire some advantage. because Prexaspes was in high repute with the Persians. But if nothing were likely to be gained. both they who tell lies and they who keep to the Some tell lies when. and because he alone of all the Persians knew of the death of Smerdis. and one without ears. but may by action and there are other things that seem practicable in description. on consultation. or if we shall be unable to do so. the following events happened to take place The magi. there is no one who will not allow us to pass. Be assured that the guards stationed there will not be at all difficult to pass by for in the first place. and. as well he who speaks truth would lie. : : they are likely to gain some advantage. by persuading with falsehoods. truth. I therefore give my voice that we yield to Darius. shall willingly let us pass. but thought that Cambyses spoke from ill-will. let it be told for we all aim at the same ends. therefore. and he who lies would speak truth. they endeavoured to win his friendship.1 82 HERODOTUS— BOOK : III. and that on breaking up this conference we go nowhere else than direct to the magus. shall we ever have a better opportunity to recover the sovereign power. and something further may be intrusted to them: thus by different processes we aim at the same end. and all assented to his pro: : posal." Thus spoke Gobryas. but no signal effect proceeds from them. seeing our rank. For these reasons. and partly from fear. having despatched him with his own hand. having sent for Prexaspes. For when a lie must be told. we must accomplish our work." After this Gobryas said " Friends. and when we have forced our passage.

and not to attempt it while affairs were in such a ferment but others. to death. and plucking and tearing them. and by no one else. The seven Persians. . he declared the whole truth. set out after they had offered prayers to the gods and while they were in the midst of their way they were informed of all that had occurred with respect to Prexaspes whereupon. and. he threw himself headlong from the tower. assuring them that they were governed by Smerdis. son of Cyrus. described the genealogy of Cyrus's family. beginning from Achaemenes. on seeing this. and punish the magi. as it was not safe for him to tell what had happened. was still living. When they approached the gates. standing aside out of the way. being compelled by Cambyses. and commanded him to harangue the people. as being a man most trusted by the Persians. urged to proceed at once. When Prexaspes said that he was ready to do that also. saying that they would assemble all the Persians under the walls of the palace. . Thus died Prexaspes. and to do what had been determined on. and having utterly denied his murder. having convoked the Persians. The seven. he ended by telling them what great benefits Cyrus had done the Persians and having gone through these. and harangue them. When Prexaspes had promised that he would do as the magi persuaded him. and that the magi then reigned. . and never divulge to any man. with Darius. He accordingly told them that he. and desired that he would ascend a tower. but that in the present emergency necessity constrained him to make it known. emboldened by the omen. and forthwith proceeded to the palace. and as having frequently affirmed his belief that Smerdis. having resolved to attack the magi without delay. While they were hotly disputing there appeared seven pairs of hawks pursuing two pairs of vultures. After he had uttered many imprecations against the : Persians if they should not recover the sovereign power. This they enjoined him. the magi. had put Smerdis. they made a second proposal. a man highly esteemed during the course of his whole life. saying that he had before concealed it. . But he purposely forgot what they desired him to say. and afterward. all approved the opinion of Darius. the cheat they had put upon the Persians. when he came down to him. and on no account to defer it.74-77] DEATH OF PREXASPES 1 83 oaths that he would keep to himself. they again conferred together and some with Otanes strongly advised to defer the enterprise. son of Cyrus. placed him on the top of a turret. son of Cyrus. assuring him that they would give him everything in abundance. it happened as Darius had sup.

they saw the eunuchs in confusion. asked him why he did not use his hand . nor did any one question them. relating what they had done. made a thrust with his dagger. Darius. but did not die. reached the hall. moved as they were by divine But when they impulse. " Drive your sword even through both of us." But Gobryas replied. obeying. standing by. " Fearing for you. put themselves on the defensive. . and showing them the heads . magi wounded those two. having exhorted each other. happened to be both within at the time. But they. and thereupon the parties engaged with each other. The one who had taken up the bow. and drawn their daggers. when he found his bow of no service. they both hurried out. and of the fraud of the magi. they left the wounded of their own party there. and were consulting about the conduct of Prexaspes. lest I should strike you. out of respect for among . THALIA [77~79 men of highest rank the Persians." Darius. When. and not suspecting any such design on their part. and first wounded Aspathines in the thigh. therefore. Having slain the magi. and two of the seven. . and next Intaphernes in the eye and Intaphernes lost Thus one of the his eye from the wound. they fell in with the eunuchs appointed to carry in messages. seeing his enemies were near and pressing upon them. but the other made resistance with his spear. and heard their outcry. stabbed all that opposed their passage on the The magi spot. and at the same time that they questioned them they threatened the doorkeepers for permitting them to pass. was in perplexity. and when they perceived what was going on. ran out with shouting and clamour. purposing to shut to the door. The Persians. Darius and Gobryas. found it of no use. and by good fortune hit the magus. rushed in with him. . carrying the heads of the magi. and at the same time they slew every one of the magi that came in their way. he answered. informed of what had been done by the seven. and then rushed to the men's apartment. and as Gobryas was grappling with the magus. deterposed for the guards. let them pass by. One of them accordingly snatched up a bow and the other had recourse to a javelin. as well on account of their exhaustion as to guard the acropolis but the other five of them.184 HERODOTUS— BOOK : III. and cut off their heads. but the other. fearing lest he should strike Gobryas in the dark but Gobryas. fled to a chamber adjoining the men's apartment. and then called upon the rest of the Persians. who inquired of them for what purpose they had come. and endeavoured to prevent the seven from proceeding any farther. seeing that he stood by inactive.

But a popular government bears the fairest name of all.79-8i] FALL OF THE MAGI . Megabyzus advised them to intrust the government . and refers all plans to the public." On that day no magus is allowed to be seen in public. equality of rights and secondly. and in it they celebrate a great festival. . for in the many Otanes accordingly advanced this all things are found. for he envies the best who continue to live. ." opinion. and others through envy. : mined themselves . and exercises it under responsibility. One would think that a man who holds sovereign power should be free from envy. and is the most inconsistent of all men for if you show him respect in moderation he is offended because he is not sufficiently honoured and if any one honours him very much he is offended as with a flatterer. . those who had risen up against the magi deliberated on the and speeches were made that are disbelieved state of affairs by some of the Greeks. they would not have left a single magus alive. they slew every magus they could find and if night coming on had not prevented. and five days had elapsed. but they shut themselves up in their own houses during the whole of that day. and having these two. Otanes advised that they should commit the government to the Persians at large. since he possesses every advantage. and puts men to death without trial. But I proceed to relate what is most important. is guilty of none of those excesses that a monarch is. violates women. 185 also to do the like and having drawn their daggers. When the tumult had subsided. For you know to what a pitch the inso^lence of Cambyses reached. and exalt the people. He changes the institutions of our ancestors. and delights in the worst men of the nation he very readily listens to calumny. . . which they call " The slaughter of the magi. for it is neither agreeable nor good. but the contrary to this takes place in his conduct toward the citizens. speaking as follows " It appears that no one of us should henceforward be a monarch. and envy is implanted in man from his birth. he has every vice. The magistrate obtains his office by lot. however they were made. I therefore give my opinion that we should do away with monarchy. for puffed up by insolence he commits many nefarious actions. And indeed how can a monarchy be a well-constituted government where one man is allowed to do whatever he pleases without control? for if even the best of men were placed in such power. For insolence is engendered in him by the advantages that surround him. and you have experienced the insolence of the magus. This day the Persians observe in common more than any other. he would depart from his wonted thoughts.

having chosen an association of the best men. he appears to me to have spoken rightly. for each wishing to be chief. strong private enmities commonly spring up. and would keep his designs most secret from the illBut in an oligarchy. for among them we ourselves shall be included. he would govern the people without blame. and this some one of the people stands forward and puts them down and on this account he is admired by the people. should fall under the insolence of an unrestrained multitude. evil springs up. and in this he too shows that a monarchy is best. while many are exerting their affected. For nothing can be found better than one man. 1 86 HERODOTUS— BOOK III. For if three forms are proposed. he has erred from the best opinion for nothing is more foolish and insolent than a useless crowd. for how should they know who have neither been taught nor are acquainted with . therefore. and to carry his own opinions. from whence seditions arise and from seditions. for : . us. but the latter have not the means of knowing. precipitate affairs like a who they who. and from murder it results in monarchy: and thus it is proved how much this form of government is the best." Mega- but let byzus accordingly advanced this opinion. not so. but concerning an oligarchy. But to comprehend all in one word. but powerful combinations. since acting upon equally wise plans. rushing on without rewinter torrent? Let those. therefore. I affirm that the last is far superior. therefore it is on no account to be endured. whence came our freedom? and who gave it? was it from the people. commit the sovereign power to them. he becomes a monarch. .. and monarchy. or a monarch? My opinion. anything good or then. who lasts until . and each of these which I allude to the best in its kind. it is impossible but that evil should spring up. and being admired. who are endeavouring to avoid the insolence of a tyrant. when. they injure the . murder. energies for the public good. But when the people rule. and it is reasonable to expect that the best counsels will proceed from the best men. is that as we were made free by one man. the best democracy. saying " In what Megabyzus has said concerning the people. and oligarchy. desire the ruin of the Persians adopt a democracy fitting. or an oligarchy. who is the best. and spoke as follows " I concur with what Otanes has said about abolishing tyranny but in bidding us transfer the power to the people. commonwealth act in concert. does it knowingly. THALIA : [81-82 to an oligarchy. mutual enmities do not arise among the bad. flection. when he does anything. Darius expressed his opinion the third. that men. they come to deep animosities one against another. The former.

seeing they are good for that were not well. to this person." CEbares answered " If. Darius had a groom. they came to the following determination that he whose horse should first neigh in the suburbs at sunrise. together with all such presents as are accounted most honourable among the Persians. morethe institutions of our ancestors. and yields obedience only so far as it pleases. and the six had agreed to these terms. : . They decreed that these things should be given him for this reason." When he had said this. contrive that I may obtain this honour. And they made the following resolutions with regard to the whole body: That every one of the seven should have liberty to enter into the palace without being introduced. 1 87 government and. of all the Persians. because he first advised the enterprise. is to have the kingdom. that neither I nor any of my posterity may be subject to any one of you. whose name was CEbares. for I wish neither to govern nor be governed. either appointed by lot. or by the body of the Persians intrusting the government to whom they may choose. was overruled." These three opinions were proposed. and that the king should not be allowed to marry a wife out of any other family than of the conspirators. that we should not subvert . sir. but withdrew from the assembly and this family alone. who was anxious to introduce equality among the Persians. and four of the seven adhered to the last. The rest of the seven consulted how they might appoint a king on the most equitable terms and they determined that to Otanes and his posterity forever. we should maintain the same kind over. if the kingdom should devolve on any other of the seven. he thus spoke in the midst of them " Associates. since it is evident that some one of us must be made king. unless the king should happen to be in bed with one of his wives. it indeed depends on . and associated them together. should be given a Median vest yearly. but without transgressing the laws of the Persians. Now therefore. But on this condition I give up all claim to the government. : : : : .82-85] KINGDOM RE-ESTABLISHED of . he did not join in the contest. retains its liberty to this day. Darius spoke as follows " CEbares. if you have any ingenuity. now I will not enter into competition with you. and not another. a shrewd man. we have determined with respect to the kingdom to do in this manner he whose horse shall neigh first at sunrise. These honours were conferred on Otanes by way of distinction. should have the kingdom. when we ourselves are mounted. by way of distinction. or by some other way. when the assembly had broken up. With regard to the kingdom. When the opinion of Otanes. while they were mounted.










whether you shall be king or not, be confident on this and keep up your spirits for no one else shall be king before you I have a charm for the occasion." Darius said " If you have any such contrivance, it is time to put it in practice, and not to delay; for to-morrow our trial is to be." CEbares having heard this, did as follows As soon as it was night, he led the mare which Darius's horse was most fond of to the suburbs, tied her up, and led Darius's horse to her; and he led him several times round near the mare, gradually bringing him nearer, and at last let the horse cover her. At dawn of day, the six, as they had agreed, met together on horseback and as they were riding round the suburbs, when they came to the spot where the mare had been tied the preceding night, Darius's horse ran forward and neighed; and as the horse did this, lightning and thunder came from a clear sky. These things happening to Darius, consummated the auspices, as if done by appointment. The others, dismounting from their horses, did obeisance to Darius as king. Some say that CEbares had recourse to the foregoing artifice others, to the following (for the story is told both ways by the Persians) That having rubbed his hand upon the genital part of the mare, he kept it concealed under his trousers, and at sunrise, when the horses were about to start, CEbares drew out his hand and put it to the nostrils of Darius's horse, and that he, taking the scent, began to snort and neigh. Accordingly Darius, son of Hystaspes, was declared king, and all the people of Asia, except the Arabians, were subject to him, Cyrus having first subdued them, and afterward CamThe Arabians never submitted to the Persian yoke, byses. but were on friendly terms, and gave Cambyses a free passage into Egypt for without the consent of the Arabians the Persians could not have penetrated into Egypt. Darius contracted his first marriages with Persians he married two daughters of Cyrus, Atossa and Artystona: Atossa had been before married to her brother Cambyses, and afterward to the magus, but Artystona was a virgin. He married another also, daughter of Smerdis, son of Cyrus, whose name was Parmys and he had besides the daughter of Otanes who deHis power was fully established on all tected the magus. Having then first of all made a stone statue, he had sides. it erected and a figure was upon it representing a man on horseback and he had engraved on it the following inscripDarius, son of Hystaspes, by the sagacity of tion his horse (here mentioning the name), and by the address of CEbares, his groom, obtained the empire of the Per; ;














Having done this in Persia, he constituted twenty sians. governments, which they call satrapies and having constituted the governments and set governors over them, he appointed tributes to be paid to him from each nation, both connecting the adjoining people with the several nations, and omitting some neighbouring people, he annexed to some He distributed the governothers that were more remote. ments, and the annual payment of tribute, in the following manner Such of them as contributed silver, were required to pay it according to the standard of the Babylonian talent and such as contributed gold, according to the Euboic talent. The Babylonian talent is equal to seventy Euboic minae. During the reign of Cyrus, and afterward of Cambyses, there was no fixed regulation with regard to tribute, but they brought in presents. In consequence of this imposition of tribute, and other things of a similar kind, the Persians say Darius was a trader, Cambyses a master, and Cyrus a father. The first, because he made profit of everything; the second, because he was severe and arrogant the latter, because he was mild, and always aimed at the good of his people. From the
; :


Ionians, the Magnesians in Asia, the Cohans, Carians, Lycians, Milyens, and Pamphylians, for one and the same tribute was imposed on them all, there came in a revenue of four hundred talents in silver; this then composed the first diFrom the Mysians, Lydians, Lasonians, Cabalians, vision. and Hygennians, five hundred talents this was the second division. From the Hellespontians, who dwell on the right as one sails in, the Phrygians, the Thracians in Asia, Paphlagonians, Mariandynians, and Syrians, there was a tribute of three hundred and sixty talents; this was the third division. From the Cilicians, three hundred and sixty white horses, one for every day, and five hundred talents of silver; of these a hundred and forty were expended on the cavalry that guarded the Cilician territory, and the remaining three hundred and sixty went to Darius ; this was the fourth division. From the city of Poseideium, which Amphilochus, son of Amphiaraus, founded on the confines of the Cilicians and Syrians, beginning from this down to Egypt, except a district belonging to Arabians, which was exempt from taxation, was paid a tribute of three hundred and fifty talents and in this division is included all Phoenicia, Syria which is called Palestine, and Cyprus this was the fifth division. From Egypt, and the


Libyans bordering on Egypt, and from Cyrene and Barce (for these were annexed to the Egyptian division), accrued seven hundred talents, besides the revenue arising from Lake

: ;






Mceris, which was derived from the fish: in addition, then, to this money, and the fixed supply of corn, there accrued seven hundred talents for they furnish in addition one hundred and twenty thousand measures of corn for the Persians who occupy the white fortress at Memphis, and their allies this was the sixth division. The Sattagydae, Gandarians, Dadicae, and Aparytae, joined together, contributed one hundred and seventy talents this was the seventh division. From Susa, and the rest of the country of the Cissians, three hundred talents; this was the eighth division. From Babylon and the rest of Assyria, there accrued to him a thousand talents of silver, and five hundred young eunuchs; this was the ninth division. From Ecbatana and the rest of Media, and the Paricanians, and Orthocorybantes, four hundred and fifty talents; this was the tenth division. The Caspians, Pausicae, Pantimathians, and Daritae, contributing together, paid two hundred talents this was the eleventh division. From the Bactrians as far as the iEglae, was a tribute of three hundred and sixty talents this was the twelfth division. From Pactyica, and the Armenians, and the neighbouring people as far as the Euxine Sea, four hundred talents this was the thirFrom the Sagartians, Sarangeans, Thamateenth division. naeans, Utians, Mycians, and those who inhabit the islands on the Red Sea, in which the king settles transported convicts from all these came a tribute of six hundred talents this was the fourteenth division. The Sacae and Caspians paid two hundred and fifty talents this was the fifteenth diThe Parthians, Chorasmians, Sogdians, and Arians, vision. three hundred talents this was the sixteenth division. The Paricanians and Asiatic Ethiopians paid four hundred talents this was the seventeenth division. The Matienians, Saspires,







and Alarodians were taxed
the eighteenth division.


two hundred





the Moschians, Tibarenians, Macronians, Mosyncecians, and Marsians, three hundred talents were demanded this was the nineteenth division. Of the Indians the population is by far the greatest of all nations whom we know of, and they paid a tribute proportionably larger than all the rest, three hundred and sixty talents of gold dust this was the twentieth division. Now the Babylonian standard, compared with the Euboic talent, makes the total nine thousand five hundred and forty talents; and the gold estimated at thirteen times the value of silver, the gold dust will be found to amount to four thousand six hundred and eighty Euboic talents. Therefore, if the total of all these are computed together, fourteen thousand five hundred and






sixty Euboic talents were collected by Darius as an annual tribute and passing over less sums than these, I do not mention them. This tribute accrued to Darius from Asia, and a small part of Libya but in the course of time another tribute accrued from the islands, and the inhabitants of Europe as far as Thessaly. This tribute the king treasures up in the following manner: Having melted it, he pours it into


filled it he takes away the earthen and when he wants money he cuts off so much as he has occasion for from time to time. These, then, were the governments and the imposts on The Persian territory alone has not been mentioned each. as subject to tribute; for the Persians occupy their land free from taxes. They indeed were not ordered to pay any tribute, but brought gifts. The Ethiopians bordering on Egypt, whom Cambyses subdued when he marched against the Macrobian Ethiopians, and who dwell about the sacred city of Nysa, and celebrate festivals of Bacchus these Ethiopians, and their neighbours, use the same grain as the Calantian Indians, and live in subterranean dwellings both these bring every third year, and they continued to do so to my time, two chcenices of unmolten gold, two hundred blocks of ebony, five Ethiopian boys, and twenty large elephants' tusks. The Colchians numbered themselves among those who gave presents, as well as the neighbouring nations, as far as Mount Caucasus for But the to this mountain the dominions of Persia extend. people to the north side of the Caucasus pay no regard to the Persians. These, then, for the gifts they imposed on themselves, furnished, even to my time, every five years one hundred boys and one hundred virgins. The Arabians also furnished every year a thousand talents of frankincense. These, then, brought to the king the above gifts besides the tribute. The Indians obtain the great quantity of gold, from which y(^

earthen jars, and having


— —



manner presently

they supply the before-mentioned dust to the king, in the described. That part of India toward the rising sun is all sand for of the people with whom we are acquainted, and of whom anything certain is told, the Indians live the farthest toward the east and the sunrise of all the inhabitants of Asia; for the Indians' country toward the east is a desert, by reason of the sands. There are many nations of Indians, and they do not speak the same language as each other; some of them are nomads, and others not. Some inhabit the marshes of the river, and feed on raw fish, which they take going out in boats made of reeds one joint These Indians wear a garment of the reed makes a boat.




of rushes, which,




when they have cut the reed from the they afterward plait like a mat and wear Other Indians, living to the east of these, it as a corselet. are nomads, and eat raw flesh they are called Padaeans. They are said to use the following customs When any one of the community is sick, whether it be a woman or a man, if it be a man the men who are his nearest connections put him to death, alleging that if he wasted by disease his flesh would be spoiled; but if he denies that he is sick, they, not agreeing with him, kill and feast upon him. And if a woman be sick, in like manner the women who are most intimate with her do the same as the men. And whoever reaches to old age, they sacrifice and feast upon; but few among them attain to this state, for before that they put to death every one that falls into any distemper. Other Indians have the following different custom They neither kill anything that has life, nor sow anything, nor are they wont to have houses, but they live upon herbs, and they have a grain of the size of millet in a pod, which springs spontaneously from the earth, this they gather, and boil it and eat it with the pod. When any one of them falls into any disorder, he goes and lies down in the desert, and no one takes any thought about him, whether dead or sick. All have a complexion closely resembling the Ethiopians. These Indians are situated very far from the Persians, toward the south, and were never subject to Darius. There are other Indians bordering on the city of Caspatyrus and the country of Pactyica, settled northward of the other Indians, whose mode of life resembles that of the Bactrians. They are the most warlike of the Indians, and these are they who are sent to procure the gold for near this part is a desert by reason of the sand. In this desert, then, and in the sand, there are ants in size somewhat less indeed than dogs, but larger than foxes. Some of them are in the possession of the King of the Persians, which were taken there. These ants, forming their habitations under ground, heap up the sand, as the ants in Greece do, and in the same manner; and they are very like them in shape. The sand that is heaped up is mixed with gold. The Indians therefore go to the desert to get this sand, each man having three camels, on either side a male one harnessed to draw by the side, and a female in the middle this last the man mounts himself, having taken care to yoke one that has been separated from her young as recently born as possible for camels are not inferior to horses in swiftness, and are much better able to carry burdens. What kind of figure the camel has I shall not describe to the Greeks, made

and beaten











as they are acquainted with it; but what is not known recamel has four thighs and four specting it I will mention. knees in his hinder legs, and his private parts are turned between the hinder legs to the tail. The Indians, then, adopting such a plan and such a method of harnessing, set out for the gold, having before calculated the time, so as to be engaged in their plunder during the hottest part of the day, for during the heat the ants hide themselves under ground. Among these people the sun is hottest in the morning, and not, as among others, at midday from the time that it has risen some way, to the breaking up of the market; during this time it scorches much more than at midday in Greece; so that, it is Midday scorches said, they then refresh themselves in water. other men much the same as the Indians; but as the day declines, the sun becomes to them as it is in the morning to others and after this, as it proceeds it becomes still colder, When the Indians arrive until sunset: then it is very cold. at the spot, having sacks with them, they fill these with the For the ants, sand, and return with all possible expedition. as the Persians say, immediately discovering them by the smell, pursue them, and they are equalled in swiftness by no other animal, so that if the Indians did not get the start of them while the ants were assembling, not a man of them could be saved. Now the male camels (for they are inferior in speed to the females) slacken their pace, dragging on, not both equally but the females, mindful of the young they have left, do not slacken their pace. Thus the Indians, as the Persians say, obtain the greatest part of their gold and they have some small quantity more that is dug in the country. The extreme parts of the inhabited world somehow possess the most excellent products as Greece enjoys by far the best tempered climate. For in the first place, India is the farthest part of the inhabited world toward the east, as I have just observed in this part, then, all animals, both quadrupeds and birds, are much larger than they are in other countries, with the exception of horses in this respect they are surpassed by the Medic breed called the Nyssean horses. In the next place, there is abundance of gold there, partly dug, partly brought down by the rivers, and partly seized in the manner I have described. And certain wild trees there bear wool instead of fruit, that in beauty and quality excels that of sheep and the Indians make their clothing from these trees. Again, Arabia is the farthest of inhabited countries toward the south and this is the only region in which grow frankincense, myrrh, cassia, cinnamon, and ledanum. All these, except myrrh, the
















Arabians gather with difficulty. The frankincense they gather by burning styrax, which the Phoenicians import into Greece they take it by burning this; for winged serpents, small in size, and various in form, guard the trees that bear frankincense, a great number round each tree. These are the same serpents that invade Egypt. They are driven from the trees by nothing else but the smoke of the styrax. The Arabians say this also, that the whole land would be filled by these serpents if some such thing did not take place with regard to them, as I know happens to vipers. And the providence of God, as was likely, proves itself wise whatever creatures are timid, and fit for food, have been made very prolific, lest the species should be destroyed by constant consumption; but such as are savage and noxious, unprolific. For instance, the hare, which is hunted by all, beasts, birds, and men, is so pro:

beasts conceives to superfetation, havits young covered with down, others bare, others just formed, and at the same time conceives again. Such, then, is the case. Whereas a lioness, which is the strongest and fiercest of beasts, bears only one once in her for in bringing forth she ejects her matrix with the whelp life and this is the cause when the whelp begins to move in the womb, he, having claws, much sharper than those of any other beast, lacerates the womb; and as he increases in strength, he continues tearing it much more and when the So birth approaches, not a single part of it remains sound. also if vipers and the winged serpents of Arabia multiplied as fast as their nature admits, men could not possibly live. But now when they couple together, and the male is in the very act of impregnating, the female seizes him by the neck, and clinging to him, never lets him go until she has gnawed through him. In this manner the male dies, and the female pays the following retribution to the male: the offspring, while yet in the womb, avenging their father, eat through the matrix; and having gnawed through her bowels, thus make But other serpents, which are their entrance into the world. not hurtful to men, lay eggs, and hatch a vast number of young. Now vipers are found in all parts of the world; but flying serpents are abundant in Arabia, and nowhere else: there they appear to be very numerous. The Arabians obtain the frankincense in the manner I have described; and the cassia as follows: When they have covered their whole body and face, except the eyes, with hides and other skins, they go to the cassia it grows in a shallow lake; and around the lake and in it lodge winged animals



alone of


ing in


womb some









very like bats, and they screech fearfully, and are exceedThese they keep off from their eyes, and so ingly fierce. gather the cassia. The cinnamon they collect in a still more wonderful manner. Where it grows and what land produces except that some, giving a probit, they are unable to tell able account, say that it grows in those countries in which Bacchus was nursed. And they say that large birds bring those rolls of bark, which we, from the Phoenicians, call cinnamon, the birds bring them for their nests, which are built with clay, against precipitous mountains, where there is no The Arabians, to surmount this difficulty, access for man. have invented the following artifice Having cut up into large pieces the limbs of dead oxen, and asses, and other beasts of burden, they carry them to these spots, and having laid them near the nests, they retire to a distance. But the birds flying down carry up the limbs of the beasts to their nests, which not being strong enough to support the weight, break and fall to the ground. Then the men, coming up, in this manner gather the cinnamon, and being gathered by them But the ledanum, which the Arait reaches other countries. bians call ladanum, is still more wonderful than this; for

comes from a most stinking place, it is itself most For it is found sticking like gum to the beards of which collect it from the wood. It is useful for many ointments, and the Arabians burn it very generally as a perthough

fragrant. he-goats,




suffice to

have said thus


of these per-

and there breathes from Arabia, as it were, a divine odour. They have two kinds of sheep worthy of admiration, which are seen nowhere else. One kind has large tails, not less than three cubits in length, which, if suffered to trail, would ulcerate, by the tails rubbing on the ground. But every shepherd knows enough of the carpenter's art to prevent this, for they make little carts and fasten them under the tails, binding
tail of each separate sheep to a separate cart. The other kind of sheep have broad tails, even to a cubit in breadth. Where the meridian declines toward the setting sun, 1 the Ethiopian territory reaches, being the extreme part of the habitable world. It produces much gold, huge elephants, wild trees of all kinds, ebony, and men of large stature, very handsome, and



These, then, are the extremities of Asia and Libya. Concerning the western extremities of Europe I am unable to speak with certainty, for I do not admit that there is a river, called by barbarians Eridanus, which discharges itself into










the sea toward the north, from which amber is said to come nor am I acquainted with the Cassiterides Islands, from whence our tin comes. For in the first place, the name Eridanus shows that it is Grecian, and not barbarian, and feigned by some poet; in the next place, though I have diligently inquired, I have never been able to hear from any man who has himself seen it that there is a sea on that side of Europe. However, both tin and amber come to us from the remotest parts. Toward the north of Europe there is evidently a very great quantity of gold, but how procured I am unable to say with certainty though it is said that the Arimaspians, a oneeyed people, steal it from the griffins. Neither do I believe this, that men are born with one eye, and yet in other respects resemble the rest of mankind. However, the extremities of the world seem to surround and inclose the rest of the earth, and to possess those productions which we account most ex;

and rare. There is a plain in Asia shut in on every side by a range of mountains, and there are five defiles in the mountain. This plain formerly belonged to the Chorasmians, situated on the

confines of these Chorasmians, of the Hyrcanians, Parthians, Sarangaeans, and Thamanaeans; but since the Persians have had the empire it belongs to the king. From this range of mountains, then, that shuts in this plain, there flows a great river, the name of which is Aces it formerly, being divided into five several channels, used to irrigate the lands of the nations before mentioned, being conducted to each nation through each separate defile. But since they have become subject to the Persian, they have suffered the following calamity The king, having caused the clefts of the mountains to be blocked up, placed gates at each cleft, and the passage of the water being stopped, the plain within the mountains has become a sea, as the river continued to pour in, and had nowhere any exit. The people, therefore, who before were in the habit of using the water, not being able to use it any longer, were reduced to great extremities; for though in winter heaven supplies them with rain, as it does other men, yet in

summer, when they sow


and sesame, they stood



of water. When, therefore, no water was allowed them, they and their wives going to the Persians, and standing before But the king gave the king's palace, raise a great outcry. order that the gates should be open toward those lands that were most in need ; and when their land was satiated by imbibing water, these gates were shut, and he ordered others to be opened to those who were next in greatest need. And





as I have been informed, he opens them after he has exacted these large sums of money, in addition to the tribute. things are so. Of the seven men that conspired against the magus, it happened that one of them, Intaphernes, having committed the following act of insolence, lost his life shortly after the revolution. He wished to enter the palace in order to confer with Darius for the law was so settled among those who had conspired against the magus that they should have access to



the king without a messenger, unless the king should happen Intaphernes, therefore, to be in bed with one of his wives.

determined that no one should announce him; but, because he was one of the seven, chose to enter the doorkeeper, however, and the messenger, would not let him pass, saying that the king was then in bed with one of his wives but Intaphernes, suspecting they told a falsehood, did as follows having drawn his scimetar, he cut off their ears and noses, and having strung them to the bridle of his horse, he hung them round their necks, and so dismissed them. They presented themselves to the king, and told him the cause for which they had been so treated. Darius, fearing lest the six had done this in concert, sent for them, one by one, and endeavoured to discover their opinions, whether they approved of what had been done. But when he discovered that Intaphernes had not done this with their privity, he seized Intaphernes himself, and his children, and all his family, having many reasons to suspect that he, with his relatives, would raise a rebellion against him. And having seized them, he bound them as for death: but the wife of Intaphernes, going to the gates of the palace, wept and lamented aloud and having done this continually, she prevailed on Darius to have compassion on her. He therefore, having sent a messenger, spoke as follows " Madam, King Darius allows you to release one of your relatives who are now in prison, whichever of them all you please." But she, having deliberated, answered as follows, " Since the king grants me the life of one, I choose my brother from them all." Darius, when he heard this, wondering at her choice, having sent again, asked " Madam, the king inquires the reason why, leaving your husband and children, you have chosen that your brother should survive who is not so near related to you as your children, and less endeared to you than your husband ? " She answered as follows " O king, I may have another husband if God will, and other children if I lose these but as my father and mother are no longer alive, I can not by any means have another brother; for this
; ; :











reason I spoke as I did."

The woman appeared

to Darius to

and he granted to her the one whom she asked, and her eldest son, he was so pleased with her all the Of the seven, therefore, one very soon rest he put to death.
have spoken
perished in the
illness the following events took place: Orcetes, a Persian, had been appointed governor of Sardis by Cyrus this man conceived an impious project; for without having sustained any injury, or heard a hasty word from Polycrates the Samian, and without having seen him before, he conceived the design of seizing him and putting him to death as most people say, for some such cause as this. Orcetes and another Persian, whose name was Mitrobates, governor of the district of Dascylium, were sitting together at the palace gates, and fell into a dispute. As they were quarrelling about valour, Mitrobates said to Orcetes tauntingly " Are you to be reckoned a brave man, who have not yet acquired for the king the island of Samos, that lies near your government, and is so easy to be subdued? which one of its own inhabitants, having made an insurrection with fifteen armed men, obtained possession of, and now reigns over ? " Some say that he, having heard this, and being stung with the reproach, conceived a desire, not so much to revenge himself on the man who said it, as of utterly destroying Polycrates, on whose account he had been reproached. fewer number say that Orcetes sent a herald to Samos to make some demand which is not mentioned, and that Polycrates happened to be reclining in the men's apartment, and that Anacreon of Teos was with him and somehow (whether designedly disregarding the business of Orcetes, or by chance it so happened), when the herald of Orcetes came forward and delivered his message, Polycrates, as his face chanced to be turned toward the wall, neither turned about, nor made any answer. These twofold causes are assigned for the death of Polycrates every man may give credit to whichever he pleases. However, Orcetes, who resided in Magnesia, situated on the river Maeander, being acquainted with the intentions of Polycrates, sent Myrsus, a Lydian, son of Gyges, with a message to Samos for Polycrates is the first of the Grecians of whom we know who formed a design to make himself master of the sea, except Minos the Cnossian, or any other, who before his time obtained the empire of the sea but within what is called the historical age, Polycrates is the first who had entertained great expectations of ruling Ionia and the islands. Orcetes, therefore, having ascertained that he had
; ;

manner now mentioned. Near about the time of Cambyses's










this design, sent a message to the following effect: " Orcetes to Polycrates says as follows I understand that you are planning vast enterprises, and that you have not money answerable to your projects. Now, if you will do as I advise, you will promote your own success, and preserve death, and of this I me; for King Cambyses meditates have certain information. Now, do you convey me and wealth out of the country, and take part of it, and suffer me to enjoy the rest by means of the wealth, you will become master of all Greece. If you doubt what I say concerning riches, send to me the most trusty of your servants, to whom I will show them." Polycrates, having heard this, was delighted, and accepted the offer; and as he was very eager for wealth, he first sent Maeandrius, son of Maeandrius, to view it, a citizen who was his secretary he not long after dedicated to the Temple of Juno all the ornamental furniture from the men's apartment of Polycrates, which was indeed magnificent. Orcetes, having learned that an inspector might be expected, did as follows having filled eight chests with stones, except a very small space round the brim, he put gold on the surface of the stones, and having made the chests fast with cords, he kept them in readiness. But Maeandrius, having come and inspected the chests, took back a report to Polycrates. He, though earnestly dissuaded by the oracles and by his friends, resolved to go in person; and moreover, though his daughter had seen in a dream this vision she imagined she saw her father elevated in the air, washed by Jupiter, and anointed by the sun. Having seen this vision, she endeavoured by all possible means to divert Polycrates from going from home to Orcetes and as he was going on board a fifty-oared galley, she persisted in uttering words of bad omen. But he threatened her, if he should return safe, that she should long continue unmarried and she prayed that so it might be brought to pass for she chose to continue a longer time unmarried than be deprived of her father. Thus Polycrates, disregarding all advice, set sail to visit Orcetes, taking with him many others of his friends, and among them Democedes, son of Calliphon, a Crotonian, who was a physician, and the most skilful practitioner of his time. But Polycrates, on his arrival at Magnesia, was put to death in a horrid manner, unworthy of himself and his lofty thoughts for, with the exception of those who have been tyrants of Syracuse, not one of all the Grecian tyrants deserves to be compared with Polycrates for magnificence. But Orcetes, having put him to death in a manner not to be described, caused him to be














Mitrobates and his son." Darius asked the above questions and thirty men offered to undertake it. he destroyed two of us. who had been deprived of the government by the Medes but he in this confusion put to death Mitrobates. and in the next place. or put him for where skill is required. But he did not think it prudent to send an army against him openly. he slew the messenger sent by must me to recall him. . undertake to accomplish for me this by address. . Thus the constant good fortune of Polycrates endexl^ as Amasis. but as many as were strangers and servants he detained and treated as slaves. bidding them to feel thankful to him for their liberty. and he had but just got possession of the throne. as many as were Samians. before he has perpetrated any greater evils against the Persians. when it rained. He therefore be stopped by death. therefore. But Darius put an end . displaying intolerable insolence. he had him and his horse put out of sight. and Ionia. for after the death of Cambyses. then. and not by . Oroetes. having set men to waylay him and when he had caused him to be slain. Thus Polycrates. he dismissed. Which alive. fulfilled the vision of his daughter in every particular for he was washed by Jupiter. who had upbraided him with his conduct to Polycrates. force is of of you. and especially for the death of Mitrobates and his son. THALIA [125-128 of those that accompanied Polycrates. s^ Not long after. vengeance on account of Polycrates overtook Orcetes. King of Egypt. because he brought him an unwelcome message. Lydia. . and was anointed by the sun. but has brought great mischiefs upon them. and held the government Under these circumstances. therefore. being crucified. he had assassinated on his return. he adPersians. each being willing to accomplish the plan alone. himself emitting moisture from his : body. had foretold. men of high repute among the Persians and he committed various other atrocities and a certain courier of Darius who came to him. : O force and numbers? no any avail. the first place. together with Mitrobates's son Cranaspes. will dressed them as follows " Which of you. Darius had recourse to the following plan: having called the most eminent of the Persians together. and during the reign of the magi.200 crucified : HERODOTUS—BOOK III. gave no assistance to the Persians. of Phrygia. continuing at Sardis. . will either bring me Orcetes to death? He has never done the Persians In service. when he got possession of the throne. and he heard that Orcetes had great strength. for he had a body-guard of a thousand Persians. governor of Dascylium. as his affairs were still in a ferment. was anxious to punish Orcetes for all his iniquities. Darius.

fearing lest. when they heard drew their scimetars. he had some poor this." The guards. and at first thinking he had about him those of the Egyptians who had the first reputation for skill in the healing art. . " Persians. . But he appeared to Darius to dissemble. lowered their lances to him. having obtained it. in leaping from his horse while hunting. Darius asked him whether he understood the art. When Bagaeus saw them so obedient to the letter. having come into the presence of Orcetes. it happened not long after that Darius. some one who had before heard at Sardis of the skill of Democedes the Crotonian. but having been intimate with a physician. and had arrived at Susa. and clothed in rags. as he still continued in a bad state. he made use of their assistance. and it was twisted with such violence that the ankle bone was dislocated. . did as follows Having written several letters relating to a variety of affairs. and from the pain which he felt. Darius lay seven days and seven nights without sleep. When the treasures of Orcetes had been removed. on account of Polycrates the Samian. made the evil worse . he should be altogether precluded from returning to Greece. in which was written. Whereupon he discovered himself. he thereupon took confidence. King Darius forbids you to be guards to Orcetes. He denied that he did. On the eighth day. although he was skilled in the art. and delivered the last letter to the secretary. and gave them to the royal secretary to read for all the governors have royal secretaries. and using force. But they. he therefore commanded those who had brought him thither to bring out whips and goads. Bagaeus gave the letters in order to make trial of the guards whether they would listen to a revolt from Orcetes and perceiving they paid great respect to the letters. They found him among the slaves of Orcetes. when they heard this.128-130] PUNISHMENT OF ORCETES . twisted his foot. Bagaeus. made it known to Darius and he ordered them to bring him to him as quickly as possible. " King Darius commands the Persians at : On . he gave one in which were these words. and still more to the contents. he affixed to them Darius's his arseal. son of Artontes. altogether neglected and brought him forward. if he discovered himself. he opened the letters one by one. : Sardis to put Orcetes to death. As he stood before him. Thus vengeance overtook Orcetes the Persian. dragging fetters behind him. by twisting the foot. rival. saying that he did not know it perfectly." They. and killed him immediately. 201 to their competitions by desiring them to cast lots and when they cast lots it fell to Bagaeus. and then proceeded with them to Sardis.

for a hundred minse. had a very large house. and were about to be empaled. the vEginetae engaged him for a talent out of the public treasury. said to the women that this was the man who had saved the king's life. and lay neglected among the In short. when Darius put himself under his care. by using Grecian medicines. Upon which. and applying lenitives after violent remedies. and in the third year the Athenians. and in the next place he procured the liberty of a prophet of Elis. Democedes had great influence with the slaves. and being unable to endure this. and the Cyrenaeans the second. year Polycrates. who had attended Polycrates. he surpassed the most skilful of their physicians and in the second year.202 HERODOTUS— BOOK III. because they had been outdone by a Greek physician. with the speech. And in the first place he obtained from the king a pardon for the Egyptian physicians. presented Democedes with such a munificent gift that a servant. having settled there. and had a seat at the king's table and he had everything he could wish for. and had none of the instruments necessary for the exercise of his art. then. Not long after these things. though he had before despaired of ever recovering the use of his foot. After this cure. but Democedes asked him if he purposely gave him a double Darius. . picked up the staters that fell from the goblets and collected a large quantity of gold.Egina. and spread . king. introducing him. and wife to Darius. and in the fourth thus he came to Samos. THALIA [130-133 knowledge of the art. Democedes. pleased evil because he had restored him to health. At the same time the Argives were accounted the most skilful of the Greeks in the art of music. the following events took place: Atossa. for two talents From this man the Crotonian physicians obtained a great reputation for at this period the physicians of Crotona were said to be the first throughout Greece. . . daughter of Cyrus. . and in a little time restored him to his health. This Democedes visited Polycrates. At that time. though he was unprovided with means. whereupon each of them. he caused him to sleep. . sent him to his own wives and the eunuchs. who was of a severe temper. whose name was Sciton. except the liberty of returning to Greece. he left him and went to . Darius presented him with two pair of golden fetters. after some time it burst. after having left Crotona on the following account: He was harshly treated at Crotona by his father. following behind. who first attended the king. in the first year. dipping a goblet into a chest of gold. . having completely cured Darius at Susa. had a tumour on her breast.

and do not add any nation or power to the Persians. will make a report to me. secondly. that the Persians may know that they are governed by a man. : : . and he answered " Lady. that they may be worn in war." She spoke thus according to her instructions. : . Argive. I will turn my arms against them. you who possess so great power. . against the Scythians. As long as it was small. and pass along the maritime parts of Greece and to take care that Democedes did not escape from them. 133-135] DEMOCEDES 203 considerably. It were right that a man who is both young and master of such vast treasures should render himself considerable by his actions. instructed by Democedes. Atossa. addressed Darius. You should therefore perform some illustrious action while you are in the flower of your age for the mind grows with the growth of the body. as he lay in bed. I mean the person who cured your foot. : : the Persians may know that it is a man who rules over them and. she concealed it. and restored her to health. give up the thought of marching first against the Scythians. and then. He. Two motives should influence you to such a course first. and dull for every action." Atossa replied " Look you now. when they are informed of and have seen every particular. being thoroughly informed. for they will be in your power whenever you choose. and as it grows old. Having given . in the following words " O king. and lead an army into Greece for from the account I have heard. that . since you think I ought to make my first attempt against Greece. Athenian. but take my advice. and Corinthian attendants and you have the fittest man in the world to show and inform you of everything concerning Greece. exacted from her a solemn promise that she in return would perform for him whatever he should require of her. you have mentioned the very things that I myself purpose to do. and not tempted by too much ease to plot against you. he commanded them to accompany Democedes. When therefore he had healed her. and from delicacy informed no one of it when it became dangerous. . . . for I have determined to make a bridge and march from this continent to the other. saying that he could cure her. having summoned fifteen eminent Persians. sit idle." Darius answered: " Lady. she sent for Democedes and showed it to him. but they must by all means bring him back again." Thus he spoke and no sooner said than done for as soon as day dawned. I am anxious to have Lacedaemonian. I think it better first to send some Persians thither as spies with the man you mention they. but added that he would ask nothing which might bring disgrace on her. grows old with it. and this shall shortly be put in execution..

