(Re-)Designing a PIE-structure

jwr47

Introduction
A linguistic design seems to have been existing from the beginning and having found some of the basic elements I decided to start a redesign for the PIE-structure. The basic ideas must have been motivated by philosophical impulses. From the sparse remaining etymological remains the mayor impulse must have been eternity, probably eternal life. All mayor verbal cores have been designed in their relation to eternity. The structures will need to be illustrated in their evolutionary stages to demonstrate the growing number of elements. Eroding and destructive forces have been active from the beginning and may also have interfered with expansions, destroying elements and rejoining growing refinements. Still the basic concepts remained active and intact on a global scale. Ideas probably need to start from small seeds, which expand to cores for multiple branches and leafs. The cores need to be strong and well-designed if they are aiming for successful development. Otherwise the structure is going to be exhausted before it matures. One principal design idea must have been the antipodes, which may be generated by simply negating a word. If identified the antipodes: light – night, aeon – neon (new) and aye – nay. Apart from the eternity-concept the iēiūnium (fast) may have been an early religious concept.

Design structure
Vowels (notably long vowels) seem to have been the most powerful linguistic elements. Concatenations of all available vowels symbolized eternity, which as a concept has been followed by most cultures. Concatenations of seven vowels have been used for magical rites and singing hymns in praise of the Egyptian gods. Eternity seems to have been chosen as a root element in the etymological concept. Some secondary concepts have been derived from the basic root and will be discussed in the following report.

Antipodes
One principal design idea must have been the antipodes, which may be generated by simply negating a word. If identified the antipodes: Main element light aeon (eternity) Aye (yes) Negated element night neon (new) Nay (no) First element in “Ever” is almost certainly related to Old English a "always, ever," from Proto-Germanic *aiwo, from PIE *aiw- "vital force, life, long life, eternity." (see eon).

Ever Never ooit (NL: ever, at least once) nooit (NL: never) je (German: ever, at least once) nie (German: never)

Table 1: Antipodes

Eternity, Matrimony, Yew & Ivy (æ) and New
The root idea is a concept of eternity, symbolized by vowel-sequences. Eternal concepts have been æ-rune (ash) symbolized law, scripture law, ceremony, custom, marriage and ēa (running water, river). The evergreen and most ancient trees (Yew & Ivy) had been used to symbolize eternity or to define the runes and words in the æ-concept. The word new has been generated by negating the word for eternity. Rivers and waters have been named Aa (or Y) after ēa (running water, river).

Divine Names and the Pronouns
Principal divine names have been structured as the words for “Eternity”. Basically their structure consists of a sequence of vowels, sometimes preceded by a consonant D, T or Z. Instead of an alphabetical order however the vowel sequence normally starts with an “I”-vowel. A great number of the ego-pronouns may be extracted from divine names by eliminating the trailing (mostly “D”, “T” or “Z”) and leading consonants (mostly “s”).

The words for yes and no
Like the English contraction of Old English yea so into yes, the words for yes and no in other languages originate from a process of devaluation and semantic erosion. These words have been introduced in a rather recent, secondary stage of linguistic evolution.