. Moreover. and requested him. Accordingly. Some of the Crotonians. and with them also a large trading vessel. in my opinion. . going down to Phoenicia and Sidon. dreading the Persian power. he said he would accept of. 204 these HERODOTUS— BOOK III. out of kindness toward Democedes. and having found him in the public market. promising to give him many times as much instead. they laid hands on him. he said that for the purpose of transporting the presents he would give a merchant ship. having inspected the greatest part of it. and shown it to them. and made notes in writing. though they expostulated " Men of Crotona. Aristophilides. when he had conducted the Persians through all Greece. they manned two triremes. were ready to deliver him up but others seized the Persians in turn. King of the Tarentines. filled with all kinds of precious things. he next summoned Democedes himself. . they set sail for Greece and keeping to the shore. have a care what you do in these terms you are rescuing a man who is a runaway from the king . .: . fearing lest Darius was making trial of him. and having had the trading vessel which they brought with them taken from them. they proceeded to Tarentum in Italy. without eagerness. first took off the rudders of the Median ships. at length. they sailed back to Asia. and when he had reached his own home. they did not persuade the Crotonians but being forcibly deprived of Democedes. a city of Phoenicia. Now Darius. . The Persians. and whatever was most remarkable. Aristophilides set the Persians at liberty. received all that was given. and pursuing Democedes. There. sailing from thence. nor. sent them down to the coast. should accompany him on his voyage. : How . to return again he also commanded him to take with him all his movables as presents to his father and brothers. While they were in this condition Democedes went to Crotona. and beat them with staves. THALIA [135-137 commands to them. which . arrived at Crotona. promised him these things without any deceitful intention but Democedes. him these instructions. that he might have them on his return the merchant ship which Darius promised him to convey the presents to his Darius having given brothers. but said that he would leave his own goods where they were. and restored what he had taken from their ships. how will King Darius endure to be thus insulted? can what you do end well if you force this man from us? What city What sooner shall we enshall we sooner attack than this? deavour to reduce to slavery ? " Saying this. and next shut up the Persians as spies. laden with all kinds of precious things and having prepared everything. they surveyed the coasts.

on account of trade others. having set sail from Crotona. The Persians. and he took it for the following reason When Cambyses. seeing him. Cambyses died. After these things. Syloson thought afterward that he had lost it through his good nature. to serve as soldiers others. he bade them restore Gillus to Tarentum. in course of time. Darius having promised this. either Grecian or barbarian. the wrestler. did they attempt to explore Greece any further. took a fancy to the cloak. and coming up. performed it. : . if so it must needs be. for the name of Milo. " I will not sell it for any sum. on that occasion. and being made slaves there. . he said that the Cnidians alone would suffice to effect his restoration thinking that by them. who was one of Cambyses's guard. and an exile from Samos. that he might appear to Darius to be a man of consequence in his own country. King Darius took Samos. he walked in the streets of Memphis and Darius. his return would be most easily effected. and as yet a man of no great account. and were not strong enough to employ force. and on this account it appears to me that Democedes spared no expense to hasten this marriage. and the seven rose up against the magus. first of all the cities. invaded Egypt. : : . for having despatched a messenger to Cnidus. Darius possessed the throne. 137-140] DARIUS AND SYLOSON 205 as they were deprived of their guide. Of these. impelled by a divine impulse. but I will give it you for nothing. to view the country. having first related his misfortunes. and of the seven. At their departure Democedes enjoined them to tell Darius that he had Milo's daughter affianced to him as his wife. Gillus. and they. having accepted his offer with thanks. Syloson heard that the king. stood high with the king. were driven to Iapygia. could not persuade the Tarentines. took the cloak. many Grecians resorted thither." Darius. some. son of ^aces. Thus these things ended and these were the first Persians who came from Asia to Greece. if on his account a great fleet should sail to Italy. wished to purchase it. were spies. ransomed them. asked to be restored to Tarentum . and conducted them to King Darius and he in return for this professed himself ready to give him whatever he should desire. the last was Syloson. but the Cnidians. But Syloson. perceiving that Darius was very anxious to have the cloak. as one may conjecture. son of Cyrus.. a Tarentine exile. but when. as they were on terms of friendship with the Tarentines. though they obeyed Darius. The following piece of good luck befell this Syloson having put on a scarlet cloak. brother to Polycrates. said. But Gillus. but that he might not disturb Greece.

nor can I mention anything that I owe to a Greek. but he. one of the seven. the sceptre and all the power of Polycrates has been intrusted. having had the administration intrusted to him by Polycrates though he wished to prove himself the most just For when the of men. . For neither did Polycrates please me in exercising despotic power over men equal to himself. since my brother Polycrates died by the hands of Orcetes. he summoned an assembly of all the citizens. bring him in. The porter. said What Grecian is my benefactor. having so lately come to the throne? Scarcely one of them has as yet come up hither. made me a present. when as yet I had no power. wondering. Whereupon Otanes. Maeandrius. and as he stood in the midst. son of Mseandrius. to whom I to the man owe a debt of gratitude. give me neither gold nor silver but recover and give me back my country. Now Polycrates has accomplished his fate and I." The porter introduced Syloson. embarked his army. which is now in the suburbs. he seated himself at the threshold of the king's palace. Give me this without blodshed and bondage." When Darius heard this. and marked round it the sacred inclosure. THALIA [140-142 devolved on the man to whom he had given his cloak his requesting it. Then Syloson related all that had passed respecting the cloak. and I am now able to retain the government. However. having heard this. abstain from doing. death of Polycrates was made known to him. Afterward. to the utmost of my ability. he erected an altar to Jupiter Liberator. with orders to accomplish whatever Syloson should desire.. he sent an army under the conduct of Otanes. Samos. a slave of ours has possessed himself of. held the government of Samos. son of Hystaspes. that he said he had been a benefactor to the king. 206 HERODOTUS— BOOK III. that I may know the meaning of what he says. surrendering the : O : : : . and said he had been a benefactor to Darius. so that thou shalt never repent having conferred a favour on Darius. and spoke as follows " To me. But what I condemn in another I will myself. so having gone up to Susa. To this the king answered " Most generous of men art thou then the man who. and what he had done. he was unable to effect his purpose. when he had done this. as you know. the interpreters asked him who he was. In return I will give thee abundance of gold and silver. small as it dom had in Egypt on : : ! was? yet the obligation is the same as if I were now to receive a thing of great value. reported it to the king. which now. nor would any other who should do the like. going down to the sea." To this Syloson replied " king. he did as follows First. and that he was the person who gave it.

he shouted. they were not willing to be free. and having peeped through his dungeon. but when you see the Persians driving you out and making you houseless. having heard this. he seized them and put them in chains. you dare not avenge yourself. and said that he wished to speak with Maeandrius and Maeandrius. perceiving that if . no one raised a hand against them. : . who am your own brother. They then were kept in confinement. among whose name was Telesarchus. in order that he might the more easily possess himself of the government of Samos. for . that the following remuneration should be granted to myself: that six talents should be given me out of the treasures of Polycrates. he urged him to attack the Persians. and Maeandrius himself. having had seats placed for them. The tyrant Maeandrius had a the citizens. When the Persians arrived at Samos. bringing Syloson with them. however. and the partisans of Maeandrius. brother somewhat out of his senses. for. when he had withdrawn to the citadel. saying " Me. you have bound and adjudged to a dungeon. O vilest of men. and in addition." then made these demands of the Samians but one of them rising up said " You forsooth are not worthy to rule over us. I claim for descendants forever the priesthood of the Temmyself and I have erected an altar. whose laus . To which end. sat down opposite the citadel. and had ratified the agreement.142-145] PERSIANS OCCUPY SAMOS 207 I reinto your hands. commanded him to be released. sending for each one severally. . whose name was Lycaretus. some fault . as it seems. he. no longer thought of laying it down. put all the prisoners to death. But Maeanhe should lay down the power some other would set himself up as tyrant in his place. name was Chari- he had committed. and brought into his presence and as soon as he was brought there. though they are so easy to be subdued. ple of Jupiter Liberator. as if about to give an account of the treasures. and have done nothing worthy of bonds. being as you are a base and pestilent fellow rather think how you will render an account of the wealth that you have had the management of. upbraiding and reviling his brother. said they were ready to quit the island under a treaty. : . when he saw the Persians sitting quietly down. drius. quire." Thus spoke a man of eminence government my whom He . proclaim equality to all. the principal men of the Persians. was confined in a dungeon and having at that time overheard what was doing. and when Otanes had assented to this. supposing that he would die. to and under whose auspices I restore to you your liberties. but after this disease attacked Maeandrius and his brother.

" Thus spoke Charilaus and Maeandrius accepted his offer. son of Anaxandrides. he did as follows: When he had set out his silver and golden cups. sallied out upon the Persians. holding a conversation with Cleomenes. But Otanes. all they met. at the same time. slew those of the Persians who were seated in chairs. Whereupon one part of the army besieged the citadel. and the auxiliaries. for he had had a secret passage dug leading from the citadel to the sea. tegrity. and I am ready also to send you out of the island. . if without a struggle he should possess himself of the city uninjured. Cleomenes showed himself a man of the highest inwho refused to accept what was offered and being informed that by giving to other citizens he would gain their times. . upon which Maeandrius bade him take away whatever he pleased. . and punish them for coming here. and having thrown open the gates. and then to give it up: being well assured that the Persians. who did not expect anything of the kind. but deliver the island to Syloson without damage on the contrary. and the rest killed every one that came in their way. but rather out of envy to Syloson. . and carried with him all the treasures that he had when he set out. . being hard pressed. as I think. not that he had reached such a pitch of folly as to imagine that his own power could overcome that of the king.208 HERODOTUS—BOOK if III. whenever he chose. when he saw that the Persians had suffered great loss. would be exasperated against the Samians and knowing also that he had for himself a safe retreat from the island. he wished to make the Samian power as weak as possible. if they suffered any ill treatment. falling on. that he should neither kill nor take prisoner any of the Samians. Having therefore provoked the Persians. led him on to his house. as well within the temples as without. the general. THALIA [145-148 in dread of them. purposely neglected to obey the orders which Darius had given him at his departure. But the rest of the Persian army came to their assistance. lend me your auxiliaries. both man and child alike. he commanded his army to put to death every one they met with. he was struck with wonder and astonishment. When the king saw the cups. . having armed all the auxiliaries. . having escaped from Samos. his servants began to clean them and he. Maeandrius himself sailed away from Samos. and who were the principal men among them. sailed to Lacedaemon and having arrived there. and when Maeandrius had repeated his offer two or three But you are I will . Accordingly. were shut up again within the citadel. then King of Sparta. Maeandrius. but thought everything had been agreed upon and the auxiliaries. but Charilaus.

utterly Afterward. danced. and derided Darius and his army. he besieged them. banished tans to become base. having very well prepared themselves. delivered it to Syloson. whomsoever he chose. — : — 14 . Darius was vexed. lest he should persuade him or some other of the SparAnd they. repeopled it. When a year and seven months had now passed. But even so he could not take them and having tried other stratagems. Thereupon. they had made preparations for a siege. and he was not able to surprise them. having assented. son of Megabyzus. who never expected that a mule would breed. and having strictly charged his servants not to tell any one what had happened. the following prodigy happened One of his sumpter mules brought forth young: but when the news was told him. that they were not able to take the Babylonians though Darius had recourse to every kind of stratagem and artifice against them. and said that it would be better for Sparta that this Samian stranger should quit the Peloponnesus. Zopyrus himself. in consequence of a vision in a dream. However. from his own family. and having collected all his forces. the Babylonians kept strict guard. went to see the foal. : . to Zopyrus. marched against them and having advanced to Babylon. for the Babylonians. " When even mules bring forth young. during all that time. mounting on the ramparts of the wall. and one of them spoke as follows " Why sit ye there. son of that Megabyzus who was one of the seven who dethroned the magus to this Zopyrus. he considered on it: and in consequence of the words of the Babylonian. and in the confusion. and somehow in doing this had escaped observation. The Persians having drawn Samos as with a net. each man selected one woman besides. however. O Persians ? will ye not be off? for ye will take us when mules bring forth young. and all his army. not believing it. Maeandrius by public proclamation. general. in the twentieth month." One of the Babylonians said this. "^ For while the magus reigned. . he made trial of that also by which Cyrus had taken them. that they might not consume their provisions. then would the city be taken " in conse: : . While the naval armament was on its way to Samos. and the seven rose up against him. being informed of this. who were not at all solicitous about the event. Darius. They strangled them. but all the rest they assembled together and strangled the one woman each man selected to cook his food. Otanes.148-153] REVOLT OF THE BABYLONIANS 209 support. But when they openly revolted they did as follows Having excepted their mothers. the destitute of inhabitants. he went to the Ephori. who at the beginning said. the Babylonians revolted.

and asked him whether he deemed the taking of Babylon as of very great importance. but I have done it to myself. . we shall take Babylon. as I am." He replied " Most wretched of men. . he inflicted on himself an irremediable mutilation. and will tell them that I have been thus treated by you and I think that when I have persuaded them that such is the case. for that the that he valued it at a high price. . considering that as a light matter. station a thousand men over against the gates called after Semiramis again after that. When he thought that it was fated for Babylon to be now taken. Thereupon. you would not have permitted me. I have done it. for having cut off his nose and ears. he thought that Babylon could now be man had spoken under divine influence. He answered " king. station two thousand more against the gate called from Nineveh and from the seventh day let an interval of twenty days elapse. How. you have given the fairest name to the foulest deed. THALIA [i 53-155 omen. For I. and then place four thousand more against the gate called from the Chaldseans but let neither the first nor these carry any defensive arms except swords. he shouted aloud and asked who had mutilated him. and that his own mule had brought forth young. and for what cause. and having started from his throne. but now. that you have thus ruined yourself ? " He said in answer " If I had communicated to you what I was about to do. there is no man except yourself who could have power to treat me thus. then. I shall obtain the command of their army. therefore. will desert to the city.2io quence of HERODOTUS—BOOK this III. in saying that you have injured yourself thus incurably on account of those who are besieged. and having cut his hair in a disgraceful manner. now. he went to Darius. deeming it a great this. . he presented himself before Darius. if you are not wanting to your own interests. no stranger has done king. of that part of your army whose loss you would least regret. Darius was very much grieved when he beheld a man of high rank so mutilated. for among the Persians great achievements are honoured in the highest degree. he concluded that he should not be able to reduce it in any other way than if he should mutilate himself. on the seventh day after the tenth. indignity that the Assyrians should deride the Persians. on the tenth day after I shall have entered the city. and desert to the enemy. because you are mutilated. he next considered how he might be the person to take it. : O O : : . having deliberated with myself. Do you. foolish man. will the enemy sooner submit? Have you lost your senses. and the work might be his own. Now. and having scourged himself. and having learned taken.

" I come to you. he cut them in pieces. leading out the army of the Babylonians.155-157] SIEGE OF BABYLON them have 211 these. and having surrounded the four thousand. for on the tenth day. But those who were stationed in that quarter. when I have performed great exploits. and. and for what purpose he came. for he shall not escape with impunity. acted as he had preconcerted with Darius. and were ready to obey him in everything. having suffered the appointed number of days to elapse. but let way command : O . Babylonians. the greatest fore. . asked him who he was. blessing and to Darius." he said. seeing a man of distinction among the Persians deprived of his ears and nose. the keys of the gates. Then he again. were exceedingly rejoiced. therethere appeared no means of taking the city. since " Now. led out his troops according to the settled plan. having suffered the appointed number of days to elapse. : were ready to intrust him with whatever he should ask and he asked the command of the forces. After the twentieth day. he cut them all in pieces. and then it will be mine and the Persians' care to do what remains to be done. But he. and that he was so treated because he had advised to raise the siege. But the Babylonians witnessing this action also. having thus mutilated me and I am acquainted with all his designs. ran down. all had the praises of Zopyrus on their tongues. therefore. moreover. and covered with stripes and blood. He told them that he was Zopyrus. and again having selected a body of Babylonians. and the Persians. led them out and slaughtered the two thousand of Darius's soldiers. the greatest mischief. therefore. but station the Persians for me at those called the Belidian and Cissian gates. and that he had come as an ally to them." Having given these injunctions. when they heard this. he went to the gates. his army. for as I think. straightthe rest of the army to invest the wall on all sides. The Babylonians therefore perceiving that he performed deeds suitable to his promises. seeing him from the turrets. saying that he had suffered from Darius the injuries he had inflicted on himself. whom he had instructed Darius to station there first. conducted him to the assembly of the Babylonians. and having surrounded the thousand. and standing before them he deplored his condition. and having opened one door of the gate a little. having obtained this from them. the Babylonians will intrust everything to me. turning round as if he were really a deserter." Thus he spoke and the Babylonians. And when he had accomplished . and had deserted to them the doorkeepers. He. thoroughly believing that he spoke the truth. .

. HERODOTUS—BOOK III. according to agreement. or lived before. and allowed the rest of the Babylonians to inhabit the city. invested the wall all round. But when Darius. surpassed Zopyrus in great achievements. Darius made the following provision for the Babylonians had strangled their wives. . It is also reported that Darius frequently expressed this opinion. and he assigned him Babylon to hold free from taxes during his life. . and guardian of the walls. dition to that he had. first of all he demolished the walls and bore away all the gates. so that a total of fifty thousand women came together. taxing each at a certain number. Thus Babylon was taken a second time. . repelled the army of Darius that was attacking them but Zopyrus. who deserted to the Athenians from the Persians. to prevent the consumption of their provisions. And that the Babylonians might have wives. he did neither of these things and. until they also discovered that they had been betrayed. and he was appointed commander-in-chief. THALIA [157-160 Zopyrus was everything to the Babylonians. and gave him many other things in addition. And when Darius had made himself master of the Babylonians. that he would rather Zopyrus had not suffered ignominious treatment than acquire twenty Babylons in adAnd he honoured him exceedingly. and to that end he enjoined the neighbouring provinces to send women to Babylon. who commanded the army in Egypt against the Athenians and their allies and from this Megabyzus sprung Zopyrus. and from these the Babylonians of our time are descended. Cyrus only excepted. for with him no Persian ever ventured to compare himself. led the Persians within the wall. as already has been mentioned.212 this. . Those of the Babylonians who saw what was done fled into the Temple of Jupiter Belus and those who did not see it remained each at his post. Darius impaled about three thousand of the principal citizens. either of those who came after. secondly. < . No Persian. having opened the Cissian and Belidian gates. From this Zopyrus sprung Megabyzus. for he every year presented him with those gifts which are most prized by the Persians. in the opinion of Darius. for when Cyrus had taken Babylon before. mounting on the wall. . then Zopyrus discovered his whole treachery for the Babylonians. in order that offspring might grow up from them.

opposed those who were returning from 213 . seeing their husbands were a long time absent. and returned to their own country after such an interval. and defeated in battle those that opposed them. Darius was desirous of revenging himself upon the Scythians. for they are not agriculturists. however. were the first beginners of violence. had sought the company The Scythians deprive all their slaves of of their slaves. but jf . beThose fore the arrival of the Scythians. and the udder is depressed. when they knew their own extraction. having invaded the Median territory. after they had been abroad eight-andtwenty years.: BOOK IV MELPOMENE in men. others milk. they pour it into hollow wooden vessels. From these slaves. and large revenues came in. For the Scythians. a task no less than the invasion of Media awaited for they found an army of no inconsiderable force ready to oppose them. ruled over Asia. being inflated. for the wives of the Scythians. as I have before mentioned. They say they do this for the following reason because the veins of the mare. for as Asia was flourishing \ : : feeders of cattle. but that which subsides is of less value than the On this account the Scythians put out the eyes of other. When they have finished milking. ruled over Upper Asia for eight-and-twenty years. Scythians. Darius's expedition against /\ the Scythians took place. : . they consider it the most valuable. they thrust them into the genital parts of the mares. who. doing as follows When they have taken bone tubes very like flutes. sight for the sake of the milk which they drink. become filled. because they formerly. then. and the women a race of youths had grown up. and having placed the blind men round about the vessels. they entered Asia and overthrew the empire of the Medes for these last. they agitate the milk and having skimmed off that which swims on the surface. A FTER the capture of Babylon. and blow with their mouths while some blow. For while in pursuit of the Cimmerians. every prisoner they take.

Colaxais that during their reign a plough. seeing them first. but when they shall see us with our whips instead of arms." vice and the slaves. Apoxais. and it did the same again. one of them said " Men of Scythia. and it arose in the following manner: The first man that appeared in this country. When several battles had been fought.214 Media. they will soon learn that they are our slaves. they considered themselves equal to us. and being conscious of that. an axe. re-' turned in this manner to their own country: and for the above-mentioned reasons Darius. they came to an engagement with the Scythians. which is of great extent. stretching from Mount Taurus to the Lake Maeotis. from the second. taking a horsewhip. and the Scythians were unable to obtain any advantage. : . : . . accordingly. having heard this. forgot to fight. who went by the names of Lipoxais. approached. what are we doing ? by fighting with our slaves. and by killing them we shall hereafter have fewer to rule over. they say. desiring to take revenge. intending to take them up. . who were endeavouring to enter. however. struck with astonishment at what was done. who are called : — . assembled an army to invade them. and that every one. and being afterward expelled by the Medes. . fell on the Scythian territory. which was a wilderness. but as he came near the gold began to burn when he had retired the second went up. theirs is the most recent of all nations. and a bowl of golden workmanship. scended those Scythians who are called Auchatse. dropping down from heaven. for so long as they saw us with arms. it became extinguished. HERODOTUS—BOOK And first IV. should go directly to them. are dethority to the youngest. adopted the adresist. that the eldest. and afterward encamping opposite. the burning gold repulsed these. a yoke. both we ourselves by being slain become fewer in number. those who are called Catiari and Traspies. MELPOMENE [3-6 they cut off the country by digging a wide ditch. the royal race. will no longer The Scythians. and born of equal birth. Thus the Scythians both ruled over Asia. Apoxais. and he carried the things home with him and that the elder brothers in consequence of this giving way surrendered the whole auFrom Lipoxais. and from the youngest of them. As the Scythians say. Now therefore it seems to me that we should lay aside our spears and bows. and fled. in my opinion relating what is incredible that they were Jupiter and a daughter of the river Borysthenes that such was the origin of Targitaus and that he had three sons. and the youngest. but when the youngest went up the third. they say. was named Targitaus they say that the parents of this Targitaus.

half viper. arrived in this country. and in the meanwhile his mares. and they reckon the whole number of years from their first beginning. and annually approach it with magnificent sacrifices to render it propitious. he sought for them. by reason of the feathers shed there for that . Colaxais established three of the kingdoms for his sons. The parts beyond the north of the inhabited districts the Scythians say can neither be seen nor passed through. and that having gone over the whole country. he was desirous of recovering : : : . and that it is these which intercept the view. beginning from the sunrise. but the Grecians call them Scythians. The ocean. and which the Scythians now inhabit: that Geryon. they say. The country being very extensive. If he who has the sacred gold happens to fall asleep in the open air on the festival. having two natures. as he was driving away the herds of Geryon. But all have the name of Scoloti. Scythians say that such was their origin . and the lower parts a serpent when he saw her he was astonished. the Scythians say he can not survive the year. Such is the account the Scythians give of themselves. half virgin. and made that one the largest in which the gold is kept. but asked her if she had anywhere seen his strayed mares. and as a storm and frost overtook him. he drew his lion's skin over him. vanished by some divine chance. inhabited the island which the Greeks call Erythia. and went to sleep . and would not restore them to him before she had lain with him: Hercules accordingly She. out of a desire to enjoy the company of Hercules as long as she could. of which the upper parts from the buttocks resembled a woman. the earth and air are full of feathers. from the surname The of their king. fixing his abode outside the Pontus. that was then a desert. This sacred gold the kings watch with the greatest care. from King Targitaus to the time that Darius crossed over against them. but just that number. flows round the whole earth. and on this account they give him as much land as he can ride round on horseback in one day. They add that when Hercules awoke. he found a monster. but they do not prove it in fact. however. he at length came to the land called Hylaea. to be not more than a thousand years. back the mares. She said that she herself had them.5 6-9] ORIGIN OF THE SCYTHIANS 21 Paralatae. that Hercules thence came to the country now called Scythia. which were feeding apart from his chariot. and of the country above them but the Greeks who inhabit Pontus give the following account they say that Hercules. situated near Gades. beyond the columns of Hercules in the ocean. delayed giving lay with her on these terms.

send out of the country. when the Scythians invaded them. make him an inhabitant of this country. you will please yourself and perform my injunctions. neither the people would sub." Then having drawn out one of his bows. to the second. . she " These mares that strayed hither I preserved for you. The Cimmerians. deliberated.1 . for I have three sons by you tell me. he departed. which both vehemently upheld. left the country. Agathyrsis. Scythes. This thing only the mother did for Scythes. to which I myself rather incline: It is said that the Scythian nomads who dwelt in Asia. you can not err if you do this whichever of them you see able thus to bend this bow. and having shown her the belt. . but the youngest of them. he gave her both the bow and the belt. when the sons who were born to her attained to the age of men. being harassed in war by the Massagetse. Scythes she did what had been enjoined and two of her sons. crossed the river Araxes and entered the Cimmerian territory for the country which the Scythians now inhabit is said to have formerly belonged to the Cimmerians. There is another account. Agathyrsis and Gelonus. what must I do with them when they are grown up. and whichever fails If in these tasks which I enjoin. or shall I send them to you ? " When She asked this question. whether shall I establish them here. and you have paid me salvage. you do this. . and thus girding himself with this girdle. are descended those who have been successively kings of the Scythians and from the cup. the Scythians even to this day wear cups from their belts. which had a golden cup said : : : at the extremity of the clasp. to the following effect. in the first place gave them names to the first. therefore. for I possess " the rule over this country. But she. and to the youngand. remembering the orders. Gelonus. their opinions were divided. seeing a large army was coming against them however. therefore. being expelled by their mother. in the next place. son of Hercules. and he replied. When. est. and that there was no need to hazard a battle against superior numbers but the opinion of the kings was that they should fight to the last for their country against the invaders. Such is the account given by the Greeks who inhabit Pontus. they say you see the children arrived at the age of men. MELPOMENE [9-1 them and departing. . remained there. having accomplished it. for Hercules carried two at that time. at last as she restored the mares. : . being unable to come up to the proposed task. though that of the kings was the best for the opinion of the people was that it was necessary to retire. : 2i6 HERODOTUS— BOOK IV. and having given them. From this Scythes. .

11-14] ARISTEAS OF PROCONNESUS.. went to acquaint the relatives of the deceased. They say that Aristeas. considering what great advantages they had enjoyed. 2\J mit to the kings. . . and I shall now relate the account I heard of him in Proconnesus and Cyzicus. beginning from the Arimaspians. being pressed by the Scythians. who reach to the sea that all these. and the one party. . inspired by Apollo. they then abandoned the country and the Scythians coming up. until they entered the Median territory. having all perished. except the Hyperboreans. and Cimmerian Porthmia x there is also a district named Cimmeria. has already been mentioned. and beyond these the Hyperboreans. and entering the Median territory. a native of Proconnesus. and one party resolved to depart without fighting. toward the midland. After they had buried them. Of what country Aristeas. who was inferior to none of the citizens by birth. was. and being equal in numbers. and not fly with the people. continually encroached upon their neighbours that the Issedones were expelled from their country by the Arimaspians. barbarians. he came to the Issedones that beyond the Issedones dwell the Arimaspians. and how many misfortunes would probably befall them if they fled from their country: when they had come to this resolution. the royal race. . keeping Caucasus on the right. while the kings determined to die and be buried in their own country. they fought with one another. a people that have only one eye and beyond them the goldguarding griffins. entering into a fuller's shop in Proconnesus. who inhabited on the south sea. says in his epic verses that. took possession of the deserted counAnd there are now in Scythia Cimmerian fortifications try. missed their way for the Cimmerians fled constantly by the sea-coast whereas the Scythians pursued. abandoned their country. Thus he does not agree with the Scythians respecting this country. having divided. When the . : . This last account is given in common both by Greeks and : . the people of the Cimmerians buried them near the river Tyras and their sepulchre is still to be seen. nor the kings to the people. and settled in the peninsula in which the Grecian city Sinope now stands and it is evident that the Scythians. The Cimmerians evidently appear to have fled from the Scythians into Asia. and that the Cimmerians. and abandon the country to the invaders. who made these verses. pursuing them. the Scythians by the Issedones. But Aristeas. having closed his workshop. * Passages or ferries. . son of Caystrobius. died suddenly and that the fuller. . and a bosphorus called Cimmerian.

in the seventh year. for this is the most central part of the seacoast of all Scythia. accompanied him and that when he accompanied the god. Aristeas was not to be seen either dead or alive. but when the house was opened. arriving from Artace. . being Greek-Scythians beyond these is another nation. and having composed them. three hundred and forty years after the second disappearance of Aristeas. but the relatives of the deceased went to the fuller's shop. he was a crow. They say that afterward. But these things I know happened to the Metapontines in Italy. and that he himself. who was now Aristeas. From the port of the Borysthenitae. The Metapontines say that Aristeas himself. having appeared in their country. . he vanished. and around it laurels are planted the image is placed in the public square. he appeared in Proconnesus. of whom I have just now made mention. These and the Callipidae. that Aristeas was dead. Such is the story current in these cities. and if they obeyed. MELPOMENE [14-17 report had spread through the city. . say in his poems that he went farther than the Issedones. . in other respects. : . and the Metapontines say they sent to Delphi to inquire of the god what the apparition of the man meant but the Pythian bade them obey the apparition. it would conduce to their benefit: they accordingly. But as far as we have been able to arrive at the truth with accuracy from hearsay. No one knows with certainty what is beyond the country about which this account proceeds to speak for I have not been able to hear of any one who says he has seen them with his own eyes. having received this answer. fell into a dispute with those who made the report. composed those verses. Thus much concerning Aristeas. and to place near it a statue bearing the name of Aristeas the Proconnesian for he said that Apollo had visited their country only of all the Italians. the first people are the Callipidae. exhorted them to erect an altar to Apollo. And now a statue bearing the name of Aristeas is placed near the image of Apollo. and after saying this. but they both sow and feed on wheat. nor even did Aristeas. a certain Cyzicenian. stating that the Issedones gave him his information. .2i8 HERODOTUS— BOOK IV. which by the Greeks are now called Arimaspian. disappeared a second time. as I discovered by computation in Proconnesus and Metapontium. for the purpose of carrying the body away. called Alazones. taking with them what was necessary. affirming that he had met and conversed with him on his way to Cyzicus and he vehemently disputed the truth of the report. . follow the usages of the Scythians. the whole shall be related. but of the parts beyond he spoke by hearsay. fulfilled the injunctions.

except Hylaea. then. and to the port on the Lake Maeotis. but beyond the Alazones dwell husbandmen. and no nation of men is found there. stretching to the river Gerrhus. lies at all. Above the Budini. nor plough and all this country is destitute of trees. The country eastward of these Scythian agriculturists. Contiguous to these.17-22] THE SCYTHIANS 219 onions. occupying the second region. . lentils. But above the Melanchlaeni are lakes. which is called Cremni. as far as I know. ocselves Olbiopolitse. and possessing a country thickly covered with all sorts of trees. when one crosses the river Panticapes. the Melanchlaeni inhabit. cupy the country eastward. the first country from the sea is Hylaea and from this higher up live Scythian agriculturists. as far as we know. But if one crosses the Borysthenes. for three days' journey. and the most valiant and numerous of the Scythians. called Borysthenitae. dwell the Thyssagetae. a distinct race. which those sprung from the blind men dug. and millet. there is first a desert of seven days' journey. After one crosses the river Tanais. Above these dwell the Budini. but the first region belongs to the Sauromatae. who deem all other Scythians to be their slaves. nomads occupy. and not Scythian. if one turns somewhat toward the east. and next to the desert. . and an uninhabited desert. garlic. but for sale. and they live by hunting. These nomads occupy a tract eastward for fourteen days' journey. a numerous and distinct race. who also live by hunting in the following manner The huntsman. : . . who do not sow wheat for food. Beyond this region the country is desert for a great distance and beyond the desert Androphagi dwell. who neither sow . all destitute both of wild and cultivated trees. The parts above to the north of the Royal Scythians. dwell those who are called Iyrcae. Beyond this is really desert. having climbed a tree. for a fifteen days' journey. who. and eastward to the trench. These extend southward to Taurica. beginning from the recess of the Lake Maeotis. Beyond the Gerrhus are the parts called the Royal. These nations are by the side of the river Hypanis. occupy the country northward. and some of them reach to the river Tanais. extending to the river whose name is Panticapes and northward a passage of eleven days up the Borysthenes. toward the north. it is no longer Scythian. to the west of the Borysthenes. in the same regions. where the Greeks settled on the river Hypanis. and not in any respect Scythian. as far as we know. but they call themThese Scythian husbandmen. . who are a distinct people. Beyond these the Neuri dwell and to the north of the Neuri the country is utterly uninhabited.

they strain it through a cloth. the country eastward of the bald ary. .. whoever takes refuge among them is injured by no one. However. taught to lie on his belly. who sleep six months at a time but this I do not at all admit. is of seven interpreters and seven languages. and each man has a horse ready. say. As far as the territory of these Scythians. when he has covered the tree with a thick white woollen covering but in summer. and live on the fruit of a tree the name of the tree on which they live is called ponticon. having let fly an arrow. who revolted from the Royal Scythians. and have large chins . When he sees any game from the tree. : : . that men with goats' feet inhabit these mountains and when one has passed beyond them. and drink mingled with milk from the thick sediment of the pulp they make cakes. They are called Argippaei. and a thick and black liquor flows from it. about the size of a fig tree When this is ripe it bears fruit like a bean. And in the first place. without the woollen covering. and they are flat-nosed. the whole country that has been described is level and deep-soiled but after this it is stony and rugged. . ! . and other ports in Pontus. for they are accounted sacred nor do they possess any warlike weapon. and a dog besides. tainty. that he may not be much above the ground. 220 in HERODOTUS— BOOK IV. as one bends toward the east. known but beyond the bald men no one can speak with cer- and so came . for some Scythians frequently go there. As far. our knowledge respecting the country and the nations before them is very good. for lofty and impassable mountains form their boundand no one has ever crossed them but these bald men what to me is incredible. dwell other Scythians. who are said to be all bald from their birth. and has a stone. to this country. and the dog keeps close to him. . they speak a peculiar language. both men and women alike. and feed on them for they have not many cattle in these parts. When one has passed through a considerable extent of the rugged country. they determine the differences that arise' among their neighbours and in the next place. The Scythians who go to them transact business by means So far. . . Above these. as also from Greeks belonging to the port of the Borysthenes. Every man lives under a tree in the winter. a people are found living at the foot of lofty mountains. as the pastures there are not good. he goes in pursuit. from whom it is not difficult to obtain information. wear the Scythian costume. and mounted his horse. the name of what flows from it is aschy. MELPOMENE [22-25 ambush (and the whole country is thickly wooded). then. other men are found. this they suck. No man does any injury to this people. as these bald people. then.

though the country above to the north. and the gold-guarding griffins. they gild it. The Issedones are said to observe these customs When a man's father dies all his relations bring cattle. Greeks celebrate the anniversary of their father's death. the eye. are the men with only one eye. and the whole Cimmerian bosphorus and the Scythians who live within the trench. All this country which I have been speaking of is subject to such a severe winter that : men A . . in Scythia it is accounted a prodigy.25-29] THE ISSEDONES 221 is well known. but in summer it is violent thunder in winter. in the Scythian language. but asses and mules endure it. where the lambs soon put forth their horns " rightly observing that in warm climates horns shoot out quickly. and not to have horns. then having made bare and cleansed his head. and having mingled all the flesh together. being inhabited by Issedones. And this winter is different in character from the winters in all other countries for in this no rain worth mentioning falls in the usual season. These people are likewise accounted just and the women have equal authority with the men. and cut up the flesh. . : . and then having sacrificed them. Among them. for eight months the frost is so intolerable that will if you pour not make mud. having received it from them and we have adopted it from the Scythians. except only such things as these people relate. . whether in summer or Their horses winter. and call them. they spread out a banquet. These. performing grand anson does this to his father. and the following verse of Homer. as the nual sacrifices to it. is utterly unknown. on the other side. in his " Odyssey. either of the bald men or the Issedones. So should there be an earthquake. but during the summer it never leaves off raining. eight months." confirms my opinion. but in very severe cold. but their asses and mules can not endure it at all but in other places horses that stand exposed to frost become frost-bitten in the cold. On this account also the race of beeves appears to me to be defective there. the cattle water on the ground you . in the Scythian language. it is accounted a prodigy to be wondered at. . The Scythians repeat this account. lead their armies and drive their chariots over the ice Thus winter continues to the Sindians. signifies one. and during the other four it is cold there. endure this cold. At the time when there is thunder elsewhere there if there should be is none there. Arimaspi for Arima. Even the sea freezes. and Spou. and afterward they treat it as a sacred image. are well known. . waste away. the Issedones affirm. " And Libya. then. but if you light a fire you will make mud. they cut up also the dead parent of their host.

wrapped in wheat-straw. they lead them to the neighbouring districts. therefore. as is reasonable now. to carry these sacred things and : . which are said to be the most remote. ." if indeed Homer was in reality the author of that poem. however. the northern parts of this continent are uninhabited. for digressions) that in the whole terno mules are able to breed. and passed over into Eubcea. the Dodonseans. the first of the Greeks. whoever has seen snow falling thick near him will know what I mean . when the time for the mares' breeding approaches. therefore. neither the Scythians say anything. The Eleans themselves say that mules do not breed with them commencement sought ritory of Elis in consequence of a curse. then. less in summer than in winter. carried them to the extreme west as far as the Adriatic that being forwarded thence toward the south. With . except the Issedones and. or to pass through In the upper parts of it. respect to the feathers. neither do they say anything. and there put the he-asses with them until they are in foal then they drive them home again. whom they called by the names of Hyperoche and Laodice. They add that the Hyperboreans first sent two virgins. nor any people of those parts. and the Tenians to Delos in this manner they say these sacred things reach Delos. with which the Scythians say the air is filled. have been sufficiently described. affirming that sacred things. that after this Andros was passed by. But the Delians say very much more than any others about them. were brought from the Hyperboreans and came to the Scythians . and that on account of them it is not possible either to see farther upon the continent. received them that from them they descended to the Maliac Gulf. or if they do produce them they do so with difficulty. as they do the one-eyed people. 222 either HERODOTUS—BOOK IV. that the Scythians and their neighbours call the snow feathers. Here. then. I entertain the following opinion this country it continually snows. in the " Epigoni.. for then the Scythians would mention it. for the Carystians conveyed them to Tenos. comparing them together. MELPOMENE [29-33 do not produce them at all. and Homer. such are the effects I am surprised (for my narrative has from its of the cold. as I think. Concerning the Hyperboreans. Hesiod. and from the Scythians each contiguous nation receiving them in succession. . These regions. for snow is like feathers: and on account of the winter being so severe. has made mention of the Hyperboreans. though neither is the climate cold nor is there any other visible cause. and that one city sent them on to another as far as Carystus. : . I think. .

I myself know that the following practice The is observed. who was said to be an Hyperborean. virgins who died in Delos. even before Hyperoche and Laodice that these last came to bring the tribute they had agreed to pay to Ilithya for a speedy delivery. very near the banqueting-room of the Ceians. and In honour of these Hyperborean I know that they do this. on the left as one enters. But I smile when I see many persons describing the circumference of the earth. : 33-36] THE HYPERBOREANS 223 with them. and are held in high honour at Delos. mentioning their names. and enjoined their neighbours to forward them to the next nation. having cut off a lock : : before marriage. resembling that of these sacred things Thracian and Paeonian women. for I do not relate the story concerning Abaris. composed also the other ancient hymns which are sung in Delos) and that the ashes of the thighs burned on the altar are thrown and expended on the sepulchre of Opis and Arge: but their sepulchre is behind the Temple of Diana. lay it upon the sepulchre. and these being so forwarded. when they sacrifice to Royal Diana. they say. therefore carried their offerings wrapped in wheat-straw to their borders. These virgins receive such honour from the inhabitants of Delos. thinking it a grievous thing if it should always happen to them not to receive back those whom they sent out. but they say that Arge and Opis arrived with the gods themselves. there must also be Hypernotians. coming from Lycia. to the effect that he carried an arrow round the whole earth without eating anything. facing the east. and that different honours are paid them by themselves. both the virgins and youths of the Delians shear their hair the former. passing through the same nations. who were Hyperborean virgins. the Hyperboreans sent five of their citizens as attendants. . and collecting contributions (now this Olen. however. the same who are now called Perpherees. If. came to Delos. place it also on the sepulchre. do not offer their sacrifices without wheat-straw. calling on their names in a hymn which Olen. the sepulchre is within the Temple of Diana. for that the women collect contributions for them. But when those who were sent out by the Hyperboreans did not return. These same persons also affirm that Arge and Opis. there are Hyperboreans.. : . And thus much may be said concerning the Hyperboreans. a Lycian. and on it grows an olive tree the youths of the Delians having wound some of their hair round a plant. for the sake of safety. having learned it from them. reached Delos. composed for them and that the islanders and Ionians afterward. celebrate Opis and Arge in song. they. and having wound it about a distaff.

But from this narrow neck the tract which is called Libya becomes very wide. beginning from the Myriandrian Gulf. Medes. which is made circular as if by a lathe. then. and after Assyria. . These. and on the south. Libya is in the other tract. which make one thousand stades. the one tract. nor is any one able to describe what it is. which is adjacent to Phoenicia. was the first whom we know of that proved this . Libya shows itself to be surrounded by water. he. reaches to the Red Sea. and Europe. and on the north the Caspian Sea and the river Araxes. Saspires. Asia. great is Asia. they describe the ocean flowing round the earth. and Colchians. extends along the Euxine and the Hellespont. Asia is inhabited as far as India. but beyond this it is all desert toward the Such and so east. into which the river Phasis discharges itself. I wonder therefore at those who have described the limits of and divided Libya. for the difference between them is not trifling for in length Europe extends along both of them. and what is the figure of each. as far as the Trojan Sigaeum. The Persian settlements extend to the southern sea. beginning at the north from the Phasis. and after that Assyria. toward the east and rising sun. extends the Red Sea. is one of the tracts. This. then. and make Asia equal to Europe. On one side. which I shall describe. 224 HERODOTUS— BOOK IV. . and above the Saspires. Arabia it terminates (terminating only by custom) at the Arabian Gulf. it is evidently not to be compared. stretches toward the sea as far as the Triopian promontory. as far as Phoenicia from Persia the country is wide and open. this same tract. who reach to the northern sea. lie westward of Persia. These four nations occupy the space from sea to sea. called the Erythraean above them to the north are the Medes above the Medes. . it comprises Persia. I will therefore briefly show the dimensions of each of them. In this tract dwell thirty different nations.. beginning at Persia. but with respect to width. when he had ceased . but from Phoenicia the same tract stretches along this sea by Syrian Palestine and Egypt. which flows toward the rising sun. except so much of it as borders upon Asia. the Colchians. The other. Neco. Thence westward two tracts stretch out to the sea. . King of Egypt. MELPOMENE [36-42 who have no sound reason to guide them. for Libya commences from Egypt. where it terminates in it are only three nations. are the parts of Asia that Beyond the Persians. Now in Egypt this tract is narrow for from this sea to the Red Sea are a hundred thousand orgyae. into which Darius carried a canal from the Nile. Now. . the Saspires.

sailing round. they put to sea again. whenever they drew to shore. For Sataspes. and sowed the land. and doubled the cape of Libya. and waited for harvest. when autumn came. they went ashore. he steered to the southward but after traversing a vast extent of sea. but was stopped. that as they sailed round Libya they had the sun on their right hand. being persuaded that he did not speak the truth. and so The Phoenicians. promising that she would inflict a greater punishment upon him than he would. . for she would constrain him to sail round Libya. . in the third. he turned back." which was north of Libya. whose name is Solois. navigated the southern sea. and having taken a ship and men from thence. son of Teaspes. but dreading the length of the voyage and the desolation. Subsequently the Carthaginians say that Libya is surrounded by water. sailed through the Pillars of Hercules and having sailed through. and related what to me does not seem credible. as he had not accomplished the task imposed upon him.: 42-43] CIRCUMNAVIGATION OF AFRICA 225 digging the canal leading from the Nile to the Arabian Gulf. the mother of Sataspes. by whatever part of Libya they happened to be sailing. out from the Red Sea. they arrived in Egypt. when he was about to be impaled for this offence by King Xerxes. begged him off. daughter of Zopyrus. Of his not sailing completely round Libya. left their cities and flew to the mountains that his men. A eunuch of this Sataspes. he should reach the Arabian Gulf. this he said was the cause that his ship could not proceed any farther. : . did not sail round Libya. did them no injury. having doubled the Pillars of Hercules. sent certain Phoenicians in ships. who wore garments made of palmleaves. Sataspes went into Egypt. until. and sailed away for Egypt. From thence going to King Xerxes. son of Megabyzus whereupon. : 1 15 . then having reaped the corn. inflicting the original sentence. when he found that he had still more to pass. setting to return to Egypt. as soon as he heard of his master's death. though sent for that very purpose. When two years had thus passed. with orders to sail back 1 through the Pillars of Hercules into the northern sea. returned home and did not accomplish the task which his mother imposed upon him for he had violated a virgin. Thus was Libya first known. when they entered their country. ran away to Samos with great wealth. Xerxes. Meaning "the Mediterranean. who. however. but only took some cattle from them. Xerxes having agreed on these terms. who was sister to Darius. one of the Achsemenidse. accordingly. he told him that in the most distant part he sailed past a nation of little men. but may to others. in many months. impaled him.

then. sent in ships both others on whom he could rely to make a true report. they arrived in the thirtieth month at that place where the King of Egypt despatched the PhcEnicians. 226 HERODOTUS—BOOK IV. Thus much may suffice for this subject. except the Scythians. and those derived from the names of women nor why the Egyptian river Nile and the Colchian Phasis have been assigned as boundaries to it (some say the Mseotian river Tanais. I purposely conceal it. sailed down the river toward the east and sunrise to the sea then sailing on the sea westward. saying that Asia was so called after Asius. and the Cimmerian Porthmeia) nor can I learn the names of those who made this division. exhibits the most ignorant nations for we are unable to mention any one nation of those on this side the Pontus that has any pretensions to intelli- A : . He being desirous to know in what part the Indus. They accordingly. . . but only passed from Phoenicia to Crete. which is but one. Darius subdued the Indians. Libya is said by most of the Greeks to take its name from a native woman of the name of Libya and Asia. from the wife of Prometheus. . to which Darius led an army of all countries. setting out from the city of Caspatyrus and the country of Pactyice. which is the second river that produces crocodiles. MELPOMENE [43-46 which a Samian detained: though I know his name. Nor can I conjecture for what reason three different names have been given to the earth. : . and frequented this sea. are found to exhibit things similar to Libya. . whom I before mentioned. like the others yet she evidently belonged to Asia. but was before without a name. and also Scylax of Caryanda. The Euxine Sea. nor whence they derived the appellations. Whether Europe. discharges itself into the sea.. and never came into that country which is now called Europe by the Grecians. But the Lydians claim this name. the wife of Prometheus from whom also a tribe in Sardis is called the Asian tribe. and from Crete to Lycia. son of Cotys. great part of Asia was explored under the direction of Darius. Whether Europe is surrounded by water either toward the east or toward the north has not been fully discovered by any man but in length it is known to extend beyond both the other continents. After these persons had sailed round. Thus the other parts of Asia. unless we will say that the region received the name from the Tyrian Europa. is surrounded by water nor is it clear whence it received this is known by no man name. and not after Asia. nor who gave it. . to sail round Libya. son of Manes. for we shall adopt the names in common use. except toward the rising sun.

empty themselves into it. and whose dwellings are wagons how must not such a people be invincible. that has five mouths. These indigenous Scythian rivers assist in filling it. and the rivers aid them for the country. but from cattle. living not from the cultivation of the earth. but carry their houses with them. mingles with the Ister. as the country is fit for it. but the Grecians Pyretos another the Tiarantus. nor have we ever heard of any learned men among them. because other rivers discharge themselves into it. This most important device has been so contrived that no one who attacks them can escape. and the Tibisis: the Athres. The first mentioned of these rivers is large. the Tiarantus. discharges itself into it. And the river Angrus. however. their other customs. communicates its water with the Ister. flowing from the Agathyrsi. For they. the Gerrhus. flows always with an equal stream both in summer and winter. the Hypacyris. and the Atarnes. the Atlas. then the Aratus. except the Scythian nation and Anacharsis. By the Scythian nation one of the most important of human devices has been contrived more wisely than by any others whom we know. abounds in herbage and is well watered and rivers flow through it almost as numerous as the canals in Egypt. and Ordessus. The following are those that make it great: there are five that flow through Scythia. it is on this account the greatest. Flowing the first of those in Scythia from the west. and the Brongus into the . who are all equestrian archers. the Aratus. flowing from the Illyrians toward the north. . which is the greatest of all the rivers we know. the Naparis. and difficult to engage with ? This device has been contrived by them. flowing toward the north. being level. one which the Scythians call Porata. the Auras. no one is able to overtake them. is more to the west and less . passing between these. the Borysthenes. that mentioned second. empties itself into the Triballic plain and into the river Brongus. the Naparis.: 46-49] THE RIVERS OF SCYTHIA 227 gence. and that. and from the Paeonians and Mount Rhodope. the river Scios. discharge themselves into the Ister. These — : flow as follows: The Ister. and the Ordessus. From the summits of Mount Haemus three other large rivers. the Hypanis. flowing through Thrace and the Thracian Crobyzi. I do not admire. who have neither cities nor fortifications. Such of them as are celebrated and navigable from the sea I will mention: the Ister. and flowing toward the east. the Noes. and the Tanais. the Panticapes. then the Tyres. if they do not choose to be found. dividing the Haemus in the middle. The river Maris. fall likewise into the Ister.

and frequent and violent rains besides in summer. . by so much the waters mingled with the Ister are greater in summer than in winter and these things therefore being opposed. . and this snow flowing into it assists in filling for it rains much it. At its mouth are settled Grecians. flows into the Ister. Alpis. for the following reason. The third river. the snow that fell in the winter in vast quantities. each turning away. who are called Tyritse. One of the rivers. mediate space. as I think: during the winter it is about as large as it usually is. For if we compare one stream with another. that have been mentioned. of the Scythians is the Ister after this is the Tyres. but is entirely covered with snow: in the summer. the Nile surpasses in quantity.. in the Scythian language. Exampaeus. for into this no river or fountain discharging itself contributes to its increase. . is. For the Ister flows through all Europe. able. and many other rivers that contribute their waters. flows on widening the interIster. so that it is always found to be equal. which is so very bitter. dissolving on all sides. MELPOMENE [49-52 which are considerthe country above the Umbrici. flowing toward the north. it is exceedingly bitter. an equilibrium results. proceeds from Scythia and flows from a vast lake. This fountain is on the borders of the territory of the Scythian husbandmen and the Alazones the name of the fountain. next to the Cynetse. which is a considerable river among small ones. " The sacred ways. enter the borders of Scythia. though small in size. then. the Hypanis. . around which wild white horses graze. the river Carpis and another river. that it taints the Hypanis. who. The river Hypanis. This lake is rightly called the mother of the Hypanis. and of the district whence it flows. therefore. but in the language of the Greeks. By how much. the Ister becomes the greatest of all rivers. is small and still sweet for a five days' voyage. By these. but from thence." The Tyres and Hypanis contract their boundaries in the country of the Alazones but after that. thus the Ister receives both these. then rising from this. which proceeds from the north. for a bitter fountain discharges itself into it. for this country is very little moistened by rain during the winter. 228 HERODOTUS— BOOK From IV. also discharge themselves into it. the sun draws up to himself more water in summer than in winter. and perhaps a little larger. inhabit the remotest parts of Europe toward the west and flowing through all Europe. But the Ister always flows equal in summer and in winter. beginning from the Celts. and begins flowing from a vast lake. . then. . for a four days' voyage to the sea. which separates Scythia and Neuris.

where the land is not sown. and out of a lake and between this and the Borysthenes dwell the agricultural Scythians it discharges itself into Hylsea. without any spinal bones. is very tall . not only of the Scythian rivers. and many other things that deserve admiration. . Thus much concerning these rivers. but above that. The space between these rivers. and has the same name as the counand flowing toward the sea. into a still larger lake. . is separated from the Borysthenes near the place at which the Borysthenes is first known. and that which is called the Course of Achilles. flowing through the middle of the Scythian nomads. but of the rest the Borysthenes is the most productive. which is a projecting piece of land. through what people it flows tell but it evidently flows through a desert to the country of the agricultural Scythians for these Scythians dwell near it for the space of a ten days' voyage. . except the Egyptian Nile for to this it is impossible to compare any other river. at its mouth abundance of salt is crystallized spontaneously and it produces large whales. . and discharges itself from the north is . the Gerrhus. mingles with the Borysthenes. Into this river Tanais runs . and discharges itself into the Hypacyris. this river is known to flow . discharges itself near the city Carcinitis. The eighth river is the Tanais. in my opinion. a voyage of forty days. and fish of the highest excellence and in great quantities it is most sweet to drink it flows pure in the midst of turbid rivers.. I am unable to describe the sources and I think that no Greek can do so. which divides the Royal Scythians and the Sauromatse. After these is the fifth river. beyond the temple on the Hypanis the Borysthenitae are settled. it divides the tertry. The Borysthenes continues flowing near the sea. the most productive. 53-57] THE RIVERS OF SCYTHIA 229 The fourth is the river Borysthenes. discharging itself into the same morass. fit for salting. and having passed through that region. . and in it a temple of Ceres is built. and the Hypanis mingles with it. . skirting Hylaea on the right. and. It is separated then from this very spot. . which flows originally from a vast lake. but of all others. is called the promontory of Hippoleon. the sown land near it is of the best quality. The seventh river. and of the Nile. the name of which is the Panticapes this also flows from the north. As far as the country of Gerrhus. The Hypacyris is the sixth river. Gerrhus ritory of the Nomadic and the Royal Scythians. which they call Antacaei. called Mseotis. and the herbage. no one able to : . and. It affords the most excellent and valuable pasture for cattle. which is the largest of these after the Ister. which proceeds from a lake. Of this river only.