Eón (Sp. The length of the vowel was supposed to symbolize eternity. This vowel is to be put at the top op a hierarchical pyramid of vowels.). New vowels will be inserted ad lib or added at the end of the alphabet. These words for breakfast have been introduced in a rather recent. For the Greek alphabet this results in ἀεί. leading to the words “eve” and “west”.Tuesdays and Thursdays Most Nordic names for Tuesdays have been derived from Tis or Tir. East. The Bretonic words Yaou1. secondary stage of linguistic evolution. The stroke above the character merely indicates the vowel's length. Another word to express eternity is ὁ αἰών (ho aiōn. Iēiūnium (fast) which has been derived from Proto-Indo-European * Hyeh₂ǵ-yu-. The strongest sounds were long vowels and the strongest vowel is a long Ī. Aioni (Fin). Sacrifice. Fast A number of words for breakfast (and dinner) have been derived from the Latin expression iēiūnium (fast). The Celts have been reported to use Dis 2 and the Germanic tribes are said to have applied Tis or Tyr3. which may be considered as more or less multi-vowel words. Æon (Dan. to (Astronomie) Jupiter and to (Mythologie) Jupiter. 1 Jours de la semaine en breton relates Yaou → to Jeudi. Äon (D). “age. “sacred. These words for the days of the week have been introduced in a rather recent. Caesar did not really emphasize the length of the vowel I in Dis.(and Sanskrit avah) "down. The word for eternity seems simply to have been generated by concatenating a number of alphabetically sorted vowels of the alphabet. In fact the v-consonant may often be interpreted as a u-vowel. such as Dejeuner (French: breakfast) and desayuno (Spanish: breakfast). A cognate Latin word aevum or aeuum (cf. secondary stage of linguistic evolution. which initially had been encoded in sounds.(“to sacrifice”). Diriaou as well as the Welsh word dydd Iau for Thursday also relate to Jove (Jupiter). related to ancient Greek ἅγιος (hágios. West. Éon (F). holy”). Breakfast. We start with this vowel because some languages used this vowel as their basic vowel. etc.). The leading and trailing consonants were minor delimiters to provide the speakers with some definite starting and stopping indicators. from the archaic αἰϝών (aiwon). The standard Latin word is identical to one of the English words: aeon. Evening The words for evening have been derived from the root *we. eternity”). αἰϝών) for "age" is present in words such as longevity and mediaeval. Modern languages use aeon (E). In Gnostic systems Aion teleos (αἰών τέλεος "The Broadest Aeon") and Aeons are known. Words made up from listing vowels The simplest of all word generations sort the vowels in alphabetic order. whose name has been used for most of the Mediterranean words for Thursday.). adjectival form of *Hyeh₂ǵ-ye/o. 2 Documented by Julius Caesar in War in Gallia 3 From Runic symbols and other etymological sources . The ώ may be interpreted as a long vowel O or an OU-combination. that is: dīes without an e. We know they were minor elements for their absence in some important divine names. Eternity The basic idea of eternity had to be supported by a strong set of elements. but it simply must have been a long vowel as expressed in Dīs. downward"). Eone (It.

to be followed by any other combination of one or two other vowels A. The vowel-core starts with a U/V.E.I or O .Wise The word wise is a multi-vowel word as well.

aevum or aeuum (cf.from Gerald Massey's Ancient Egypt (page 39 & 40). “ . Upsilon. which was written with the seven vowels by the Gnostics. was a symbolic device utilized by the Habsburg emperors. iamer7 (immer) ἀίεν αἰών (αἰϝών) evig æon always aeon Aeon. aeuum aivs. αἰϝών) eeuwig eternal (runes) always Aeon aioni eone. but later their number has been expanded up to 5 vowels (AEIOU8) of the Latin alphabet. Omicron. ewa Ewig äon eomer.I. iomer. ewic ǽ5 Aevum. 4 5 6 7 8 Archaic Fetishism Icelandic: always The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary . or even more. Iota. euwinik. A.E. Omega. Iao. ekewes io.Seite 106 Wörterbuch der ostfriesischen Sprache (1879) A. Iahu becoming extended to the seven vowels finally represented in the fully drawn-out name of Jehovah. Epsilon. In the Aeon-words the vowel-sequence ends with a long O (Ω). long time") It must be noted that most of the words for eternity start with an A or ǽ and list a number of vowels in alphabetic order. habitually signed buildings and objects with the acronym 9 “Aiu or Iu with the A protheic shows the process of accretion or agglutination which led to the word Aiu.U. eón Greek ἀεί Table 2: Expressions for eternity and eons ("eternity. Eta. Ioa. ava. the 7 vowels 9 (αεηιουω10 respectively in capital letters ΑΕΗΙΟΥΩ11) of the Greek alphabet.O. aiveins ay āyus6 evig ikää.Band 6 . Danish Lapland German an euuon euua (law) á. euwik. Emperor Frederick III (1415–93). from Magic Words: A Dictionary and On the Symbolism of the Vowels A-E-I-O-U … . 10 AEEIOYO in the Nag Hammadi Library cited in Magic Words: A Dictionary 11 AEEIOYO · Alpha. U.Runes From AIFIKÖ-rune the correlating words for eternity and Aeon have been derived as follows4: Region Finland Italy. in the eternity-words the vowel core may end in any vowel. euwin. who had a fondness for mythical formulae. Originally the primary vowels had been restricted to I. Spain Dutch Old-Dutch Anglo-Saxon Icelandic Latin Gothic English Vedic Swedish.

when singing hymns in praise of the gods. a half H to represent the so-called sonus medius. a short vowel sound (between I and u) is used to introduce a new vowel." A-E-H-I-O-U-Ω . maintaining that they were greatly needed. • Ⱶ.Notes to the vowels in De Elocutione of Demetrius Lost Letters: The Claudian Letters — Steve Lovelace Lost Letters: The Claudian Letters — Steve Lovelace Source (Wikipedia. The Roman Emperor Claudius (reigned 41–54) invented three new letters and added them to the alphabet. These characters may still be seen in numerous books. which may have been uttered in their succession A-E-H-I-O-U-Ω: "In Egypt the priests. He published a book on their theory when he was still in private life. • Ⅎ. which is equivalent to the Greek Y. a turned F (digamma inversum) to represent consonantal U ([w]/v). much like X stood in for CS and GS. The role of the consonants is to define the exact timing for the opening and closing phases in controlling the vowel tract. filling the role of the broken "H" which Claudius had promulgated. (the H-dimidia). and when he became emperor had no difficulty in bringing about their general use. but in the Middle Ages. the letter W14/Y15 was added to the Latin alphabet. One of these Ⅎ is used to split the vowel U from the consonant V. a short vowel sound (likely [ɨ] or [ʉ]) used before labial consonants in Latin words such as optumus/optimus The letter was later used as a variant of y in inscriptions for Greek upsilon (as in Olympicus)." The principal application of vowels is to produce sounds with an open vowel tract. Appius Claudius (an ancestor of the Emperor Claudius) added two new letters.De Elocutione A remarkable historical remark to divine names in Egyptian religion may be found in the work De Elocutione12 of Demetrius and this seems to refer to the archaic vowels. 12 13 14 15 The Vowels' Symbolism in Archaic Hymns . Claudius' book on the letters' theory has been lost. Y and the (previously-spurned) letter Z. While these letters were used on some inscriptions during Claudius’ lifetime. he claimed it stood for (German) "Alles Erdreich ist Österreich untertan" (translated: "All the world is subject to Austria. which were unavailable in the Latin Alphabet.AEIOU Frederick III did not explain its meaning at the time. which they utter in due succession . they were abandoned after his death. in the daily gazette. from: Tacitus): Claudian letters . • Ↄ (the antisigma) to replace BS and PS. The Claudian Letters Greek words applied vocals. and in inscriptions on public buildings. and the sound of these letters is so euphonious that men listen to it in preference to flute and lyre. which lost its 7th rank in the alphabet and went to the end13. Another Ⱶ. employ the seven vowels. though shortly before his death.

Vowel invocations in magical papyri Vowel invocations16 have been documented in magical papyri. which are structured as “wing formation” in a top-side down pyramid17: ΑΕΗΙΟΥΩ ΕΕIOU EIO IO I 16 The Vowels AEEIOYO in the Mithras Liturgy 17 AEEIOYO in the Nag Hammadi Library cited in Magic Words: A Dictionary .