When the flesh is cooked. GEto: . and when the cattle are opened one may infer that such is the case. . They also sacrifice other cattle. MELPOMENE [57-62 river. burn the bones underneath they burn very well. very rightly called Papaeus the Earth. Thamimasadas. The grass that grows in Scythia is the most productive of bile for cattle of any with which we are acquainted. and these victims. in the Scythian language. and Venus Urania. and temples. Thus the greatest commodities are furnished them in abundance. deeming the Earth to be the wife of Jupiter. they strip the flesh from the bones. he that sacrifices. and as the victim falls he invokes the god to whom he is sacrificing. as follows In each district.. offering the first fruits of the flesh and entrails. and having poured in water. having drawn the extremity of the cord. with respect to all kinds of victims. and Mars. except to Mars. and of all other victims each cooks itself. and Neptune. : . All the Scythians acknowledge these but those who are called Royal Scythians sacrifice also to Neptune. having put it into these. or making any libation. throws it down. If they have no caldron at hand. without kindling any fire. then. They are not accustomed to erect images. and Hercules. or performing any prepara- stands with its tory ceremonies. to him they are accustomed. he who sacrifices. The same mode of sacrificing is adopted by all. In this manner. is named Tahiti. they cook it by burning underneath the bones of the victims. Their other customs are established as follows: They propitiate the following gods only Vesta. then they put it into caldrons made in the country. being as follows The victim itself syrus. then he throws a halter round its neck. and the paunches easily contain the flesh stripped from the bones thus the ox cooks himself. which very much resemble Lesbian bowls except that they are much larger. he twists it round and strangles it. : fore feet tied together . altars. if they happen to have any. standing behind the beast. Jupiter is. but having strangled and flayed it he applies himself to cook it. in the place where the magistrates assemble. they put all the flesh into the paunches of the victims. is erected a struc: : . chiefly horses. after these Apollo. Apollo. Vesta. throws it before him. they sacrifice to the other gods but to Mars. Artimpasa. alike. Venus Urania. Thus the Scythians are provided with these celebrated rivers. in my opinion. they have invented the following method of cooking flesh When they have flayed the victims. and having put in a stick. . Apia. the name of which is Hyrgis. 230 another HERODOTUS— BOOK IV. As the Scythian country is wholly destitute of wood. most of all then Jupiter.

sewing them together like shepherd's coats. but below at the sacred precinct. is accessible. This then they carry up. He skins it in the following manner: Having made a circular incision round the ears and taking hold of the skin. Many. 62-64] CUSTOMS OF THE SCYTHIANS : 23 ture sacred to Mars. and the body apart. he shares the booty that they take but not if he does not bring one. make coverings for their quivers the skin of a man. and stretched the skin on wood. they throw them into the air. but in a different manner. having finished the rest of the sacrificial rites. The horseback. nor suffer them to be reared in their country at all. but on the fourth it . but on the top of this a square platform is formed less in height and three of the sides are perpendicular. On this heap an old iron scimetar and to is placed by each tribe. . . he uses it as a napkin each man hangs it on the bridle of the horse which he rides. . having flayed the right hands of their enemies that are dead. carry it about on Such usages are received among them. they pour the blood over the scimetar. of the following kind bundles of fagots are heaped up to the length and breadth of three stades. and prides himself on it . for after they have poured a libation of wine on their heads. Such. they do as follows having cut off all the right shoulders of the men that have been killed. having flayed men whole. surpasses almost all other skins in the brightness of its white. which is both thick and shining. and then. he shakes from it the skull then having scraped off the flesh with the rib of an ox. they sacrifice one in a hundred. not in the same manner as they do the cattle. for is .1 . . for whoever has the greatest number of these skin napkins is accounted the most valiant man. of these rest of the gods. to throw over themselves. but the arm lies wherever it has fallen. they depart. together with the nails. fifty wagon-loads of fagots. with the arms. he drinks his blood and presents the king with the heads of the enemies he has killed in battle: for if he brings a head. and this is the image of Mars this scimetar they bring yearly sacrifices of cattle and horses and to these scimetars they offer more sacrifices than to the Whatever enemies they take alive. . Every year they heap on it it one hundred and continually sinking by reason of the weather. then. : . : : . Many of them make cloaks of these skins. he softens the skin with his hands and having made it supple. are the sacrifices instituted among them. and many. Swine they never use. they cut the throats of the men over a bowl then having carried the bowl on the heap of fagots. Their military affairs are ordered as follows When a Scythian overthrows his first enemy.

He denies it. having two cups at once. 232 HERODOTUS— BOOK IV. in the following manner: When they have brought with them large bundles of twigs. not indeed of all. and relates how. . and one prevails over another in the presence of the king. he sends for three of the most famous of these prophets. . But the Enarees. When strangers of consideration come to him. and then untwisting it. affirming that he has not sworn On his denial. mentioning the name of the citizen of whom they speak for it is a custom with the Scythians in general to swear by the royal The hearth when they would use the most solemn oath. they made war against him. this is accounted the greatest disgrace: such of them as have killed very many men. who divine by the help of a number of willow rods. from which those Scythians drink by whom enemies have been captured: but they who have not achieved this do not taste of this wine. having sawn off all below the eyebrows. they say. they gather up the rods again. and he overcame them. . .. cleanses it. though they were his relatives. When the King of the Scythians is sick. : person who. he utters a response. MELPOMENE [65-68 heads themselves. they utter their predictions and while they are pronouncing them. and complains bitterly. has sworn falsely is immediately seized and brought forward and when he is come. the king sends falsely. This is their national mode of divination. drink them together. that such or such a citizen has sworn falsely by the royal hearth. or Androgyni. and having gilded the inside. but of their greatest enemies. And they do this to their relatives if they are at variance. Once in every year the governor of a district. and put them together again one by one. the prophets charge him with being clearly proved by their prophetic art to have sworn falsely by the royal hearth. for twice as many more prophets and if they also. but sit at a distance in dishonour. and if the man is poor. they treat as follows Each. say that Venus gave them the power of divining. he covers only the outside with leather. and for this reason the king is ill. mingles a bowl of wine. considering this a proof of bravery. twisting it round his own fingers. they lay them on the ground and untie them and having placed each rod apart. examining into the prophetic art. and so uses it but if he is rich. They divine by means of the bark of a linden tree when a man has split : : . he produces these heads. condemn him with having sworn falsely. he covers it indeed with leather. he so uses it for a drinking-cup. : the linden tree in three pieces. Soothsayers among the Scythians are numerous. each in his own district. who prophesy in the manner above mentioned and they generally say as follows.

a hatchet. the greater number acquit the man. some arrows. Then. they make many solemn prayers. they burn the prophets. and carry it in a chariot to another nation: those who receive the corpse brought to them do the same as the Royal Scythians. and then sewn up again. the belly opened and cleaned. Thence they carry the corpse of the king to another nation whom they govern and those to whom they first came accompany them. and a javelin in the vessel. The king does not spare the children of those whom he puts to death. having fixed spears on each side of the dead body. In this manner. having dipped a scimetar. then. they cut off part of their ear. but kills all the males. and the first prophets divide his property between them but if the prophets who came last acquit him. they terrify the oxen. and let them go. Many oxen therefore are burned with the prophets. The sepulchres of the kings are in the country of the GerThere. and does not hurt the females. who are the most remote of the nations they rule over. and many escape very much scorched. other prophets are called in. when the pole has been burned asunder. and parsley and anise-seed. and for other reasons. . and have yoked oxen to it. . having the body covered with wax. They accordingly put them to death in the following manner: When they have filled a wagon with fagots. having struck with an awl or cut with a knife a small part of the body then. they arrive among the Gerrhi. If. filled with bruised cypress. they lay pieces of wood over it. . lacerate their forehead and nose. having tied the feet of the prophets and bound their hands behind them. when they have placed the corpse in the grave on a bed of leaves. when they have done this. wound themselves on the arms. as far as which the Borysthenes is navigable.68-71] CUSTOMS OF THE SCYTHIANS 233 they straightway cut off his head. and having gagged them. . calling them false prophets. incense. they dig a large square hole in the ground and having prepared this. and at the sepulchres. rhi. they take up the corpse. When they have carried the corpse round all the provinces. it is decreed that the first prophets shall be put to death. shave off their hair. and others after them. they inclose them in the midst of the fagots then having set fire to them. they mingle with it blood taken from those who are entering into covenant. and drive arrows through their left hand. : . . when their king dies. and then both those who make the contract and the most considerable of their attendants drink up the mixture. The Scythians make solemn contracts in the following manner with whomsoever they make them Having poured wine into a large earthen vessel.

up to the neck. a courier. their nearest relatives carry about among their friends. they have strangled fifty of these servants. they stretch them in front. mounting them in the following manner: When they have driven a straight piece of wood along the spine as far as the neck. and fasten them to a stake they then mount upon a horse each. : and cover . they all heap up a large mound. MELPOMENE [71-74 it over with mats. The Scythians. and the other half on two other pieces of wood. but the legs on both sides are suspended in the air: then having put bridles and bits on the horses. they fill them with chaff. they extend around them woollen cloths and having joined them together as closely as possible. with its concave side uppermost. Then having placed the half of a wheel. they depart. they fix it into a hole bored in the other piece of wood that passes through the horse. and fifty of the finest horses. having strangled her. and horses. and sets the same things before the dead body. therefore. and having fixed many of these in the same manner. They have a sort of hemp growing in this country very like : . they throw red-hot stones into a vessel placed in the middle of the pieces of wood and the cloths. But the other Scythians. a page. and sew them up again. they do thus with regard to the body when they have set up three pieces of wood leaning against each other. and the hinder part supports the belly near the thighs. having buried them. Thus they bury their kings. Having done this. when they die. but a part of this wood projects from the bottom. they then do as follows Having taken the most fitting of his remaining servants they are all native Scythians for they serve him whomsoever the king may order. striving and vying When with each other to make it as large as possible. and firstlings of everything else. as before the rest.234 HERODOTUS—BOOK IV. entertains the attendants. a year has elapsed. . Having placed such horsemen round the monument. In this manner private persons are carried about for forty days. one of the fifty young men that have been strangled. a cook. . . they mount them on the half-wheels and of these the foremost part of the half-wheels supports the shoulders of the horses. laid in chariots. and his cup-bearer. a groom. and of these each one receives and . when. purify themselves in the following manner: Having wiped and thoroughly washed their heads. then having thrust thick pieces of wood through the horses lengthwise. and golden goblets they make no use of silver or brass. having taken out their bowels and cleansed them. . and they have no servants bought with money. In the remaining space of the grave they bury one of the king's concubines. and then buried. on two pieces of wood.

gave information to the king. King of the Scythians. sufficiently demonstrated for. for they never bathe the body in water. . pouring on water. having observed him doing this. Anacharsis made a vow to the goddess that if he should return safe and sound to his own country he would sacrifice in the same manner as he saw the inhabitants of Cyzicus doing. very like linen. When. . women. and sailing through the Hellespont toward Cyzicus. and as he found the Cyzicenians celebrating a festival to the mother of the gods with great magnificence. Accordingly. as the example of Anacharsis. Saulius and he. and when they take off the cataplasm on the following day they become clean and shining. . they creep under the cloths. is CUSTOMS OF THE SCYTHIANS . that Anacharsis was paternal uncle to Idanthyrsus.74-76] flax. therefore. will they not adopt those of each other. pound on a rough stone pieces of cypress. . and produces such a steam that no Grecian vapour-bath would surpass it. and fastening images about his person. However. was returning to the abodes of the Scythians. . and that far superior: . smokes. transported with the vapour. nor would any one who is not well skilled in such matters distinguish whether they are made of flax or hemp. but least of all Grecian usages. shot at him with an arrow. performed all the rites to the goddess. the guardian of Ariapithes. and afterward of Scylas. when it is thick. the Scythians have taken some seed of this hemp. but a person who has never seen this hemp would think the garment was made of flax. But one of the Scythians. because he travelled into Greece and adopted foreign customs. he returned into the country called Hylaea it is near the Course of Achilles. and killed him. : . And now if any one speaks about Anacharsis. holding a timbrel in his hand. . I heard from Timnes. . therefore. when he arrived in Scythia. and incense tree and then this pounded matter. . and would also institute a vigil. having visited many countries. They studiously avoid the use of foreign customs not only. they smear over the whole body and face and this at the same time gives them an agreeable odour. in the first place. having come in person. the Scythians say they do not know him. 235 except in thickness and height in this respect the hemp it grows both spontaneously and from cultivation and from it the Thracians make garments. cedar. and is full of trees of all kinds to this Anacharsis having retired. Anacharsis. The Scythians. and then put the seed on the red-hot stones and this being put on. and having displayed great wisdom during his progress. shout aloud and this serves them instead Their of washing. when he saw Anacharsis thus employed.

by whom Ariapithes had a son. : . it was fated that misfortune should befall him. Oricus. son of Lycus. Scylas. This he used frequently to do he also built a palace in the Borysthenes.236 HERODOTUS—BOOK IV. as soon as Scylas reached them. resuming the Scythian habit. King of the Scythians. though reigning over the Scythians. He was very desirous to be initiated in the mysteries of Bacchus. who did not in any way belong to the country: his mother taught him the Grecian language and letters. let him know he was killed by his own brother. Thus. he used to assume the Grecian habit. acted thus Whenever he led the Scythian army to the city of the Borysthenitse (now these Borysthenitae say they are Milesians). The man. MELPOMENE [76-79 he was son of Gnurus. Scylas. and had closed the gates. I have heard another story told by the Peloponnesians. When he had stayed a month or more. being sent abroad by the King of the Scythians. he used to leave his army in the suburbs. : . having laid aside his Scythian dress. . and. and Scylas succeeded to the kingdom. then. met with a similar fate. . son of Spargapithes if. was killed in the manner before mentioned. Many years afterward. in course of time. that no Scythian might see him wearing this dress and in other respects he adopted the Grecian mode of living. therefore. except the Lacedaemonians. that Anacharsis. . when he himself had gone within the walls. but that they only were able to give and receive a reason with prudence but this story is told in sport by the Greeks themselves. he was born of an Istrian woman. whose name was Opcea this Opoea was a native. Since. and married a native woman. among other children. . Scylas. unattended by guards or any one else and they kept watch at the gates. a very great prodigy occurred. but was much more inclined to the Grecian manners on account of the education he had received he. . for Idanthyrsus was son of Saulius. and as he was just about to begin the sacred rites. he used to depart. however. Anacharsis was of this family. therefore. was by no means pleased with the Scythian mode of life. then. . For Ariapithes. Afterward. son of Ariapithes. and his father's wife. However. had. Ariapithes met his death by treachery at the hands of Spargapithes. and it was Saulius who killed Anacharsis. it happened on this occasion. to inhabit it. he fared because of foreign customs and intercourse with the Grecians. and performed sacrifices to the gods according to the rites of the Grecians. and in this dress he walked in public. became a disciple of the Grecians and on his return home he said to the king who sent him abroad that all the Greeks were employed in acquiring all kinds of knowledge. King of the Agathyrsi.

and I will deliver up Scylas to you. I have never been able to learn with accuracy the amount of the population of the Scythians. and it was entirely burned down ScyNow. : Why . ians reproached the Grecians on account of their Bacchic ceremonies. Octamasades acceded to this proposal and having surrendered his maternal uncle to Sitalces. for some pretend that they are exceedingly numerous. Thus the Scythians . the Thracians advanced to meet him. having set up his brother Octamasades. for they say it is not reasonable to discover such a god as this. who drives men to madness. As they were about to engage. and is maddened by the god. they acquainted all the army with what they had seen. on this the god hurled a bolt. and the Borysthenite. saying: " You Scythians laugh at us. conducting them in. and the reason for which it was done. they regarded it as a very great calamity and having returned. and have with you my brother. Sitalces sent to Octama" sades." The chief men of the Scythians followed him. nevertheless. marched against Thrace. of which I have just now made mention round it were placed sphinxes and griffins of white marble. and impose such punishments on those who introduce foreign usages. and I will show you. being informed of this. placed them secretly on a tower but when Scylas went past with a thyasus. Octamasades. of the daughter of Tereus. born But he. because we celebrate Bacchic now this same deity rites. Do you restore him to me. and the god takes possession of us has taken possession of your king. . Now Sitalces. being informed of what was being done against him. saying as follows need we try each other's strength? You are the son of my sister. who had fled from the latter. one of the Borysthenitse carried the information to the Scythians. but I heard different accounts concerning the number. maintain their own customs. fled to Thrace." Sitalces sent this message to him by a herald for there was with Octamasades a brother of Sitalces. received his brother Scylas in exchange. when Scylas returned to his own home.. revolted from Scylas. and others that there are very few . but when he arrived on the Ister. the Scythians. 79-81] CUSTOMS OF THE SCYTHIANS 237 had in the city of the Borysthenitse a large and magnificent mansion. and he celebrates the rites But if you disof Bacchus. follow. drew off his forces but Octamasades beheaded Scylas on the same spot. and so neither you nor I shall expose our army to peril. . : He . believe me. accomplished his initiation. When Scylas had been initiated in the Bacchic mysteries. . and the Scythians saw him acting the bacchanal. the Scythlas. After this. having got his brother in his power.

in size six times as large as the bowl at the mouth of the Pontus. they exposed to my sight. and one who made a moderate request. wishing to know the population of the Scythians. Their country has nothing wonderful. is : . a Persian. : . The king answered him. and others to bridge over the Thracian Bosphorus. called Exampaeus. it resembles the footstep of a man. when everything was prepared. In this spot lies a brass caldron. therefore. who had three sons all serving in the army. and dedicated it at Exampaeus. then. While Darius was making preparations against the Scythians. is two cubits in length. for that their king. and sending messengers to command some to contribute land forces. . near the river Tyras. except the rivers. dedicated. as a friend. the inhabitants say it was made from the points of arrows. Now. I will here describe it The brass caldron among the Scythians easily contains six hundred amphorae. Such. marched his army from Susa. it. and others a fleet. besides the rivers and the extent of the plains. But Darius commanded the proper officers to put all the sons of CEobazus to death and they. hoping that his sons would be discharged from the army. and brother of Darius. the son of Hystaspes. a spot between the river Borysthenes and the Hypanis. whose name was Ariantas. For the benefit of any one who has never seen this. a vast number of arrow points were brought. however. and he threatened death on whomsoever should fail to bring Accordingly. MELPOMENE [81-84 real Scythians There thus much. is this but I will now return to the subject I at first set out to relate. At that time CEobazus.238 HERODOTUS—BOOK : IV. : . he desisted Darius. which Pausanias. . commanded all the Scythians to bring him each severally one point of an arrow. from which the water flowing made the Hypanis unfit to be drunk. . . and this Scythian vessel is six fingers in thickness. entreated him on no account to make an expedition against the Scythians. son of Cleombrotus. representing the poverty of Scythia but when he found that although he gave him good counsel he could not persuade him. that he would leave him all his sons he therefore was exceedingly delighted. saying that there was in it a fountain of bitter water. besought Darius that one might be left at home for him. and he resolved to leave a monument made from them he therefore made this brass bowl. being slain. Artabanus. shall be mentioned they show the print of the foot of Hercules upon a rock. This I heard concerning the population of the Scythians. which are very large and very many in number but what it affords also worthy of admiration. were left on the spot. which I mentioned a little before.

and the Bosphorus. : . and the mother of the Pontus. therefore. including cavalry and six hundred ships were assembled. and the Hellespont. sitting in the temple. and these orgyae are equal to eleven thousand one hundred stades. this was left near the Temple of Bacchus in Byzanriver is . There. and the length of the mouth that is. these make three hundred and thirty thousand orgyae. The Propontis. engraving on one in Assyrian characters. The mouth of this sea is four stades in width. which in the narrowest part is seven stades. where a bridge was already laid across. From Sindica to Themiscyra. and on the other in Grecian. marching from Susa. . Thermodon (for here is the broadest part of the Pontus). These seas have been measured as follows A ship commonly makes in a long day about seventy thousand orgyae. and one thousand four hundred in length. reached Chalcedon on the Bosphorus. a voyage of three days and two nights . from thence going on board a ship he sailed to those called the Cyanean islands. of these. seven hundred thousand were reckoned. when he had viewed the Pontus. on the . which is called the fiLgean. and are such as I have described. and he had some from all whom he ruled over. that discharges itself into it. and the Bosphorus extends to the Propontis. which is worthy of admiration for of all seas it is by nature the most wonderful its length is eleven thousand one hundred stades. have been thus measured by me. a Samian. The Pontus. he erected two columns of white marble on the shore. and in a night about sixty thousand. three thousand three hundred stades. he took a view of the Euxine Sea. this Pontus possesses a lake. : — . the neck which is called the Bosphorus. from the mouth to the Phasis (for this is the greatest length of the Pontus) is a voyage of nine days and eight nights these make one million one hundred and ten thousand orgyae. sailed back to the bridge. where the bridge was laid across. the names of all the nations he had in his army. besides the navy.— 85-87] DARIUS AT THE BOSPHORUS 239 When Darius. except one stone. and in length four hundred the Hellespont falls into an expanse of the sea. which is five hundred stades in breadth. in the widest part. of which Mandrocles. discharges itself into the Hellespont. Darius. And having also viewed the Bosphorus. and used in building the altar of the Orthosian Diana. not much less than itself. amounts to about a hundred and twenty stades. or three thousand three hundred stades. which the Grecians say formerly floated. Moreover. it is called Maeotis. and its width. Now. Now these columns the Byzantians some time afterward removed into their city. was the architect.

midway between Byzantium and the temple at the mouth. from these. The distance to them is the same from Heraeopolis. with the following inscription " The springs of the Tearus yield the best and finest water of all rivers and a man. with ten of everything. dedicated to Juno a memorial of the raft. Its springs are thirty-eight. then. But Darius. crossed over into Europe. others hot. Darius. having commanded the Ionians to sail by the Pontus as far as the river Ister. having reached this river. Mandrocles the Samian. having set out from thence. having thrown a bridge across the fishy Bosphorus. each a two days' journey. he dedicated it as first fruits in the Temple of Juno.. 240 HERODOTUS—BOOK IV. the Contadesdus into the Agrianes. The Tearus is said by the inhabitants of the country to be the best of all rivers. having rewarded Mandrocles. Mandrocles. The fleet accordingly. and some of them are cold. both for its other healing qualities and especially for curing the itch in men and horses. having sailed through the Cyanean Islands. MELPOMENE [87-92 tium. Darius after this. The spot of the Bosphorus which King Darius caused the bridge to be laid over was. and when they should have reached the Ister. and. son of Hystaspes. having completed it to the satisfaction of King Darius. as I conjecture. to throw a bridge over the river and there wait his arrival for the Ionians. This Tearus empties itself into the river Contadesdus. came to them. marched through Thrace." This. came to another : : . and Hellespontines conducted the naval armament. having arrived at the sources of the river Tearus. covered with Assyrian letters. being pleased with the bridge. and for the Samians glory. Darius. yEolians. then. King of the Persians. and of the whole continent. leading an army against the Scythians. flowing from the same rock." Darius. was the memorial of the man who : constructed the bridge. they joined the neck of the river with a bridge. with this inscription " Mandrocles. encamped there three days. . with King Darius seated on a throne. and this last into the sea near the city of yEnus. when he had passed over the Bosphorus by the bridge of boats. the Agrianes into the Hebrus. when he had encamped. then. stood direct for the Ister and having sailed up the river a two days' voyage from the sea. presented its architect. laying up for himself a crown. Darius. near Perinthus. at the point where the several mouths of the Ister are separated. having painted a picture of the whole junction of the Bosphorus. having painted this. the best and finest of all men. and his army crossing over. was so delighted with the river that he erected a pillar here also. and from Apollonia on the Euxine Sea.

who are called Scyrmiadae and Nypsaei. though they are the most valiant and the most just of the Thracians. taken by lot. in time of thunder and lightning. and with Pythagoras. having left vast heaps of stones there. nor their posterity forever. and threaten the god. let fly their arrows toward heaven. having taken up the man who is to be sent to Zalmoxis by the hands and feet. having procured his liberty. 16 . this Zalmoxis. and when the army had executed his order. and lived in slavery at Samos. were soon reduced to slavery. swing him round. to Zalmoxis. as I am informed by the Greeks who dwell about the Hellespont and the Pontus. but finding the Thracians lived wretchedly and in a very uncivilized manner. and having acquired them. they think the god is propitious to them if he should not die. they blame the messenger himself. but would go into a . Every fifth year they despatch one of themselves. they despatch another. this Zalmoxis was a man. surrendered themselves to Darius without resistance but the Getae. in which receiving and entertaining the principal persons of the country. son of Mnesarchus and after that. being transfixed. which flows through the Odrysae . who was not the meanest sage in Greece. with orders to let him know on each occasion what they want. he returned to his own country. But. They think themselves immortal in this manner.. thinking that there is no other god but their own. in that he had been familiar with Greeks. upon the points. he continued his march. If he should die. They imagine that they themselves do not die. and those who dwell above the cities of Apollonia and Mesambria. : 92-953 river. would die. . he was slave to Pythagoras. saying that he is a bad man and having blamed him. Their mode of sending him is this Some of them who are appointed hold three javelins while others. and throw him into the air. But before he reached the Ister he subdued the Getae first. he taught them that neither he nor any of his guests. having recourse to obstinate resistance. and they give him his instructions while he is yet alive. These same Thracians. had a hall built. and with manners more polite than those of Thrace. but that the deceased goes to the deity Zalmoxis. he commanded every man as he passed by to place a stone on this spot that was marked out. the ZALMOXIS 241 name of which is Artiscus. . and some of them think that he is the same with Gebeleizis. being acquainted with the Ionian way of living. : . . he did as follows Having marked out a certain spot of ground to the army. he acquired great riches. who think themselves immortal for the Thracians who occupy Salmydessus. when he arrived at this river.

but rather that. Thus they say that he acted. For I am not at all afraid that we shall be conquered in battle by the Scythians. having met with the Scythians. leaving these men who constructed it as its guard and if. Coes. being unable to find them. having first inquired whether it would be agreeable to him to king. : O . MELPOMENE [95-98 place where they should live eternally. nor any inhabited city. he addressed them as follows " Men of Ionia. For my own part. hear an opinion from one who wished to give it " since you are about to invade a country in which no cultivated land will be seen. I advanced the sake. I take my leave of him. But they both regretted him. when they were subdued by the Persians. then. fail not to present yourself to me. I have changed my former resolution concerning the bridge therefore take this thong and do . and when the building was completed. but if we should not be able to meet with them. and have every kind of blessing. had a subterranean habitation made. we shall at least have a secure retreat. I neither disbelieve nor entirely believe the account of this person and the subterranean habitation but I am of opinion that this Zalmoxis lived many years before Pythagoras. spoke as follows to Darius. But as they were about to loose the bridge and execute his orders. and would by no means be left behind. in the meantime. he. he disappeared from among the Thracians ." Darius was much pleased with the advice. all crossed over the river. . that I may requite you for good advice with good deeds. When Darius and his land forces with him reached the Ister.242 HERODOTUS— BOOK IV. I will follow you myself. who observe such a custom. and lamented him as dead but in the fourth year he appeared to the Thracians and thus what Zalmoxis said became credible to them. we succeed according to our wishes. general of the Mitylenians. and Darius commanded the Ionians to loose the bridge. he abode there three years. and having summoned the Ionian commanders to his presence. when I am safe back in my own palace. Yet whether Zalmoxis were a man or a native deity among the Getae. but. and having gone down to the subterranean habitation. king. we have a way to return. and answered him as follows " Lesbian friend. son of Erxandrus. These people. While he did and said as above described. followed the rest of the army." Having spoken thus and tied sixty knots in a thong. we may suffer somewhat in our wanderPerhaps some one may think I say this for my own ings. and follow him on the continent with the forces from the ships. opinion which I think is best for you. nevertheless. do you let this bridge remain where it is. : . that I may remain here. O : : .

I will explain the matter in another way it is as if a nation distinct from Japygia and not the Japygians. Now. and projects into the Pontus as far as the Chersonesus called Trachea and it reaches to the sea toward the east. and from the : . beginning from the port of Brundusium. But beginning from the Ister.. to which Taurica is like. that is ancient Scythia that lies toward the meridian and the south wind. and where a bay is formed in this country Scythia begins. should cut off the country as far as Tarentum. . and the parts along the eastern sea. then by the Androphagi. in the part next the sea. next by the Neuri. then. having its mouth turned toward the east. if I may compare small things with great. untie one of these knots every day and if I return not within that time. Mentioning these two. that which stretches to the interior and that along the coast is in every way equal. hastened forward. Such. which is quadrangular. from the Ister at the parts above. you will oblige me exceedingly. and occupy the promontory. therefore. the Tauric nation inhabits the land extending along the same sea. : : . and apply the utmost care to pre- thus : serve and secure it and if you do this. do you guard the bridge. stretching to the interior. one toward the south. Now. as far as the city called Carcinitis next to that. do you sail away to your own counTill that time. I mention this. from the Ister. and the other toward the east. which extends more into a point into the sea from the borough of Thoricus to that of Anaphlystus. Thrace. For the two parts of the boundaries of Scythia extend to the sea. projects before the Scythian territory. as is the case with the region of Attica and the Tauri inhabit parts of Scythia similar to this. and last by the Melanchlaeni. I now proceed to describe by measurement the part of the Scythian country that is on the sea-coast. since I have changed my determination. Of Scythia. with two parts reaching to the sea. But for any one who has never sailed by that part of Attica. From Taurica. and the parts westward of the Cimmerian Bosphorus and the lake Maeotis. try. Scythians inhabit the country above the Tauri. having spoken thus. as far as the river Tanais. which flows into the farthest recess of that lake. For from the Ister to the Borysthenes is a journey of ten days. beginning from that time. I might mention many others. is Taurica. which is a mountainous country. Scythia is shut off first by the Agathyrsi. just as if any other people instead of the Athenians possessed the promontory of Sunium. but the days numbered by the knots have passed. 98-101] INVASION OF SCYTHIA 243 as soon as you see me march against the Scythians. and the Ister discharges itself." Darius.

for their country produced many serpents. The Agathyrsi are a most luxurious people. and wear a profusion of gold. One generation before the expedition of Darius it happened to them to be driven out of their whole country by serpents . : . to the end that they may be brethren one of another. Though they affirm this. and impale the head. they abandoned their territory. and say that the body is not thrown from the precipice. MELPOMENE [101-105 Borysthenes to the lake Mseotis ten more. they strike the head with a club some say they throw the body down from a precipice (for their temple is built on a precipice). 244 HERODOTUS—BOOK IV. These men seem to be magicians. The kings who met together were those of the Tauri. . . In other The respects they approach the usages of the Thracians. at all events above the chimney: they say that these are suspended as guards over the whole household. and any Greeks they meet with driven on their coasts. They have promiscuous intercourse with women. sent messengers to the adjoining nations and the kings of those nations. may not entertain hatred toward each other. Such is the extent of this country. considering with themselves that they were not able alone to repel the army of Darius in a pitched battle. : . having met together. and then is restored again to the same state. and a much greater number came down upon them from the deserts above until. Thus the extent of Scythia crossways would be four thousand stades and the direct route leading to the interior would be the same number of stades.. carries it home with him. the Budini. but buried in the earth. This people live by rapine and war. since so great an army was advancing against them. the Melanchlaeni. The day's journey has been computed by me at two hundred stades. being hard pressed. he raises it far above the roof of his house. and the Sauromatae. the Neuri. then having fixed it on a long pole. the Tauri observe the following customs They sacrifice to the virgin all who suffer shipwreck. daughEnemies whom they subdue they treat ter of Agamemnon. the Androphagi. as far as the Melanchlaeni. the Geloni. Of these. for it is said of them by the Scythians and the Greeks settled in Scythia that once every year each Neurian becomes a wolf for a few days. wtio inhabit above the Scythians. but others agree with respect to the head. as follows Each having cut off a head. is a journey of twenty days. consulted. from the sea to the interior. The Tauri themselves say that this deity to whom they sacrifice is Iphigenia. and being all of one family. The Scythians. Neuri observe Scythian customs. and settled among the Budini. the Agathyrsi. in the following manner: having performed the preparatory ceremonies.

: . and shrines of wood. having been victorious in the battle at the Thermodon. adorned after the Grecian manner with images. . The Androphagi have the most savage customs of all men they pay no regard to justice. though erroneously so called. nor the same mode of living. as they had no knowledge of navigation. altars. cultivate gardens. from which circumstance they take their name. nor any skill in the use of the rudder. for they call a man " Aior. and made entirely of wood. settled among the Budini: and they use a language partly Scythian and partly Grecian. and are not at all like the Budini in form or complexion. are nomads. and wear a dress like the Scythian they speak a peculiar language and of these nations are the only people The Melanchlaeni all wear black garthat eat human flesh. Their houses also and their temples are of wood for they have there temples of Grecian gods. they were carried by the waves and wind." and " pata " to kill). who are a great and follow Scythian usages. they affirm it nevertheand support their assertion with an oath. being indigenous. for the Budini. ments. and beavers. and other square-faced animals their skins are sewed as borders to cloaks. do not use the same language as the Geloni. when they had cut the men to pieces. : : . the story goes. each side of the wall is thirty stades in length. sails. but being expelled from the trading ports. sailed away. The Budini. They are nomads. however. they do not persuade me. . the Budini are called Geloni. and arrived at Cremni on the is . and perform the bacchanalian ceremonies for the Geloni were originally Grecians. These The Budini. or oars. feed upon corn. Their country is thickly covered with trees of all kinds and in the less. cut the men to pieces.: io5-no] THE BUDINI 245 however. a spacious and large lake. . thickest wood reeds around . paint their whole bodies with a deep blue and red. nor make use of any established law. taking with them in three ships as many Amazons as they had been able to take alive but the Amazons attacking them out at sea. and are the only people of these parts who eat vermin whereas the Geloni are tillers of the soil. By the Greeks. They celebrate the triennial festivals of Bacchus. and their testicles are useful for the cure of diseases of the womb. that the Greeks. and a morass and it: in this otters are taken. populous nation. however. There is in their country a city built of wood: its name is Gelonus." and this name in the Grecian language means manslayers. it is lofty. Concerning the Sauromatae the following account is given When the Grecians had fought with the Amazons (the Scythians called the Amazons " Aiorpata. However.

They conjectured that they were men of the same stature. . and to bring another with him. . landing from the vessels. the language of the women. but suffered him to enjoy her person. The rest of the youths. and took another with him. each having for his wife the person he The men were not able to learn first attached himself to. by hunting and pillage. but after the battle the Scythians got possession of the dead. conciliated the Afterward. dress. Scythians. : . The Scythians resolved on this out of a desire to have children by these women. The Amazons about midday were wont to do as follows They separated themselves into parties of one and two. the men spoke to the Amazons as follows " . they therefore gave them battle. guessing a number equal to theirs these were to encamp near them. they lived together. On deliberation. and found the Amazon with a companion waiting for him. and on the next day he himself went to the place. they let them alone and they drew one camp nearer to the other every day. they were not to fight but fly and when they halted were to come and encamp near them. but Cremni belongs to the territory of the free Here the Amazons. The young men. and mounting on them. The Scythians observing and one of them drew near one of the this. but to send out to them the youngest of their own party. . MELPOMENE [110-114 lake Maeotis. but wondered whence they had come. : We . therefore. because they did not understand each other. When. and do the same as they did . signifying that they should be two. had nothing except their arms and horses. he related this to the rest. plundered the lands of the Scythians. rest of the Amazons. When the youth departed. and so discovered that they were women. but she made signs to him by her hand to come the next day to the same place. The youths. being dispersed for the purpose of easing themselves. when they heard this.246 HERODOTUS— BOOK IV. as well as the Amazons. they understood one anhave other. did as they were ordered: when the Amazons found that they had not come to hurt them. but obtained their subsistence in the same way that the Amazons did. being despatched. they resolved on no account to kill them any more. or nation. having joined their camps. therefore. should the Amazons pursue them. marched to the inhabited parts and seized the first herd of horses they happened to fall in with. . did the same Amazons who was alone and she did not repel him. She could not speak to him. The Scythians knew not what to make of the matter for they were not acquainted either with their language. at a distance from each other. and she would bring another with her. but the women soon attained that of the men.

therefore." never could live with the women To this they answered " of your country. therefore. and to prove yourselves honest men. Since. on horseback. when he had subdued all the nations on the other continent. But your women do none of the things we have mentioned. because we have not the same customs with shoot with the bow. the women spoke to them as follows " Alarm and fear come upon us when we consider that we must live in this country. : : . let us then no longer lead this kind of life. let us leave this country. and having reached the country in which they are now settled. throw the javelin. then return. and joining in war. : . : We We . and having crossed the river Tanais. and three from the lake Maeotis northward. having received what fell to their share of the possessions. they advanced a journey of three days eastward from the Tanais. go to your parents. From that time the wives of the Sauromatae retain their ancient mode of living. have committed great depredations in your territory. they took up their abode there. and crossed over to this continent. both going out on horseback to hunt with their husbands and without their husbands. : . Their rules respecting marriage are thus settled no virgin is permitted to marry until she has killed an enemy. but when they came back to the Amazons. do thus with us come. not being able to satisfy the law. in the first place. claim your share of their propThe youths erty. or anywhere else we could not therefore consort with them. The messengers of the Scythians. designing to make all these regions also subject to him " Do you. since the Amazons never learned it correctly. had constructed a bridge over the neck of the Bosphorus. but let us return to the bulk of our people and live with them we will have you as our wives. The Sauromatae use the Scythian language. and have never learned the employments of women. coming to the assembled kings of the nations above mentioned. remaining in their wagons. and ride them. you think us worthy to be your wives. but are engaged in women's employments. and let us live by ourselves. because we have deprived you of your parents and in the next. then. and acted accordingly. he was building a bridge over the river Ister." The youths consented to this also having crossed the Tanais. If. settle there.II4-U8] THE SAUROMATAE 247 parents and possessions. some of them therefore die of old age without being married. you desire to have us for your wives." yielded. informed them that the Persian. and no others. and do not go out to hunt. speaking it corruptly from the first. and wearing the same dress as the men. therefore. on no ac. and having crossed over and subdued the Thracians. let us accordingly.

when the same god instigates them." When the Scythians heard this answer brought back they determined to fight no battle in the open field. but against those who were the authors of . because these but to retreat and draw allies did not come to their assistance off covertly. who make the request that you now do. and the springs. and have marched directly against our territories. wrong. repay you like for like. agreeing together. Neurian. and fill up the wells they passed by. . neither on that occasion injured these men at all. and begin war. in fact. had the mastery of the Persians as long as the god allowed you and they. having divided their forces into two bodies. you having invaded their territory without us. however. had not been the first to injure the Persians. : . and we. as soon as he crossed over to this continent. but with one accord let us oppose the invader. . . The Gelonian. and holds in subjection the rest of the Thracians.248 HERODOTUS— BOOK IV. and suffer us to be destroyed. and become the aggressor. the kings who had come from the several nations consulted together. and more particularly our neighbours the Getae. Budinian. which Scopasis commanded. and they resolved that to one of the divisions. shall either abandon the country or. would have acted in concert with you. We. and Sauromatian. But. . quiet at home for we think that the Persians are not coming against us. we. shall submit to terms for what would be our condition if you refuse to assist us? Nor will it fall more lightly on you on that account for the Persian is advancing not more against us than against you nor will he be content to subdue us and abstain from you: and we will give you a strong proof of what we say. and the Melanchlaenian and Taurian princes gave this answer to the Scythians " If you. promised to assist the Scythians but the Agathyrsian. If you will not do this. and destroy the herbage of the ground. and would have made it clear to all that he was marching against the Scythians. Nevertheless." When the Scythians had made this representation. and that they should retire. wishing to revenge his former subjection. yielding to your wishes. should he invade our territory also. and their opinions were divided. he subdued all that lay in his way. MELPOMENE [1 18-120 count. you would have appeared to us to speak rightly. . nor will we now be the first to attempt to injure them. sit aloof. But now. we But until we see that we will remain will not submit to it. being pressed. Androphagian. if we stay. . he would have abstained from all others. the Sauromatse should attach themselves. and not against others. for if the Persian had undertaken this expedition against us only.

having traversed this region. therefore. they. As long as the Persians were marching through the Scythian and Sauromatian regions. as the country was all barren. and encamped. retiring slowly. retreating direct to the river Tanais. they were to follow him and harass his rear. and attack the enemy. ordering them to march continually toward the north. having come to this determination. and doing as had been determined and first of all they were to withdraw direct toward the territories of those who had renounced their alliance. The Scythians. in which all their children and wives lived. and all the cattle. were directed to act in conjunction. on consultation. — . but the wagons. for they directed their march after one of the divisions. with the addition of the Geloni and Budini. and when the Persian marched back. but the Persians. to keep a day's march before the Persians. and is situated above the territory of the Budini. there meeting with the wooden town. the Budini having abandoned it. having sent forward the best of their cavalry as an advanced guard. and when they had crossed the river Tanais. . and. it should seem advisable. they reached that of the Budini. until. they had nothing to ravage. the greater one. they reached the desert this desert is destitute of inhabitants. followed their track. went out to meet Darius's army. when they saw the Scythian cavalry before them. When the advance guard of the Scythians fell in with the Persians. in order that they might bring the war upon them so that. and destroyed all the produce of the ground. which they left behind the rest they sent forward with the wagons. having passed through the country of the Sauromatae. while they continually retired and then. if. until. but when they entered the territory of the Budini. which Indathyrsus commanded. they set it on fire. except so many as were necessary for their subsistence. Having done this. they continued to follow in the track of the enemy. though they would not willingly take part in the war against the Persians. which Taxacis ruled over. These. : . kept a day's march in advance.120-123] INVASION OF SCYTHIA 249 the Persian should take that course. the Persians pursued toward the east and the Tanais. and the third. and the town being emptied of everything. were carried to a distance. they might be compelled to engage in it against their will afterward they were to return to their own country. the Persians also crossed over and pursued them. about three days' march from the Ister. along the lake Maeotis . and gradually retreat. if divisions of the kingdom. This was one division of the kingdom appointed to pursue The two other its march in the way that has been described. : . having fallen in with them.

supposing them to be all the Scythians. When Darius came to the desert. for Darius did not relax his pursuit. when the Persians and Scythians together invaded them. toward those nations that had refused to assist them. While he was employed about these. flowing from them through the Mseotians. the Scythians advanced in But the Agathyrsi. the Scythians led the way into the country of the Androphagi and when they had been thrown into confusion. fled continually in great confusion northward. Darius left the forts half finished. entering into their country. Androphagi. own. when they warned them not to do so. having ceased And his pursuit. they led the Per- and . but forgetting their former menaces. . when they could no longer be seen. and thrown into confusion before the Scythians entered. but departing from the Neurian territory. marched westward. fled. The Scythians. warning them that if they should attempt to force their way they must The Agathyrsi having sent this mesfirst fight with them. The Scythians no longer advanced toward the Agathyrsi. despatched a herald. he pursued them. and Neuri. . he built eight large forts. and himself wheeling round. and that they had fled to the west. had put all things into confusion. and having fallen in with them. discharge themselves into the lake called Maeotis their names are these Lycus. he fell in with the two Scythian divisions. advanced to protect their frontiers. Darius sent a horseman to Indathyrsus. offered no resistance. returned into Scythia these having entirely vanished. they retreated to Neuris and when they were thrown into confusion. MELPOMENE [123-126 is a seven days' march in extent. with the following message " Most miserable of sians into their When this : . sage beforehand. and Syrgis. he encamped his army on the river Oarus. about sixty stades apart. Oarus. their neighbours flying before the Scythians. seeing their flight toward the Agathyrsi. but they kept a day's march before him. the Scythians who were pursued. . and forbade the Scythians to cross their borders. Advancing with his army as quickly as possible. Whereas the Melanchlaeni. the ruins of which remain to this day. Tanais. as had been determined. equally distant from each other. King of the Scythians. when he reached Scythia. determined to repel the invaders. toward the desert. : : . having done this. having made a circuit of the upper parts.250 HERODOTUS— BOOK IV. and did not cease. and first they and when the entered the territories of the Melanchlaeni Scythians and the Persians. had continued for a considerable time. Beyond the desert the Thyssagetae dwell and four large rivers.

A : . but if thou art conscious of thy inferiority. for which we are under any apprehension lest they should be taken or ravaged. even in time of peace. : O We .) The herald therefore departed. Queen of the Scythians but to thee. but why I do not forthwith fight thee I will now explain. And in answer to thy boast.1 126-129] INVASION OF SCYTHIA 25 men. observing the soldiers of Darius taking their meals. . Thus much about fighting. come to a conto this Indathyrsus." To made answer . were filled with indignation whereupon they sent the division united with the Sauromatae. that thou art my master. . my progenitor. I will send such presents as are proper to come to thee. with orders to confer with the Ionians. as I have before observed nor is there in the whole Scythian ter- ference. I bid thee weep. but the Persian horsemen in their flight fell back on the infantry. very remarkable circumstance. stand. nor have I done anything different now from what I am wont to do. Those who were left resolved no longer to lead the Persians about. then you will know whether we will fight for our sepulchres or not. but to attack them whenever they were taking their meals accordingly. fight. and Vesta. The Scythians. . why dost thou continually fly." (This is a Scythian saying. I will now proceed to mention this was the braying of the asses. . The only masters I acknowledge are Jupiter. having beaten back the cavalry. . we have the sepulchres of our ancestors come. and the appearance of the mules for Scythia produces neither ass nor mule. have no cities nor cultivated lands. and bringing earth and water as presents to thy master. unless we choose. carrying this answer to Darius. in that case also cease thy hurried march. who guarded the bridge over the Ister. nor do I now so flee from thee. The kings of the Scythians. Persian I never yet fled from any man out of fear. The Scythians also made similar attacks at night. which Scopasis commanded. the King of the Scythians. that was advantageous to the Persians and adverse to the Scythians. as follows " This is the case with me. they put their design into execution. and the infantry supported them. instead of presents of earth and water. and having ceased thy wanderings. The Scythian cavalry always routed the Persian cavalry. and therefore should hastily offer you battle. when they heard the name of servitude. we will not engage with thee. Yet if it is by all means necessary to come to this at once. find these and attempt to disturb them. when they attacked the camp of Darius. wheeled round through fear of the infantry. but before that. when it is in thy power do one of these two other things? For if thou thinkest thou art able to resist my power. neither before.

O Persians. pricking up their ears. the braying of the asses. and by remaining might be harassed through want of all things necessary. in order that they might remain longer in Scythia. When this had happened several times. or become frogs and leap into the lakes. exulted in what they had done. ye become birds and fly into the air. a mouse. Now. midway. and the kings of the Scythians. growing wanton. forming his conjecture thus since a mouse is bred in the earth. But the opinion of Gobryas. We have heard that Darius commanded you to guard the bridge sixty days only. as they were advancing upon the Persians. and if he did not come up within that time then to return into your own country. and he advised the Persians. put the Scythian horse into confusion and frequently. ye shall never return home again. spoke as follows " Men of Ionia. The Persians asked the bearer of the gifts the meaning of this present but he answered that he had no other orders than to deliver them and return immediately. we are come bringing freedom to you if only you will listen to us. nor seen such a shape now this circumstance in some slight . when the horses heard. . when they saw the Persians in great commotion. MELPOMENE [129-133 ritory a single ass or mule. as having never before heard such a sound. having taken them. ion was that the Scythians meant to give themselves up to him. The Perif they were wise. a frog. sent a herald.. then. . they wheeled round in confusion. when they arrived at the bridge. and then to confer with the Ionians at the Ister. The asses. : : . there. : 252 HERODOTUS— BOOK IV. at last Darius was in a great strait. or become mice and hide yourselves beneath the earth. to discover what the gifts meant. having heard this. by reason of cold." And thus the other Persians interpreted the gifts. In the meantime that division of the Scythians that had been before appointed to keep guard about the lake Mseotis. Darius's opinsians. adopted the following expedient: When they had left some of their own cattle in the care of the herdsmen. and. . one of the seven who had deposed the magus. bearing as gifts to Darius a bird. and were greatly amazed. took the cattle. degree affected the fortune of the war. they themselves withdrew to another spot. consulted together. did not coincide with this he conjectured that the presents intimated " Unless. The Scythians. and subsists on the same food as a man a frog lives in the water a bird is very like a horse and the arrows they deliver up as their whole strength. as well as earth and water. This was the opinion given by Darius. . but be stricken by these arrows. and the Persians coming up. and five arrows. having ascertained this.

during that time. and all the asses tethered. then. being deserted by the multitude. the Scythians hastened back with all expedition. would defend the camp. . firmly believed that the Persians were still at their station. a hare started in the midst of them. I was in some measure acGobryas answered " quainted by report with the indigence of these men but I have learned much more since I came hither. discovering that they had been betrayed by Darius. began to bray much louder than usual so that the Scythians. and each of them. we have need of the best advice. or the Ionians take any resolution which may occasion our ruin. The asses. and those whose loss would be of the least consequence. Darius. how our return home may be effected in safety. after they had sent the presents to Darius. namely. hearing the asses. having laid these injunctions on those he was preparing to abandon. . and shouting loudly. When day appeared. The rest of the Scythians. went in pursuit of it. and they. should depart before the Scythians direct their march to the Ister. My : . for the purpose of destroying the bridge. opinion. and having caused the fires to be lighted. Afterward night came on. marched away with all speed toward the Ister. extended their hands to the Scythians.: . as we are accustomed to do. : . Darius asked the meaning of the uproar in the enemy's ranks but when he heard that they were pursuing a hare. and seen how they make sport of us. : O . I am rightly concerning the Scythian presents. and Darius acted on this opinion the infirm among the soldiers. the men that were abandoned. RETREAT OF DARIUS 253 if you do this. and having tethered all the asses." To this king. he said to those he was accustomed to address on such occasions " These men treat us with great contempt and I am convinced that Gobryas spoke Since. to do so. and having deceived those soldiers who are least able to bear hardships. and told them what . therefore. he left on the spot in the camp. as if they intended to come to an engagement and as the Scythians were standing in their ranks. as they saw the hare. is that as soon as night draws on we should light fires." On the Ionians promising . And he left the asses and the sick of his army for the following reason that the asses might make a noise and the men were left on this pretext. of opinion that the case is so. that he with the strength of his army was about to attack the Scythians. you will be free from all blame as regards him and as regards us when you have waited the appointed number of days. after that depart. The Scythians being in great confusion." Such was the advice of Gobryas. drew themselves opposite the Persians with their foot and horse. i33-!3 6 ] fore.

they spoke to the Ionians who were on board the ships in these terms " Men of Ionia. that they might seem to do something. we will so deal with him that he shall never hereafter make war on any people. there being no roads cut. because every one of the cities would choose to be governed rather by a democracy than a tyranny. they missed each other. But Histiseus the Milesian was of a contrary opinion. As for the man who before was your master. and Ariston of Byzantium these were from the Hellespont. Laodamas of Phocsea. of Miltiades the Athenian. These were they who gave their votes and were in high estimation with Darius the tyrants of the Hellespontines. and said that every one reigned over his own city through Darius and if Darius's power should be destroyed. the two divisions of the Scythians. iEaces of Samos. And having learned that the Persians were not yet arrived. whose opinion was opposed to that of Miltiades. the Sauromatse. MELPOMENE [136-139 had occurred when they heard this. and Geloni. Histiseus had no sooner delivered this opinion than all went over to his side who had before assented to that of Miltiades. Budini. and the single one. When these men had approved the opinion of Histiseus. and as the Scythian army consisted of cavalry. Strattis of Chios. Metrodorus of Proconnesus. when in effect they did nothing. pursued the Persians straight toward the Ister. From Ionia. the number of days appointed for your stay is already passed. Of the iEolians the only person of consideration present was Aristagoras of Cyme. and give thanks to the gods and the Scythians. now break up the passage and depart as quickly as possible. nor any of the rest of other places." : The opinion reigned over the Chersonesites on the Hellespont. and that the Scythians might not attempt to use violence and purpose to cross the Ister by the Upon this the Ionians held a consultation. IV. and the Scythians arrived at the bridge much before the Persians. and they did not know the way. Hippocles of Lampsacus. . and knew the shortest route. Herophantus of Parium. and you do not as you ought in continuing here but if you remained before through fear. and Histiseus of Miletus.. having joined their forces together as quickly as posBut as sible. and restore liberty to Ionia. they determined to add to it the following acts and words: To break up the bridge on the Scythian side as far as a bowshot might reach. . who commanded and . neither would he himself continue master of Miletus. . rejoicing that you are free. Aristagoras of Cyzicum. 254 HERODOTUS—BOOK . was that they should comply with the request of the Scythians. a great part of the Persian army consisted of infantry. Daphnis of Abydos.

These reproaches the Scyth- ians fling out against the Ionians. As they arrived in the night. and will use all diligence. and joined the bridge. and call Histiaeus the Milesian. returned by it. accounting the Ionians as . you have brought us good advice. as they deserve. a Persian." The Scythians. and thus with difficulty found the passage. The Scythians in their search missed them a second time: and on the one hand. believing a second time that the Ionians were sincere. considering the Ionians as free and cowardly. . most attached to their masters. we are breaking up the passage. This man Darius commanded to stand on the bank of the Ister. But the Persians. marching through Thrace. they say that they are and least inclined to run away. and perceived the bridge broken off. who had an exceedingly loud voice. slaves. and having found them. they deem them to be the most base of men but on the other. on your part. but entirely missed the way they had taken. saying as follows " Men of Scythia. as . having destroyed the pastures for the horses in this direction. have pointed out the right way to us. . brought up all the ships to carry the army across. thinking that they too would make their retreat by that way. I39-H3] RETREAT OF DARIUS 255 bridge. But while we are breaking it up. : . For the Scythians sought the enemy by traversing those parts of the country where there were forage and water for the horses. as you see. reached Sestos in the Chersonesus and thence he himself crossed over on shipboard into Asia. Thus the Persians escaped. that they would do everything that might be agreeable to the Scythians. carefully observing their former track. There was with Darius an Egyptian. and left Megabyzus. He did so. having heard the first shout. while they were breaking up the bridge on the Scythian side. This they added to the opinion of Histiaeus. avenge us and yourselves on them. Darius. turned back to seek the Persians. Darius once paid this man great honour.. and to say. it is fitting you should seek for them. to be his general in Europe. and urge it seasonably. you. desiring to be free. they fell into the utmost consternation lest the Ionians had abandoned them. having expressed himself in this manner in the presence of the Persians Darius being about to eat some pomegranates. and having filled in the wells for if they had not done this they might easily have found the Persians if they wished but now they erred in the very thing which they thought they had contrived for the best. and Histiaeus. The Scythians themselves were the cause of this. And afterward Histiaeus delivered the : answer in the name of all. and we on ours readily submit to you for.

. and the sailing of the Tyndaridae in the Argo especially induced them to do this having. on what pretext I will relate when I have first given the following account by way of preface The descendants of the Argonauts. and being allotted a portion of land. and distributed them among their tribes. having heard this account of the extraction of the Minyae. received the Minyae. : . lighted fires. they assigned them a portion of land. and that they. and committed other crimes. sent a second time to inquire with what design they had come to their territory and lighted fires they said that. Darius said that he would rather have as many Megabyzuses than Greece subject to him. his brother Artabanus asked him. and demanded a share The Lacein the sovereignty. subdued those nations who were not in the interest of the Medes. : . They said to the messenger who questioned them that they were Minyae. Lacedaemonians determined to receive the Minyae on the terms they themselves proposed. and seating themselves on Mount Taygetus. with eighty thousand men of his own army. 256 HERODOTUS— BOOK IV. they had come to their fathers. having seen this. participating in The their honours. The Lacedaemonians. therefore. for if they had not been blind they would never have chosen so bad a situation. when they might have had so beautiful a spot to settle in. despatched a messenger to demand who and whence they were. cordingly did this. but when he heard it he said that the Chalcedonians must have been blind at that time. and they immediately contracted marriages. begot them. This Megabyzus by making the following remark left an everlasting memorial of himself among the Hellespontines for when he was at Byzantium he was informed that the Chalcedonians had settled in that country seventeen years before the Byzantines. and gave to others the wives But when no long time had they brought from Lemnos. for that it was most proper for them so to do and they requested leave to dwell with them. This Megabyzus. having touched at Lemnos. Of what thing he would wish to possess a number equal to the grains in the pomegranate. set sail for Lacedaemon. By saying this he honoured him in the presence of the Persians. About the same time another great expedition was undertaken against Libya. being ejected by the Pelasgians. He ac. The Lacedaemonians. and now he left him as general. MELPOMENE [143-146 soon as he opened the first. descendants of those heroes who sailed in the Argo. being expelled from Lemnos by the Pelasgians who carried off the Athenian women from Brauron. being left as general in the country of the Hellespontines. elapsed the Minyae became insolent. then.

and daughters to the principal Spartans. The Lacedaemonians gave them permission. with a multitude drawn out of the tribes. For Cadmus. and on no account to drive them out. and. they were about to put them to death.. did as follows having given all the clothes they had on to their husbands. lived the descendants of Membliares. son of Agenor. when they entered. 146-148] ORIGIN OF THE THERJEANS " 257 daemonians therefore determined to put them to death. therefore. To these people. but they. hav: ing. his own kinsman. themselves took their husbands' clothes. and whether when he touched at it the country pleased him. Upon which. and promised that he would himself take them out of the country. then called Callista. during eight generations. At the same time Theras. he set sail with three thirty-oared galleys. In the island now called Thera. the same that was formerly Callista. but no one by day. declared that he would not remain at Lacedaemon. the son of Paeciles. taking with him not all the Minyae. son of Thersander. the wives of the Minyae. again seated themselves on Mount Tay: getus. passed out as women. But when the Minyae who had escaped from the prison seated themselves on Mount Taygetus. set out. but some few of them for the greater number of them went over to Paroreates and 17 . having put on the women's dress. and having thus escaped. touched at the island now called Thera. brother to the mother of Aristodemus's sons. to the descendants of Membliares. and confer each with her husband. But when the youths were grown up and assumed the government. and while these youths were yet infants Theras had the kingdom of Sparta under his guardianship. This Theras was by birth a Cadmaean. moreover. The Lacedaemonians acceding to his request. purposing to dwell with them. he left in this island both others of the Phoenicians. son of Polynices. the Minyse. not brooking to be ruled by others after he had tasted the pleasures of power. Theras. son to Tisamenus. and having seized them. Membliares these men occupied the island. but would sail away to his own kindred. before Theras came from Lacedaemon. son of Austesion. or whether for some other reason he chose to do so. set out from Lacedaemon on a colonizing expedition. as the Lacedaemonians determined to destroy them. but by all means to conciliate them. Eurysthenes and Procles. Theras begged that they might not be put to death. who were citizens. not suspecting any fraud on their part. Theras went. When. Now those whom they kill the Lacedaemonians kill by night. a Phoenician. they threw them into prison. begged permission to enter the prison. then. when in quest of Europa.

At first men sailed from Thera to explore.<Esanius. the Pythian objected to them the colonization of Libya. When they found no remedy for the evil. At that time so much passed. the Pythian admonBut he answered " I. and among them Battus. distributed themselves into six divisions. : . arrived in the city of Itanus and here they became acquainted with a purple-dyer. : . 258 . neither knowing in what part of the world Libya was. : prince. and reigned over the island Thera. therefore command one of these young men to do this " and as he said these words he pointed to Battus. nor daring to send out a colony on an uncertainty. For seven years after this no rain fell in Thera during which period every tree in the island. bringing a hecatomb from the city and divers of the citizens attended him. and to Platea. son to Polymnestus.. was consulting the oracle concerning other affairs. they took him to Thera. except one. and after that the same thing happened in Thera to those who were descended from these men. had ever gone to Libya. who was a descendant of this Theras. a principal tribe in Sparta. or strangers settled among . being driven by the winds. Epium. in obedience to an oracle. an island of Libya having persuaded this man by a promise of reward. and Nudium most of these the Eleans have destroyed in my time. ished him to build a city in Libya. HERODOTUS— BOOK IV. was withered up and when the Theraeans consulted the oracle. came to Delphi. are named. But after their departure they paid no attention to the oracle. His son refused to accompany him in his voyage. . and then founded the following cities there Leprium. To this part of the story the Lacedaemonians agree with the Theraeans but after this the Theraeans only say that what follows took place Grinus. who was of the family of Euphemus. . These messengers. And as Grinus. King of the Theraeans. therefore he said that he would leave him as a sheep among wolves in consequence of this speech. O them. not many in number and when Corobius had conducted them to this . As the children of the men of this tribe did not survive. they erected a temple. To this Oiolycus was born iEgeus. Macistus. wandering about the island. from whom the JEgidze. Phrixas. and this name chanced to prevail. MELPOMENE [148-151 Caucones and having driven them out from their country. Pyrgus. to the furies of Laius and CEdipus. The name of Thera was given to the island after the founder. they despatched messengers to Crete to inquire if any of the Cretans. . the name of Oiolycus was given to this youth. am now too old and heavy to move myself. whose name was Corobius he said that. : : . son of . he had gone to Libya. . one of the Minyae.

and made him swear that he would serve : . having got under way from the island. took back word that they had taken possession of an island off the coast of Libya: the Theraeans therefore resolved to send one of every family. son of Laodamas of ^Egina. The Theraeans give this account in the rest of the story the Theraeans are supported by the Cyrenaeans for the Cyall . and themselves sailed back with all speed to give But these men staying the Theraeans tidings of the island. they arrived at Tartessus. made a vessel of brass. having set . so that these men returning home. apart the tenth of their gains. for they tell the story thus There is a city of Crete called Axus. gained from their cargo the largest profits of any of the Grecians we know of with certainty. prevailed on by his wife. seven cubits in height. whose master was Colaeus. they fitted out two fifty-oared galleys for Platea. treating her shamefully. Corobius was reduced to the last necessity. . The Samians. which were seven in number. having a motherless daughter. That port was at that time unfrequented. having charged her with unchastity. left him provisions for a year. . and they dedicated it in the Temple of Juno.151-154] FOUNDING OF CYRENE 259 island Platea. amounting to six talents. chosen by lot and to send . And on this occasion the Cyrenseans and Theraeans first contracted a great friendship with the Samians. a Theraean merchant this man Etearchus received hospitably. . leaning on their knees. married another wife she coming into the family. then. under divine guidance. . therefore. when they left Corobius in the island and returned to Thera. Thus. in which Etearchus was king he. and were carried away by an east wind and as the wind did not abate. for with him it is impossible for any one to compete. and being anxious to reach Egypt. set sail. whose name was Phronima. having passed through the columns of Hercules. sailing for Egypt. when a Samian vessel. having heard the whole account from Corobius. persuaded her husband that such was the case. and appointed Battus to be their leader and king. thought proper to be a stepmother indeed to Phronima. and around it the heads of griffins project over. He. next to Sostratus. and they. after the fashion of an Argolic bowl. having placed under it three colossal figures of brass. formed a wicked design against his daughter. and contriving every mischief she could against her and at last. was driven to this Platea. they left Corobius there with provisions for a few months. away longer than the time agreed upon. The Theraeans. There was then at Axus one Themison. : men from renaeans in no respect agree with the Theraeans in what relates to Battus. their districts. The Samians.

Upon this the Theraeans despatched Battus with two fifty-oared galleys. not knowing whence their misfortunes came. and let her down into the sea. bidding me colonize among . Thus compelled. and settled in an island that lies off Libya. however. as both the Theraeans and Cyrenaeans say. but. MELPOMENE [154-156 him in anything he should desire. abounding in sheep. who had an impediment in his speech and lisped. for they had nothing else that they could do. . the Theraeans. King Phoebus Apollo sends you to found a colony in Libya. deriving that name both from the oracle pronounced to him at Delphi and from the rank to which he attained. but commanded them to sail back again. for sel with him. and commanded him to take her away. some other name and it was afterward changed to Battus when he arrived in Libya. addressed him in the Libyan tongue. took Phronima for his concubine. returned back to Thera. But Themison. knowing that he would be a king in Libya. and after some time he had a son by her. whose . The Pythian answered that it would fare better with them when with Battus they had founded Cyrene in Libya. then having drawn her up again. you are come had said in the Grecian language. to whom the name of Battus was given. I about your voice. broke off the compact of friendship. beat them off as they drew to shore. when delivering the oracle. but you give me an answer as to other impossible things." As if she king. " king. For the Libyans call a king Battus. he set sail the purpose of absolving himself from the oath imposed by Etearchus. he bound her round with ropes. . you are come about your voice. sent to Delphi to inquire concerning their present sufferings. and would not suffer them to approach the land. he departed : . After this Battus himself and the other Theraeans fell anew into troubles but the Theraeans. grieved at the deceitfulness of the oath. and throw her into the sea. After that Polymnestus. the Theraeans. as I am of opinion. and did as follows Having taken the damand when he was in the open sea. they sailed back again. he in the meanwhile left her and returned to Thera." He answered as follows " came indeed to consult you about my voice. : O : O Libya: with what power? with what force?" By saying this he did not persuade the Pythian to give him any other answer. a man of distinction for Thera. For when he had reached man's estate he came to Delphi about his voice and to his inquiries the Pythian gave the following answer " Battus.2 6o HERODOTUS—BOOK IV. When he had bound him by oath he delivered his daughter to him. and for this reason I think that the Pythian. But these having sailed to Libya. and as she was repeating the same response as before.

so as to lead them through it by night the name of this country is Irasa. having drawn out their forces to the district of Irasa. King of Egypt and he. for the Cyrenaeans in. : name. But the Libyans. they took on board the man they had left there. arrived at the island. " Grecians. as nothing turned out prosperously for them. This island is said to be equal in extent to the present city of the Cyrenaeans. opposite the island: its name was and a hills inclose it on two sides. during the life of Battus the founder. sent an embassy to Egypt. Having conducted them to a fountain. therefore. better than I who have been there. having assembled a large army of Egyptians. they computed the time of the day. I very much admire your wisdom. they said. having promised to conduct them to a better place. the neighbouring Libyans and their king. they sailed back again. and gave themselves up to Apries. who reigned sixteen years. Having. but in the seventh the Libyans. conducted them from thence toward the west and in order that the Greeks might not see the most beautiful part of their country as they passed through. for here the heavens are open. Battus. and the rest set sail for Delphi and having come to the oracle." Now. they left one of their company behind. know Libya abounding in sheep. and : A . when the land is divided.156-159] FOUNDING OF CYRENE 261 I before mentioned. finding that they were deprived of their territory. having removed them. ." When Battus and his companions heard this. sent it against Cyrene. saying that they had settled in Libya. and of his son Arcesilaus. oracle were these " He who shall come too late to lovely Libya. and most beautiful river flows by it on the third. accounted sacred to Apollo. shall hereafter one day repent. and settled in a place on Libya itself. and injuriously treated by the Cyrenaeans. for the god did not release them from founding the colony until they had come to Libya itself. they consulted it. whose name was Adicran. They inhabited this spot for six years. is Platea. But the Pythian gave them the following answer " If you. surnamed the Fortunate." great multitude having assembled at Cyrene. : : The words of the vited them to a division of the country. Having inhabited this island for two years. the Cyrenaeans continued the same in number as when they were first sent to settle the colony but under the third king. who have never been there. being curtailed of much of their land. persuaded them to leave it. . and fared no better since they had settled there. here it is fitting for you to dwell. who reigned forty years. the Pythian by an oracle encouraged all Grecians to sail to Libya and join the Cyrenaeans in colonizing it. as Aziris. and the Cyrenaeans.

and against the revolters themselves but the Libyans. having reserved certain portions of land and the office of the priesthood for King Battus. having arrived in Cyrene. and went to another part of Libya. whose name was Eryxo. not having before made trial of the Greeks. sent to Delphi to inquire of the Delphian oracle under what form of government they might live most happily the Pythian commanded them to procure an arbitrator from Mantinea. succeeded to the kingdom. fled to the eastern Libyans. but demanded back the pre. citizens. first of all : formed them into three tribes. they persuaded the Libyans to revolt from the Cyrenaeans. through dread of him. they founded the city which was then and is still called Barce and as they were building it. whose name was Demonax. so that they left him. first of all quarrelled with his own brothers. This Battus had a son. and become acquainted with the : . Arcesilaus pursued them in their flight. state of affairs.. lame Battus and Pheretime. until he overtook them at Leucon in Libya. but in the time of his son Arcesilaus great disorders For Arcesilaus. 262 HERODOTUS— BOOK IV. were so thoroughly defeated that only a few of them returned to Egypt. they conquered the Cyrenseans so completely that seven thousand heavy armed of the Cyrenaeans fell upon the spot. Arcesilaus. another of Peloponnesians and Cretans and a third of all the islanders and in the next place. he restored to the people everything else that the kings had before. revolted from him. who was sick and under the influence of some drug. : . The wife of Arcesilaus. declared he would not submit to the constitutions of Demonax. the son of Arcesilaus. and the Libyans resolved to attack him and having come to an engagement. and despising them. laying the blame on Apries. and conquered them for the Egyptians. a city of the Arcadians. . highly esteemed among the This person. After this blow his brother Learchus strangled Arcesilaus. fect in his feet. During the reign of this Battus matters continued in this state. MELPOMENE [159-162 near the fountain Thestes. who. di- viding them as follows of the Theraeans and their immediate neighbours. The Cyrenaeans accordingly asked. In consequence of this the Egyptians. put Learchus to death by stratagem. But afterward Arcesilaus led an army against those Libyans who had received them. came to an engagement with the Egyptians. a lame man. he formed one division. and the Mantineans gave them a man. therefore. son of the arose about the public offices. on account of the disaster that had befallen them. and consulting among themselves. having come to the throne. . Battus. and not perThe Cyrenaeans.

and some wool was on it and when Pheretime again made the same speech. so that some of them abandoned their country altogether. Euelthon said that women should be presented with such things. " This indeed is handsome. that the Pythian forbade him." The Pythian gave this answer to Arcesilaus. but send them away with a favourable wind. to him he retired: and the Barcaeans. continuing at Samos. and : . in Cyprus. whose name was Alazir. . belonging to Aglomachus. At that time Euelthon bore rule over Salamis. eight generations of men he advises you. But if you heat the furnace. and daughter to the King of the Barcaeans. and supposing that Cyrene was the place surrounded with water. forgot the oracle. and the Pythian gave him the following answer " Apollo grants you to reign over Cyrene during the time of four Battuses and four Arcesilauses. After this was done. Euelthon sent her a golden spindle and distaff. by a promise of a division of lands and when a large army was collected. Some others of the Cyrenaeans. understanding that this was the meaning of the oracle. handsome to give the army I asked for " this she said at every present that was made. do not bake the amphorae. and fled to Samos and his mother fled to Salamis. asked for an army. and exacted vengeance of the adverse party for his own exile. collected men of all classes. having taken with him the men from Samos. In the meantime Arcesilaus. dreading the predicted death. and the most beautiful bull. and having recovered the mastery. : . He had a wife who was his own kinswoman. . said. At last. but Euelthon would give her anything rather than an army but she. which should reinstate them in Cyrene. the same who dedicated the curious censer at Delphi. when he found amphorae in a furnace. the Cnidians rescued. Arcesilaus set out to Delphi to consult the oracle concerning his return. to bake them. but it would be still more tion. being carried to their country. accepting what was given. and sent away to Thera. . . enter not into a place surrounded with water. he of his own accord withdrew from the city of the Cyrenaeans. having come to him. and others Arcesilaus seized and sent to Cyprus to be put to death now these last. 263 rogatives of his ancestors and thereupon having raised a sedihe was defeated. : . however. otherwise you will perish yourself. which is deposited in the treasury of the Corinthians. Pheretime.162-164] ARCESILAUS . not to attempt any more than this. and not with armies. Do you therefore be quiet and return home and if you find a furnace full of amphorae. returned to Cyrene. who had taken refuge in a large private tower. but he. Arcesilaus surrounded with wood and burned.

had been appointed governor of Egypt by Cambyses he in succeeding time was put to death for attempting to make himself equal with Darius. killed him. the Adrymachidae are the first of the Libyans we meet with they for the most part observe the usages of Egypt. refined gold to the utmost perfection. his mother Pheretime held the honours of her son at Cyrene. MELPOMENE [164-168 some of the exiles from Cyrene. for it was this Arcesilaus who gave Cyrene to Cambyses. having ceived the reward of his presumption. seated herself as a suppliant of Aryandes. disobeying the oracle. and moreover his father-in-law Alazir. coined money. and put him to death. having discovered him in the public place. that he designed to rebel. The women wear a chain of brass on each leg . but. Thus Arcesilaus. All the Barcaeans took it upon themselves. formed that he had done this. At that time. in my opinion. the expedition was undertaken with the intention of subduing the Libyans. now But Darius. accomplished his own destiny. swer he despatched the army with Pheretime. but they wear the same dress as the other Libyans. for Arcesilaus had performed some services for Cambyses. taking compassion on Pheretime.264 HERODOTUS— BOOK IV. a Maraphian. For there are many and various nations of Libyans. and he appointed Amasis. Now this cause was only a pretext for his proceeding. both exercising his other functions and taking her seat in the council but when she heard that her son had been put to death at Barce she fled to Egypt. While Arcesilaus was living at Barce. for that they had suffered many inAnd when Aryandes received their anjuries at his hands. alleging as a pretext that her son had died Aryandes in consequence of his attachment to the Medes. but the greater part paid no regard to Darius. and some few of them were subject to the king. Badres. gave her all the forces of Egypt. this Aryandes. governor of Egypt. But . brought another charge against him. The Libyans dwell as follows Beginning from Egypt. Pheretime having arrived in Egypt. made the same in silver. however. both army and navy. entreating him to avenge her. . when inthis Aryandian silver is the purest. a Pasargadian by birth. they let their hair grow long. and of the fleet. working out his own destruction. commander of the army. whether wilfully or otherwise. For having been informed that Darius desired to leave such a memorial of himself as had been accomplished by no other king. and imposed a tribute on himself. before he despatched the forces he sent a herald to Barce to inquire who it was that had slain Arcesilaus. and Aryandes. he imitated him until he reFor Darius. son of Cyrus. and : : .

dwell. The Nasamones. they lie down to sleep. and after having prayed. . in order to gather the fruit of the palm trees. they have intercourse when they have set up a staff before them. and. these are situated above Barce. she is deflowered by him. : . adjoin these Auschisse westward. by the custom of the country. These Adrymachidse reach from Egypt to the harbour named Plunus. and on the continent is the port of Menelaus. drink them. going to the tombs of their ancestors. but the Asbystae do not reach to the sea for the Cyrenseans occupy the sea-coast. when he has had intercourse with her. and extends from the island of Platea to the mouth of the Syrtis. and endeavour to imitate most of the customs of the Cyrenseans. it is the custom for the bride on the first night to lie with all the guests in turn. their cattle on the coast. When they have caught locusts they dry them in the sun. each bites those from her own perand then throws them away. which the Cyrenseans colonized. a small nation. In their oaths and divinations they observe the following custom they swear. reduce them to powder. and they have intercourse with them in common. and whatever dream they have. a very numerous peoIn summer they leave ple. Midway on this coast the island of Platea is situated. with Aziris. : : . sprinkling them in milk. gives her some present which he has brought from home. They drive four-horsed chariots more than any of the Libyans. a city They observe the same customs as those who of Barcsea. extending to Tauchira. The Asbystse adjoin the Giligammae westward they inhabit the country above Cyrene. who occupy the country westward as far as the island Aphrodisias. In pledging their faith they observe the following method: each party gives the other to drink perides. dwell above Cyrene. Every man. Next to these are the Giligammse. which the Cyrenseans inhabited. . These people use nearly the same customs as the others. extending to the sea near the Eues- when they son. At this place the plant Silphium is first found. these alone of the Libyans do this and they alone exhibit to the king their virgins who are about to marry and should any one be agreeable to the king. which grow in great numbers and of a large size. has several wives. and are all productive.168-172] THE LIBYANS 265 catch vermin. and go up to the region of Augila. laying their hands on the sepulchres of those who are generally esteemed to have been the most just and excellent persons among them and they divine. The Auschisse adjoin the Asbystse westward. In the midst of the territory of the Auschisse the Cabales. and each. this they avail themselves of. and much the same as the Massagetse. When a Nasamonian marries.

. with one consent determined to make war against that wind and when they arrived (I only repeat what the Libyans say) and at the sands. adjoin the Lotophagi on the sea-coast. : . and allowing the middle hair to grow. sailed round the Peloponnesus. as being loved by the greatest number of men. and moreover a brazen tripod. : . These. though all the rest of Libya above mentioned is bare. Above these to the north. : the The following Argo was finished . nor do they know how to defend themselves. having consulted together. discharges itself into the sea. The Psylli border on the Nasamonians these perished in the following manner: The south wind blowing upon them dried up all their water tanks. . . . This hill of the Graces is thickly covered with trees. They extend as far as a large river called Triton and this river discharges itself into the great lake Tritonis: and in it is an island named Phla. when building at the foot of Mount Pelion. each several on the following account. fruit. They say that the Lacedaemonians were commanded by an oracle to colonize this story is also told That Jason. but in a less degree than those before mentioned. skins of ostriches for defensive armour. . the south wind blowing covered them over when they had perished the Nasamonians took possession of their territory. From the sea to this hill is a distance of two hundred stades. who also use the lotus. they take up some dust from the ground and lick it. flowing through their country from a hill called the Graces. and drinks in turn from the other's hand and if they have no liquid. live the Garamantes. MELPOMENE [172-179 out of his hand. as is said she binds round a band for every man that has intercourse with her and she who has the most is most esteemed. 266 HERODOTUS— BOOK IV. purposing to go to Delisland. . live above the Nasamonians and the Macae adjoin them on the sea-coast westward these shave their heads so as to leave a tuft.. The Machlyes. The Gindanes adjoin these Macae their women wear bands of leather around their ankles. they shave both sides close to the skin in war they wear the . in a country abounding with wild beasts. then. . and in sweetness it resembles the fruit The Lotophagi make wine also from this of the palm tree. having put a hecatomb on board. The river Cinyps. who avoid all men and the society of any others: they do not possess any warlike weapon. and the whole country within the Syrtis was dry they therefore. The Lotophagi occupy the coast that projects to the sea in front of these Gindanes they subsist only on the fruit of the lotus and the fruit of the lotus is equal in size to the mastic berry.

gave herself to Jupiter. The men meet together every third month. and that Jupiter adopted her as his own daughter: this they say. conduct her round the lake. then. abounds in wild beasts. that when one of the descendants of those who sailed with him in the Argo should carry away the tripod. At the annual festival of Minerva. dividing themselves into two companies. But before they leave off righting they do as follows With one consent they on each occasion deck the virgin that excels in beauty with a Corinthian helmet and a suit of Grecian armour. 179-181] THE LIBYANS 267 phi. and bade Jason give him the tripod. In what way they formerly decorated the virgins before the Grecians settled in their neighbourhood I am unable to say but I conjecture that they were decked in Egyptian armour. : . They have promiscuous intercourse with the women. then pronouncing an oracle from the tripod. When Jason consented. and as he was sailing off Malea. fight together with stones and staves. as well as the Machlyes. he is considered to be the son of that man whom he most resembles. and having placed her in a chariot. Libya coast have been mentioned. . . The Machlyes let the hair grow on the back of the head. their virgins.: . inland. the story goes that a Triton appeared to him. and when a woman has a child grown up. and the Auses on the front. and beyond the wild beast tract is a ridge of sand. whom we call Minerva and those of the virgins who die from their wounds they call false virgins. affirming that they perform the ancient rites to their native goddess. the Triton thereupon showed them the passage out of the shallows. promising that he would both show them the passage and conduct them away in safety. They say that Minerva is the daughter of Neptune and the lake Tritonis and that she being for some reason offended with her father. then it was fated that a hundred Grecian cities should be built about the lake Tritonis the neighbouring nations of the Libyans. a north wind caught him and drove him to Libya and before he could discern the land he found himself in the shallows of the lake Tritonis and as he was in doubt how to extricate his ship. Those. stretching from the Egyptian Thebes to the . when they heard The Auses adjoin these Machlyes this concealed the tripod. for I am of opinion that the shield and helmet were brought from Egypt into Greece. of the Libyan nomads who live on the seaAbove these. and placed the tripod in his own temple. and do not cohabit and associate like beasts. and the Triton forms the boundary between them. dwell round the lake Tritonis. they. he declared to Jason and his companions all that should happen.

At the distance of another ten days' journey from the Garamantes is another hill of salt and water. like that of the Ammonians. along the ridge of sand. except that their hide is thicker and harder. . They have also another kind of spring water which in the morning is tepid. For the name Atarantes belongs to them collectively. 268 HERODOTUS— BOOK IV. as also in the other places. it then boils and bubbles up when midnight is passed. and continuing to increase in heat till midnight. a very powerful nation. MELPOMENE [181-184 At intervals of a ten days' journey of Hercules. till the sun sets. at the end of another ten days' journey. As the day declines it gradually loses its coldness. and then sow their ground. as I said before. because their horns would stick in the ground. these to the Lotophagi the shortest route is a journey of thirty days among them the kine that feed backward are met with they feed backward for this reason they have horns that are bent forward. for they are unable to go forward. and around it dwell people the farthest toward the desert. and many fruit-bearing palm trees. Next to the Ammonians. moreover. there is a hill of salt. it gets cooler until morning. The first after a ten days' journey from Thebes are the Ammonians. and. cold and columns sweet water gushes up . it who are called Garamantes. and water. but to each one of them no name is given. and at the top of each hill.. From the Augilse at the end of another ten days' journey is another hill of salt and water. : . They curse the sun as he passes over their heads. in this ridge there are pieces of salt in large lumps on hills. from the midst of the salt. who have a temple resembling that of Theban Jupiter. then they water their gardens. but screech reptiles : : . The Troglodytes feed upon serpents and lizards. and at midday is very cold. then the water becomes tepid again. and men inhabit . These Garamantes hunt the Ethiopian Troglodytes in four-horse chariots for the Ethiopian Troglodytes are the swiftest of foot of all men of whom we have heard any account given. : like bats. They differ from other kine in no other respects than this. For. and men live round it the name of this region is Augila to this place the Nasamonians go to gather the dates. they From lay earth upon the salt. This fountain is called after the sun. becomes colder about the time of full forum. and other they speak a language like no other. utter against him the foulest in. the image of Jupiter at Thebes has the head of a ram. and men live round it who are called Atarantes they are the only people we know of who have not personal names. therefore they draw back as they feed . and beyond the wild beast tract.

and there is a mine of salt in it at intervals of Their houses ten days' journey. and drink milk. then. Above this ridge. but they do not taste the flesh of cows. Afterward. at the end of another ten days' journey. for the same reason as the Egyptians. the country is desert. extends as far as the Pillars of Hercules. The inhabitants say that it is the Pillar of Heaven. nor do they do with respect . . for the Libyans are in truth the most healthy of all men with whom we are acquainted whether from this cause I am unable to say with certainty however. but many of them do as follows When their children are four years old they burn the veins on the crown of their heads with unclean sheep's wool and some of them do it on the veins in the temples. howinhabit this ridge.184-187] THE LIBYANS 269 he consumes them by his scorching heat. are all built of blocks of salt. they are so very healthy. both the men themselves and their country. to the end that humours flowing down from the head may not injure them as long as they live: and for this reason. As far. Indeed. eat flesh. without rain. for it is never free from clouds. Thus. but they also observe the fasts and festivals in honour of her and the women of the Barcaeans do not taste the flesh of swine in addition to that of cows. These things. nor do they breed swine. : to their children what the nomads are accustomed to do for the nomadic Libyans. nor do they follow the same customs. and without wood. vectives. either in summer or winter. as far as the lake Tritonis from Egypt. they are the most : : . Westward of the lake Tritonis the Libyans are no longer nomads. From this mountain these men derive their appellation. but not beyond them. not only do the women of the Cyrenseans think it right to abstain from the flesh of cows. and men dwelling there. as these Atlantes I am able to mention the names of the nations that This ridge. and men live round it. and near this salt is a mountain. which is called Atlas it is narrow and circular on all sides. for they are called Atlantes. to the south and interior of Libya. then. being of salt. are so. whether all I am unable to say with certainty. then. and there is no kind of moisture in it. there is another hill of salt and water. without water. without animals. They are said neither to eat the flesh of any animal nor to see visions. the Libyans are nomads. and even beyond them. ever. could not stand long if rain did fall. because . and is said to be so lofty that its top can never be seen. for in these parts of Libya no rain falls for walls. The salt dug out there is white and purple in appearance. they say. out of respect to Isis in Egypt. : .

they twist its neck. . And the howlings in the temples were. interwoven with rushes. . for the Libyan women practise the same custom. They let the hair grow on the right side of the head. Libyans who are husbandmen next adjoin the Auses they are accustomed to live in houses. For among have the following sacrificial rites : off the ear of the victim. and asses with horns. that they may set him up. inter their dead in the same manner as the Grecians these bury them in a sitting posture. elephants. and many other . and abounds with wild beasts. Such are the customs of these people. They sacrifice only to the sun and moon to them. I repeat what the Libyans themselves say. and all the rest of Libya westward. From these goats' skins the Grecians have borrowed the name of vEgis. except the Nasamonians. To the west of the river Triton. them there are enormous asps. : . bears. 270 HERODOTUS— BOOK IV. and lions. they have a remedy discovered by sprinkling . is low and sandy as far as the river Triton but the country westward of this. at least as the Libyans say. indeed. and having done this. and the fringes that hang from the aegis are not serpents. and wild men and wild women. which the nomads inhabit. them with the urine of a he-goat. and shave the left. : . But if convulsions seize the children when they are burning them. watching when one is about to expire. and do it well. These Libyan nomads When they have first cut they throw it over the house. From the Libyan women the Grecians derived the attire and aegis of Minerva's statues for except that the dress of the Libyan women is leather. all the Libyans offer sacrifice but those who live about the lake Tritonis sacrifice principally to Minerva. and he may not die supine. is very mountainous. . who have eyes in their breasts. moreover. woody. serpents. is much more infested by wild beasts and more thickly wooded than the country of the nomads for the eastern country of Libya. and bedaub the body with vermilion: they say that they are descended from men who came from Troy.. which is occupied by agriculturists. and monsters with dogs' heads and without heads. and are portable. but made of thongs. and next to Triton and Neptune. they restore them. in all other respects they are equipped in the same way: and. All the nomads. I think. This region. MELPOMENE [187-191 healthy. first derived from thence. Their dwellings are compacted of the asphodel shrub. and are called Maxyes. The Grecians also learned from the Libyans to yoke four horses abreast. the very name proves that the garb of the Palladia comes from Libya for the Libyan women throw over their dress goats' skins without the hair fringed and dyed with red.

: . except the stag and the wild boar but the stag and the wild boar are never seen in Libya. and then draw up pitch adhering to the myrtle it has the smell of asphalt. The Gyzantes adjoin them. however. two hundred stades in length. are found among the nomads. but is in other respects better than the pitch of Pieria. Thus. They have three sorts of mice there. The land of the Libyan nomads produces wild animals of the above description. and two orgyae in depth into this they let down a pole with a myrtle branch fastened to the end. buffaloes. and abounding in olive trees and vines. inconsiderable in breadth. and it is All these paint said that confectioners make much more. and small serpents. then. besides such as are met with elsewhere. porcupines. They pour it into a cistern dug near the lake. wild rams. into jars. for I have myself seen pitch drawn up out of a lake and from water in Zacynthus and there are it is . several lakes there . and appears again upon the surface of the sea. thoes. lies in their mountains. among them bees make a great quantity of honey. and means the same as the word signifying hillocks in Greek and hedgehogs. zegeries this name is Libyan. These. There are also weasels produced in the silphium. hyenas. the account given of the island that lies off Libya may probably be true. very much like lizards. from the horns of which are made the elbows of the Phoenician citherns in size this beast is equal to an ox: and foxes. each with one horn. but others that do not drink. : . easy of access from the continent. not such as have horns. which is about four stades distant from the lake. then. and when they have collected a sufficient quantity they pour it off from the cistern All that falls into the lake passes under ground. as far as I by the most diligent inquiry have been able to ascertain. and eat monkeys. some called dipodes. are the wild animals in that country. The Zaveces adjoin the Maxyan Libyans their women drive their chariots in war. and land crocodiles about three cubits long. . They add that in a lake. and asses.. Whether this is true I know not. panthers. or two-footed others. an island called Cyraunis. . from the mud of which the virgins of the country draw up gold dust by means of feathers daubed with pitch. antelopes. 191-195] THE LIBYANS 271 None of these things wild beasts which are not fabulous. but I write what is related it may be so. for they never drink. very like those at Tartessus. : . . . the Carthaginians say. ostriches. but others of the following kind pygargi. the largest of them is seventy feet every way. dictyes. which abound Near them. and oryes. boryes. themselves with vermilion.

The proportion of the produce of this land equals that of Babylon. nor is it injured by imbibing too much rain . No part of Libya appears to me so good in fertility as to be compared with Asia or Europe. for rain falls in this part of Libya. a circumstance worthy of admiration for the first fruits near the sea swell so as to be ready for the harvest and vintage. which is the highest of that part of Libya which the nomads occupy. Thus harvest occupies the Cyrenaeans during eight : : . The district of Cyrene. away from the sea. they take it up and sail away. has three seasons. seeing the smoke. . that the Carthaginians then. The land also which the Euesperides occupy is good for when it yields its best it produces a hundredfold but that in Cinyps three hundredfold. and withdraw to some distance from the merchandise. . examine the gold. But I have still this much to say about this country. the last comes in. they go on board their ships again and wait. and make a great smoke: that the inhabitants. and two not. nor do the natives touch the merchandise before the other party has taken the gold. come down to the sea. are indigenous. and if the quantity seems sufficient for the merchandise. that in the highest part becomes ripe and swells. but if it is not sufficient. as far as we know two of these races The Libyans and Ethiopians are indigenous. and when this middle harvest has been gathered in. . the other the southern parts of Libya but the Phoenicians and Greeks are foreigners. and when these are gathered in. neither party ever wrongs the until they have satisfied them other. and men who inhabit it when they arrive among these people and have unloaded their merchandise. So that when the first crop has been drunk and eaten. and it is neither affected at all by drought. the natives then approach and deposit more gold. MELPOMENE [196-199 further say that beyond the Pillars of Hercules there is a region of Libya. and most of these neither now nor at that time paid any regard to the King of the Medes. . and well watered with springs. go on board their ships. they set it in order on the shore. except only the for the land bears the same name as the district of Cinyps river. The Carthaginians . whose names I have been able to mention. that four distinct races inhabit it. the fruits of the middle region. the one inhabiting the northern. for they do not touch the gold before it is made adequate to the value of the merchandise.: 272 HERODOTUS— BOOK IV. : . Such are the Libyans. swell so as to be gathered in these they call uplands. and no more. and then deposit gold in exchange for the merchandise. and is equal to the best land in the production of corn nor is it at all like the rest of Libya for the soil is black. going ashore.

making it level with the rest of the ground. confiding in the Persians. he laid artifice. had recourse to the following stratagem Finding that the Barcaeans could not be taken by force. when. general of the land forces. and making vigorous assaults. rushed within the wall and they broke down the bridge that they had made for the following reason. that they might keep their oath. they did not listen to the proposal. But the Persians. : : : : . so that at last they were pleased to come to terms and they made an agreement of the following nature. Now the excavations a worker of brass discovered by means of a brazen shield. having thrown open all the gates. concluding the treaty over the concealed pit That as long as this earth shall remain as it is. he applied it to the ground within the city in other places to which he applied it. and on the surface over the planks he spread a heap of earth. having made a compact with the Barcaeans that the treaty should continue so long as the earth should remain as it then was but when they had broken down the bridge the treaty no longer remained in force. 199-202] EXPEDITION AGAINST BARCE This 273 months. having recourse to the following expedient: Carrying it round within the wall. Thereupon they besieged Barce for nine months. the brass of the shield sounded. slew the Persians who were employed in the excavation thus. things. having broken down the concealed bridge.. Those of the Barcaeans who were most to blame Pheretime impaled round the walls when they had been delivered up to . After the treaty the Barcaeans. having been despatched from Egypt by Aryandes. but at the parts that were excavated The Barcaeans. may be sufficient to say concerning these The Persians sent to avenge Pheretime. then. : . and allowed any one of the Persians who chose to pass within the wall. demanding the surrender of the persons concerned in the death of Arcesilaus but as the whole people were implicated. and they gladly assented. it made no noise. Amasis. they arrived at Barce. but might be by having dug a wide pit by night. 18 . and that the Persians should form no new designs against the Barcaeans. and many had fallen on both sides. When much time had been spent. and not the fewest on the side of the Persians. laid siege to the city. the treaty should continue in force and that the Barcaeans should pay a reasonable tribute to the king. digging passages under ground that reached to the walls. At daybreak he invited the Barcaeans to a conference. this was discovered and the assaults the Barcaeans repulsed. therefore. both themselves went out of the city. : . countermining them in that part. he did thus weak planks of wood over it.

And from thence the Libyans. MELPOMENE [202-205 her by the Persians and having cut off the breasts of their wives. having reduced the rest of the Barcaeans to slavery. to these Pheretime intrusted the city. obtained their request. the commander of the land forces. however. The rest of the Barcaeans she gave up as booty to the Persians. when they had passed through. having requested the Cyrenaeans to give them provisions for their march. they transported from Egypt to the king and King Darius gave them a village in the district of BacThey gave then the name of Barce to this tria to dwell in. would not allow it. for immediately after she returned from Libya to Egypt. until they reached Egypt. for that he was sent against no other Grecian city than that of Barce. The Persians. the Cyrenaeans. . except such of them as were Battiadse. territory. she studded the wall with them. But the Cyrenaeans would not suffer them. and a panic struck the Persians. marched away toward Egypt. permitted them to pass through the city. even while alive she swarmed with maggots. which was still inhabited in my time. . took their departure. Bares. The farthest point of Africa to which this Persian army penetrated was the country of the Euesperides. but Amasis. But as the army was going through. urged them to take the city . having avenged herself on the Barcaeans. 274 HERODOTUS— BOOK . When the army was encamped here. in the Bactrian Pheretime. therefore. Such and so great was the vengeance of Pheretime. to absolve themselves from obedience to some oracle. for the sake of their dress and baggage. laying wait for them. and attempted to enter it a second time. did not close her life happily. However. and had not participated in the murder. and having received them. they began to repent that they had not possessed themselves of Cyrene. put to death those that strayed and loitered behind. although no one attacked them and having run away for a distance of sixty stades. village. So odious to the gods are the excesses of human vengeance. on the Barcaeans. The Barcaeans. and when they halted at the city of the Cyrenaeans. The Persians. a messenger came from Aryandes to recall them. whom they had enslaved. wife of Battus. and encamped on the hill of the Lycaean Jupiter. they pitched their camp. the commander of the naval forces. IV. she died miserably for ..

having admonished them to invade the Perinthians. they would. The nation of the Thracians is the greatest of any among men. But as this is impracticable. The Perinthians having encamped opposite to them in the suburbs. Megabyzus marched his army through Thrace. and left but few of them alive. and had been before roughly handled by the For the Paeonians from the Strymon. . had formerly been the achievements of the Paeonians but at that time. They have various . they are therefore weak. and gained a complete victory. . and a dog with a dog. Such. 275 . not to attack. be invincible. when through excess of joy they sang the Paeon. But the Perinthians being victorious in two of these combats. then to attack. subdued the Perinthians first of the Hellespontines. When Perinthus was subdued. should challenge them." Thus the Paeonians attacked the Perinthians as they were singing the Paeon. for this command had been given him by Darius to subdue Thrace. the Paeonians did accordingly. and it is impossible that they should ever be united. and if the Perinthians. a threefold single combat there took place according to a challenge for they matched a man with a man. in my opinion. the Persians and Megabyzus overcame them by numbers. an oracle Paeonians. : . a horse with a horse. subjecting to the king every city and every nation of those dwelling in that country. at least except the Indians and if they were governed by one man. the Paeonians conjectured that this was the meaning of the oracle. then. though the Perinthians proved themselves valiant in defence of their liberty. and said among themselves " Now surely the oracle must be accomplished now it is our part to act. of but if they should not shout out to them. shouting to them by name.BOOK V TERPSICHORE left in Europe by Darius under the comMegabyzus. who were unwilling to submit to Darius. when encamped over against them. THE mand Persians. or acted in concert. and by far the most powerful of all nations.

on this point. or that dies. in all other respects. they do as follows The relatives. moreover. recounting the many evils from which being released. They keep no watch over their unmarried daughters. TERPSICHORE [3-8 names. and those who dwell above the Crestonaeans. in which the greatest rewards are adjudged to single combat. I have already described. Of these. and violent disputes among their friends. but all observe similar customs in every respect. observe the same usages as the rest of the Thracians but with regard to one born among them. These are the most remarkable of their customs. Bacchus. The Trausi. he is now in perfect bliss. a husband dies. Those above the Crestonaeans do as follows Each man has several wives when. according to their respective regions. and is so honoured. . To be idle is most honourable but to be a tiller of the soil. except the Getae. for this is the utmost disgrace to them. She who is adjudged to have been so. . then having thrown up a mound.276 HERODOTUS— BOOK V. deploring the many evils he must needs fulfil. But their kings. bury them. Such are the funeral rites of the Thracians. but suffer them to have intercourse with what men they choose. the Trausi. There is. having been extolled both by men and women. They worship the following gods only Mars. . they celebrate all kinds of games. and Diana. : : . bewail him. since he has been born enumerating the various sufferings incident to mankind but one that dies they bury in the earth. to the ex. reverence Mercury most of all the gods they swear by him only. or at all events placing them under ground. which of them was most loved by him. a great contest arises among the wives. and when slain is buried with her husband the others deem this a great misfortune. : . having first burned them. : ception of the other citizens. and say that they are themThe funerals of the wealthy selves sprung from Mercury. who pretend to be immortal. and purchase them from their parents at high prices. having first made lamentation. : . is slain on the tomb by her own nearest relative. among them are celebrated in this manner: They expose the corpse during three days and having slain all kinds of vicThen they tims. ignoble. this custom among the rest of the Thracians they sell their children for exportation. seating themselves round one that is newly born. making merry and rejoicing. therefore. what are the customs of the Getae. most dishonourable to live by war and rapine is most glorious. To be marked with punctures is accounted a sign of noble birth to be without punctures. . according to the estimation in which they are held. they feast. : . But they keep a strict watch over their wives.

but a private citizen. Ister appears to be a desert and interminable tract: the only men that I am able to hear of as dwelling beyond the Ister are those called Sigynnae. they sent her for water. subjected its maritime parts to the Persians. therefore the Their confines extend as far as the natives drive chariots.9-12] HISTLEUS AND COES REWARDED 277 To the north of this region no one is able to say with cerBut beyond the tainty who are the people that inhabit it. . he gave them their choice of a recompense. came to Sardis. then. to five fingers in depth of hair. was desirous of commanding Megabyzus to seize the Paeonians and transplant them out of Europe into Asia. but when yoked to chariots they are very fleet. as not being a tyrant. the Ligyes. Megabyzus. Histiaeus. But Coes. can not comprehend but anything may happen in course of time. as being already tyrant of Miletus. and the Cyprians give that name to spears. leading a horse on her arm. flat-nosed. and unable to carry men. desired no other government in addition but asked for Myrcinus of Edonia. as soon as he had crossed the Hellespont and reached Sardis. carrying a pitcher on her head. they betook themselves to the places they had chosen. who live above Massilia. The Thracians say bees occupy the parts beyond the Ister. being desirous to rule over the Paeonians. Such is the account given of this country. and the advice of Goes the Mitylenian. call traders Sigynnae. . Eneti on the Adriatic and they say that they are a colony they can have been a colony of the Medes I of Medes. when Darius had crossed over into Asia. sent for them to Sardis. in saying this they appear to say what is improbable. they did as follows Having dressed their sister in the best manner they could. bringing with them their sister. asked for the government of Mitylene. Now. and by reason of them it is impossible to penetrate farther. Having. : : . for these creatures are known to be impatient of cold but the regions beneath the Bear seem to be uninhabited by reason of the cold. who wear the Medic dress: their horses are shaggy all over the body. who was tall and beautiful and having watched the opportunity when Darius was seated in public in the suburb of the Lydians. remembered the good offices of Histiaeus the Milesian. Pigres and Mantyes were Paeonians. having witnessed a circumstance of the following kind. therefore. As the woman passed by. Darius. for what she was doing was neither according to : How . it attracted the attention of Darius. wishing to build a city there. and spinning flax. It happened that Darius. to me. who. however. When their requests were granted to both of them. they are small.

when she came to the river. having read it. her head. and their wives. But the Paeonians. and having crossed over. The Paeonians. He then inquired. they easily got possession of them. The guards accordingly followed her. came suddenly on their towns. horseman immediately hastened to the Hellespont with the message. in what part of the world do they live. and gave themselves up to the Persians. marched against Paeonia. their children. carrying the water on. But the Persians. who were keeping a lookout somewhere not far off: and when Darius asked of what country she was. therefore. Who . as soon as they heard that their cities were taken. commanding him to remove the Paeonians from their abodes. Darius. They then mentioned these several particulars and he asked if all the women of that country were so industrious. of his body-guard. Thereupon Darius wrote letters to Megabyzus. 278 HERODOTUS— BOOK V. TERPSICHORE [12-15 the Persian or Lydian customs. and to bring to him themselves. having heard that the Persians were coming against them. and the Strymon was not far from the Hellespont. whom he had left general in Thrace. having guides. surprised at what he heard from the spies. bidding them observe what the woman would do with the horse. assembled. . immediately dispersed themselves. and for what purpose have they come to Sardis ? " They told him that they had come to deliver themselves up to him. leading the horse on her arm. for they had formed their plan for this very purpose. delivered the letter to Megabyzus but he. and repaired each to his own home. and that they were a colony of Teucrians from Troy. A . he sent some . were prepared to repel the army of Megabyzus at its first onset. and drew out their forces toward the sea. and that she was their sister. and that Paeonia was situated on the river Strymon. commanded them to bring her into his presence and when she was brought. . and she. her brothers also made their appearance. and filled her pitcher. and at what he himself had seen. the young men said that they were Paeonians. They readily answered that such was the case. Asia . nor of any other people in when.. went the upper road and having escaped the notice of the Paeonians. which were destitute of inhabitants. and as they fell upon them when empty. thinking that the Persians would attempt to enter and attack them in that direction: the Paeonians. and turning her spindle. understanding that the Paeonians had assembled and were guarding the approaches on the coast. accordingly. watered the horse and having watered it. it attracted his attention. and taking guides from Thrace. returned by the same way. " are the Paeonians.

he sent into Macedonia seven Persians as ambassadors. When Megabyzus had subdued the Paeonians. the Agrianae. therefore. he entertained the Persians with great courtesy. But after supper the Persians. who next to himThey were sent self were the most illustrious in the army. and leading down to the lake. When. one is in Macedonia. and those tribes of Paeonians as far as the lake Prasias. They live in the following manner: every man has a hut on the planks. to introduce our concubines and lawful wives to sit by our sides since. were removed from their abodes. were not at all subdued by Megabyzus. and invited them to partake of his hospitality and having prepared a magnificent feast. and transported into Asia. Yet he attempted to conquer those who live upon the lake in dwellings contrived after this manner planks fitted on lofty piles are placed in the middle of the lake. with a trap-door closely fitted in the planks. : : . you have received us kindly. on going into the presence of Amyntas. He both promised to give these. : . bringing wood from a mountain called Orbelus but every man has several wives. then. when we have given a great feast. to Amyntas to demand earth and water for King Darius. and. for each wife he sinks three piles. who were drinking freely. and have entertained us magnificently. Odomanti. with a narrow entrance from the mainland by a single bridge. For near adjoining the lake is a mine. and promise to give earth and water to King Darius. the Persians who were sent arrived at the court of Amyntas. fearing lest they should To their horses and beasts of burfall into the lake beneath. These piles that support the planks all the citizens anciently placed there at the common charge but afterward they established a law to the following effect whenever a man marries. From the lake Prasias the distance to Macedonia is very short.1 5-i 8] REMOVAL OF THE PyEONIANS 279 the Siropseonians and Paeoplae. and those who inhabit Lake Prasias itself. : : . in which he dwells. after waiting a short time. it is a custom with us Peras follows sians. But those around Mount Pangaeus and near the Doberes. from which in later times a talent of silver came in daily to Alexander beyond the mine. They tie the young children with a cord round the foot. they demanded earth and water for King Darius. Thus : . which they call papraces and tilones. They have two kinds of Those of the Pasfish. when one has passed the mountain called Dysorum. den they give fish for fodder of which there is such an abundance that when a man has opened his trap-door he lets down an empty basket by a cord into the lake. therefore. onians. draws it up full of fish. who were subdued were taken to Asia. spoke Macedonian host.

though very indignant. and witnessed this behaviour. I will comply with your wishes. nor persist in drinking. go and bathe. on this point make known your own wishes." Having spoken thus. if that is agreeable to you. he sent away the women. 28o HERODOTUS— BOOK V. to their own apartment and Alexander himself. began to feel their breasts and some even attempted to kiss them. being very full of wine. when they had come. Thereupon the Persians. let these women. these women are entirely at your service. perceiving that Alexander was about to put some new design in execution. who was present. and furnish the guests with all things necessary. through excessive fear of the Persians. But Alexander. ordered them to sit down by the men and when the women obeyed. he addressed Amyntas as follows " Father. since you. but endure to behold what is being done with respect to my retiring. Amyntas. ." When Amyntas." To this Amyntas answered " O Persians. to plan nothing new against these men. being a young man and inexperienced in misfortune. led them in. compelled by necessity. had retired. Upon this. Amyntas. sent for the women and they. when they had come. and I perceive that you have had abundance to drink. or with any of them. and as he led them in. as they came out. he addressed the Persians as follows " Per: . bearing it with difficulty.. Alexander said to the Persians " Friends. this shall also be granted to you. we have no such custom. when he beheld this. having dressed a like number of smooth-faced young men in the dress of the women. but that the men should be separated from the women yet. TERPSICHORE [18-20 do you follow our custom. said " Son. who are our mas: . having made this request. spoke to Amyntas. I pretty well discern by your words that you are burning with rage. being summoned. as the time for retiring is fast approaching. and that you wish to dismiss me that you may attempt some new design. having spoken thus. lest ters. the Persians. was no longer able to restrain himself. therefore. saying that what had been done was not at all wise. sat down in order opposite to the Persians. as the Persians approved his proposal. remained quiet." Amyntas. for that it were better that the women should not have come at all than that. . so that. seeing the women were beautiful. I charge you. I will stay here. yield to your years and retire to rest. they should not be placed beside them. require this also. : : you cause our ruin. but sit opposite to them as a torment to their eyes. son of Amyntas. : . and when they have bathed expect their return. and whether you desire to have intercourse with them all. ." Amyntas. but now. and having furnished them with daggers.

who are sprung from Perdiccas. Alexander placed by the side of each person a Macedonian man. are Greeks. at his own request. and all kinds of baggage but all these. he had received from Darius as a reward for his services in preserving the bridge this place was near the river Strymon. and. a Persian. and his own sister. But after no long time a great search was made by the Persians for these men. having heard what was being done by Histiaeus. put them to death. with the whole of the men. and when he was to contend in the stadium. this death these perished. which. was pronounced to be a Greek. : was Myrcinus. disappeared. and went down there for that very purpose. . but Alexander by his prudence checked their inquiry by giving a considerable sum of money. for they were followed by carriages. the prince of the Macedonians. siding at the games of the Grecians in Olympia have determined that they are so. alleging that the games were not instituted for barbarian combatants. after he had proved himself to be an Argive. what is more than all the rest. But Alexander. in allowing a crafty and subtle Greek to possess a city in Thrace. but Grecians. to Bubares.1 20-23] MURDER OF THE AMBASSADORS 28 you appear to have been entertained with a sumptuous we have given you not only all we had. his Grecian competitors wished to exclude him. for when Alexander wished to enter the lists. addressed Darius as follows " king. arrived at the Hellespont and having crossed over. That these princes. his lot fell out with that of the first combatant. but whatever we could procure. feast. Megabyzus. for . we now freely give up to you our mothers and sisters. the judges preI will prove that they are Greeks. as if a woman but they. gave you a good reception both at table and bed. . lost: thus the inquiry into the death of these Persians being suppressed. as soon as he reached Sardis. : O . But Megabyzus. that you may perceive that you are thoroughly honoured by us with whatever you deserve and also that you may report to the king who sent you that a Greek. and in a future part of my history I myself happen to know Moreover. In the meantime Histiaeus the Milesian was building a wall round the place. came to Sardis. where there is abundance of timber fit for building ships. bringing the Paeonians with him. both they and their attendants. what have you done." Having thus spoken. and its name . . In this manner were these things transacted. the chief of those sent to search for those who were sians. was hushed up. leading with him the Paeonians. whose name was Gygaea. and plenty of wood for oars. when the By Persians attempted to touch them. and attendants. as they themselves affirm.

is the most valuable of all possessions both of which I am able to testify from my own knowledge concur in you. but actions now. as regards my affairs. being now appointed successor to Megabyzus in the command of the army. which dwell around." Darius having spoken thus." Megabyzus. and having appointed Artaphernes. therefore. giving credit to these words. therefore. I make you this offer. appointed as judge in the room of Sisamnes. stop him and when you have got him in your power. subdued the Byzantians and Chalcedonians. then. and took Antandros. having sent a messenger to Myrcinus. King Darius says thus I find on consideration that there is no man better affected to me and my affairs than thyself. : : . 282 HERODOTUS— BOOK silver V. since he wisely foresaw what was likely to happen. come to me by all means. and you were out of my sight. nor of the new-founded city in Thrace but follow me to Susa. admonishing him to remember on what This Otanes. because he had given an unjust judgment for a sum of money. he had it cut into thongs. since I have great designs to put in execution. having sent for him in a gentle manner. the son of Sisamnes. and at the same time considering it a great honour to become a counsellor of the king. whom he had slain and flayed. who. have the same that I have. I have wished for nothing so much as to see you and converse with you again being persuaded that a friend who is both intelligent and well affected. for you have done well in coming. went to Sardis when he ar" Histiaeus. and this I have learned. speaking thus. Now. do whatever he may command both by day and by night. departed for Susa. Think no more of Miletus. . to the proceedings of this man. who seat he sat to administer justice. . whose father Sisamnes. and extended it on the bench on which he used to sit when he pronounced judgment: and Cambyses. having so extended it. TERPSICHORE [23-26 and will mines ? A great multitude of Greeks and barbarians when they have obtained him as a leader. And having had his skin torn off." Histiaeus. take care that he never returns to the Greeks. spoke as follows " Histiaeus. . taking Histiaeus with him. his brother by the same father. had been placed on this seat. King Cambyses had put to death and flayed. not by words. that you may not be harassed by a domestic war but. then. to be governor of Sardis. one of the royal judges. Thereupon Darius. Darius addressed him as follows sent for you on this occasion. easily persuaded Darius. I have rived. As soon as I returned from Scythia. that I may communicate them to thee. and having nominated Otanes to be general of the forces on the coast.. Put a stop. : : : . and be the partner of my table and councils.

for the intermission from misfortune was not of long duration. and being exiled. on the one hand. The rest of the Milesians. . and found but few such. they wrote down the name of the proprietor. Thus the Parians reconciled the Milesians. they ordered to obey them. Milesia. who were before on terms of friendship with Histiaeus. in . the Persians set up Lycaretus as governor. on the other hand. For. as they saw their private affairs in a dreadful state. Afterward. others. and Lamponium and having obtained ships from the Lesbians. the forces. the brother of Maeandrius. who had reigned in Samos. and was accounted the ornament of Ionia though before this period it had for two generations suffered excessively from seditions. son of Molpagoras. Such was his conduct while general of .) Otanes enslaved and subdued them all his reasons for doing so were as follows: some he charged of desertion to the Scythians. both of which were then inhabited by Pelasgians. : . when the Naxians came. Naxos surpassed and. evils arose a second time to the Ionians from Naxos and Miletus. This Lycaretus died while governor of Lemnos. he took Lemnos and Imbrus. And having traversed the whole country. and having defended themselves for some time. For Histiaeus was tyrant of Miletus. who before had been split into factions. whom Darius detained at Susa. The this all : doing and going through .26-30] NAXIAN EXILES AT MILETUS . Miletus all the islands in opulence at the same time had attained the summit of its prosperity. for the Milesians had chosen them out of all the Greeks to settle their The Parians reconciled them in the following differences. son of Lysagoras. wheresoever they saw in the devastated country any land well cultivated. From these two cities at that time misfortunes began to befall Ionia in the following manner Some of the opulent men were exiled from Naxos by the people. manner When their most eminent men arrived at Miletus. they said that they wished to go through their whole country and. went to Miletus: the governor of Miletus happened to be Aristagoras. 283 belongs to the territory of Troas. were at length overcome and over those who survived. and happened to be at that time at Susa. and appointed to govern the city those persons whose lands they had found well cultivated. of having harassed Darius's army in their return home from the Scythians. for they said they thought they would administer the public affairs as well as they had done their own. . (Now the Lemnians fought valiantly. until the Parians reconciled them. son-in-law and cousin of Histiaeus. as soon as they came down to the city they called an assembly.

as also would the other islanders for of these Cyclades Islands not one was as yet subject to Darius. being exceedingly rejoiced. for it is just that we who lead you on should supply that and in the next. This man. Aristagoras. having great expectations that when they should appear at Naxos the Naxians would do whatever they should order. Naxians. and has a large army and many ships. and a ras : considerable number of ships of war. I have. : . Setting out from thence. I am persuaded. for I hear that the Naxians have eight thousand heavy armed men. you will acquire for the king Naxos itself. But it is necessary that the king himNow Aristagoras. and the islands dependent upon it. and very easy to be taken. instead of one hundred. Darius : ." The . and their expenses to the army. but otherwise beautiful and fertile. will do whatever we desire. and bade him promise presents. and the rest that are called Cyclades. and advise everything well. you will easily attack Eubcea. and addressed the following discourse to them " I am not able of myself to furnish you with a force sufficient to reinstate you against the wishes of the Naxians who are in possession of the city. and communicating what was said by Aristagoras. Paros. and use my best endeavours and I design it in this way Artaphernes happens to be my friend he is son of Hystaspes and brother of King Darius." he heard this. when self should approve of the design. But he. Andros. Accordingly. he would get the dominion of Naxos." He answered him as follows " You propose things advantageous to the king's house. and commands all the maritime parts of Asia. urged Aristagoras to bring it about in the best way he could. then. : . in the first place.284 HERODOTUS— BOOK V. told Artaphernes that Naxos was an island of no great extent. used the friendship of Histiaeus as a pretence. Yet I will contrive some way. two hundred shall be ready at the beginning of spring. a large sum of money ready. that so they might return to their own country. except the number of ships. " Do you therefore send an army against this country to reinstate those who have been banished from thence and if you do this. a large and wealthy island. in addition to the expenses of the expedition. A hundred ships are sufficient to subdue them all. went back to But Artaphernes. having arrived at Miletus. . and near Ionia. for that they would repay it. on his sending to Susa Miletus. having considered that if by his means they should return to their city. entreated Aristagoif he could by any means give them some assistance. and in it were much wealth and many slaves. TERPSICHORE [30-32 Naxians. when. not less than Cyprus. having gone to Sardis. having heard this.

But Megabates. when they crossed over from Chios to Naxos. therefore. and enraged with Aristagoras but he said " What have you to do with these matters? Did not Artaphernes send you to obey me. sent forward the army to Aristagoras. and wanting still more to carry on the siege. So that having consumed all the supplies they had brought with them. so that his head should be on the outside of the vessel and his body within. whose daughter. hearing of this. but the Persians. some one told Aristagoras that Megabates had bound and disgraced his Myndian friend. : Why . his own and Darius's nephew. was very indignant. anchored at Caucasa. despatched men in a ship to Naxos to inform the Naxians of the impending danger. whose name was Scylax. they immediately carried everything from the fields into the town. and besieged them during four months. exasperated at this. they heard of it. having been unsuccessful. was afterward betrothed to Pausanias. and to bind him. he found no one on guard on board a Myndian ship thereupon.32-34] EXPEDITION AGAINST NAXOS 285 himself also approved the plan. they therefore built a fortress for the Naxian exiles. Artaphernes. that he might cross over from thence to Naxos by a north wind. Thus they made preparations. being indignant at this. : : . and retired to the continent. had to attack men well fortified. but when he arrived at Chios. the following event occurred As Megabates was going round the watches on board the ships. as if war was close at hand. having passed him half-way through the lower rowlock of the vessel. and a very numerous body of Persians and other allies and he appointed Megabates general. who aspired to become tyrant of Greece. However. and prepared to undergo a siege. but when he found he could obtain nothing he went and released him. Megabates. a Persian of the family of the Achemenidae. together with large sums furnished by Aristagoras. son of Cleombrotus the Lacedaemonian. . having taken with him from Miletus Aristagoras and the Ionian forces and the Naxians. sailed professedly for the Hellespont. as soon as night arrived. made ready two hundred triremes. if the report be true. since it was fated that the Naxians were not to perish by this armament. having appointed Megabates general. He went therefore and interceded for him with the Persian. Now the Naxians did not at all expect that this armament was coming against them when. and brought food and drink within the walls. and to sail wheresoever I should command? do you busy yourself? " Aristagoras spoke thus. . Megabates. When Scylax was bound. he ordered his body-guards to find the captain of this ship.

. and his power but when he could not prevail. which was demanded. the historian. for he was well aware that the power of the Milesians was weak but if the treasures should be seized from the temple of the Branchidae. pressed heavily on him he was alarmed too on account of the ill success of the army. For Histiaeus. because the roads were guarded. Histiaeus did this because he looked upon his detention at Susa as a great misfortune. . Nevertheless it was resolved to revolt. he saw no other way of effecting this. did not prevail. .286 HERODOTUS— BOOK V. had no other means of signifying it with safety. and thus they would have money for their own use. and at the same time the expense of the expedition. enumerating all the nations whom Darius governed. But this treasure was very considerable. and at having incurred the ill will of Megabates. therefore. he thought that he should never go there again. he sent him to Miletus without any other instructions than that when he arrived at Miletus he should desire Aristagoras to shave off his hair and look upon his head the punctures. he meditated a revolt: for it happened at the same time that a messenger with his head punctured came from Susa from Histiaeus. signified a wish for him to revolt. a revolt should take place he had great hopes that he should be sent down to the coast. Histiaeus accordingly under these considerations sent off the messenger. and that one of them. and waited till the hair was grown again as soon as it was grown again. being desirous to signify to Aristagoras his wish for him to revolt. Now. at first endeavoured to dissuade him from undertaking a war against the King of the Persians. All these things concurred at the same time to Aristagoras he therefore consulted with his partisans. but if Miletus made no new attempt. having sailed to Myus to the force that had returned from Naxos. having shaved the head of the most trustworthy of his slaves. urging Aristagoras to revolt from the king. he had great hopes that they might acquire the dominion of the sea. . he in the next place advised that they should so contrive as to make themselves masters of the sea. if. : : . This opinion. which Croesus the Lydian had dedicated. and thought that he should be deprived of the government of Miletus dreading therefore each of these things. and the enemy could not plunder that treasure. he continued. as I said before. he marked it. but Hecataeus. communicating to them his own opinion and the message that had come from Histiaeus: now all the rest concurred in the same opinion. however. as I have already related in the first part of my history. then. . TERPSICHORE [35-36 Aristagoras was unable to fulfil his promise to Artaphernes. urging him to revolt.

and do not oppose it. by stratagem. son of Leon. and marry another. ." He answered. as soon as they received Coes. though she was very much beloved by him. when he had suppressed the tyrants. act as follows. and many others.. from which each came. son of Ibanolis of Mylassa. in the next place went himself in a trireme as ambassador to Sparta. held the sovereignty. giving them up generally to the respective cities. Accordingly. . Iatragoras. of Cyme. said " If you do not provide for your own interests. do not require of you the dismissal of your present wife pay her the . Upon this the Ephori and senators. not having acquired it by his virtues. . and by so doing you will gratify the Spartans. since she bears no children. led him out. there was a suppression of tyrants throughout the cities. in order that the Milesians might more readily join with him in the revolt. should endeavour to seize the capon board the ships. Coes. lest the Spartans should come to some unusual resolution respecting you. who had married his own sister's daughter. son of Heraclides. 36-40] REVOLT OF MILETUS 287 tains which was then there. and having. in order to gratify the people. having sent for him. when she had committed no error. son of Erxandrus. the Ephori. . seized Oli- atus. and enjoined them all to appoint magistrates in each of the cities. for it was necessary for him to procure some powerful alliance. . Do you therefore put away the wife whom you have. Aristagoras. he established an equality in Miletus. and therefore he would not obey them. : : We . no longer survived and reigned over Sparta. saying that he would do neither of these things and that they did not advise him well in urging him to dismiss the wife he had. And first. son of Anaxandrides. to Darius had given whom Mitylene. and to take another in her place. The Mityleneans. in pretence. that the race of Eurysthenes should become extinct. And afterward he effected the same throughout the rest of Ionia. having con" As sulted. had no children this being the case. made the following proposal to Anaxandrides we see you strongly attached to the wife whom you have. yet we must not overlook this. and stoned him to death but the Cymeans let their tyrant go and in like manner most of the others let theirs go. devising everything he could against Darius. Aristagoras thus openly revolted. But Aristagoras the Milesian. having been despatched for this very purpose. Anaxandrides. but was already dead Cleomenes. Histiaeus. Anaxandrides. having laid aside the sovereignty. expelling some of the tyrants and he delivered up those whom he had taken from on board the ships that had sailed with him against Naxos to the cities. but by his birth. son of Tymnes of Termera.

appointed the eldest. as it is said. when she had borne Dorieus. When no long time had elapsed. he inhabited two houses. Cleomenes. but almost mad whereas Dorieus was the first of the young men of his age. purposing to bring forward a supposititious child. was not of sound mind. The Pythian answered that he should take it. Dorieus. sailed along the coast of Italy. who had before been barren. and disdaining to be reigned over by Cleomenes. he returned to Peloponnesus. who may bear you children. Anaxandrides consented. shortly afterward had Leonidas. and presented to the Spartans an heir apparent to the throne and the former wife. the Ephori from distrust sat around. by some strange fortune then proved to be with child and though she was really so. . the wife last married bore this Cleomenes. taking with him the force which he had led to Libya. and was fully convinced that by his virtues he should obtain the sovereignty. he directed his ships to Libya. being of this persuasion. Hercules himself having possessed himself of it. But as he was very much grieved. and afterward having two wives. . doing what was not at all in accordance with Spartan usages. went to Delphi to inquire of the oracle whether he should take the country to which he was preparing to go. Libyans. . She. in due course. and some Therseans piloted him. As they made a great noise. Having arrived at Cinyps. and who was the second wife. without having consulted the oracle at Delphi to what land he should go and settle. hearing this. being driven out from thence by the Macse. a citizen of Eleon. He." When they spoke to this effect. and marry another besides her. nor doing any of those things that are usual on such occasions. following the usual custom. Cleomenes. to be king. however. But she who bore Cleomenes. TERPSICHORE [40-43 same attention as you have always done. Cleombrotus though some say that Cleombrotus and Leonidas were twins. At . advised him to found Heraclea in Sicily. being very indignant. saying that she boasted vainly.: 288 HERODOTUS—BOOK V. and watched the woman in her labour. and daughter to Prinetades. demanded a draught of men from the Spartans. and after him. So that. never bore a second time. son of Demarmenus. from the oracles delivered to Laius. and led them out to found a colony. yet the relations of the second wife having heard of it raised a disturbance. in the most beautiful spot of the Libyans. There Antichares. he settled near the river. and Carthaginians. and the Lacedaemonians. But in the third year. affirming that all the country of Eryx belonged to the Heraclidse. when the time approached. Dorieus. therefore. when Anaxandrides died.

. having collected the survivors of the army. then. There sailed with Dorieus also other Spartans. Parsebates. and come over to them. and took Sybaris in concert with them. surnamed Crastian and in the next place they mention the death of Dorieus as the greatest proof. But the Crotonians affirm that no foreigner took part with them in the war against the Sybarites. but to Dorieus. Celeas. he would have taken and possessed the Erycinian country. if Dorieus had assisted them in the Sybaritic war. nor would he and his army have been destroyed. implored Dorieus to assist them. nothing was given whereas. and obtained their request. and Euryleon who. and continued monarch for a short time for the Selinuntians. and he did so under the following circumstances he had fled from Telys. were killed. when he had removed him. the Sybarites say that Dorieus. erected to Minerva. For if he had not at all transgressed. did this. which the descendants of Callias continued to occupy even in my time. on their arrival with the whole armament in Sicily. whereupon Dorieus marched with them against Sybaris. though he had taken sanctuary at the : : : . except only Callias of Elis. Each party produces the following proofs of what they assert The Sybarites allege a sacred inclosure and temple near the dry Crastis.44-46] DORIEUS 289 that time. are the proofs that each produces. being defeated in battle by the Phoenicians and Egestaeans. Now. put him to death. On the other hand. . joint founders of a colony. a colony of the Selinuntians. as Thessalus. when he had assisted in taking the city. and the posterity of Dorieus. : . But afterward. for that he was killed for having acted contrary to the warnings of the oracle. when the victims did not prove favourable as he was sacrificing against Crotona. and those who were with him. Euryleon alone of the associates in founding the colony survived this disaster: he. Such is the account they give. having risen up against him. possessed himself of Minoa. and every man has the liberty of adhering to that which he judges most probable. These. and assisted in liberating the Selinuntians from their monarch Pythagoras. the Crotonians show selected portions of land given to Callias the Elean in the territories of Crotona. 1 Called 19 "dry" because its stream was dried up in summer. he himself seized the tyranny of Selinus. 1 which they say Dorieus. they and their king Telys were preparing to make war against Crotona and the Crotonians. King of the Sybarites. and having taken it would have retained it. but had done that for which he was sent. a seer of the Iamidae. as the Sybarites say. much more would have been given to him than to Callias. being much alarmed.

Next these Ionians are the Lydians. with a crew maintained at his own expense. variegated garments. wearing loose trousers and turbans on their heads. They live adjoining one another. he accompanied Dorieus in a trireme of his own. I adjure you. he would have become King of Lacedsemon. met with his death in the manner above described but if he had submitted to be governed by Cleomenes. a citizen of Crotona. and was the handsomest of the Greeks of his day and on account of his beauty he obtained from the Egestseans what no other person ever did. having come to a conference. . having a brazen tablet. then. so they are easy to be overcome. who are of your own blood. Besides. That the children of Ionians should be slaves instead of free is a great disgrace and sorrow to us. brass. there are silver. whose name was Gorgo. there are treasures belonging to those who inhabit that continent. such as are not possessed by all other nations together beginning from gold. Now. It is easy for you to effect this. inasmuch as you are at the head of Greece. . Dorieus. Aristagoras. son of Butacides. and slaves." As he said this he showed the circumference of the earth. by the Grecian gods. and setting out from thence. Cleomenes. who inhabit a fertile country. He having entered into a contract of marriage with the daughter of Telys the Sybarite. which he brought with him. . as I will show you. but died without a son. addressed him as follows " Wonder not. and abound in silver. TERPSICHORE [46-49 Philippus. all these you may have if you will. " Next the Lydians. beasts of burden. rescue the Ionians. altar of the Forensian Jupiter. at my eagerness in coming here. with bows and a short spear and they engage in battle. leaving a daughter only. For Cleomenes did not reign for any length of time. and the whole sea. sailed to Cyrene. then. fled from Crotona. tyrant of Miletus.: 290 HERODOTUS— BOOK V. they propitiate him with sacrifices. and perished with him. therefore. . engraved on a tablet. from servitude. but disappointed of his marriage. : . for he had been victorious in the Olympian games. for the barbarians are not valiant. and all rivers. and had continued in Sparta. " are these Phrygians to the eastward. have attained to the utmost height of glory their mode of fighting is this. whereas you. earth. on which was engraved the circumference of the whole And Aristagoras. accompanied Dorieus. for the circumstances that urge are such as I will describe. . for having erected a shrine on his sepulchre. in matters relating to war. and above all others to you. arrived at Sparta when Cleomenes held the government and he went to confer with him. as the Lacedaemonians say." proceeded Aristagoras.


and all rivers. of the . engrav is. " the earth. He having e daughter of Telys pointed of his itu. r. addressed him earth. . " Ne: are these Ph* . : in the i in Sp.: altar of tl Ides." As of * brought with him. on which was engraved the circumference and the whole sea. wherea* have attained i . for th at my eagerness in coming s I I will be sla is a g is easy for tiiant. Nex inhabit a fertile country he showed the circun ">g one e ai Lydia ilver. \>ut govvould a so r leomenes did not Sparta tablet. And having come to a conference. Arista? as follows omenes. w • natio variegated gai you may hav as I will show you. a citiv him. disaptg out from them with a crc victor : own. been >mest e obitiate ever did. t< battle.



stood by him she happened to be his only child. and they had met at the appointed place. extending to this sea in which the island of Cyprus is situated . went home. until he promised fifty talents then the girl cried out. . . wealth. cutting short the rest of the description which Aristagoras was proceeding to give of the journey. " conquer all Asia with ease. in which Susa is situated on this river Choaspes. who occupy this country and next them this territory of Cissia. and with the Arcadians and Argives. who also abound in cattle and next the Armenians are the Mati. But Aristagoras. country of small extent. But Aristagoras. Next to the Cilicians are these Armenians. Father. who have nothing akin to gold and silver. Thereupon Aristagoras began promising ten talents if he would do as he desired and when Cleomenes refused. you may boldly contend with But now you must carry on war for a Jupiter in wealth. But Cleomenes bade him say what he would. as a suppliant. and Cleomenes answered him as follows. . they pay an annual tribute of five hundred talents to the king. here the great king resides. whose name was Gorgo. will you prefer anything else ? Aristagoras spoke thus. . Aristagoras went on increasing in his offers.. taking an olive branch in his hand. with the Messenians. who are your equals in valour." On that day they got so far. Milesian friend. Cleomenes asked Aristagoras how many days' journey it was from the sea of the Ionians to the king. whom we call Syrians and bordering on them. and there are his treasures of . made a slip in this for he should not have told the real fact if he wished to draw the Spartans into Asia. and had deceived him with much address. this stranger will : . . besought Cleomenes to listen to him. who are the richest in cattle and in corn of all Next to the Phrygians are I am acquainted. though he was cunning in other things. having first sent away his little child for his daughter. whereas he told him plainly that it was a three months' journey up there. and not very fertile. whom enians. and was about eight or nine years of age. and having entered in. and of narrow limits. depart from Sparta before sunset for you speak no agreeable language to the Lacedaemonians in wishing to lead them a three months' journey from the sea. 49-50 ARISTAGORAS AND CLEOMENES with 291 the Cappadocians. But he. said " Milesian friend. . If you take this city. I defer to give you an answer until the third day. and not refrain for the sake of the child. the desire of which induces men to hazard But when an opportunity is offered to their lives in battle. the Cilicians. went to the house of Cleomenes." Cleomenes having spoken thus. When the day appointed for the answer was come.

there are four stations. and one hundred and four parasangs and on the borders of these people you go through two gates. For the first mentioned of these flows from the Armenians. The discrepancy can only be accounted for by a supposed defect in the manuscripts. and the latter from the Matienians. and the distance is ninety-four parasangs and a half. When you have gone through these and made the journey through Cilicia. as indeed it is. eleven x accordingly. nor flow from the same source. There are twenty stations extending through Lydia and Phrygia. the resting places at the stations are so if the royal many as you go up from Sardis to Susa. the river Halys is met with. called Memnonia. there is also a fort in the stations. . . through which it is absolutely necessary to pass. there are eight-and-twenty stations. and thus to cross the river there is also a considerable fort on it. and pass by two forts. and fifty-six parasangs and a half. which it is absolutely necessary to ferry over. The fourth river is called the Gyndes. : Now detail of stations above-mentioned gives only eighty-one instead hundred and eleven. is a distance of thirteen thousand five hundred stades. and from thence as you proceed to the Cissian territory there are eleven stations. TERPSICHORE [51-53 corrupt you unless you quickly depart. and forty-two parasangs and a half. In Armenia there are fifteen stations for resting places. the second and third have the same name. 1 The of one . nor could he get an opportunity to give further particulars of the route to the king's . the try. With respect to this road." Cleomenes. road has been correctly measured in parasangs. and excellent inns. and the whole road is through an inhabited and safe country. to the river Choaspes. from Sardis to the royal palace. and traverse that country to the borders of Cilicia. and if the parasang is equal to thirty stades. When you cross over into Cappadocia. After Phrygia. though they are not the same river. retired to another apartment and Aristagoras left Sparta altogether. which also must be crossed in boats on this Susa All these stations amount to one hundred and is built. there are three stations and fifteen parasangs and a half. at which there are gates. which Cyrus once distributed into three hundred and sixty channels.: 292 HERODOTUS— BOOK V. pleased with the advice of the child. residence. the parasangs being four hun: : . Tigris then. As you enter from Armenia into the country of Matiene. The boundary of Cilicia and Armenia is a river that is crossed in boats it is called the Euphrates. the case is as follows There are royal stations all along. Four rivers that are crossed in boats flow through this counFirst.

had slain Hipparchus. Hipparchus fancied that a tall and handsome man stood by him. I will also point this out to him. for it is necessary to reckon with the above the journey from Ephesus to Sardis I therefore say that the whole number of stades from the Grecian sea to Susa (for such is the name of the Memnonian city) amounts to fourteen thousand and forty. were. for from Ephesus to Sardis is a distance of And thus the three months' five hundred and forty stades. of the number of those Phoenicians who came with Cadmus to the country now called Bceotia. on certain conditions. he conducted the procession in which he : : : . which fell to their share. and brother to the tyrant Hippias. endure with enduring mind to bear unendurable ills no one among unjust men shall escape retribution. just ninety days are spent on the journey. perished. went to Athens. . not worth mentioning. The Cadmeans having been first expelled from thence by the Argives. enacting that they should be excluded from several privileges. who were originally Gephyraeans by extraction. Aristagoras. and of whom the Gephyraeans were. being driven from Sparta. But if any one should require a more accurate account than this. These Phoenicians who came with Cadmus. oppressed by tyranny than before. having attempted to avert the vision. in this country. originally sprung from Eretria. Now the vision in Hipparchus's dream was as follows On the night preceding the Panathenaic festival. but even more. Thus Aristagoras the Milesian spoke correctly when he told Cleomenes the Lacedaemonian that it was a three months' journey up to the king's residence. and more par. 293 dred and fifty and by those who travel one hundred and fifty stades every day. as I find by diligent inquiry. . which had been delivered from tyrants in the following manner: When Aristogiton and Harmodius. as they themselves say." As soon as it was day he laid these things before the interpreters of dreams and afterward. son of Pisistratus. they were Phoenicians. and uttered these enigmatical words " Lion. The Gephyraeans. of whom were the murderers of Hipparchus. and they inhabited the district of Tanagra. betook themselves to Athens and the Athenians admitted them into the number of their citizens. after this the Athenians during the space of four years were no less. and who had seen a vision in a dream manifestly showing his own fate. when they settled in this country. journey is lengthened by three days. but. introduced among the Greeks many other kinds of useful knowledge. these Gephyraeans being afterward expelled by the Boeotians.53-58] ARISTAGORAS AT ATHENS .

" Scseus must have been son of Hippocoon. At that time Ionian Greeks inhabited the greatest part of the country round about them they having learned these letters from the Phoenicians. " Scaeus. A . " Amphitryon dedicated me on his return from the Teleboans. and whence were sprung the Gephyraeans. they also changed the shape of the letters. a very beautiful offering. changed them in a slight degree. in Bceotia. the Ionians. to thee. and in making use of them. While Hippias was tyrant." During the reign of this Laodamas. for the most part resembling the Ionian. son of Polydorus. a boxer. And I myself have seen in the Temple of Ismenian Apollo at Thebes. son of Eteocles. Thus I have related the vision of Hipparchus's dream. call books made of papyrus parchments. Cadmian letters engraved on certain tripods. they used the skins of goats and sheep and even at the present day many of the barbarians write on such skins. But the Gephyraeans. but they are distinct from the other temples more particularly the temple and mysteries of the Achaean Ceres. from the scarcity of papyrus. . and made use of them. because formerly. and show how the Athenians were delivered from tyrants. and were then banished by the Pisistratiticularly letters . son of Cadmus. the Alcmaeonidae. At first they used the characters which all the Phoenicians make use of. were afterward compelled by the Boeotians to retire to Attica and they built temples in Athens. who were Athenians by extraction. and not another person bearing the same name as the son of Hippocoon and must have been about the time of CEdipus. together with the sound. TERPSICHORE [58-62 which. having been victorious. . son of Labdacus. they designated them Phoenician. from ancient time. and betook themselves to the Encheleae. were not before known to the Grecians. if indeed it was he who made the offering. dedicated this tripod. a very beautiful offering. in my opinion. as justice required they should be called. in process of time. dedicated me. being a monarch. farseeing Apollo. in which the rest of the Athenians do not participate. Another tripod has these words in hexameter verse. son of Laius. " Laodamas. third tripod has these words also in hexameters. One of the tripods has this inscription. and it is now proper to resume the account I originally set out to relate. since the Phoenicians had introduced them into Greece. 294 HERODOTUS—BOOK . of whom were the murderers of Hipparchus.. Moreover. the Cadmeans were expelled by the Argives. . far-darting Apollo. who were then left." These must be about the age of Laius. and embittered against the Athenians on account of the death of Hipparchus. but afterward. to thee. V.

for they considered their duty to the god more obligatory than their duty to men. killed many of the Lacedaemonians. and it having fallen on. they sent the cavalry against the enemy's camp. a When the Pisistratidae had these auxilnative of Conium. having had notice : of this beforehand. having appointed King Cleomenes. and also. In accordance with their request. send it again by sea. The Lacedaemonians. .62-64] PISISTRATIDAE AND ALCMjEONIDjE 295 dae. son of Aster. having fortified Lipsydrium. son of Anaxandrides. as the Athenians state. commander in chief. when they with other Athenian exiles did not succeed in their attempt to effect their return by force. while staying at Delphi. having fitted out a larger armament. they had recourse to the following plan the plains of the Phalereans. when any Spartans should come thither to consult the oracle. near the Temple of Hercules in Cynosarges. though it was agreed they should make it of porine stone. when the same warning was always given them. these men. but by land. and he having touched at Phalerum. sent by sea in ships. accompanied by saly. practising every scheme against the Pisistratidae. contracted with the Amphictyons to build the temple which is now at Delphi. a citizen of distinction. which is above Paeonia thereupon the Alcmaeonidae. Accordingly. and made the country practicable for cavalry. and their king Cineas. The first expedition from Lacedaemon thus got off and the tomb of Anchimolius is at Alopecae of Attica. however. : and among them Anchimolius. called in assistance from Thessaly. Having cleared iaries. they did not. and more than forty of their number fell the survivors immediately departed straight for ThesCleomenes having reached the city. they built its front of Parian marble. but then did not exist and as they were wealthy. prevailed on the Pythian by money. and originally men of distinction. but were signally defeated in their endeavours to reinstate themselves and lib- erate Athens. for they had entered into an alliance with them. the Thessalians with one consent despatched a thousand horse to their assistance. sent Anchimolius. and was soon defeated. to propose to them to liberate Athens from servitude. : . These forces they — . with an army to expel the Pisistratidae from Athens. though they were particularly united to them by the ties of friendship. both in other respects. they constructed the temple in a more beautiful manner than the plan required. On their entrance into the Athenian territory the Thessalian cavalry first engaged with them. and the survivors they drove to their ships. sent it from Sparta. disembarked his army but the Pisistratidae. either on their own account or that of the public. Afterward the Lacedaemonians.

. and Aristagoras the Milesian who were . being sprung from the same ancestors as Codrus and Melanthus.296 HERODOTUS— BOOK V. became still more so. . they would have returned to Sparta but now an accident happened. a shrine dedicated to Adrastus. one of the Alcmaeonidae. became kings of Athens. he added as a near neighbour and ally. being now delivered from tyrants. . they submitted to such terms as the Athenians prescribed. For Clisthenes. sacrifice to Carian Jupiter. except Ajax him. tyrant of Sicyon. who consisted of four tribes. having governed the Athenians for thirty-six years. These men disputed for power. though a stranger. However. For this reason Hippocrates gave the same name to his son. I think. and Isagoras. . so as to quit Attica within five days. Argades. in the very forum of the Sicyonians. ternal grandfather. when he made war on the Argives. came to Athens to desire their assistance. however. into ten changing the names. although it was before powerful. and still is. Herein. They afterward retired to Sigeum. who. and afterward he divided the Athenians. because the Argives and Argos are celebrated in almost every part and in the next place. Clisthenes. Athens. and at the same time advantageous to the other. Two men in it had great influence. who is reported to have prevailed with the Pythian. Thus the Athenians were delivered from tyrants what things worthy of recital they either did or suffered before Ionia revolted from Darius. Clisthenes. besieged the tyrants shut up in the Pelasgian fort. derived from the sons of Ion. gained over the people to his side. for the children of the Pisistratidae were taken as they were being secretly removed from the country when this occurred all their plans were thrown into confusion and. and Clisthenes. and the Pisistratidae were well provided with meat and drink and after they had besieged them for a few days. in token of remembrance. and inventing names from other heroes who were all natives. though formerly foreigners. Geleon. as there was. . unfortunate for one party. to redeem their children. and Hoples. on the Scamander. who was of an illustrious family. son of Talaus. son of Tysander. They were by extraction Pylians. . calling him Pisistratus after Nestor's son Pisisand tratus. and Neleidae. ^Egicores. I shall now relate. he was . though I am not able to mention his extraction his kinsmen. in the first place put a stop to the rhapsodists in Sicyon contending for prizes in reciting the verses of Homer. this Clisthenes imitated his ma. the Lacedaemonians would not by any means have been able to expel the Pisistratidae for they had no intention of forming a blockade. TERPSICHORE [64-67 those Athenians who wished to be free. . being worsted. .

Going. not honouring Bacchus. for it is necessary to mention this motive. and the rest of the ceremonies to Melanippus. The Sicyonians adopted these names for their tribes. and after his death. and Dymanatse. and others Choereatas. as it appears to me. . from contempt for the Ionians. son of Adrastus. Clisthenes returned home and considered of a contrivance by which Adrastus might depart of himself. and Polybus dying without a son. because he was an Argive. by common consent they changed them into Hylleans. but Adrastus. and they added a fourth. . son of Astacus and the Thebans assented. and gave them to Melanippus. But Clisthenes introduced Melanippus. to that time. " That Adrastus indeed was king of the Sicyonians. that the Athenians might not have the same tribes as the Ionians. he took away the sacrifices and festivals of Adrastus. And in this he very much ridiculed the Sicyonians. having introduced Melanippus. For. gave the sovereignty to Adrastus. moreover. and had his name from him." Finding the god would not permit this. therefore. therefore. and said that he wished to introduce Melanippus. ing them the name of ^gialeans.67-69] CLISTHENES OF SICYON 297 desirous of expelling him from the country. saying. to Delphi. imitated his namesake Now . however. Clisthenes. the son of his daughter. for the country itself belonged to Polybus. giv. some Oneatae. during sixty years after that. and. he added only the terminations. but Clisthenes deserved to be stoned. both during the reign of Clisthenes. having killed his brother Mecistes and his son-in-law Tydeus. . The Sicyonians paid other honours to Adrastus. and placed it there in the strongest position. This he did with reference to Adrastus. who was son to the daughter of this Sicyonian. except in the case of his own tribe to this he gave a name significant of his own sovereignty. in order that the Sicyonians and Argives might not have the same. changing their names into names derived from a swine and an ass. Pamphylians. he consulted the oraand the Pythian ancle whether he should expel Adrastus swered him. he sent to Thebes of Boeotia. He also changed the names of the Dorian tribes. because he was the greatest enemy of Adrastus. after iEgialeus. appointed him a precinct in the very prytaneum. for they were called Archelai but others Hyatae. When he thought he had found out a way. . : the Sicyonian Clisthenes had done these things and the Athenian Clisthenes. But Clisthenes transferred these dances to the worship of Bacchus. But the Sicyonians had been accustomed to honour Adrastus very highly. When he had appointed him this precinct. celebrated his misfortune by tragic choruses.

he approached the sanctuary of the goddess to . and. as many of them as were Lacedaemonians left the country under a truce. removed them. and. for when he went up to the Acropolis. nevertheless. besides. under promise that they should not be punished with death. he next attempted to dissolve the senate. and with him of many other Athenians. and distributed the people into ten tribes and having gained over the people. Clisthenes himself withdrew. aspired to the tyranny. who had been on terms of friendship with him from the time of the siege of the Pisistratidae and. an Athenian. The prytanes of the Naucrari. he changed the names of the tribes. : . Cleomenes and Isagoras. required the expulsion of Clisthenes. he became much more powerful than his opponents. therefore. Cleomenes was suspected of having had intercourse with the wife of Isagoras. But. and placed the magistracy in the hands of three hundred partisans of Isagoras. : time of Pisistratus. besieged them two days on the third day. and established ten phylarchs instead of four. When Cleomenes sent a herald to require the expulsion of Clisthenes and the accursed. as being " under a curse. had been victorious in the Olympic games. attempted to seize the Acropolis. nor had his friends. with his partisans. sending a herald to Athens. on his arrival. Having done this. and augmented their number. who sided with the senate. he seated himself as a suppliant at the statue of the goddess. Cleomenes. purposing to take possession of it. through pride. : . . Isagoras. seized the Acropolis and the rest of the Athenians. who before had been alienated from him. TERPSICHORE [69-72 Clisthenes. being overcome in his turn. First of all. Those of the Athenians who were " accursed " obtained the name on the following occasion Cylon. and having associated with himself a band of young men about his own age. was accomplished. And thus an omen." He sent this message under the instruction of Isagoras for the Alcmaeonidae. addressed to Cleomenes. were accused of the following murder but neither he himself had any share in it. he. banished seven hundred Athenian families whom Isagoras pointed out to him. and those of their party. Cleomenes came afterward to Athens with a small force. not being able to make himself master of it. who then had the administration of affairs in Athens.298 HERODOTUS— BOOK V. These things were done before the . But when the senate resisted and refused to obey. For when he had brought over to his own side the whole of the Athenian people. But the Alcmaeonidae are accused of having put them to death. had recourse to the following counterplot: He called in Cleomenes the Lacedaemonian.

resolved to remember the Boeotians and Chalcidians on a future occasion. The Athenians. Cleomenes. The Athenians put the rest : ! in bonds for execution . both of prowess and courage." He answered. that they . he answered in few words that if the Athenians would give earth and water to King Darius. . : . When the two armies were about to engage. but the priestess. asked who they were. the extreme divisions of Attica. I could say much. and took up their position against the Peloponnesians. sent ambassadors to Sardis. These. then. he commanded them to depart. and the Boeotians. and was again compelled to withdraw with the Lacedaemonians.: 7 2-75] CLISTHENES OF ATHENS 299 consult her. and what part of the world they inhabited. and desired to establish Isagoras as tyrant. however. said that they would give them. said " Lacedaemonian stranger retire. The ambassadors. who was also King of the Spartans. having recalled Clisthenes. having conferred together. considering that they were not acting justly. and joined in leading out the army from Lace. " Woman. and the Chalcidians attacked and ravaged the lands of Attica on the other side. wishing to form an alliance with the Persians for they were assured that the Lacedaemonians and Cleomenes would make war upon them. should desire to become allies of the Persians? And having been informed on these points by the ambassadors. When the ambassadors arrived at Sardis. died in bonds. being anxious to conclude the alliance they. son of Hystaspes. son of Ariston. without mentioning for what purpose he assembled it but he both purposed to revenge himself upon the Athenians. by agreement. nor enter within the precincts. who were at Eleusis." He. conceiving that he had been highly insulted in words and deeds by the Athenians. on their return home were greatly blamed. for it is not lawful for Dorians to enter here. and had spoken according to their instructions. took ^Enoe and Hysiae. however. but an Achaean. Cleomenes accordingly invaded the territory of Eleusis with a large force. made the attempt. paying no attention to the omen. of whose deeds. governor of Sardis. assembled an army from all parts of the Peloponnesus. Artaphernes. though in a state of doubt. and the seven hundred families that had been banished by Cleomenes. the Corinthians first. rising from her seat before he had passed the door. I am not a Dorian. he would enter into an alliance with them but if they would not give them. changed their purpose and withdrew and afterward Demoratus. for he had gone with him out of the Acropolis. After this the Athenians. and among them Timesitheus of Delphi.

seeing the auxiliaries. " Feeders of horses. left four thousand men. took seven hundred of them prisoners. marched first against the Chalcidians. then. came to an engagement also with the Chalcidians and having conquered them also. having twice entered to make war. and this stands on the left hand as you first enter the portico in the Acropolis and it bears the following . for before that time both these also used to accompany the army as auxiliaries. at the head of the Peloponnesians. and having killed a great number. Accordingly." . settlers. And they dedicated a tithe of the ransoms. . desirous to avenge themselves. First. the guardian deities of Sparta. The fetters in which they had been bound they hung up in the Acropolis. in possession of the lands of the Hippobotae 2 for the most opulent of the Chalcidians were called Hippobotae.300 HERODOTUS— BOOK V. having made a brazen chariot with four horses. was the fourth time that the Dorians had come to Attica. Thus the Dorians then invaded . and that when one of them was released from military service one of the Tyndaridae * likewise should be left at home. that may properly be called an expedition a second and third. When On . In consequence of this division a law was made in Sparta that the two kings should not accompany the army when it went out on foreign service for until that time both used to accompany it. when they were sent from Sparta for the expulsion of the Pisistratidae and a fourth time. having fixed their ransom at two minae. the same day the Athenians. and that the Corinthians had quitted their post. this army was ingloriously dispersed. perceiving that the kings of the Lacedaemonians did not agree. As many of them as they took prisoners they kept in prison with the Boeotians that were taken. the Athenians came to an engagement with the Boeotians. when Codrus was King of Athens. 1 * Castor and Pollux. opposite the temple that faces the west. having crossed over to Eubcea. when they settled a colony in Megara. and gained a complete victory. having bound them in fetters but in time they set them at liberty. when Cleomenes. At that time the rest of the allies. . . This. The Boeotians came out to assist the Chalcidians at the Euripus and the Athenians. likewise took their departure. and twice for the good of the Athenian people. TERPSICHORE [75-77 daemon. . the Athenians. Athens for the fourth time. invaded Eleusis. resolved to attack the Boeotians before the Chalcidians. where they remained to my time hanging on a wall that had been much scorched by fire by the Mede. did the same. and who had never before had any difference with Cleomenes. .

levied war upon the Athenians without proclamation. shows that as long as they were oppressed they purposely acted as cowards. Those who were sent to consult the oracle having returned. on hearing this. and calling to mind the ancient enmity they had toward the Athenians. as being their nearest friends. And equality of rights shows. and requested a supply of men. became by far the first this. what an excellent thing it is. But when they heard them say that they were to ask the assistance of their nearest " Do not the Tanafriends. relying on the assistance of the ^acidae. they immediately sent and entreated the JEginetae." . and being roughly handled by the Athenians. said " I think I understand what the oracle means. wishing to revenge themselves on the Athenians but the Pythian said that they would not obtain vengeance by their own power. Thebe and ^Egina are said to be daughters of Asopus. having sailed in long ships : . said grseans. For the Athenians. but bade them refer the matter to the many-voiced people. as labouring for a master but when they were free every man was zealous to labour for himself." While they were discussing the matter. one. not in one instance only. : : 1 Meaning " the statues of the jEacidae.. But they. Coronaeans. They accordingly did this. calling upon them to assist them according to the admonition of the oracle. having overcome the nations of the Boeotians and Chalcidians in feats of war. a tithe of the spoil. . After this the Thebans sent to the god. when governed by tyrants. I think the god has admonished us to entreat the ^ginetse to become our avengers. the Thebans. sent again and restored the ^acidse. called a general assembly. Now because these were sisters. For while they were pursuing the Boeotians. on their petition." The Athenians accordingly increased in power. . Whereupon the ^ginetae. promised to send the iEacidae x to their assistance. then. 77-81] BENEFITS OF LIBERTY : 301 inscription " The sons of the Athenians. were superior in war to none of their neighbours but when freed from tyrants. at the request of the Thebans. quelled their insolence in a dark iron dungeon they have dedicated these mares. and heartily share with us in the toils of war? What need have we then to ask their assistance ? But probably this is not the meaning of the oracle. The Thebans. and referred the oracle to them. and ask the assistance of their nearest friends. but in every way." As no better opinion than this was brought forward. and do not they always fight on our side. having tried the fortune of war. to Pallas. having at length comprehended it. and Thespians live nearest to us. elated with their present prosperity.

but when they had been deprived of them it was not just that they should still : . When these statues had been stolen. and carried them off. TERPSICHORE [81-84 to Attica. and being at variance. they ravaged Phalerum and many villages on the rest of the coast and in doing this they did considerable damage to the Athenians. Having set them up in this spot. as they were masters of the sea and. erected them and their land became fruitful. The . they propitiated them with sacrifices. but of the wood of a cultivated olive. At that time and before the ^Eginetae obeyed the Epidaurians. but the women of the country. they fulfilled their engagements. moreover. ." . . and about twenty stades distant from the city. and crossing over to Epidaurus. 1 That is. and when they had erected them it would fare better with them. for as long as they had the statues in their country. The enmity that was due of old from the JEg'metze to the Athenians proceeded from this origin. The Athenians said that they would permit them. The land of the Epidaurians yielded no fruit: the Epidaurians therefore sent to consult the oracle at Delphi concerning this calamity. The Athenians sent to expostulate with the Epidaurians. the Epidaurians ceased to fulfil their engagements to the Athenians. obtained what they asked for. they did them much damage. but they demonstrated that they were not in reality guilty of injustice. and derisive dances of women. sacred and it is said that there were olive trees in no other part of the world at that time. Pythian bade them erect statues of Damia and Auxesia. and they fulfilled their engagements to the Athenians. the name of which is (Ea. they took away from them these statues of Damia and Auxesia. The Epidaurians thereupon requested the Athenians to permit them to cut down an olive tree. on condition that they should annually bring victims to Minerva Polias and Erectheus. thinking that they were the most . The Epidaurians. " brought and defended actions there. both in other respects. not any men. and having recourse to foolish confidence. they revolted from the Epidaurians. But afterward having built ships. ten men being assigned to each deity as leaders of the chorus and the choruses reviled. the vEginetae gave and received 1 justice from one another. but their religious ceremonies are kept secret. and having made statues from these olive trees. having agreed to these terms.302 HERODOTUS—BOOK V. The Epidaurians then asked whether the statues should be made of brass or stone but the Pythian did not allow it to be of either. and set them up in the interior of their own territory. The Epidaurians also had such religious ceremonies.

demanded back the statues but the ^ginetae made answer that they had nothing to do with the Athenians. . and fell upon the Athenians unexpectedly. . . they threw cords about the statues. but not being able to get possession of them in that way. in order that they might carry them away. and that they yielded and did not hazard a sea-fight. or a few more than one. : : . They are. came on and the crew of the trireme who were hauling them were in consequence deprived of their senses. that the Athenians landed on the territory of ^gina. and hauled them along. and have ever since continued in that posture. accordingly. whether they yielded because they were conscious that they would be inferior in a sea-fight. the pay the who . however. but they bade them demand it of the ^Eginetae possessed them. The yEginetae say that the Athenians did this but concerning themselves. even though they had no ships of their own. and arriving at ^gina. and that the Argives came to their assistance and that they crossed over to the island from Epidaurus unperceived. Thus the Athenians say that it happened but the ^Eginetae say that the Athenians did not come with a single ship for that they could easily have repulsed one. that being informed that the Athenians were about to make war upon them. Such is the account given by the Argives and ^Eginetse and it is admitted by the Athenians that only one of their number was saved. . thunder. who being sent by the commonwealth. but may be so to some one else for they say that they fell on their knees. . and in this condition slew one another as enemies. and escaped to Attica but the Argives affirm that this one man survived when they destroyed the Attic army. attempted to drag these statues from off the pedestals. they then threw cords round them. unable to explain this clearly.. The Athenians say that after this demand some of their citizens were sent in a single trireme. . and with the thunder an earthquake. cutting off their retreat to the ships and at this moment the thunder and earthquake happened. till only one of the whole number was left and escaped to Phalerum. But they say that they sailed against their territory with many ships. they prepared the Argives to assist them and. or with the purpose of doing what they did. disembarked from the ships and proceeded toward the statues and that not being able to wrench them from their pedestals. however.. . Upon this the Athenians. herein relating what is not credible to me. and as they were hauling them. that the Athenians. when no one prepared to give them battle. 84-87] THE ATHENIANS AND ^EGINET^ 303 tribute. as made from their wood. . They say. having sent to JEg'ma. and hauled them until the statues being hauled did the same thing.

. and that the women should chiefly dedicate clasps in the temple of these deities and to bring no other Attic article within the temple. to begin the war against the /Eginetae and then they would succeed according to their wishes. The origin of the enmity entertained by the Athenians against the ^Eginetae was such as has been described. This action of the women seemed to the Athenians more dreadful than the disaster itself. they should in the meanwhile endure much and also inflict much but in the end would subdue them. the vEginetse. piercing him with the clasps of their garments. therefore. which nearly resembles the Corinthian they changed it. readily assisted the Boeotians. this garment is not originally Ionian. At that time. . therefore laid waste the maritime places of Attica. and when the Athenians were preparing to march against the /Eginetae. and. they erected that temple to /Eacus which now stands in the forum . In consequence of this event it became a custom with both the Argives and the iEginetae to do this to make their clasps one half larger than the measure before established. when they heard it." When the Athenians heard this answer reported. on account of their quarrel with the Athenians. . recalling to mind what had taken place respecting The yEginetae the statues. . and the wives of the men who had gone on the expedition against iEgina. 304 HERODOTUS— BOOK V. : . however. after building a temple to /Eacus. an oracle came from Delphi enjoining them " to wait for thirty years from the period of the injury committed by the /Eginetas and in the thirty-first year. that they might not use clasps. for a linen tunic. For before that time the wives of the Athenians wore the Dorian dress. Accordingly. but perished in the following manner: On his return to Athens he gave an account of the disaster. Yet if we follow the truth. each asked him where her own husband was thus he died. on the contrary. crowded round this man. and that this one did not survive. not even a pitcher but a law was made that they should drink there in future from vessels of their own country. they had no other way of punishing the women they therefore compelled them to change their dress for the Ionian. But if they should march against them immediately. : . but Carian for the whole ancient Grecian dress of the women was the same as that which we now call Dorian. TERPSICHORE [87-89 Athenians. yet they could not bear to wait thirty years when they : . from that time the wives of the Argives and iEginetae. therefore. continued even to my time to wear clasps larger than formerly. being enraged that he alone of the whole number should be saved. say when the deity destroyed it. . when the Thebans called upon them.

we are conscious that we have not acted rightly for. . taking into consideration that if the people of Attica should continue free they would become of equal weight with themselves. telling them that they would suffer many and grievous indignities from the Athenians. we delivered the city to an ungrateful people. no gratitude was shown to them by the Athenians. — and had lifted up their heads through our means. in compliance with their invitation. when they had done this. who. being induced by lying oracles. the men who were our best friends. to which place the had retired. have ventured on a new mode of translating this passage. then. but if depressed by a tyranny would be weak and ready to obey having considered each of these things. son of Pisis. and left them in the temple when they were expelled. Pisistratidae dressed them as follows " Confederates. to take their revenge an affair. we will now endeavour. and who had promised to keep Athens subject to us them we expelled from their country. having done this. with your assistance. because they had expelled men who were their own friends out of their country. set on foot by the Lacedaemonians. as their neighbours the Boeotians and Chalcidians have already learned full well. have insultingly ejected us and our king. the Spartans. considered it a double misfortune. and not at all disposed to submit to them. adtratus. having summoned also the ambassadors of the rest of their confederates. which me more in accordance with the Greek idiom. liberty. they sent for Hippias. Baehr. renders it. to remedy the mischief and punish them. and having obtained renown. and then. themselves. and saw the Athenians increasing in power.89-91] JEALOUSY OF THE SPARTANS 305 heard that they ought to wait. Cleomenes got the oracles from the Acropolis of the Athenians. became an impediment. the Pisistratidae had had them before. are growing in power. whose version is most simple and literal. the oracles urged them on. but then became acquainted with them on the return of Cleomenes to Sparta. being informed of the practices of the Alcmaeonidae toward the Pythia. "and perhaps some one else will learn that he has committed an error" meaning the Lacedaemonians 1 I appears to . In addition to this. And when Hippias came. 1 Since. and those of the Pythia against themselves and the Pisistratidae. from Sigeum on the Hellespont. Cleomenes took them away. to 20 whom the speaker doubtless alludes. of which oracles they knew nothing before. after they had been set at : . and because. For the Lacedaemonians. in doing these things we have committed an error. When the Lacedaemonians obtained the oracles. and as they were left behind. and as others will soon learn to their cost. though they had suffered such But as they were preparing indignities from the ^ginetae.

abolish equality. nor by any other he therefore went to Delphi to inquire about having offspring. ponder this well. who was of the district of Petra." Thus these spoke but the majority of the confederates did not approve of their proposition. as we have. pronounced to Eetion. and the fishes where men did before. this appears to you a good thing." and ir£rpTj<n.' This oracle. had a lame daughter her name was Labda. As no one of the Bacchiadse would marry her. : : . dissolve a commonwealth. and which tended to the same An eagle end as that of Eetion. though worthy lowing lines Labda is pregnant. strong and Now carnivorous and it shall loosen the knees of many." and the latter his birth. was by chance reported to the Bacchiadae. no one honours thee. But if ye had been taught by experience. The rest kept silence. had her. and those who were called Bacchiadae governed the city they Amphion. . and will bring forth of much honour. men will live in the sea. but Sosicles the Corinthian spoke as follows " Surely the heavens will sink beneath the earth. He had no children by this wife. altogether unacquainted with tyrannical power. while ye yourselves are set them up over others. O Lacedaemonians. 1 ical The words. very account we sent for Hippias. who dwell around beauteous Pirene and frowning Corinth. ' : : * . " an eagle. and the earth ascend aloft above the heavens. do you first set up a tyrant over yourselves. and then attempt to But now. place. ye would have a better proposal to make to us than you now do. " Petra. ye behave contemptuously toward your allies." bear an enigmatmeaning the former intimating " Eetion. that cities should be ruled by tyrants. If. which had been . and will vindicate Corinth. and a descendant of Caeneus. to whom a former oracle concerning Corinth was unintelligible. of these men. ye Corinthians. though originally one of the Lapithae. and watch with jealousy that such a thing should not happen in Sparta. that by common consent and combined forces we may take him back to Athens and restore to him what we took away. aicrbs. TERPSICHORE who is [91-92 For on present. . and was in these terms broods on rocks * and shall bring forth a lion. and prepare to restore tyrannies in the cities.' Now this.306 HERODOTUS—BOOK this V." . now that you. here and summoned you from your cities. it will fall on monarchs. a round stone. in truth. Eetion. and immediately as he entered the Pythian saluted him in the folEetion. son of Echecrates. " rocks. The constitution of the Corinthians was formerly of this kind it was an oligarchy. than which there is nothing more unjust nor more cruel among men. one intermarried only within their own family. .

and entered the court of Eetion. from the chest. and consulted the oracle. heard all that had passed and fearing that they might change their resolution. an ambiguous answer was given him at Delphi relying on which. they kept it secret. Corinth. As soon as the woman brought forth. by a divine providence. purposing to destroy the offspring that should be born to Eetion. in but when. they would pry everywhere. : . they could not find the child. But it was fated that misfortunes should spring up to Corinth from the progeny of Eetion. they determined to go in again. they stood at the door. and he to the third. passed through the hands of all the ten. he attacked and got possession of . Having therefore delivered the child again to its mother. The oracle was this ' : Happy this man. When. a feeling of pity restrained him from killing it. For Labda. moved by compassion. and. they asked for the child. when some time had elapsed. thus the infant. and when he perceived this. which. the child. and put it into the hands of one of them. and supposing that they asked for it out of affection for the father. the name of Cypselus was given him. brought the child. she took and hid it. in a place which appeared least likely to be thought of. King . Labda brought and gave it to one of them. son of Eetion. being handed from one to another. however. in a chest. Now. When Cypselus reached man's estate. did happen search. Cypselus. they sent ten of their own number to the district where Eetion lived to put the child to death and when they arrived at Petra. and attacked each other with mutual recriminations and especially the first who took the child. After this Eetion's son grew up. when they heard that which was delivered to Eetion. and that every one should share in the murder. and. who is come of re- down to my dwelling. he gave it to the second. knowing nothing of the purpose for which they had come. they resolved to depart and tell those who sent them that they had done all that they had commanded. And though they comprehended. having escaped this danger. and having obtained the child a second time might kill it. it had been determined by them on the way that whichever of them should first receive the child should dash it on the ground. standing at the very door. but now. they presently understood the former one.92] SPEECH OF SOSICLES 307 given before. smiled on the man who received it. and not one of them was willing to destroy it. . having come and made a strict* fact. because he had not done as had been determined at last. and gone out. was unintelligible to the Bacchiadse. since it agreed with that given to Eetion. but Labda. being very certain that if they should return and come back to search. : .

made proclamation that all the women of Corinth should repair to the Temple of Juno. relating what he had seen done by ThrasyBut Periander comprehending the meaning of the bulus. he became far more cruel than Cypselus. Periander was anxious to know the answer of Thrasybulus. as to a festival. When he had reigned thirty years. One day he stripped all the Corinthian women. but when he had communicated by ambassadors with Thrasybulus. Melissa having appeared. he threw it away. his son Periander became his successor Now Periander at first was more mild than in the tyranny.3 o8 HERODOTUS—BOOK . on account of his own wife Melissa for when he sent messengers to the Thesprotians on the river Acheron to consult the oracle of the dead respecting a deposit made by a . thereupon exercised all manner of cruelties toward his subjects for whatever Cypselus had left undone. by killing and banishing. and wondered he should have sent him to such a man. : nowned Corinth he and Such was the children. having ordered affairs most securely.stranger. for the token was convincing to him. and understanding that Thrasybulus advised him to put to death the most eminent of the citizens. Thrasybulus conducted the person who came from Periander out of the city. and having cut it off. and going into a field of corn. tyrant of Miletus. he might best govern the city. for that he was crazy. since he had lain with Melissa after her death. . deprived many of their property. he dismissed the nuncio. and many more of their life. : . est of the corn. and making him repeat over again. V. the account of his coming from Corinth. and destroyed his own property. said that she would neither make it known nor tell in what place the deposit lay. he immediately. but not his children's his father. When the nuncio returned to Corinth. because she was cold and naked for that there was no use in the garments in which he had buried her. since they had not been burned and as a proof that she spoke truth. . questioning him about. dressed in . behaved himself thus he banished many of the Corinthians. and as he went through the standing corn. he asked in what way. For having sent a nuncio to Thrasybulus. oracle. till in this manner he had destroyed the best and deepHaving gone through the piece of ground. Periander completed. TERPSICHORE [92 And Cypselus.' his children. action. on receiving the message. having obtained the tyranny. They accordingly went. and ended his life happily. he cut off any ear that he saw taller than the rest. When this answer was brought back to Periander. and given no message at all. but he said that Thrasybulus had given him no answer. she added that Periander had put his bread into a cold oven.

but the Athenians got possession of his arms. Alcaeus having described . but returned back to Sigeum. with acclamation. saved himself by flight. when an engagement took place. stripped them all alike. While they were at war various other events occurred in the different battles and among them. and burned them. Hippias answered thus. which Pisistratus had taken by force from the Mityleneans. 92-95] SPEECH OF SOSICLES 309 best attire. and the Athenians were victorious. as being more accurately acquainted with the oracles than any other man. if you will not desist. adjuring you by the Grecian gods. accepted neither of them. he appointed his natural son Hegesistratus. Great astonishment. Amyntas the Macedonian offered him Anthemus. . is a tyranny. and the Athenians not only not conceding it. however. or any other of the Greeks who had assisted Menelaus in avenging the rape of Helen. . when the fated days should come for them to be harassed by the Athenians. When Hippias departed thence. and hung them up in the Temple of Minerva at Sigeum. . immediately seized us Corinthians when we understood you had sent for Hippias but now we are still more astonished at hearing you say what you do and we entreat you. Alcaeus the poet. embraced the opinion of the Corinthians and they adjured the Lacedaemonians not to introduce any innovation into a Grecian city. and the Thessalians offered him Iolcus he. but against all right will endeavour to restore Hippias. . but he having privately introduced his guards. spoke thus. . having invoked the same gods as he had that the Corinthians would most of all regret the Pisistratidae. When he had done this. invoked Melissa. and sent a second time. not to establish tyrannies in the cities. to be tyrant he. know that the Corinthians. But Hippias answered him. The rest of the confederates until then had kept silence but when they heard Sosicles speak freely. and such are its deeds. he their . O Lacedaemonians. do not approve of your designs. carried on war for a long time the former demanding restitution of the place. every one of them. Nevertheless. therefore. born of an Argive woman. at least. however. the phantom of Melissa told in what place she had laid the stranger's deposit.. both the free women and attendants and having collected them together in a pit. did not retain without a struggle what he had received from Pisistratus. but showing by argument that the ^Eolians had no more right to the territories of Ilium than they." Sosicles. And thus that design was defeated. Such. setting out from the city of Achilleium and Sigeum. who was ambassador from Corinth. For the Mityleneans and the Athenians. and having got possession of it. .

son of Cypselus. and arrived at barbarians. These ships were the source of calamities both to Greeks and Aristagoras having sailed first. Sigeum became subject to the Athenians. but that he might vex King Darius. should rescue them. nians accordingly. accusing the Athenians falsely to Artaphernes. for they referred to him as arbitrator. Hippias accordingly busied himself about this. : . TERPSICHORE [95-98 an ode. would not consent to the proposed condition and when they did not consent. however. Thus. he set everything in motion. said the same he had done at Sparta. how they used neither shield nor spear. if they wished to continue safe. . who had been carried away captive by Megabyzus from the river Strymon. respecting the wealth of Asia and the Persian mode of warfare. then.310 this in HERODOTUS— BOOK V. warning the Persians not to give ear to the Athenian exiles. had recourse to a project from which no advantage could result to the Ionians nor did he employ it for that purpose. Periander. that each should retain what they had. he spoke as follows " Men of Paeonia. having appointed Melanthius commander over them. and it was but reasonable that And they. Miletus. . and were being falsely accused to the Persians. decreed to send twenty ships to succour the Ionians. and would be easily conquered. presenting himself before the people. that the Milesians were a colony of the Athenians. at that very time Aristagoras the Milesian. arrived at Athens for this city was much more powerful than the rest. Aristagoras. as being very much in earnest. and a village by themselves. the Paeonians. receive Hippias back again. When Hippias returned from Lacedaemon to Asia. it was determined openly to declare themselves enemies to the Persians. and occupied a tract When he reached in Phrygia. sent it to Mitylene to inform his friend Melanippus of his misfortune. and the Athenians. Aristag. For it appears to be more easy to impose upon a multitude than one man since he was not able to impose upon Cleomenes the Lacedaemonian The Athesingly. sent ambassadors to Sardis. there was nothing he did not promise. reconciled the Mityleneans and Athenians. having such great power. having heard of it. having been expelled from Sparta by Cleomenes the Lacedaemonian. When they were taking this resolution. until at length he persuaded them. He said this. and contriving every means by which Athens might be subjected to himself and Darius. But Artaphernes bade them. in addition. being persuaded. The Athenians. a citizen who was universally esteemed. He sent a man into Phrygia to the Paeonians. and. and he reconciled them on these terms. but did so to thirty thousand Athenians. .

considered it a very joyful event. But the Paeonians did not listen to the proposal but the Chians conveyed them to Lesbos. at the time when the Samians assisted the Chalcidians against the Eretrians and Milesians. and we will provide for the rest. While the city was being burned. remained where they were. left their ships at Coressus. bringing with them five triremes of the Eretrians. but of the Milesians themselves. and they advanced with a numerous army. when the Athenians arrived with twenty ships. For all . but some of them. of deliverance if you will take his advice. and reached and took Sardis without opposition and they took all except the citadel. then. fled to the coast. . since the fire had got possession of the extreme parts. sent orders to Chios to the Paeonians. . having arrived at Ephesus with this force. has sent me to suggest to Ionia has revolted from the king. and when they did not overtake them. his own brother Charopinus. from thence they crossed Mount Tmolus. and the Lesbians forwarded them to Doriscus. and having taken with them their children and wives. but remained at Miletus. after they had taken the city. and consumed the whole city. being inclosed on every side. and of the other citizens Hermophantus." The Pseonians. not out of good-will to the Athenians. and immediately the flame spread from house to house. When these. : . . . through fear. who engaged in this expedition. when they heard these words. and the rest of the allies had come up. but Artaphernes with a strong garrison defended the citadel. they thence crossed over to Chios. and appointed others as generals of the Milesians. in order to repay a former obligation for the Milesians had formerly joined the Eretrians in the war against the Chalcidians.98-101] IONIANS BURN SARDIS 3U you a mode oras. soldier happened to set fire to one of these. from plundering it Most of the houses in Sardis were built with reeds and such of them as were built with brick had roofs of reeds. and offers you an opportunity of returning safe to your own country as far as the coast take care of yourselves. He himself did not march with the army. A . thence proceeding on foot they reached Paeonia. tyrant of Miletus. The following accident prevented them. taking Ephesians for their guides and marching by the side of the river Cayster. the Lydians. and as many of the Persians as were in the city. But Aristagoras. commanding them to return. a large body of Persian cavalry came on their heels. in the Ephesian territory. and just as they had reached Chios. The Ionians. Aristagoras resolved to make an expedition to Sardis. When the Paeonians reached the coast. had arrived. pursuing the Paeonians.

Eualcis. As soon as the Persians who had settlements on this side the river Halys were informed of these things. came over to them of their own accord for they. TERPSICHORE [101-104 and had no means of escaping from the city. Those who escaped from the battle were dispersed throughout the : . and marched to assist the Lydians and they happened to find that the Ionians were no longer at Sardis but following on their track they overtook them at Ephesus. therefore. who had gained the prize in the contests for the crown. were constrained to defend themselves and the Ionians. flows through the middle of the market-place. Thus Sardis was burned. and to the river Pactolus. bringing down grains of gold from Mount Tmolus. totally abandoning the Ionians. being deprived of the alliance of the Athenians (for they had conducted themselves in such a manner toward Darius from the first). which. Then having sailed out of the Hellespont. . came over to their side. and coming to an engagement. making a pretext of this. and had been much celebrated by Simonides the Cean. nevertheless prepared for war with the king. : . except the Amathusians. The Ionians. had revolted from the Mede on the following occasion Onesilus was younger brother of Gorgus. and the Ionians drew out in battle array against them. general of the Eretrians. . though Aristagoras urgently solicited them by ambassadors. cities. . which before would not join their alliance when they had burned Sardis. afterward burned in retaliation the temples of Greece. and thence under favour of the night retreated to their ships. and that into the sea. Afterward the Athenians. seeing some of the enemy standing on their defence. were sorely beaten and the Persians slew many of them. The Lydians and Persians. they drew together. they gained over to their alliance the greater part of Caria. retired through fear to the mountain called Tmolus. and then discharges itself into the river Hermus. too. And having sailed to the Hellespont. rushed together to the market-place. At that time such was the result of the encounter. and son of Chersis. King of the Salaminians. son of Siromus. and others coming up in great numbers. son of Euelthon this man had frequently before exhorted his brother to revolt from the king but when he heard that the Ionians had cities in that . And all the Cyprians. refused to send them any assistance. and in it the temple of the native goddess Cybebe.312 HERODOTUS— BOOK V. they reduced Byzantium and all the other quarter to their obedience. . the Persians. for the city of Caunus. being assembled on this Pactolus and at the market-place. and among other persons of distinction.

Onesilus with his partisans. Darius said " I am informed. has attempted innovations against me for having brought men from the other continent. should ensue to you with what object should I do so? What am I in want of? I. But in the outset I do not believe the account that the Milesians and lieutenant have attempted any innovations against your authority. he sat down revolted. But when it was told King Darius that Sardis had been taken and burned by the Athenians and Ionians. Onesilus accordingly besieged Amathus. he pressed . having persuaded these to accompany them. it is related that he. grant that I may revenge myself on the Athenians " Having thus spoken. consider. : O ! — my O . shut the gates against him. well knowing that they would not escape unpunished for their rebellion. Yet if they have done anything of the kind. he has deprived me of Sardis. he called for a bow. what have you said ? That I should advise a thing from which any grief. what mischief you have done in withdrawing me from the coast. and having received one. king. can it appear to you that this is right ? Could such a thing have been done without your advice? Beware To this Hislest hereafter you expose yourself to blame. whom he had already detained a long time. and the contriver of that enterprise. who would not listen to him. who have all things the same as you. The rest he persuaded. be assured he has done it of his own contrivance. who shall give me satisfaction for what they have done. For the : O ! : . Now. " Jupiter. to whom you intrusted Miletus. and put an arrow into it. being thus deprived of his city. and am deemed worthy to share all your counsels? But if my lieutenant has done any such thing as you mention. Histiaeus. remember the Athenians. " Sire.104-106] DARIUS LEARNS OF THE REVOLT 313 him very urgently. that your lieutenant. and that Aristagoras the Milesian was the chief of the confederacy." " tiaeus answered king. and summoned to his presence Histiseus the Milesian. but the Amathusians. fled to the Medes and Onesilus ruled over Salamis. and endeavoured to persuade all the Cyprians to join in the revolt. he said. and you have heard the truth. and with them Ionians." Having given this order. when he heard this. thereupon having watched an opportunity when he had gone out of the Gorgus city of the Salaminians. he commanded one of his attendants every time dinner was set before him to say thrice. and as he shot it into the air. and besieged. he let it fly toward heaven. but finding he could not persuade Gorgus. great or little. took no account of the Ionians. but inquired where the Athenians were then having been informed.

While the news concerning Sardis was going up to the king. When I have done this according to your mind. to have done what they long ago desired to do. having been informed of this. we ourselves therefore shall should engage with the Persians by land. TERPSICHORE [106-109 Ionians seem. having delivered our ships to the Cyprians. the is called the key of Cyprus. : : : We . so soon as he should have accomplished what he had promised. If you choose to try your strength with the Persians draw up on land. speaking thus. Darius was persuaded. bearing in mind what you who . a Persian. in order to oppose the Phoenicians but if you would rather try your strength with the Phoenicians. and for us to go on board your ships. Onesilus. having been dismissed by Darius. that I may restore all things there to their former condition.314 HERODOTUS— BOOK V. endeavour to do our duty in that post to which we have been appointed. it behooves you so to behave yourselves that as far as depends on you both Ionia and Cyprus may be free. leading a large Persian force on shipboard. and not that. having done what has been described relating to the bow. was on his journey to the sea during all this time the following events took place Tidings were brought to Onesilus the Salaminian. I swear by the royal gods not to put off the garments which I shall wear when I go down to Ionia before I have made the great island Sardinia tributary to you. marched by land against Salamis but the Phoenicians in their ships doubled the promontory. to go with all speed to Ionia. and the Persians. inviting them to assist him and the Ionians. deceived the king. Suffer me. to engage with whichever you wish. the Persians or the Phoenicians. and let him go having charged him to return to him at Susa. which This having taken place. and deliver into your hands of Miletus. as he was besieging the Amathusians. sent heralds to the different parts of Ionia. having called together the generals of the Ionians. whichever of these you choose. came with a large armament. when I was out of their sight. that Artybius. therefore. held a conference with Histiseus. was to be expected in Cyprus. ." To this the Ionians answered " The general council of the Ionians has sent us to guard the sea. without any protracted deliberation. this lieutenant has plotted the whole. and while Histiaeus. tyrants of Cyprus. said " Men of Ionia. and had I been in Ionia not one city would have stirred. ." Histiseus. and Darius. it is time for you to disembark from your ships. The Ionians accordingly arrived at Cyprus. having crossed over in ships from Cilicia. and to draw up on land. and it behooves you. : . we Cyprians give you the choice.

bore down upon Onesilus.109-113] THE WAR yoke IN CYPRUS 315 have suffered under the selves to be brave men. and cut off the horse's feet. defeated the Phoenicians at sea and of these the Samians most distinguished themselves. your glory is great. for I promise you he shall never hereafter rear up against any man. the general of the Persians. and forthwith the forces joined battle by land and sea. For if you vanquish one who is a general." Thus he spoke. . but on land. which may the gods avert. which you will watch and strike. as he had concerted with his shield-bearer. but we servants should engage with other servants. of the Medes. but having selected the best of the Salaminians and Solians. to engage with a king and a general. they stationed them against the Persians. Now the Ionians. and having as a shield-bearer a Carian well skilled in matters of war. and otherwise full of courage. said to this man " I am informed that the horse of Artybius rears up. and with his feet and mouth attacks whomsoever he is made to engage with do you therefore determine at once. the general of the Persians. therefore. stationing the other Cyprians against the other soldiery of the enemy. and. who was of Curium. whether the horse or Artybius himself. While the rest were fighting. fell together with his horse on the spot. Onesilus voluntarily took up his position directly against Artybius. king and a general ought. if he should vanquish you." His attendant answered " I am ready to do both. : A . seated on his horse. struck Artybius himself as he was bearing down upon him and as the horse was throwing his feet against the shield of Onesilus. when the armies met. whose tricks do not you fear at all. or either of them. . to fall by a noble hand is but half the calamity. the chariots of war belonging to the Salaminians did the same as the Curians in conse: . they engaged in close combat. . Stesenor. and tell me. and the following happened with respect to the two generals: When Artybius. Onesilus. when the Persians had reached the plain of the Salaminians. to prove yourin these The Ionians made answer Afterward. in the next place. Onesilus. fighting valiantly on that day." words. : . and indeed whatever you may command. having heard of this. the Kings of the Cyprians drew up their forces in line. I think. deserted with no inconsiderable body of men these Curians are said to be a colony of Argives and when the Curians had deserted. So that Artybius. But I will declare how it appears to me to be most conducive to your interest. and also against a horse. the Carian thereupon struck him with a scythe. Artybius used to ride on a horse that had been taught to rear up against an armed enemy.

took it in the fifth month. to Ionia. whom Solon the Athenian. son of Philocyprus of that Philocyprus. having conspired with the Ionians. who had contrived the revolt of the Cyprians. as to a hero and if they did so. took it to Amathus. the Amathusians consulted the oracle respecting it. and that the rest of the Cyprian cities were besieged. and other Persian generals who also had married daughters of Darius. having cut off the head of Onesilus. having undermined the wall all round. who had married a daughter of Darius. But Daurises. of which the best appeared to be that of Pixodarus. and having driven them to their ships. and Psesus . Thus the Cyprians. having heard of it. Aristocyprus." The Amathusians did accordingly. as soon as they learned this. Daurises. it would turn out better for them. had revolted from the Persians. and suspended it over the gates and when the head was suspended. Soli held out against the siege for the longest time. But as he was advancing from Paesus against Parium. Of the cities in Cyprus. son of Chersis. . several other propositions were made. and an answer was given them that " they should take down the head and bury it. Therefore turning back from the Hellespont. Percote. when they had conquered them in battle. The Ionians. flowing from the territory of When the Carians were asIdrias. falls into the Maeander. sailed . directing his march toward the cities on the Hellespont. Lampsacus. and continued to do so until my time. he led Somehow news of this was brought his army against Caria. when he visited Cyprus. these he took each in one day. having been free for one year. . and Otanes. to the Carians before Daurises arrived. many others fell. sembled on this spot. assembled at what are called the White Columns. were again reduced to servitude. 3 i6 HERODOTUS— BOOK V. except Salamis.. a swarm of bees entered it. TERPSICHORE [113-118 quence of this the Persians became superior to the Cyprians and the army being put to flight. because he had besieged them. When this happened. which. having pursued those of the Ionians who had attacked Sardis. son of away . The Carians. and had become hollow. took Dardanus he also took Abydos. when they heard that the affairs of Onesilus were ruined. . next divided the cities among themselves and proceeded to plunder them. who had fought by sea at Cyprus. and Hymees. celebrated in his verses above all tyrants. news was brought him that the Carians. Now the Amathusians. but this the Salaminians had restored to their former king Gorgus the Ionians. and sacrifice annually to Onesilus. on the river Marsyas. but the Persians. and among them Onesilus. . and the King of the Solians. and filled it with honeycomb.

took Cius of Mysia. and of the Carians ten thousand. to the end that if the Persians should be put to flight. the Persians having come up and crossed the Maeander. however. falling by night.H8-I22] RECOVERY OF IONIA who had married of the Cicilians. and was marching against Caria. This opinion. son of Ibanolis. being shut up in this place. They. Thus these Persians were destroyed. and renewed the contest. the Milesians suffered most. and being compelled to remain on their ground. and prepared to renew the war and they engaged with the Persians when they came up. bending his march toward the Propontis. Hymees. and having fought. and fall into the river. Afterward. who was also one of those who pursued the Ionians that had attacked Sardis. afterward recovered this wound. when he heard that Daurises had quitted the Hellespont. should so engage. and Sisamaces. and led his army on the Hellespont and he subdued all the iEolians who inhabited the territory of Ilium. having crossed the Maeander. whether they would fare better by surrendering themselves to the Persians or by abandoning Asia altogether. were cut to pieces. into which the Persians. were more signally beaten than before though in the whole many fell. however. . a Mylassian. and having the river in their rear. in a large precinct and sacred grove of plane nesis. 317 the daughter of SyenHis opinion was that the Carians. Of the Persians there fell about two thousand. they might have no retreat. then. in order that the Carians. and worsted in the engagement. . dedicated to Jupiter Stratius. the Milesians and their allies came to their assistance. they placed an ambuscade on the way to Pedasus. but at last were overpowered by numbers. King The Carians are the only people we know who offer sacrifices to Jupiter Stratius. not being able to retreat. son of Gyges. But having taken it. he abandoned the Propontis. but that the Maeander should rather be in the rear of the Persians than of themselves. and subdued the Gertrees. . and with them perished Myrses. For hearing that the Persians designed to invade their cities. Amorges. The Carians. upon this the Carians gave up what they were before deliberating about. did not prevail. While they were deliberating about this. the Carians thereupon came to an engagement with the Persians on the banks of the river Marsyas. The leader of this ambuscade was Heraclides. Mausolus. Such of them as escaped from thence were shut up in Labranda. consulted on the means of safety. and they fought an obstinate battle. and for a long time. a Cyndian. both they and their generals Daurises. . might be made even braver than they naturally were.

318 HERODOTUS—BOOK Hymees V. they took Clazomenae githae. He asked. having built a fortress in the island of Leros. himself. having subdued these nations. and took possession of the region to which he was bound. TERPSICHORE [122-126 remaining descendants of the ancient Teucrians. and he himself. having called his partisans together. thought of flight when he saw these results. Hecataeus the historian. son of Hegesander. proceeding from thence. sailed to Thrace. The reader will observe that the sentence is broken and imperfect . he conferred with them. one of the three generals. having re-' However. therefore. and. governor of Sardis. and Otanes. But Aristagoras himself was decidedly in favour of proceeding to Myrcinus he therefore intrusted Miletus to Pythagoras. to found a colony. it is so in the original. but that. : . . both Aristagoras himself and all his army perished by the hands of Thracians as he was laying siege to a city. the but and of the iEolians. died of disease in the Troad. Cyme. who having thrown Ionia into confusion. This was the advice of Hecataeus. as it proved. taking with him all who were willing. a man of strong courage. besides. Of Ionia. or to Myrcinus of the Edonians. for he was not. they should remain quiet if they were compelled to quit Miletus and that at some future time. accordingly. these cities were taken. it appeared to him impossible to overcome King Darius therefore. and raised great disturbances. . But setting out from thence. When 1 * The two others were Daurises and Hymees. was that they should set out for neither of these places. Aristagoras the 2 Milesian. the opinion of ceived it as a gift from Darius. and the Thracians were willing to depart on terms of capitulation. which Histiaeus had begun to fortify. Thus then he died: but Artaphernes.. they might return to Miletus. 1 were appointed to invade Ionia and the neighbouring territory of ^olia. whether he should lead them to Sardinia. a citizen of distinction. saying that it would be better for them to have some sure place of refuge in case they should be expelled from Miletus.

said " Histiaeus. and being aware of the exact truth as to the revolt. but put them into the : : : . being suspected by them of planning some new design against them in favour of Darius. tyrant of Miletus. But Hermippus did not deliver the letters to the persons to whom he had been sent. Histiaeus. having induced the Ionians to /\ thus died.. asked him for what reason he supposed the Ionians had revolted. he terrified the Ionians. the Chians. the state of the case is this you made the shoe and Aristagoras has put it on. and the Ionians in Phoenicia and for this reason he had pressed him. as if he in truth knew nothing of the present state of affairs. an Atarnian. revolt. fearing Artaphernes. he insinuated himself into the command of the Ionians in the war against Darius. When he arrived from Susa. Having crossed over to Chios. he was put in chains by the Chians. and had wrought so much mischief to the Ionians. and that he was an enemy to the king. having deceived King Darius for having promised to reduce the great island of Sardinia. BOOK VI ERATO ARISTAGORAS. he by no means made known to them the true reason. and seemed surprised at what had happened. and Histiaeus. released him. repaired to Sardis. After this. perceiving that he was dissembling. Artaphernes. as soon as night came on fled to the coast. £ \.* At that time Histiaeus being questioned by the Ionians why he had so earnestly pressed Aristagoras to revolt from the king. 319 . sent letters to certain Persians in Sardis. but told them that King Darius had resolved to remove the Phoenicians and settle them in Ionia. governor of Sardis. having learned the whole truth. Hermippus. as if they had before conferred with him on the subject of a revolt." Artaphernes spoke thus concerning the revolt but Histiaeus. However. But Artaphernes. Although the king had formed no resolution of the kind. Histiaeus said he did not know. having been dismissed by Darius. as being privy to the truth. corresponding by means of a me'ssenger.

but was wounded in the thigh by one of the Milesians. the Chians conveyed him . deeming the other cities of less consequence. and when they arrived at that place and consulted together. For the Persian generals. and the CiliThey then advanced against Miletus and the rest of Ionia. endeavoured to enter it by force. without leaving a single ship behind. . Artaphernes thereupon put many of the Persians to death and in consequence there was a great commotion in Sardis. and that they should man their navy. subdued. VI. then. Thereupon Histiseus. Histiseus being disappointed of these hopes. served with them. . but the Ionians. having heard of this. ERATO [4-8 hands of Artaphernes he. commanded Hermippus to deliver the letters of Histiaeus to the persons for whom he brought them. as they had tasted of freedom. were by no means desirous to receive another tyrant into their country. Lade is a small island lying off the city of the MileAfter this the Ionians came up with their ships manned. and Egyptians. There taking up their station. sent their respective deputies to the Panionium. he went back to Chios. marched against Miletus. the Phoenicians were the most zealous. having discovered all that was going on. occupied the east wing. to fight in defence of lately who had been cians.3 20 HERODOTUS— BOOK . but that the Milesians themselves should defend the walls. and the Myusians with three. and the Cyprians. and from thence. having manned eight triremes. : . except such of them as said they were ready to submit to Histiseus. and to deliver to him the answers that should be sent back to Histiseus from the Persians. Miletus. Of the maritime forces. the Teians were next to the Myusians. going down to Miletus by night. they took all the ships that sailed out of the Pontus. and prevailed with the Lesbians to furnish him with ships and they. Histiseus. he crossed over to Mitylene. But a large naval and land force was expected against Miletus itself. since he could not persuade the Chians to furnish him with ships. sians. and next to these the Prienians with twelve ships. and the Mitylenians acted as above described. and with them the iEolians who inhabit Lesbos and they formed their line in the following order The Milesians themselves. to Miletus at his own request but the Milesians. and after they had manned them. When he was repulsed from his own country. it was determined not to assemble any land forces to oppose the Persians. delighted at being rid of Aristagoras. sailed with Histiseus to Byzantium. to assemble as soon as possible at Lade. . who furnished eighty ships. having united their forces and formed one camp. Thus they being discovered.

. and then give their country to others. and happened at that time to be serving in the army against Miletus having called together such of these men as were at hand. as follows : " Our affairs are in a critical x state. they addressed them as follows " Men of Ionia. nor shall they be treated with more severity than they were before. . and transport their virgins to Bactra. Taking these things into consideration. and among the rest the Phocaean general Dionysius. and on occasion others addressed them. On the side of the barbarians the number of ships amounted to six hundred but when they arrived on the Milesian coast. 32 with seventeen ships the Chians were next the Teians. and then might be in danger of receiving punishment at the hands of Darius. nor shall their buildings. and all their land forces were come up. For let each of you endeavour to detach his own countrymen from the rest of the confederacy. next the Phocaeans were the Lesbians with seventy ships last of all the Samians were drawn up. hearing the number of the Ionian fleet. who. Afterward. and the Phocaeans three. whether we 21 shall be freemen or slaves. began to fear they should not be strong enough to overcome it. "on a razor's edge. that they shall suffer no hurt on account of their rebellion. and would not listen to treachery for each thought that the Persians had sent this message to themselves only. But if they will not do this. the Erythraeans furnishing eight ships. and that too as run1 Literally. since they were not masters at sea." Thus they spoke but the tyrants of the Ionians sent each by night to his own countrymen. having been deprived of their governments by Aristagoras. This. the Erythrasans and the Phocaeans were drawn up. let each of you now show his zeal for the king's house. threaten them with this which will surely befall them. and so should be also unable to take Miletus. But the Ionians to whom these messages came continued firm to their purpose. they summoned the tyrants of the Ionians. the whole number amounted to three hundred and fifty-three triremes. and hold out to them and proclaim this. Such was the fleet of the Ionians. took place immediately after the arrival of the Persians before Miletus. with a hundred ships next to these. who spoke . occupying the western wing with sixty ships. then. : . O Ionians. : 8-1 1] ASSEMBLY OF THE IONIANS . had fled to the Medes. that when conquered in battle they shall be enslaved that we will make eunuchs of their sons. be burned." . councils were held. . the Persian generals. when the Ionians had assembled at Lade. whether sacred or profane. to make known the warning. Of all these.1 . and will at all events come to the hazard of a battle.

do we fill up this measure of affliction ? we who being beside ourselves. exhorting them to abandon the confederacy of the Ionians and. it was clearly impossible for them to overcome the power of the king. because they were convinced that if they should overcome Darius with his present fleet another Therefore layfive times as large would come against them. and would not go on board the ships or perform their exercise. as soon as they saw the Ionians refusing to behave well they deemed it for their advantage to preserve their own buildings. they continued under the shade. either that our enemies will not fight us at all. thereupon accepted the proposal of j^Eaces. and did what was ordered but on the following day the Ionians. ships. and many must expect to meet with the same fate. and at the same time seeing great disorder among them. and having lost our senses. Accordingly. afflicts us with Many of us have already fallen into intolerable hardships. they shall be completely beaten. 322 HERODOTUS— BOOK slaves : VI.. daily leading out the ships into a line. if you are willing to undergo hardyou will have toil. then. ERATO [11-13 now. moreover." Thus they spoke. ing hold of this pretext. kept the ships at anchor for the rest of the day thus he subjected the Ionians to toil throughout the day. on the other hand. by practising the manoeuvre of cutting through one another's line. to be free. no longer obey him. and to endure the impending servitude. let us it may. I have no hope of you that you will escape punishment at the hands of the king for your revolt." The Ionians having heard this. then. which he had before sent them at the desire of the Persians. . This ^Eaces. or if they do fight with us. for seven days they continued to obey. intrusted themselves to the guidance of Dionysius. The generals of the Samians observing what was passing among the Ionians. distempers. and intrust yourselves to my guidance. and he. by overcoming your enemies. and from that moment no one would obey. if you abandon yourselves to ease and disorder. be it what Come. it were better for us to suffer anything else. than be oppressed by the present. when he had exercised the rowers. and I promise you. unaccustomed to such toil. Instead of these evils. : . spoke one to another as follows " What deity having offended. who has contributed three ships but he. but having pitched tents on the island. But be persuaded by me. having got us under his control. and had put the marines under arms. and worn down by hardships and the heat of the sun. sacred and profane. have intrusted ourselves to the guidance of a presumptuous Phocaean. for the present : away . son of Syloson. but will be enabled. if the gods are impartial.

When. . Such was the fate they met with. and arrived near the city by night. . son of ^Eaces and being tyrant of Samos. at a time when the women there were celebrating the Thesmophoria the Ephesians thereupon. for they mutually accuse each other. and would not act as cowards. and steered out of the line to Samos. however. took refuge in Mycale and having run their ships aground. Those Chians whose ships were disabled in the fight. but choosing rather to remain with the few allies. . The Lesbians also. did the same as the Samians and in like manner most of the Ionians followed their example. seeing those stationed next them flee. having taken three of the enemies' ships. . in pursuance of their agreement with ^aces. as the other tyrants of Ionia. when they were pursued. one hundred ships. and seeing an army enter their territory. thinking they were certainly robbers. . had been deprived of his government by Aristagoras the Milesian. as having proved themselves valiant men and this column now stands in the forum. but when the Chians on their return entered the territory of Ephesus. after they had taken many of the enemies' ships. the Ionians also drew out their ships in line to oppose them but when they came near and engaged each other. The Chians then fled to their own country with the remainder of their fleet. therefore. . they continued the fight. they disdained to follow the example of their treachery. until. after that I am unable to affirm with certainty who of the Ionians proved themselves cowards or brave men in this sea-fight. Of those that persisted in the battle. and on board each of them forty chosen citizens serving as marines and though they saw most of the confederates abandoning the common cause. . . cutting through the enemies' line.. i 3 -i7] IONIAN FLEET DEFEATED 323 from whom the Samians received the proposal. was son of Syloson. . and marched overland through the continent. as has been before mentioned. they lost most of their own. They contributed. rushed out in a body and slew the Chians. refusing to obey their commanders and for this action the commonwealth of the Samians conferred upon them the honour of having their names and ancestry engraved on a column. when he perceived that the affairs of the Ionians were utterly ruined. with the exception of eleven ships the captains of these stayed and fought. The Samians. not having before heard how it had fared with the Chians. as they displayed signal proofs of valour. and were come to seize their women. are said at that moment to have hoisted sail. left them there. Dionysius the Phocaean. the Phoenicians sailed against them. the Chians were most roughly handled.

For when the Argives consulted the oracle at Delphi respecting the preservation of their city. without having done them any harm. . Of the riches in this temple I have frequently made mention in other parts of my history. and and the their women and children were treated as slaves sacred inclosure at Didymi. and the plain. and our temple at Didymi shall be tended by others. having been deprived of their country. but only the Carthaginians and Tyrrhenians. contriver of wicked deeds. the Argives I will mention when I come to that part of the history the words she uttered relative to the Milesians. well knowing that it would be enslaved with the rest of Ionia. for most of the men were killed by the Persians. were pillaged and burned. When the Milesians suffered thus at the hands of the Persians. the Sybarites. . took it completely. and the addition the PythThe part relating to ian uttered concerning the Milesians. were as follows " Then Miletus. The Athenians behaved in a very different manner for the Athenians made it evident that they were excessively . and King Darius. he established himself as a pirate. falls into . ERATO [17-21 away. flowing by. to Phoenicia and there having disabled some merchantmen. as he was. attacking none of the Grecians. both the temple and the shrine. Of the Milesian territory. for these two cities had been more strictly united in friendship than any others we are acquainted with. who inhabited Laos and Scydrus. retained the parts round the city. . Such of the Milesians as were taken alive were afterward conveyed to Susa. he sailed to Sicily and sallying out from thence. settled them on that which is called the Red Sea. did not show equal symFor when Sybaris was taken by the Crotonians." . The Persians. not indeed to Phocsea. and obtained great wealth. : : These things befell the Milesians at that time. the Milesians of every age shaved their heads and displayed marks of deep mourning. when they had conquered the Ionians in the sea-fight. a double answer was given part concerning themselves. the mountainous parts they gave to the Carians of Pedasus to occupy. and undermining the walls. in the sixth year after the revolt of Aristagoras and they reduced the city to slavery. thou shalt become a feast and a rich gift to many thy wives shall wash the feet of many long-haired masters. near which the Tigris. but sailed directly. the Persians themselves the sea. so that the event coincided with the oracle delivered concerning Miletus.324 sailed HERODOTUS— BOOK VI. who wear long hair. in the city of Ampe. . all pathy. . and bringing up all kinds of military engines against it. who were not present. besieging Miletus both by land and sea.

The Samians were persuaded. held correspondence with the Samians. tyrant of Gela. to sail away to a colony before the tyrant ^aces and not by remaining become slaves to the Medes and ^aces. he betrayed the rest of the Zanclaeans and this was the reward agreed upon by the Samians. belongs to the Sicilians. grieved at the capture of Miletus. the Samians alone of all the Ionians set out. Tyrrhenians. and his brother Pythogenes. wishing them to found a city of Ionians should arrive in their country. that he should have one half of the movables and slaves in the city. on their way to Sicily. and is in that part of Sicily that faces the : : . desiring to take it: and Anaxilaus. understanding this. and given and received oaths. . sent them away to the city of Inycum after having conferred with the Samians. invited the Ionians to Cale Acte. and three hundred of the principal citizens he delivered to the Samians to be put to there. it is This Cale Acte. Miletus therefore was stripped of its Milesian population. were employed in the besieging of a Sicilian city. Accordingly. and persuaded them that it would be well not to trouble themselves about Cale Acte. as called. on a consultation immediately after . and fined him a thousand drachmas for renewing the memory of their domestic misfortunes and they gave order that henceforth no one should act this drama. touched on the country of the Epizephyrian Locrians. the sea-fight. and called to their assistance Hippocrates. whereupon the Zanclaeans. and represented it. when they invited them. who was then at variance with the Zanclaeans. he having thrown into chains Scythes. For the Zanclaeans of Sicily at this very time. having put in chains the greater part of the Zanclaeans. which was destitute of inhabitants. both they and their king. and possessed themselves of Zancle. the whole theatre burst into tears. he treated them as slaves. Accordingly. tyrant of Rhegium. King of the Zanclaeans. as if to assist them. But the Samians who had property were by no means pleased with what had been done by their generals in favour of the Medes. and the Zanclaeans. both in and more particularly when Phrynichus had composed a drama of the capture of Miletus. to which they were sailing.21-23] CAPTURE OF MILETUS many 325 other ways. went to recover it. who had already lost his city. sending messengers to Ionia. for he was their ally. whose name was Scythes. During this time the following incident occurred The Samians. and with them such Milesians as had escaped by flight. hearing that their city was occupied. But when Hippocrates came with his army. but to seize the city of Zancle. and determined. and that Hippocrates should have for his share all that was in the country.

however. Darius considered him the most just of all the men who had come up to him from Greece. being very rich. the sea-fight following. that would not admit him. and from thence passed over into Asia. The Samians were the only people of those that revolted from Darius whose city and sacred buildings were not burned. . but the remaining ninety-eight a pestilence seized and carried off: in the next place. to Samos. gained without toil the very beautiful city of Zancle. After the sea-fight which took place off Miletus. and others they reduced by force. and engaged with a garrison of Chians. on account of the defection of their ships in the sea-fight. he went to Sicily. when they sent to Delphi a band of one hundred youths. Thus the Samians. would not do this. so that of one hundred and twenty boys only one escaped. news was brought him of what had taken place at Miletus he therefore intrusted his affairs on the Hellespont to Bisaltes. VI. as they had been much shattered by the sea-fight. Histiaeus. For having asked permission of the king. Now these things happened King thus. sailed to Chios. made his escape from Inycum to Himera. HERODOTUS—BOOK of the Zanclaeans. . and before these misfortunes great warnings happened to the Chians. conveyed yEaces. about the same time. in the first place. intercepting the trading ships of the Ionians that sailed out of the Pontus. These warnings the deity showed them beforehand. by order of the Persians. with the Lesbians. : . a house in the city fell in upon some boys as they were learning to read. While Histiaeus the Milesian was near Byzantium. the Phoenicians. and at last. got the mastery of. Miletus being taken. only two of them returned home. the Persians immediately got possession of Caria some of the cities having submitted of their own accord. ERATO [23-27 Scythes. he easily reduced them to subjection. The deity is wont to give some previous warning when any great calamities are about to befall any city or nation. For. and went up to King Darius. died among the Persians of old age. . son of Syloson. After this. setting out from Polichne of the Chians. and the rest of the Chians. at a place called Cceli in the Chian territory and he killed great numbers of them. . being freed from the Medes. of Abydos and he himself.. threw the city prostrate and after the sea-fight Histiaeus with the Lesbians came upon them and as the Chians had been much shattered. 326 death . the Samians. as one who had deserved much at their hands and had performed great services. and returned back from Sicily to the king. son of Apollophanes. a little before the sea-fight. having taken the Lesbians with him.

But now. . They left : . he Thasus untaken. as they possessed themselves of each. Such was the fate of Histiaeus. The naval force of the Persians having wintered near Miletus. a Persian. in the district of Atarneus. general of a considerable army. he would have suffered no punishment. and so march over the island. Darius having heard of this. They net them in this manner: Taking one another by the hand. having washed and adorned the head of Histiaeus. they should inter it honourably. and having blamed those that had done it. they extend from the northern to the southern sea. fell upon the Greeks then it was the work of the cavalry and when the Greeks had betaken themselves to flight. Histiaeus. they maintained their ground for a long time. and destroyed the greater part of his army. because they had not brought him alive into his presence. and Tenedos and when they took any one of these islands. for this very reason. and being overtaken was on the point of being stabbed by him. and lest by escaping he should again regain his influence with the king. Miletus against the rest of Ionia. and the plain of Caicus which belonged to the Mysians. governor of Sardis. he speaking in the Persian language. he engaged with him after his landing. conceived such a desire of preserving his life that when in his flight he was overtaken by a Persian. and Harpagus. easily subdued the islands lying near the continent. discovered himself to be Histiaeus the Milesian. he had been conducted to King Darius. Now if. sent it to Darius at Susa. Lesbos. as the remains of a man who had been a great benefactor to himself and the Persians. impaled his body on the spot. happened to be in those parts. hunting out the inhabitants. who received him as soon as he was conducted to Sardis. gave orders that. and himself hastened to Lesbos with all his forces. when he was taken prisoner. . netted the inhabitants. took Histiaeus himself prisoner. Histiaeus was thus taken prisoner When the Greeks were fighting with the Persians at Malene. the barbarians. when it set sail in the second year. Chios.: 28-31] DEATH OF HISTLEUS 327 From thence Histiaeus proceeded to attack Thasus with a large body of Ionians and ^Eolians and while he was besieging Thasus news came that the Phoenicians were sailing from . Artaphernes. and from Lesbos. hoping that he should not be put to death by the king for his present offence. and the king would have forgiven him his fault. because his army was suffering from want. in my opinion. but the cavalry at length coming up. and having embalmed the head. When he heard this. But Harpagus. he crossed to the opposite shore for the purpose of reaping the corn of Atarneus.

against them. did not wait the coming of the Phoenician fleet. being on the continent. reduced all the places on the left of the Hellespont as one sails in for the places on the right. the Dolonci. the Pythian answered them that they should take that man with them to their country to found a colony. these Dolonci. had already been subdued by the Persians. the Phoenicians subdued. however. ERATO [31-35 also took the Ionian cities on the continent with the same ease but they did not net the inhabitants. bent their course to Proconnesus. having capitulated with CEbares. Till that time Miltiades. The following places on the Hellespont are in Europe the Chersonese. and having devoted these also to flames. but having abandoned their country. when they passed near them before. going by the sacred way. son of Cimon. son of Cypselus. and made them eunuchs instead of men. The Byzantians. for the Cyzicenians had of their own accord submitted to the king before the arrival of the Phoenicians. having burned down the places bria. : . All the other cities of the Chersonese. and Byzantium. son of Megabyzus. and the Chalcedonians on the opposite side. having formerly acquired this government in the following manner: The Thracian Dolonci possessed this Chersonese. in which are many cities. except Cardia. Perinthus. turned out of the road toward Athens. and castrated them. for the purpose of destroying the rest of the cities.328 HERODOTUS— BOOK VI. who after their departure from the temple should first offer them hospitality. being pressed in war by the Apsynthians. they had not laid waste. and Selybrie. and there founded the city of MesamBut the Phoenicians. and Artace. and burned the cities with the very temples. Miltiades. and when no one invited them. they selected the handsomest youths. son of Stesagoras. Accordingly. was tyrant of these cities. Against Cyzicus they did not sail at all. For when they had made themselves masters of the cities. then twice successively by the Persians. and the most beautiful virgins they carried away to the king. and the fortified towns toward Thrace. this they did. Thus the Ionians were for the third time reduced to slavery: first by the Lydians. sent their kings to Delphi to consult the oracle concerning the war. then. sailed back again to the Chersonese. which. went inward to the Euxine. went through the territories of the Phocians and Boeotians. Then the Persian generals did not belie the threats which they had uttered against the Ionians when arrayed . governor of Dascylium. for that was impossible. At that time Pisistratus had the supreme power at . above mentioned. The naval force departing from Ionia.

sent and commanded the Lampsacenians to release Miltiades if not. . Philaeus. and by that means repelled the Apsynthians. taking with him all such Athenians as were willing to join in the expedition. but perishes entirely. having laid an ambush. and v/as originally descended from ^Eacus and JEgina. The Pythian having bade him do so.35-38] MILTIADES 329 Athens. at length. set sail with the Dolonci. first of all. They having accepted his invitation. This Miltiades. . dreading the power of Crcesus. told the real truth. having been the first Athenian of that family. . son of Cypselus. took him prisoner. Crcesus. He accordingly escaped by means of Crcesus. having bequeathed the government and . He. that the pine alone of all trees. that he would destroy them like a pine tree. The width of this isthmus is thirty-six stades and from this isthmus the whole Chersonese inward is four hundred and twenty stades in length. called out to them and upon their coming to him he offered them shelter and hospitality. set Miltiades at liberty. being seated in his own portico. and took possession of the country. and afterward died childless. But Miltiades was well known to Croesus. next made war upon the Lampsacenians and the Lampsacenians. then. son of Cypselus. and carrying javelins. he was of a family that maintained horses for the chariot races. but Miltiades. had considerable influence. thereupon Miltiades. having built a wall across the neck of the Chersonese. made known to him the whole oracle. son of Ajax. and seeing the Dolonci passing by. . Their words persuaded Miltiades as soon as he heard them. whereupon the Lampsacenians. Miltiades. does not send forth any more shoots. when cut down. wearing a dress not belonging to the country. and they who introduced him appointed him tyrant. he threatened that he would destroy them like a pine tree. with some difficulty. and having been entertained by him. from the city of Cardia to Pactya. having heard of this event. built a wall on the isthmus of the Chersonese. and desired to get out of his way. therefore. and entreated him to obey the deity. one of the elders having discovered it. who had formerly won the Olympic prize in the chariot race. but in later times was an Athenian. in order that the Apsynthians might not be able to injure them by making incursions into their country. He therefore immediately set out to Delphi to consult the oracle whether he should do that which the Dolonci requested of him. for he was troubled with the government of Pisistratus. The Lampsacenians being in uncertainty in their interpretations as to what was the meaning of the saying with which Crcesus threatened them.

When they heard that he was son of Miltiades. loaded five triremes with the property he had at hand. Now Miltiades himself escaped with four of the ships to Imbrus. fled from the Chersonese. the principal persons of all the cities assembled together from every quarter. with one ship to the Chersonese. his brother by the same mother. kept himself at home under colour of honouring the memory of his brother Stesagoras but the Chersonesians having heard of this. until the Scythians departed. . This Miltiades. having heard that the Phoenicians were at Tenedos. and having come in a body. with the intention of condoling with him. Miltiades. and sailed away for Athens and when he had set out from the city of Cardia. and brother of Stesagoras who had died. Miltiades having arrived in the Chersonese. it also befell Stesagoras to die childless. in which no Lampsacenian is permitted to contend. not daring to wait their approach. befell him. and him the Phoenicians took together with the ship. had lately arrived in the Chersonese and after his arrival other difficulties. having been provoked by King Darius. but by another woman. The war with the Lampsacenians still continuing. and as he was passing by the Chersonese. King of the Thracians. and vehement one. son of Cimon. by a man who that a very was a deserter. and married Hegesipyle. son of Cimon. as is usual to a founder. daughter of Olorus. 330 HERODOTUS— BOOK VI. they took him up to the king. For in the third year before these things he fled from the Scythians for the Scythian nomads.. . happened to be commander. and the Dolonci brought him back again. were all thrown into chains by him. son of Cimon. they had also treated him with kindness at Athens. the Pisistratidae thereupon sent Miltiades. as if they had not been parties to the death of his father Cimon the particulars of which I will relate in in pretence . maintaining five hundred auxiliaries. . but was in fact an enemy. another place. but the fifth the Phoenicians pursued and took of this ship. : . ERATO [38-41 his property to Stesagoras. These things happened in the third year before the present affairs. Stesagoras having died in that manner. the eldest of the sons of Miltiades. greater than the present. the Phoenicians fell in with his ships. he sailed through the Gulf of Melas. had assembled their forces and marched as far as this Chersonese: Miltiades. and instituted equestrian and gymnastic exercises. Thus Miltiades got possession of the Chersonese. being stricken on the head with an axe in the Prytaneum. And when he was dead the Chersonesians sacrificed to him. Metiochus. to assume the government. not by the daughter of Olorus the Thracian.

because Miltiades had given an opinion to the Ionians advising them to comply with the Scythians. and not commit depredations one upon another. . when he arrived in Cilicia. and a numerous land army was assembled. governor of Sardis. : . when I mention it. among Imbros. intheir march against Eretria and Athens. the other generals having been dismissed by the king. When Mardonius. ing this army. gave an opinion that it was right for the Persians to be governed by a democracy . and a Persian wife. that they would submit to legal decisions. and had lately marMardonius. the Persians. established democracies in the cities. having sent for deputies from the cities. taking with him a very large land army and a numerous naval force he was young in years. he imposed tributes on each. son of Gobryas. did him no injury. up to him. Mardonius. . by whom he had children. when the Phoenicians had taken Metiochus. Having done this. they marched through Europe and directed These cities. were the pretext of the expedition but purposing to subdue as many Grecian cities as they could. proceeded with the rest of the fleet. to the Ionians Artaphernes. the following things were done in this year which were advantageous During relative to the . but many favours for he gave him a house and estate. having deposed the tyrants of the Ionians. will be a matter of very great astonishment to those Grecians who can not believe that Otanes. leadried King Darius's daughter Artazostra. this year But Miltiades arrived at Athens from nothing more was done by the Persians war with the Ionians on the contrary. compelled the Ionians to enter into engagements among themselves. having crossed the Hellespont in ships. for Mardonius. son of Miltiades. and having measured their lands by parasangs. deed.41-44] FIRST INVASION OF GREECE 331 thinking that they should obtain great favour for themselves. But Darius. reached Ionia. went down to the coast. as they were imposed by Artaphernes and they were imposed nearly at the same amount as they had been These things then tended to peace. there he did a thing which. which have continued the same from that time to the present. when the Scythians requested them to loose the bridge and return to their own country. one of the seven Persians. This he compelled them to do. in the first place : . which name the Persians give to thirty stades having measured them into these. he hastened to the Hellespont. In the beginbefore. but the other generals led the land army to the Hellespont. who were reckoned . having gone in person on board ship. And when a vast body of ships. sailing by Asia. ning of the spring.

. . Then crossing over from Thasus. yet so much that. then. the Thracian Brygi attacked in the night and the Brygi slew many of them. For the Thasians. and to transport their ships to Abdera. and from those in Thasus less indeed than that amount. Accordingly. Such. even they did not escape slavery at the hands of the Persians for Mardonius did not quit those parts before he had reduced them to subjecHaving subdued them. . In the second year after these events. ERATO [44~47 they reduced the Thasians with their fleet. . this armament. . from the continent and the mines. and having large revenues. the Thasians having been accused by their neighbours of designing a revolt. very roughly dealt with a great number of the ships by driving them against Athos for it is said that as many as . and with his navy a greater one near Athos. who did not even raise a hand to resist them and in the next place with their land forces they enslaved the Macedonians. who with Thasus colonized this island. . and upward of twenty thousand men for. and others from cold. and wounded Mardonius himself. but a violent and irresistible north wind falling upon them as they were sailing round. as this sea around Athos abounds in monsters.: 332 HERODOTUS— BOOK VI. Nevertheless. in addition to those that were before subject to them. : : three hundred ships were destroyed. having suffered a disaster with his land forces from the Brygi. some of them were seized and destroyed by these monand others were dashed against the rocks. Darius sent a messenger and commanded them to demolish their walls. Mardonius and the land forces. having met with such disgraceful reverses. was the fate of the naval force. applied their wealth in building ships of war and fortifying their city with a stronger wall. they coasted along the continent as far as Acanthus and proceeding from Acanthus. having been besieged by Histiaeus the Milesian. they endeavoured to double Mount Athos. three hundred talents. which on that occasion took its name from this Thasus the Phoenician. tion. I myself have seen these mines and by far the most wonderful of them are those which the Phoenicians discovered. Their revenues arose both from the continent and from their mines from the gold mines of Scapte-Hyle proceeded in all eighty talents yearly. . for all the nations on this side of the Macedonians were already under their power. there came in to the Thasians in all. others knew sters not how to swim and so perished. while encamped in Macedonia. as they were exempt from taxes on the produce of the soil. a revenue of two hundred talents yearly and when the greatest quantity came in. retreated into Asia. he led his army back again.

moreover. They then set about preparing these things and to the heralds who came to Greece many of the inhabitants of the continent gave what the Persian demanded. both demolished their walls and transported all their ships to Abdera. going to Sparta. and. He said this in consequence of a message from Demaratus. in obedience to the king. son of Anaxandrides." . intending to seize the most culpable of the ^ginetae. and among them especially Crius. accused the ^Eginetae of what they had done. This. he would have come with the other king to seize them. with orders to demand earth and water for the king." Meanwhile Demaratus. as did all the islanders to whom they came and made the demand. being driven from ^gina. On this accusation Cleomenes. Indeed. . appointing different persons to go to different parts throughout Greece. " Now then tip your horns with brass. whether to make war with him or to deliver themselves up. The Thasians. thinking that the ^Eginetse had given earth and water out of ill will toward themselves. who was likewise King of the Spartans. the ^Eginetae but when they had done so. being persuaded by bribes from the Athenians. in order that they might make war on them in conjunction with the Persians they therefore gladly laid hold of the pretext. who was then King of the Spartans. the other islanders gave earth and water to Darius. others of the ^Eginetae opposed him. . but when he attempted to seize them. and. O : 1 Crius signifies "a ram. who said that he should not carry off any one of the ^ginetae with impunity. and despatched other heralds to the tributary cities on the coast.47-51] TROUBLE WITH THE iEGINET^E 333 These Phoenician mines are in that part of Thasus between a place called yEnyra and Ccenyra. aspersed the conduct of Cleomenes he was in no other respect inferior. the Athenians forthwith threatened them. but of an inferior family. is of such a description. After this Darius made trial of what were the intentions of the Greeks. opposite Samothrace: a large mountain has been thrown upside down in the search. for that he was acting as he did without the consent of the commonwealth of the Spartans. for they were sprung from the same origin. son of Ariston. But Cleomenes. These accordingly he sent to Greece. remaining in Sparta. Crius. 1 as you will have to contend with great misfortunes. : : . then. son of Polycritus. with orders to build ships of war and transports for horses. as betraying Greece. and that if it had not been so. He therefore despatched heralds. crossed over to JEg'ma. asked Crius what his name was and he told him the truth whereupon Cleomenes said to him.

sent to Delphi to inquire of the oracle what they should do in the matter. and to the younger. in pursuance of the suggestion of the Messenian. attending to them interchangeably. that both should be made kings. being king. and that their descendants continued to be so. if it were possible. a Messenian. whose name was Argia. discovered that she constantly gave one the preference both in feeding and washing. but was desirous. ERATO [51-53 somehow the family of Eurysthenes was more honoured. according to custom. they then. though brothers. brought them to the country which they now inhabit. since they were alike and of equal size. They say that both these. For the Lacedaemonians. having looked on the children. and being in doubt. being still in doubt how they should discover the eldest of them. brought forth they say that she was daughter of Autesion. she replied that she herself was unable to distinguish. : . . son of Polynices and that she bore twins and that Aristodemus. agreeing with none of the poets. The Lacedaemonians alone of the Greeks give this account: but I now : . son of Tisamenes. Thereupon the Spartans. on account of seniority. . : . affirm that Aristodemus himself. or perhaps before. to make the eldest of the children king. the Lacedaemonians. were at variance with each other throughout the whole course of their lives. . it would be evident to them that she knew no more than they did and then they must have recourse to some other expedient. whose name was Panites. but if she should vary. And that after no long time Aristodemus's wife. That the Lacedaemonians were consequently in doubt. son son of Hyllus. when they had reached manhood. They add that the Pythian bade them consider both the children as kings but to honour the eldest most this answer the Pythian gave them but of Cleodaeus. Being unable to determine. she not knowing why she was Therefore considering that the child which was watched. made a suggestion to them this Panites made the following suggestion to the Lacedaemonians. they would then have all they were seeking for and desired to know . asked the mother. although she knew very well. : . having watched the mother of Aristodemus's children. son of Aristomachus. She said this. and not the sons of Aristodemus. son of Thersander. died of disease that the Lacedaemonians of that day resolved. but they knew not which to choose. .334 but HERODOTUS— BOOK VI. honoured by its mother was the eldest. Procles. they educated it in the palace and to him the name of Eurysthenes was given. to observe which of the two children the mother would wash and feed first and if she should be found constantly doing the same.

At all public games they have seats appointed by way of distinction and it is their prerogative to appoint such citizens as they please to be Proxeni * and also to choose each two Pythii. But such particulars as others have not taken in hand. being in no way related to Perseus. . a perfect victim is presented to each of them. are rightly enumerated by the Greeks. they sacrifice as many cattle as they please. the deity being omitted. The Spartans have given the following privileges to their kings two priesthoods. and a Laconian quart of wine. Let this then suffice for this subject. the kings go first. and on the seventh day of the current month. and are first served. each receiving double of whatever is given to the other guests. I will omit to mention. and a hundred chosen men guard them in the field during the expeditions. But as the account of the Persians is given. Such is the genealogy according to the account of the Greeks.. and retire last. daughter of Acrisius. have been given them as follows: If any one make a public sacrifice. they obtained the sovereignty of the Dorians. being Egyptians. son of Danae. : : take as their own share the skins and chines of all the victims. otherwise he falls under a curse when they march out to war. and are entitled to the skins of the cattle that are sacrificed. At every new moon. though the ancestors of Perseus had not been so but that the progenitors of Acrisius. They have the right of beginning the libations. as Amphitryon to Hercules. and are proved to have been Greeks for even at that time they were ranked among the Greeks I have said up to Perseus. and also say. : . 1 Officers appointed to receive and entertain foreign ambassadors. These are their privileges in time of war. 53-57] THE KINGS OF SPARTA 335 describe these things in the way they are told by the rest of the Grecians. . that of the Lacedaemonian Jupiter. were Egyptians. and have not carried it any higher. and a medimnus of meal. of these I will make mention. those during peace. because no surname of any mortal father is attributed to Perseus. for this reason. For they say that these kings of the Dorians up to Perseus. and by what exploits. as the Greeks . I have therefore with good reason. and correctly. at the public charge. and no one of the Spartans may impede this. But why. the kings sit first at the feast. the leaders of the Dorians will prove to have been originally Egyptians. became a Greek. and that of the Celestial Jupiter and to levy war against whatever country they please. for the Temple of Apollo. : . . being an Assyrian. The others. said up to Perseus but if we reckon their progenitors upward from Danae. as others have spoken of these matters. Perseus himself.

These privileges are given to the kings by the their own. When the kings do not come to the banquet. : .336 HERODOTUS—BOOK VI. and if they negThe Lacelect to do so. a certain number of the neighbouring inhabitants should of necessity attend the funeral when. releases whatever debts may be due from any The . and of the Helots and of the Spartans themselves. heavy fines are imposed on them. they promiscuously with the women strike their foreheads vehemently. a man and a woman. but when they are present. those of the senators who are most nearly connected with them enjoy the privileges of the kings. daemonians have the same custom with regard to the deaths of their kings. having prepared his effigy. beat a caldron. nor is a meeting held for the election of magistrates. the following: Horsemen announce through all Laconia what has happened and women. commonwealth of the Spartans during life. a double portion of everything is given them and when invited to a banquet by private persons. The kings alone have to determine the following matters only With respect to a virgin heiress. and when they die. and if they do not attend. Should one of their kings die in war. They also resemble the Persians in this other respect: when on the death of a king another king is appointed. but they mourn during those days. he. accordingly. have assembled together in one place. who is to marry her. . but the Pythii are also privy to them. They have the keeping of the oracles that are pronounced. and when they have buried him. going through the city. : . to make themselves squalid in token of grief. it is necessary for two free people of each house. two choenices of flour and a cotyle of wine are sent home to each of them. they expose it to public view on a couch richly ornamented. They assist at the deliberations of the senators. . it must be done in presence of the kings. ERATO [57-59 Pythii are persons who are sent to consult the oracle at Delphi. no assembly takes place for ten days. when this accordingly is done. . For when a king of the Lacedaemonians dies it is required that from the whole territory of Lacedaemon. as the barbarians in Asia for most of the barbarians observe the same custom with respect to the deaths of their kings. besides the Spartans. and a third. and are maintained with the kings at the public charge. affirming that the king who died last was the best they ever had. on his accession. many thousands of these. and give themselves up to unbounded lamentation. who are twenty-eight in number. if her father has not betrothed her and with respect to the public highways and if any one desires to adopt a son. they are honoured in the same manner. giving two votes.

asked what she was carrying in her arms and she answered that she was carrying an infant. a cook of a cook. urged her by all means to show it to her. and cooks succeed to their fathers' professions so that a musician is son of a musician. 22 . who was a Spartan. When the nurse brought the child there. And it is related that one day. : . good of Greece. having become the most beautiFor her nurse perceiving that ful from being the most ugly. and a herald of a herald nor do others on account of the clearness of their voice apply themselves to this profession and exclude others but they continue to practise it after their fathers. then. as the nurse was going out of the temple. having returned from /Egina. whereupon she bade her show it to her. which is in the place called Therapne. but the nurse refused. stroking the head of the child with her hands. said that she would surpass all the women of Sparta in beauty. ious to see the child. But Cleomenes. formed a plan to deprive Demaratus of the sovereignty. she stood before the image and entreated the goddess to free the child from its deformity. a woman appeared to her. and this. devised the following plan She carried her every day to the Temple of Helen. and seeing. 337 Spartan to the king or the public and so among the Persians. resemble the Egyptians: their heralds. therefore. and having appeared. When she reached . above the Temple of Phoebus. at length showed it upon which she. that time.. moreover. are so. considering these several circumstances. for she had been forbidden by the parents to show the child to any one. Demaratus accused him not so much caring for the /Eginetse as moved by envy and hatred. to whom he was more attached than to any other of the citizens. while for the common Cleomenes was at yEgina. and the nurse. she was misshapen. however. These things. he married a third wife and he married her in this manner He had a friend. and as he did not acknowledge himself to be the cause of this. and had married two wives. moreover. . and knowing her to be the daughter of opulent persons. : 59-61] CLEOMENES AND DEMARATUS . At and co-operating . . and from that day her appearance began to change. musicians. seeing that the woman was so very anx. and deformed. getting a handle against him by means of the following circumstance: When Ariston reigned in Sparta. that her parents considered her form a great misfortune. The wife of this man happened to be by far the most beautiful of all the women in Sparta. he had no children. a newly appointed king remits to all the cities the arrears of In this respect also the Lacedaemonians tribute then due. the woman.

a present of any one thing he should choose out of all his possessions. said with an oath. : . at the time. woman excited Ariston he therefore had recourse to the following stratagem He promised he would give his friend. Agetus. assented to the proposal and they imposed oaths on each other on these terms.338 HERODOTUS—BOOK VI. then. was the friend of Ariston. and now more particularly when Cleomenes had crossed over against those yEginetae. But it was fated. for Demaratus had incurred the hatred of Cleomenes. and Ariston repented of what he had said. and reckoning the months on his fingers. then. He gave him the name of Demaratus for this reason before this the Spartans had made public supplications that Ariston. which Agetus chose out of all his treasures. son of Agis. seeing that Ariston already had a wife. being compelled by his oath. because he had before led away the army from Eleusis. whom they esteemed the most illustrious of all the kings that had ever reigned in Sparta. married her. He. being eager to avenge himself. as it appears. Leutychides had become . and before she had completed her ten months. : 1 Demaratus means " granted to the prayers of the people. Thus. one of his servants announced to him that a son was born to him. whatever it was. son of Menares. Ariston took to himself a third wife. having put away the second. might have a son. having no apprehension on account of his wife. In process of time Ariston died. should occasion the deposition of Demaratus from the sovereignty. Cleomenes." This the Ephori heard. and circumvented by deceit. For this reason the name of Demaratus x was given to him. But in too short a time. son of Alcides. who was of the same family with Demaratus. when made known. Ariston himself gave the thing. . Agetus said that he had assented to anything but this only nevertheless. The child grew up. " It can not be mine. and Demaratus obtained the sovereignty. for he was fully persuaded that Demaratus was his son. but he. this woman bore Demaratus and as he was sitting on the bench with the Ephori. . and required his friend in return to do the like to him. and himself claiming to obtain the same compliance from him. he suffered him to take her away with him. However. they took no notice. on condition that if he should make him king instead of Demaratus he should accompany him against the ^ginetae. Now love for this this. made a compact with Leutychides. knowing the time at which he married the woman. ERATO [61-65 the age for marriage. then. that these things. Accordingly. thereupon attempted to carry off his wife with him. who were inclined to Medism. whose wife this woman was." .

decided that Demaratus was not the son of Ariston. son of Aristophantus. by way of ridicule and mockery. being vexed with the question. but Leutychides had not however. But Demaratus fled from Sparta to the Medes on account of the following insult After his deposition from the sovereignty. having plotted against him. he was chosen to and held the office of magistrate. son of Demarmenes. answered that he indeed had tried both. recalling the words which Ariston spoke when the servant announced that a son was born to him. was deposed from her office. not being the son of Ariston . 1 An annual formed various festival at Sparta. who were then sitting by the king. he prosecuted him. that this question would be the beginning either of infinite calamity or infinite prosperity to the Lacedaemonians. whereupon he. he went out of the thea. at athletic exercises. reckoning the months. and now. In this manner the enmity of Leutychides to Demaratus originated. the matter coming to trial. sent a servant and asked him. Leutychides made oath against Demaratus. affirming that he did not legitimately reign over the Spartans. denied with an oath. a man of very great influence at Delphi and Cobon prevailed with Perialla. saying that it was not his. who had been appointed king in his place. the Spartans determined to inquire of the oracle at Delphi whether Demaratus was the son of Ariston. But the matter being referred to the Pythian at the instance of Cleomenes. chiefly for this reason. The Gymnopaediae * were being celebrated. Cleomenes thereupon gained over one Cobon. At length. disappointed Leutychides of his marriage having himself anticipated him by seizing Percalus and retaining her as his wife. maintained that Demaratus was neither the son of Ariston nor rightful King of Sparta. and Cobon fled from Delphi. When Leutychides was affianced to Percalus. the prophetess. and. Leutychides. the prophetess. : : . Having spoken thus and covered his face. But he. when the persons sent to consult the oracle made the inquiry. The Pythian accordingly. Demaratus. and heard these words of Ariston. Leutychides. when Demaratus was looking on. In after time this came to be known. then. what kind of thing it was to be a magistrate after having been a king. insisting on this declaration. it happened with respect to the deposition of Demaratus from the sovereignty. and Perialla. Thus.65-67] DEMARATUS DEPOSED 339 an enemy to Demaratus. to say what Cleomenes wished to be said. and he adduced as witnesses those Ephori. daughter of Chilon. which boys danced naked and per- . and after making oath against him. at the instigation of Cleomenes.

being pregnant by your former husband. by the gods to speak the truth for even if you have done anything of what is said. discovered that the event was superhuman and in the first place. I adjure you. you have all that you wish to know for you are sprung either from that hero. and say you kept company with one of the servants. She answered as follows " Son. for that having come shortly before and lain with me. a feeder of asses. As to that with which your enemies most violently attack you. had not yet elapsed he threw out those words through ignorance of such matters for women bring forth at nine months and at seven. and. put on me a crown that it had it departed. ERATO [67-69 tre to his own house . and supplicated her. but with many others ." Thus he spoke. Do not listen to any other stories respecting your birth. on the third night from the first. the crown proved to have come from the shrine situated near the palace gates. speaking as follows " Mother. at seven months and Ariston himself knew. others tell even a more idle story. Ariston. the whole truth shall be told you. affirming that Ariston himself. But I bore you. and the hero Astrabacus is your father. calling to witness both the rest of the gods and this Hercaean Jupiter. the seers pronounced that it was the hero himself. that he had uttered those words thoughtlessly. and not all complete ten months. a spectre resembling Ariston came to me. When Ariston had taken me to his own house. seeing that I affirmed with an oath. for I conceived you in that night. : : . to tell me the truth. he asked who it was that gave it me. you have not done it alone. I said he did but he would not admit it whereupon I took an oath. and having lain with me. he had given me the crown. And from : : : : . and having immediately made preparation. : . his mother came. or Ariston. not long after. so came to Ariston. since you implore me with supplications to speak the truth. my son. he sacrificed an ox to Jupiter. who is in reality my father? For Leutychides affirmed at the trial that you. ten months. which they call Astrabacus's and. he placed When part of the entrails in her hands. . in the presence of many persons. . . denied you were his. for that otherwise his former wives would have had offspring. the report is common in Sparta that Ariston was incapable of begetting children. and afterward Ariston came but when he saw me with the crown. I beseech you. moreover. when your birth was announced to him. having sacrificed. my son. Thus. in the next place. therefore. and that I am his son. for you have heard the whole truth. 340 HERODOTUS— BOOK VI. then.. and said that he did not well to deny it. for that the time. called for his mother.

crossing over from Elis to Zacynthus : but the Lacedaemonians. succeeded to the kingdom. for the Zacynthians would not give him up. he crossed over from thence to Asia. and went against the ^Eginetae." Thus she spoke. having met with such fortune. sitting there in the camp on a sleeve full of silver. But the Lacedaemonians. being renowned in many other respects among the Lacedaemonians. son was born to him named Zeuxidemus. and he fled to Tegea. it were. escape. The ^ginetae accordingly thought proper to make no further resistance as both kings were coming against them. for he cus. These events happened some time reparation. they therefore. Archidamus. moreover. son of Zeuxidemus. and having taken provisions for his journey. as : .69-73] DEMARATUS FLEES TO DARIUS 341 feeders of asses may their wives bring forth children to Leutychides. of Sparta who had done this. son of Menares. having crossed over after him. both by his deeds and counsels. having learned what he wished. suspecting that he was attempting to make his . Leutychides. and when it was in his power to have reduced the whole country to subjection. married a second wife. he was banished from Sparta. But afterward. and daughter of Diactorides by her he had no male offspring. having : . to Demaratus He commanded the Lacedaemonian army in Thessaly. laid hands on him and took away his attendants. he accepted a large sum of money as a bribe and being caught in the very act. being the only one of all the kings : . LeuHowever. where he died. Archidamus. bearing a deep grudge against them on account of the insult he had received. married. leaving a son. after. and such as spread such reports. proceeded to Elis pretending that he was going to Delphi to consult the oracle. pursued him and by some means Demaratus got the start of them. When Cleomenes had succeeded in his design against Demaratus. Eurydame. tychides being bereaved of Zeuxidemus. posed. and. who was sister of Menius. Thus Demaratus arrived in Asia. he procured this honour for his native city. to King Darius and he received him honourably. but made the following . having been brought before a court of justice. Leudied before Leutychides. Leutytychides having bestowed her upon him. and gave him land and cities. when Demaratus was de- A . Lampito her. whom some of the Spartans called CynisThis Zeuxidemus was never King of Sparta. he immediately took Leutychides with him. His house was razed. But he. having obtained an Olympic victory with a four-horsed chariot. but a daughter. chides did not grow old in Sparta.

: . the sceptre into his face. when discovered to have employed wicked artifices against Demaratus. son of Aristocrates. and among them Crius. After this. set it on fire. and engaging them both by other oaths to follow him wherever he should lead them. gave him a knife. restored him to Sparta on the same terms as those on which he had reigned before. in that manner he died as most of the Grecians say. he proceeded from the legs to the thighs and from the thighs to the hips and loins at last he came to the belly. and having gashed this. 342 HERODOTUS— BOOK VI. The Lacedaemonians. he was desirous of leading the chief men of the Arcadians to the city of Nonacris. asked for a knife and . is a city of Arcadia near Pheneum. For when Cleomenes consulted the oracle at Delphi. ERATO [73-76 selected ten of the JEgmetze. for he was one of his Helots. and. . his relatives confined him but he being so confined. for having cut the flesh lengthwise. the greatest enemies of the iEginetae. and seeing a in wooden fetters single guard left alone by the rest. and a fence of masonry surrounds the hollow. he massacred them. and he withdrew secretly to Thessaly and from thence passing into Arcadia. who had the chief authority. the most eminent both in wealth and birth. son of Polycritus. through fear. till at last the guard.. began to mutilate himself from the legs. Nonacris. And it is of the following description: small quantity of water is seen and drops from a rock into a hollow. fearing his threats. . But as soon as he had returned madness seized him. . though he was before somewhat crazed for whenever he met any one of the Spartans. he began to form new designs. from their sacred precincts of Argus. Then Cleomenes. because he. and Casambus. because he persuaded the Pythian to say what she did concerning Demaratus but as the Athenians alone say. having got hold of the blade. and having carried them away to Attica. fear of the Spartans seized upon Cleomenes. in which this fountain happens to be. moreover. when the guard at first refused to give it. and holding the grove itself in contempt. because when he invaded Eleusis he cut down the grove of the goddesses * but as the Argives say. he threatened what he would do to him hereafter. rousing the Arcadians against Sparta. 1 Ceres and Proserpine. they delivered them as a pledge to the Athenians. and to be clearly out of his mind. having called out those Argives who had fled from battle. he used to thrust When he was found to do this. to make them swear by the water of the Styx. being informed that Cleomenes was acting thus. an . for in that city the water of the Styx is by the Arcadians said to be. A : .

: : . summoning by name those Argives who were shut up in the sacred precinct and he called them out. offered sacrifice to it. they surrounded and kept watch over. leaving no great space between the two armies. and having received information from them. having retired. shall drive him out. for they fell upon the Argives as they were taking their dinner. the Argives did the same. therefore. accordingly. called Erasinus Cleomenes. then. reappears in Argos. he said that he admired the Erasinus for not betraying its people. and they killed many of them. who had taken refuge in the grove of Argus. There. which the Pythian pronounced in common to them and the Milesians. . but lest they should be taken by stratagem for it was to this event the oracle had reference. saying that he had received their ransom but the ransom among the Peloponnesians is a fixed . After this. for that this lake. they were not afraid of coming to a pitched battle. The Argives. and obtain glory among the Argives. he arrived at the river Erasinus. having observed that the Argives did whatever his herald gave the signal for. having conquered the male." All these things concurring. was accomplished by the Lacedaemonians. by the Argives. running thus " When the female. went out to meet them on the coast: : and when they were near Tiryns. overcome by the spear. . according to the herald's signal. leading the Spartans. ordered his troops. which is said to flow from the Stymphalian Lake. then to seize their arms and advance against the Argives. yet the Argives should not even thus escape with impunity. and a far greater number. spread alarm among the Argives. therefore they resolved to avail themselves of the herald of the enemy. they did as follows When the Spartan herald gave any signal to the Lacedaemonians. at that place to which the name of Sepia is given. Cleomenes. having arrived at this river. and from that place this water is. discharging itself into an unseen chasm. then shall she make many of the Argive women rend their garments so that one of future generations shall say a terrible triple-coiled serpent has perished. being informed of this. he sent a herald and called them out. This. and having so resolved. they encamped opposite the Lacedaemonians. When. Cleomenes then adopted the following course Having some deserters with him. when the herald should give the signal for going to dinner. : 76-79] DEATH OF CLEOMENES 343 answer was given him that he should take Argus. and having sacrificed a bull to the sea. therefore. he conveyed them in ships to the Tirynthian territory and Nauplia.. he marched his forces to Thyrea. but as the victims by no means gave a favourable omen for his passing over.

or what they were doing. said " prophetic Apollo thou hast indeed greatly deceived me. Thereupon Cleomenes ordered all the Helots to heap up wood around the grove. having recovered . taking a thousand chosen men with him. alleging that he had been bribed not to take Argos. until at last one of them. saw what was being done. Cleomenes. They therefore no more went out when called for. I conjecture thy prophecy . saying that it was not lawful for a stranger to offer sacrifice there upon which Cleomenes commanded the Helots to drag the priest from the altar and scourge him. Argos. in saying that I should take Argos. he set fire to the grove. On his return. a flame of fire shone forth from the breast of the image. But when he wished himself to offer sacrifice on the altar. and therefore he did not think it right to attempt the city before he had had recourse to victims. that when he had taken the sacred precinct of Argus. Then they. ERATO [79-83 sum of two minae to be paid for each prisoner. he went away to Sparta. however. went to offer sacrifice at the Temple of Juno. the priest forbade him. but as it shone forth from the breast. however. put to death about and somehow this went on unknown to fifty of the Argives the rest who were within the precinct. he should have taken the city completely. while he himself sacrificed. When all was in a flame. and was acquitted by a large majority. he thought that everything had been done by him which the deity wished to happen. O ! After this Cleomenes sent away the greater and he himself. having done this. : . his enemies accused him before the Ephori. . and is accomplished. Cleomenes. and thus he learned for certain that he should not take Argos for if it had shone forth from the head of the image. he asked one of the deserters to which of the gods the grove belonged.: 344 HERODOTUS— BOOK VI. whether speaking falsely or truly I am unable to say for certain he affirmed. and when they had executed his orders. when he heard this. was left so destitute of men that their slaves had the management of affairs. . he said that it belonged to Argus." part of his army to Sparta. until the sons of those who had been killed grew up. In saying this he appeared to the Spartans to say what was credible and reasonable. those within did not see those without. getting up into a tree. he thought that the oracle of the god was accomplished. ruling and administering them. and ascertained whether the god would favour or obstruct him and that while he was sacrificing favourably in the Temple of Juno. uttering a deep groan. therefore. He said to them. having called them out severally. for as the grove was thick. when he might easily have taken it.

said to them " Men of /Egina. determined that the /Eginetae had been very much injured by Leutychides. as they themselves say. to take away the King of the Spartans. what are you going to do. but that by associating with the Scythians he became a drinker of unmixed wine. and having sent to Sparta to make an alliance. then. But the Spartans themselves say that Cleomenes became mad from no divine influence. who was by birth a Phigalean of Arcadia. From this circumstance there was war between them for a long time. Cleomenes. Now the Argives say that on this account Cleomenes became mad and perished miserably. they hereafter pour into your country a calamity which will utterly destroy you. yielding to anger. 345 Argos. they say. the Spartans speak But Cleomenes appears to me to concerning Cleomenes." The /Eginetae having heard this. being driven out. refrained from taking him away and came to this agreement. and then They say that for both armies to meet at the same place. and condemned him to be delivered up and taken to /Egina. since Darius had invaded their country. associated with them too intimately. And from that time. and being more intimate with them than was proper. But when the /Eginetae were about to take Leutychides away. and from that cause became mad. till at last the Argives with difficulty got the upper hand. " Pour out like a Scythian. For that the Scythian nomads. when they wish to drink stronger drink. expelled the slaves and the slaves. he persuaded the slaves to attack their masters. but then there came to the slaves one Cleander. took Tiryns by assault. and march upward. on account of the hostages detained at Athens: and the Lacedaemonians. an eminent man in Sparta. and the Spartans think that he became mad from this cause. a prophet.83-85] MADNESS OF CLEOMENES . contracted from them a habit of drinking unmixed wine. in the place of the men who were detained at Athens. if you do these things. For a time concord subsisted between them." Thus. have suffered this retribution on account of Demaratus. who has been delivered into your hands by the citizens? If the Spartans. were afterward desirous to take vengeance on him. . when the Scythians came for this purpose. Theasides. and agree that the Scythians themselves should endeavour to make an irruption into Media near the river Phasis. When the yEginetse were informed of the death of Cleomenes. and to urge the Spartans to set out from Ephesus. having assembled a court of judicature. have so decided. son of Leoprepes. that Leutychides should accompany them : . take care lest. they sent ambassadors to Sparta to complain loudly against Leutychides.

you will do what is just. and restore the men to the vEginetae. with the desire of profiting by your justice. and it would not be right to deliver them up to one without the other. wished to have a conference with him. considering it a great calamity.' The Milesians. departed. and if indeed but if I have I have received it. and also bore the highest character for justice of all who at that time dwelt at Lacedaemon. : . on the condition mentioned. it will be safe. I considered with myself that Ionia is continually exposed to great dangers. ERATO [85-86 to Athens. long time had elapsed. demanded back the money. being well assured that. Spartans say that about three generations before my time there lived in Lacedaemon one Glaucus. demanded back the pledges. I have determined to change half of my whole substance into silver and deposit it with you. the sons of this man who had deposited the money came to Sparta. on his arrival at Athens. and consequently that with us one can never see the same persons retaining property. having come to Sparta. son of Epicydes we relate that this man both attained to the first rank in all other respects. say that in due time the following events befell him certain Milesian. For since throughout all the rest of Greece. When Leutychides. as : O . and if you do not deliver them up. Peloponnesus is securely situated. there was great talk of your justice. being placed with you. the contrary. and particularly in Ionia. the Athenians had recourse to evasion. accordingly. and that. do whichever you yourselves wish for if you deliver them up. and having addressed themselves to Glaucus. And Glaucus After a received the deposit. and shown the tokens. Leutychides addressed them as follows " Athenians. tell you what once happened in Sparta respecting a deposit. and said that two kings had deposited them. Having. however. Do you. I shall have recourse to the laws of the Greeks against you. I will. Glaucus repulsed them. therefore. and am come. on the contrary. restore it to him. answering as follows ' I neither remember the matter. I therefore defer settling this matter with you for four months from the present time. . Glaucus. then. I am willing to do everything that is just . and preserve these tokens and whosoever possessing The these shall demand it back again. reflected and deliberated on these things.346 HERODOTUS— BOOK VI. take this money. I wish to restore it correctly not received it at all. We : : A We : . nor does it occur to me that I know any of the circumstances you mention . and made the following statement ' I am a Milesian. When the Athenians refused to give them up. not wishing to give them up .' stranger who came from Miletus spoke thus. but if I can recall it to my mind.

But the Pythian said that to tempt the god. But the race of a man who keeps his oath Glaucus." Leutychides having said this. O Athenians. he destroys the whole race. Now there was in iEgina an eminent man named Nicodromus. sacrifice to Apollo. The Athenians. they formed an ambuscade and took the ship Theoris. they prepared to revenge themselves on the Athenians and as the Athenians happened to have a five-benched galley at Sunium. 1 filled with the principal Athenians and having taken the men. But the ^ginetae. mentioning on what day he would make the attempt. then for death even awaits the man who keeps his oath. . to consult the oracle. him. 1 The Theoris was a vessel which was sent every year to Delos to offer : : . will be a present gain swear. who has neither hands nor feet. departed. But there is a nameless son of Perjury. With what design this story has been told you. . according to his agreement with the Athenians. but finding the Athenians did not even then listen to being deprived of their money. ' : : . acted as follows Being offended with the Athenians. until. entered into an agreement with the Athenians for the betrayal of ^gina. to gratify the Thebans. however. and to make a booty of the money.86-89] ATHENIANS ATTACK ^GINA 347 But Glaucus went to Delphi and when he asked the oracle whether he should make a booty of the money by an oath. having been treated thus by the ^Eginetae. having heard this. son of Epiassailed him in the following words cydes. shall now be mentioned. were the same thing. having sent for the Milesian strangers. and on what it would be necessary for them to come to his assistance. After this Nicodromus. thus to prevail by an oath. and now hearing that the Athenians were preparing to do a mischief to the ^Eginetse. seized that which is called the old town. and all the house. nor any house which is supposed to have belonged to Glaucus but he is utterly extirpated from Sparta. they put them in chains. The Athenians. son of Cncethus he being incensed against the ^Eginetse on account of his former banishment from the island. Glaucus. the Pythian Glaucus. he pursues swiftly. enis afterward more blessed. restored to them the money. Thus it is right to have no other thought concerning a deposit than to restore it when it is demanded. before they received punishment for the injuries they had done to the Athenians. having seized. therefore. There is at present not a single descendant of Glaucus. . and to commit the crime.' treated the god to pardon the words he had spoken. no longer delayed to devise all sorts of plans against them. and thinking themselves injured.

however. however. The Athenians. had revolted against them. but they were ejected out of the island. /This. cut off his hands. having escaped from his bonds. then. fled to the porch of Ceres. manned seventy ships in all. they came to an engagement. and afterward. The Corinthians. But when the Athenians arrived with their seventy ships. . therefore. letting them to hire for five drachmae each because by their laws they were forbidden to give them for nothing. for they happened not to have a sufficient number of ships to engage with the ^Eginetse and while they were entreating the Corinthians to furnish them with ships. and arrived one day after that agreed upon. plundered the iEginetae in the island. which they were unable to expiate by any contrivance. . who. made an agreement to pay one hundred talents. And on this occasion they incurred a guilt. Nicodromus. held it fast but they. . the ^Eginetse treated their own people. ERATO [89-92 did not arrive at the proper time. and were very obstinate. . when the Athenians did not arrive at the proper time. for they were then on very friendly terms with them. The Sicyonians. and be free from the rest.. and. together with Nicodromus. but complained that the ships of the ^ginetse. acknowledging that they had acted unjustly. Thus. five hundred each. they led them out to execution. they called on the same persons as before for assistance that is. having subdued them. happened subsequently. accordingly. sallying from thence. They. at their request supplied the Athenians with twenty ships and they furnished them. . and so took him away and the hands were left sticking on the door handles. their plan was ruined. 348 HERODOTUS— BOOK VI. the lawgiver. but the ^Eginetae would not own themselves in the wrong. and the crews had disembarked with the Lacedaemonians. and being conquered in the sea-fight. having taken these and their own. before the goddess became propitious to them. embarked on shipboard and made his escape from iEgina and others of the ^Eginetse accompanied him. when they were unable by dragging to tear him away. having been forcibly seized by Cleomenes. Some men had also disembarked from Sicyonian ships in the same invasion and a penalty was imposed upon them by the Argives to pay a thousand talents. on the Argives. and sailed to ^gina. would not any longer succour them. . In the meantime the most wealthy of the ^Eginetae overpowered the common people. seizing the door handle. On this account. For having taken seven hundred of the common people prisoners. they led them out to execution and one of them. had touched on the territory of Argos. . — . to whom the Athenians gave Sunium for a habitation and they.

not having been before captured. but was slain by the fourth. and did not await their approach: the Persians. and took four of their ships with the men on board. on their request. the Naxians fled to the mountains. none of the Argives were sent by the commonwealth to assist them. and who had practised for the pentathlon. being carried out of the Icarian Sea. — the bondsmen were appointed into his presence. to bring ceeded erals. The general. and at the same time Darius. and Artaphernes. and reached the Aleian plain of Cilicia. they sailed for Ionia with six hundred triremes. killed three several antagonists in that manner. because he had sucill in his expedition and having appointed other genhe sent them against Eretria and Athens namely. they arrived off Naxos (for the Persians. having seized as many . because in the preceding year. and the Pisistratidae constantly importuned him and accused the Athenians. Eurybates. Datis. in attempting a passage that way. besides. volunteers went to the number of a thousand a general. while they were there encamped the : and well-equipped whole naval force required from each people came up the horse transports were also present. having enslaved Athens and Eretria. The ^Eginetse. son of Artaphernes.. his own nephew. but : : slain by the Athenians in JEg'ma. chiefly. and. and having embarked the land forces in the ships. bringing with them a numerous army. but parting from Samos they directed their course across the Icarian Sea. dreading the circumnavigation of Athos. Naxos compelled them. From thence they did not steer their ships along the continent direct toward the Hellespont and Thrace. and through the islands as appears to me. Having put the horses of these. War was accordingly kindled between the Athenians and But the Persian pursued his own design. purposed to attack this place first). When these generals who left the king. therefore. led them the greater number of these never returned home. however. which Darius in the preceding year had commanded on board his tributaries to prepare.. and he despatched them with strict orders. laying hold of this pretext. having attacked the fleet were of the Athenians. was desirous of subduing those people of Greece who had refused to give him earth and water. whose name was Eurybates. when they were in disorder. engaging in single combat. bearing in mind what had formerly happened. for the ^Eginetse. When. He therefore dismissed Mardonius from his command. obtained a victory. but. who was a Mede by birth. servant continually reminded him to remember the Athenians. 92-96] INVASION OF GREECE 349 therefore. Sophanes of Decelea. . they had sustained great loss .

having sailed forward. And the deity assuredly by this portent intimated to men the evils that were about to befall them. son of Hystaspes. While they were doing this. and having done this. would not permit the ships to anchor near the island. partly brought upon it by the Persians. that in the region where the two deities * were born no harm should be done either to the country itself or to its inhabitants. " one who restrains " Xerxes. And when. " a warrior " and Artaxerxes. sent a herald and addressed them as follows " Sacred men. why have you fled. sailed with the army first against Eretria. touched at the islands and from thence they took with them men to serve in the army. So that it is nothing improbable that Delos should be moved at that time. it had been thus " I will move even Delos. : . having been until then unmoved and in an oracle respecting it. But after he had put out to sea from thence.— 35o HERODOTUS— BOOK VI. they touched at Carystus. meaning Eretria and Athens. to your houses. therefore. " a mighty warrior. the Delians also. Datis. and of Artaxerxes." This message he sent to the Delians by means of a herald and afterward having heaped up three hundred talents of frankincense upon the altar. : : . . fled to Tenos but as the fleet was sailing down toward it. having sailed round the islands. the first and last time that it was so affected to my time. taking with him both Ionians and iEolians. and resume possession of the island. and refused to bear arms against their neighbouring cities. he burned it. and partly by the chief men among them contending for power. son of Darius. abandoning Delos. they thereupon be. . Return. and carried away the sons of the islanders for hostages. having done this. forming an unfavourable opinion of me? For both I myself have so much wisdom. Datis. they proceeded against the rest of the islands. set fire to both the sacred buildings and the city ." And in the Grecian language these names mean Darius. The barbarians. of Xerxes. as the Delians say. as the Carystians would not give hostages. ERATO [96-99 of them as they could lay hold of as slaves. and am so ordered by the king. more disasters befell Greece than during the twenty generations that preceded the time of Darius." Thus. but farther on. and he. Delos was shaken by an earthquake. son of Xerxes during these three successive generations. then. after they had parted from Delos. . For during the reigns of Darius. . the Greeks may rightly designate these kings in their language. 1 Apollo and Diana. off Rhenea. although hitherto unwritten moved. having ascertained where the Delians were. accordingly.

communicated to the Athenians. and having taken possession of these places. The Athenians followed this advice of iEschines. . but on the seventh. son of Hippocrates. and having crossed over to Oropus. being informed of the views of both parties. and Philargus. in obedience to the commands of Darius. and rested a few days. were planning to betray their country. but since that opinion had prevailed. son of Nothon. their only care now was. son of Stesagoras. of the Eretrians were not at all sound they sent for the Athenians. trians. sailing on. lest they too should perish. son of Alcimachus. of the Eretrian territory. when they heard of this. they enslaved the inhabitants. saved themselves. Euphorbus. Cimon. in the first place pillaged and set fire to the temples. that they should not abandon the city. and made preparations to attack the enemy.99-103] PERSIANS SUBDUE ERETRIA 351 sieged them. But the Athenians. for six days many fell on both sides. they sailed * to Attica. son of Pisistratus. son of Cyneus. and the Athenians did not refuse their aid. In the meantime the Persians. a man of rank among the Eretrians. Now as Marathon was the spot in Attica best adapted for cavalry. Chcerea. Hippias. and ^gilia. and expecting to treat the Athenians in the same way as they had the Eretrians. whose father. conducted them there. and ravaged their country. A . pressing them very close. entreated the Athenians to assist them . and to retire to the fastnesses of Eubcea. of whom the tenth was Miltiades. During his exile it was : . directed their ships' course to Tamynae. And they. also sent their forces to Marathon and ten generals led them. having gained entrance into the city. But ^Eschines. if by any means they could defend the walls. . »G^Having subdued Eretria. but others of them. who had come. the whole state of their affairs and entreated them to return to their own country. hoping that they should derive gain to themselves from the Persians. in revenge for those that had been burned at Sardis and in the next. they immediately disembarked the horses. being informed that the Persian armament was sailing against them. but held divided opinions for some of them proposed to abandon the city. violent attack on the walls ensuing. men of rank among the citizens. had been banished from Athens by Pisistratus. betrayed the city to the Persians. until at last the CarysThe Eretians also submitted to the will of the Persians. . and nearest to Eretria. But the Eretrians had no thoughts of going out against them and fighting. indeed. but gave them as auxiliaries those four thousand men to whom had been allotted the But the councils territory of the horse-feeding Chalcidians.

his enemies thereupon. the Chersonese. and having escaped a twofold death. in the next Olympiad. who was a courier by profession. and having gained this victory. an Athenian. therefore. At that time. was at that time being educated by his paternal uncle Miltiades. one who attended to this very business. and afterward. this Miltiades.352 his HERODOTUS— BOOK VI. belonging to Evagoras the Lacedaemonian but besides these. in the Chersonese. which won the three Olympic prizes. he returned home under terms. And after he had gained another Olympic prize with these same mares. were exceedingly desirous of seizing him. from Miltiades. having attacked him. his brother by the same mother. and he had the name of Miltiades. and would be so hereafter. as their affairs were then in a prosperous condition. and having conceded the victory to him. while the generals were yet in the city. coming from the Chersonese. Cimon was buried in front of the city. having placed men to waylay him by night. being victorious with the same mares. The Athenians. then. Other mares also had already done the same thing. This man. the founder of . the elder of the sons of Cimon. being chosen by the people. then. and thought himself in safety. and erected a temple to Pan beneath the Acropolis. and in consequence of that message they propitiate Pan with yearly sacrifices and : . and carrying him up to the king. but the younger by Cimon himself at Athens. became general of the Athenians for. beyond that which is called the road through Ccela. Stesagoras. But having escaped these also. Pan met near Mount Parthenion. he was at length appointed general of the Athenians. as Phidippides himself said and reported to the Athenians. believed that this was true. . the Phoenicians. who was well inclined to the Athenians. bade him ask the Athenians why they paid no attention to him. when Pisistratus himself was no longer alive they slew him near the Prytaneum. and had often been useful to them. he transferred the honour to Miltiades. and in the next. it happened that he died by the hands of the sons of Pisistratus. having pursued him as far as Imbros. they despatched a herald to Sparta. in the first place. above Tegea and Pan. prosecuted him for tyranny in the Chersonese. and opposite him these same mares : were buried. ERATO [103-105 good fortune to obtain the Olympic prize in the fourhorse chariot race. and brought him before a court of justice. he permitted Pisistratus to be proclaimed victor. none others. and had returned to his own country. when he had escaped them. ' And first. one Phidippides. calling out the name of Phidippides.

he said to assist them. and they resolved indeed to assist the Athenians. Meanwhile Hippias. and drew up the barbarians as they disembarked on land and as he was busied in doing this. and not to suffer the most ancient city among the Greeks to fall into bondage to barbarians for Eretria is : : already reduced to slavery. that having returned to Athens and recovered the sovereignty. : : 23 . moon. but when the tooth could nowhere be found. waited for the full circle not being full. . it happened that he sneezed and coughed more violently than he was accustomed and as he was far advanced in years." He accordingly delivered the message according to his instructions. and to the Lacedaemonians who happened to be following vision in his sleep his : own mother. he used every endeavour to find it. : . nor shall we be able to subdue it whatever share belongeth to me. so that through the violence of his cough he threw out one of these teeth and as it fell on the sand. When the Athenians were drawn up in a place sacred to Hercules. several of his teeth were loose. and on coming in presence of the magis" Lacedaemonians. and the Athenians had already undergone many toils on their account and they gave themselves up on the following occasion The Plataeans. and Greece has become weaker by the loss of a renowned city. my tooth possesses. he first of all landed the slaves from Eretria on the island of the Styreans. he should die an old man in his own country. : . as they were unwilling to violate the law for it was the ninth day of the current month and they said they could not march out on the ninth day. This Phidippides. he drew a deep sigh. had led the barbarians to Marathon. he inferred. being hard pressed by the Thebans. having the preceding night seen the Hippias fancied that he lay with from the dream. therefore. and said to the bystanders " This country is not ours. son of Anaxandrides.105-108] MARATHON 353 the torch race. the moon's They." Hippias accordingly inferred that his vision had been thus fulfilled. called ^gilia and next he moored the ships as they came to Marathon. the Plataeans came to their assistance with all their forces. therefore. For the Plataeans had given themselves up to the Athenians. being sent by the generals at that time when he said Pan appeared to him. as he was leading the way. At that time. the Athenians entreat you trates. arrived in Sparta on the following day after his departure from the city of the Athenians. but it was out of their power to do so immediately. . He drew this inference from the vision. son of Pisistratus. : . first offered themselves to Cleomenes.

Callimachus. and the Athenians went to and as they were about to engage in battle. gave themselves up to the Athenians in the manner above described. as from a desire that the Athenians might be subject to toil. : . not so much from any good-will to the Plataeans. and they did not disregard it. Miltiades came and spoke as follows " It now depends on you. such For the as not even Harmodius and Aristogiton have left. " because they were too few . to leave a memorial of yourself to every age. accordingly. thereupon. among whom was Miltiades. . ERATO [108-109 would not receive them. : . The Lacedaemonians. having made this decision. either to enslave Athens. and such assistance would be of little value to you for you would often be enslaved before any of us could be informed of it. who are your neighbours. The Athenians. but when the Athenians were performing the sacred rites to the twelve gods. urging them to give battle. to give yourselves up to the Athenians. they made the Asopus and Hysiae to be the boundary between the Thebans and Plataeans. the Corinassist thians interfered for happening to be present. and at that time came to assist them at Marathon. The Plataeans. When. passing beyond the limits which the Corinthians had fixed for the Plataeans passing beyond these. they prescribed the limits to the country in the following manner that the Thebans should leave alone those of the Boeotians who did not wish to be ranked among the Boeotians. they were divided. and the others. at the request of both parties. We advise you. for there was an eleventh who was appointed minister of war among the Athenians. themselves up. one party not consenting to engage. vice to the Plataeans. gave this adBoeotians. and at that time Callimachus of Aphidnae was minister of war to him. but addressed them live at too great a distance. therefore. Athenians were never in so great danger from the time they . or. and are not backward in assisting. therefore. therefore. therefore. marched against the Plataeans." The Lacedaemonians gave this advice. by being set at variance with the present. for the Athenians in ancient times gave the minister was voter of war an equal vote with the generals. and mediating between them. The opinions of the Athenian generals were divided. and delivered But the Thebans. The Corinthians. therefore.354 HERODOTUS—BOOK VI. and the worst opinion likely to prevail. by preserving its liberty. they sat down at the altar as suppliants. and having attacked them were worsted in the battle. They as follows " : We . — to engage with the army of the Medes " . returned home but the Boeotians attacked the Athenians as they were departing. having heard of this.

when the Athenians were drawn out at Marathon. saying. But if we engage before any dastardly thought arises in the minds of some of the Athenians. adjoining one another. For if you will support my opinion. now proceed to explain. but the Platseans were drawn out last of all. The opinions of us generals. ever since that battle. as soon as they were ordered to charge. occupying the left wing. I expect that some great dissension arising among us will shake the minds of the Athenians. Now. and the city the first in Greece but if you join with those who would dissuade us from an engagement. so as to induce them to a compliance with the Medes. are ten. ! but each wing was strong in numbers. the tribes succeeded as they were usually reckoned. as the command for the day devolved upon each of them. May blessings attend both the Athenians and the Plataeans " At that time. and the est . the following was the case: their line was equal in extent to the Medic line. if the gods are impartial. advanced against the barbarians in double-quick time. it has been determined what they are to suffer when delivered up to Hippias but if the city survives. when the Athenians offer sacrifices and celebrate the public festivals which take place every five years. How. . your country will be free. then the Athenians were drawn out in the following order for the purpose of engaging The war minister. are now in your power. When it came round to his turn. . gave it up to Miltiades but he. Callimachus. the other. but the middle of it was but few deep. commanded the right wing.: I09-112] MARATHON 355 were first a people. He having this command. gained over Callimachus. it was determined to engage." Miltiades. this can be brought to pass. it will become the first of the Grecian cities. and how the power of deciding this matter depends on you. and entirely depend on you. the contrary of the advantages I have enumerated will fall to your lot. having accepted it. then. When they were thus drawn out. by these words. and the victims were favourable. All these things. would not come to an engagement before his own turn to command came. we shall be able to get the better in the engagement. Afterward the generals whose opinions had been given to engage. and there the line was weakI will who : . And if they succumb to the Medes. for the law at that time was so settled among the Athenians that the war minister should have the right wing. the Athenian herald prays. therefore. . thereupon the Athenians. that we should not engage. Now if we do not engage. and the opinion of the minister of war being added. are divided the one party urging that we should engage.

son of Thrasylas. The Athenians. ERATO [112-116 space between them was not less than eight stades. where the Persians themselves and the Sacae were arrayed. the barbarians were victorious in this part. till. wishing to anticipate the Athenians in reaching the city. the first of all the Greeks whom we know of. when they saw that they were few in number. in this battle the war minister. In this manner the Athenians made themselves masters of seven ships but with the rest the barbarians rowing rapidly back. seeing them charging at full speed. So the barbarians surmised. however. : . the barbarians conquered. . charged the enemy at full speed. and having broken the line. sailed round Sunium. the Persians in their flight. . And in the first place. and having united both wings. though they had no cavalry nor archers. But the Persians. pursued to the interior. son of Euphorion. then. For they. and they first endured the sight of the Medic garb. having proved himself a brave man and among the generals.. they took up their station in another precinct of Hercules at Cynosarges but the barbarians. and in the middle of the line. they fought with those that . and after taking off the Eretrian slaves from the island in which they had left them. 356 HERODOTUS— BOOK VI. fought in a manner worthy of record. had broken pieces. prepared to receive them and they imputed madness to them. The battle at Marathon lasted a long time. they allowed the defeated portion of the barbarians to flee. They then sailed round Sunium. But the Athenians marched with all speed to the assistance of the city. perished and in the next place Cynsegeirus. cutting them to reaching the shore. and the Athenians were victorious. and that utterly destructive. and that they rushed on at full speed. and the men that wore it but until that time the very name of the Medes was a terror to the Greeks. but in both wings the Athenians and the Plataeans were victorious and having gained the victory. for this : : . . Stesilaus. having laid to with their fleet off Phalerum. had his hand severed by an axe and fell and. They followed the ships. and were beforehand in reaching it before the barbarians arrived and having come from the precinct of Hercules at Marathon. they called for fire and attacked their centre. having agreed with the Persians. many other distinguished Athenians were slain. was killed. when they engaged in close ranks with the barbarians. The charge prevailed among the Athenians that they formed this design by the contrivance of the Alcmseonidae for that they. Callimachus. . besides. having laid hold of a ship's poop. held up a shield to them when they were on board their ships.

when he came to Myconus. salt. it is two hundred and ten stades distant from Susa. Epizelus. they sailed away for Asia^clry/ this battle at Marathon there died of the barbarians about''' sixty-four hundred men and of the Athenians. one hundred was . accordingly. and forty from the well which produces three different substances . did not convey back this statue. though wounded in no part of his body. saw a vision in his sleep what the vision was is not related. Datis and Artaphernes. was deprived of sight. it ascarried it : : " . twenty years afterward. as the Eretrians had been the first to begin acts of injustice but when he saw them brought into his presence. in obedience to an oracle. and behaving valiantly. and subject to his power. having given this charge. and he continued to be blind from that time for the remainder of his life.: 116-119] MARATHON 357 / at that time the port of the Athenians. sailed away. he sailed in his own ship to Delos. having anchorecjf / their ships there for a time. and. and instead of a bucket half of a wine skin is attached to it. harboured deep resentment against them. while fighting in the medley. he deposited the image in the temple. a man draws it up and then pours the contents into a receiver. Those of to Delium. opposite Chalcis of the Thebans that place is on the coast. nor struck from a distance. but the Thebans themselves. Epizelus used to and ninety-two : . caused a search to be made through the ships and having found in a Phoenician ship a gilded image of Apollo. Datis. on his way back with the armament to Asia. I have heard that he used to give the following account of his loss He thought that a large heavy armed man stood before him. image to Delium : . he did them no other harm. took up to Susa. son of Cuphagoras. Datis. and being poured from this into another. but he. however. and charged the Delians to convey the : give. before the Eretrians were made captive. . the Eretrians who had been enslaved. and killed the man that stood by his side. but settled them in the Cissian territory at a station of his own. as soon as day appeared. . The Delians. But King as soon as they reached Asia. having dipped down with this. so many fell on both sides. and oil are drawn up from it in the following manner It is pumped up by means of a swipe. Darius. I have been informed. he inquired whence and having learned from what temple it it had been taken was. Such is the account. whose beard shaded the whole of his shield that this spectre passed by him. as at that time the Delians had come back to the island. the name of which is Ardericca. The following prodigy occurred there: An Athenian. for asphalt.

occupied this territory. making such haste to be in time that they arrived in Attica on the third day after leaving Sparta. on account of what has been already mentioned.. even to my time. It is a marvel to me. . and having before won the prize in the Pythian games. And the Alcmseonidae were haters of tyrants. when Pisistratus was driven from Athens. these were the persons who liberated Athens much more than Harmodius and Aristogiton. and he devised everything else that was most This Callias deserves to have frequent menhostile to him. Callias. 358 HERODOTUS— BOOK : VI. that they held up a shield. . who were three in number. and father of Hipponicus. they saw the slain and afterward. . call it rhadinace King Darius settled the Eretrians. and I can not credit the report. they returned home. tion made of him by every one: first of all. and second in the chariot race. or equally with. he behaved in the following manner: When they were of fit age for marriage he gave them a most magnificent present. that the Alcmaeonidae ever held up a shield to the Persians by agreement. son of Phoenippus. Such things took place with regard to the Eretrians. It is therefore a equally with. he was distinguished among all the Greeks for the greatest munificence: moreover. Thus. and the Persians Here it is black and emits a strong odour. or not at all less than him. having commended the Athenians and their achievement. desired to see the Medes and having proceeded to Marathon. and gratified their wishes for he gave each to that man of all the Athenians whom she wished to select for her own husband. in my judgment. exasperated the survivors of the Pisistratidse. they. For Callias was the only one of all the Athenians who. and I can not admit the charge. . who. who at all times shunned the tyrants. having been victorious in the horse-race. with regard to his daughters. but did not any the more put an end to the tyranny of the rest. retaining their ancient language. wishing that the Athenians should be subject to the barbarians and to Hippias for they were evidently haters of tyrants more than. the asphalt and the salt immedithey collect. whereas the Alcmseonidae manifestly liberated oil . on account of what he did at Olympia. But having come too late for the battle. as being a man ardent in asserting the freedom of his country and in the next place. and by whose contrivance the Pisistratidse abandoned the tyranny. by slaying Hipparchus. for they. marvel to me. nevertheless. but the . Two thousand of the Lacedaemonians came to Athens after the full moon. ERATO [i 19-123 sumes three different forms ately become solid. dared to purchase his goods when put up to sale by the public crier.

having by these means bred horses. if indeed they were the persons who persuaded the Pythian to enjoin the Lacedaemonians to liberate Athens.123-126] THE ALCM^ONID^E 359 their country. they betrayed their country? any other men who were more the Athenians than them. highly esteemed among : . For. being around his legs as much and then. and having drawn on the widest boots he could find. son of Myron. Alcmseon. and resembling anything rather than a man for his mouth was stuffed. he went out of the treasury. and he gave him all that. son of Megacles. raised the family. as I have already shown. Still a shield was held up and this can not be denied. having filled the whole . For Clisthenes. when he saw him. and put more into his mouth. he went into the treasury to which they conducted him and meeting with a There were not. and having left a deep fold in the cloak. was coadjutor to the Lydians from Sardis. . But perhaps. son of Andreas. and. sent for him from Sardis and when he arrived. Clisthenes. tyrant of Sicyon. having some grudge against the Athenian people. and he assisted them zealously: and Croesus being informed by the Lydians. won the prize in the Olympic games. burst into laughter. son of Aristonymus. but who it was that held it up I am not able to say further than this. for the purpose of such a present. however. for through Alcmason. had recourse to the following expedient Having put on a large cloak. When. : . in the first place. The Alcmaeonidae were even from a very early period distinguished at Athens. he first stuffed . had a daughter whose name was Agarista her he resolved to give in marriage to the man whom he should find the most accomplished of all the Greeks. dragging his boots with difficulty. Clisthenes. heap of gold dust. who had gone to consult the oracle that he had done him good service. presented him with so much gold as he could carry away at once on his own person. the Olympian games were being celebrated. : . Alcmaeon. Croesus. they became very distinguished. who came on the part of Croesus to consult the oracle at Delphi. . Thus this family became extremely rich and this Alemason. and again through Megacles. In the second generation after. or who were more honoured so that it is not consistent with reason that a shield was held up by them from such a motive. besides. presented him with other things not of less value than it. and having sprinkled the gold-dust over the hair of his head. therefore. gold as the boots would contain fold with gold. and he was all over swollen. for so it was. so that it became far more celebrated among the Greeks than it had been before.

he did this throughout. And Amiantus. . made a proclamation that whoever of the Greeks deemed himself worthy to become the son-in-law of Clisthenes should come to Sicyon on the sixtieth day. the same who had visited Croesus. kept it for this very purpose. son of Pheidon. came Lysanias he was the only one from Eubcea. and another. his son accordingly came. son of Agaeus these accordingly came from the Peloponnesus itself. An ^Etolian came. So many were the When they had arrived on the appointed day. received the Dioscuri in his house. Leocedes. Laphanes. Clissuitors. 360 HERODOTUS— BOOK VI. From the Ionian Gulf. ERATO [126-128 victorious in them in the chariot race. called the Wise these came from Italy. and fled from the society of men to the extremity of the ^Etolian territory. who more than any other man reached the highest pitch of luxury (and Sybaris was at that time in a most flourishing condition) and Damasus of Siris. himself regulated the games at Olympia. And from Thessaly there came. . From Italy. And from Peloponnesus. From Athens there came Megacles. and morals familiar intercourse with each separately. : . thenes made inquiries of their country and the family of each then detaining them for a year. son of Hippocrates. . a Sybarite. and after that entertained all men and an Elean. Diactorides. and was the most insolent of all the Greeks. and at the same time entertained them magnificently. son of Euphorion. Hippoelides. Males.. Thereupon such of the Greeks as were puffed up with themselves and their country came as suitors . Amphimnestus. who surpassed the Athenians in wealth and beauty. an Epidamnian he came from the Ionian Gulf. and leading out to the gymnasia such of them as were younger but most of all he made trial of them at the banquet for as long as he detained them. Lycurgus. came Smindyrides. or even before. Alcon. And somehow of all the suitors those that had come from Athens pleased . From Eretria. as the story is told in Arcadia. their dispositions. who. son of Amyris. of the Scopades. and Clisthenes. son of . a descendant of that Pheidon who introduced measures among the Peloponnesians. brother of that Titormus who surpassed the Greeks in strength. reckoning from the sixtieth day. . accordingly. son of Epistrophus. : . who having removed the Elean empires. tyrant of the Argives. since Clisthenes had determined on the marriage in a year. and with all together. which was flourishing at that time. having made a racecourse and palaestra for them. an Arcadian from Trapezus . son of Alcmaeon. a Cranonian and from the Molossi. and an Azenian from the city of Paeos. Onomastus. learning. he made trial of their manly holding qualities. son of Tisander.

seeing it. he gesticulated with his legs.128-131] THE ALCMy£ONID. ordered the flute-player to play a dance. he was no longer able to restrain himself. and for the declaration of Clisthenes himself. entertained both the suitors themselves and all the Sicyonians and when they had concluded the feast. as was also Hippocrates and from Hippocrates. who much attracted the attention of the rest. This happened respecting the decision between the suitors. and said. " No matter to Hippoclides. Hippoclides. revolted from the thought of having Hippoclides for a son-in-law. yet restrained himself. on account of his dancing and want of decorum. and of your absence from home but to Megacles. not wishing to burst out against him but when he saw'him gesticulating with his legs. " Son of Tisander. having rested awhile.E 361 him most. he first danced Laconian figures on it. thus addressed the assembled company men. and in the third place. As the drinking went on. . Afterward Hippoclides. . was preferred both on account of his manly qualities and because he was distantly related to the Cypselidae in Corinth. you have danced away your marriage/' But Hippoclides answered. : . : . : . since I have to determine about a single damsel. and when the flute-player obeyed. nor rejecting the rest. and then Attic ones." Hence this answer became a proverb. he began to dance and he danced. having commanded " Gentlesilence. to indulge the wishes of all to such of you as are rejected from the marriage I present a talent of silver to each. But as it is not possible. I betroth my daughter Agarista. would gratify you all. and of these Hippoclides. and. according to the laws of the Athenians. . I commend you all. on account of your condescending to take a wife from my family. and thus the Alcmaeonidae became celebrated throughout Greece. probably. son of Alcmaeon. taking his name from his maternal grandfather the Sicyonian he was born to Megacles. the marriage was celebrated by Clisthenes. so as to please himself but Clisthenes. suitors of my daughter. having leaned his head on the table. When the day appointed for the consummation of the marriage arrived. another . who established the tribes and a democracy among the Athenians. son of Tisander. and any subject proposed for conversation. Clisthenes. the suitors had a contest about music. . From this marriage sprang Clisthenes. whom he would choose of them all. beheld the whole matter with suspicion. having sacrificed a hundred oxen." When Megacles said that he accepted the betrothal. But Clisthenes. Clisthenes. when he danced the first and second time. ordered some one to bring in a table and when the table came in. if it were possible. not selecting one of you above the others.

who was a Parian by birth. And . he asked for the ships and the Athenians. alleging as a pretext that the Parians had first begun hostilities by sending a trireme with the Persians to Marathon. . She then made some suggestion and he. and another Agarista. who took her name from Agarista. conferred with him she was an inferior priestess of the infernal goddesses. After the defeat of the Persians at Marathon. in fact. he went to the temple for the purpose of doing something within. to act as she should suggest. without telling them what country he purposed to invade. elated by Miltiades. there raised it. accordingly. . having these hopes. : . who were driven within their walls and sending a herald to them. coming to the mound that is before the city. then Having therefore asked still more increased his reputation. he demanded a hundred talents. . This was his pretended reason but. granted them. but after this the Parians themselves say that it happened as follows That when Miltiades was in a state of perplexity a captive woman. to double its former height. son of Tisias. and her name was Timo. and being with child. speaking thus. sailed against Paros. When she came into the presence of Miltiades. saw a vision in her sleep. Miltiades. for that he would take them to such a country from whence they would easily bring abundance of gold. of the Athenians seventy ships. he had a grudge against the Parians on account of Lysagoras. but devised means by which they might defend the city. son of Ariphron. and troops and money. saying that if they did not give him that sum he would not draw off his army until he had destroyed them. besieged the Parians. who was by birth a Parian. as he was unable to open the door and having leaped over. Up to this point of the story all the Greeks agree. if he deemed it of great consequence to take Paros. taken with him the troops. but saying that he would make them rich if they would follow him. . and fancied that she brought forth a lion. they also. ERATO [i3»-i34