êwe. eu.Eternity . scripture law. ê. short for "ævum”. êa. euum). Jewish In a biblical sense the oldest people had to be defined as Jews. Old German êwa. ev. êha. ea. ê (German Ehe. ævum (aevom. river). eua. “Ever” and mediaeval also correlate to "ævum”18. eo. ēa. Cognate with Old Saxon êo. Spanish: evo . euum (medieval) – (in æ interpreted as the age at the time of death). In English the correlating word is æ. ever. ever-green and intense yew. êwa.(“custom. Ehe. ceremony. evo. tradition. Dutch “huwelijk. These vowel-sequences generally symbolized eternity. huwen”). such as ae. êwe. custom.Matrimony – Yew & Ivy (æ) The evergreen trees (yew and ivy) may have been inspiring sources for the etymological expressions related to eternity such as: æ. Their names are multi-vowel structures such as Yew and Ivy. ewa. Romanian: ev . The Yew might have been considered as the oldest living creature. ê. aeu. êha. Most of these sequences seem to have been designed to use a great variety of vowels. The rune Eiwaz (yew) is commonly transliterated as a vowel ï or æ. marriage and ēa (running water. The yew/new-contrast might have been based on New as a negation of the Yew-word. êa. â. from Proto-Indo-European *oiw. êo. *aiwaz (“law”). Proto-Germanic *aiwō. The word yew as it was originally used seems to refer to the color brown. Ol Frisian ewa. Tree-names Evergreen trees have been devoted to the gods and eternal life. 18 Italian: evo . Yew The Dutch word “huwen” (Old-English: æ to marry) is related to the eternal. huwen. → matrimonial tree). “Ea”-tree In German dialects (Bavarian and Tirol: Eabam or “Ea”-tree → Ivy) may correlate to “Ehebaum” (“Ehe”-tree. Portuguese: evo . mediaeval. â.or ivy-league connection. Rivers In a similar way running water (ēa) may have been considered as a symbol for eternity. which also is seen on gravestones of the 19th century. Old English In old-English the æ-rune (ash) symbolized law. law”). derived from aevom (archaic). ê. Although the modern versions of these words may be spelled with some consonants the cores are heavily based on vowel-sequences.

(Mnl. idegran if īve jugapuu marjakuusi taks tasso teixo tejo tis tisă tuja venijnboom20 yew yr / ir21 ýr / ýviður Table 3: Words for Yew. dialect: ea (eabam) murgröna lierre dialects: glléru (dgèrrue.and Ivy-Trees klimop ivy efeu.and Ivy-Trees Language Norsk bokmål Polish Proto-Germanic Irish Welsh German Svenska French Latvian Estonian Finnish Danish Italian Portuguese Spanish Slovenian Romanian Venetian Dutch English old-Nordic Icelandic Yew -word barlind cis *īwaēo ywen eibe. Table of the words for Yew. 19 seem to correlate to the In contrast the Slovenian Tis and Romanian Tisă probably have been derived from Latin: “Taxus”. probably related to Venus 21 Correlating to Tyr / Tir . yièrre) gebenė lipikė harilik luuderohi muratti vedbend edera hera hedera Ivy-word eføy bluszcz pospolity 19 Correlating to Tyr / Tir 20 Venijn = poison. ire. hierru. from Latin venēnum .Tyr/Tis (Yew in Nordic languages) In Old-Nordic and Icelandic the Yew-words Ýr / Ýviður and the Yr / Ir god Tyr. respectively Tir. Ueníne ??).

order Matrimony law Table 4: Words for Matrimony 22 huwen (in de echt treden. In Dutch the root *hīwan (to marry) seems to be based on the vowel-sequence IUA. Language Gothic Gothic MhD Mnl. matrimonium *ieus.Matrimony22 The German word Ehe had been derived from the vowel sequence and Germanic root * aiwæ (Custom. aevum Matrimony Husband spouse Matrimonial couple Family. houwen *aiwæ23 → echt ( Matrimony) Coniugium. ēwa (→ Ehe) hie. ēwe. Matrimony symbolized the foundation of a home. huwe hiwa hiōn hiuuisci *hīwan Hiwan hievo Hiwian hiwa Huwen. order). which had been equivalent to the ǽ-concept. kin to marry Matrimonial couple husband Matrimonial couple spouse To marry Custom. law. home αἰών. which relates to a religious concept. Iugum (yoke) obviously refers to the dual yoke of a married couple. Old-Friesian Old-Dutch Old-High-German Old-Saxon Dutch Germanic root Dutch: Latin Latijn Matrimonial expression Heiwa-frauja heiwa Aivs → êwa ē. law.→ ius Definition Landlord house. trouwen) 23 Ehe .

Persian nau. Old Irish nue. earlier niwe "new. Aeon Table 5: (Selected list of)Words for New 24 New . Old Church Slavonic novu. αἰϝών) aevum or aeuum (cf. different from the old. respectively eternal Proto-Germanic Lettish Turkish Persian Lithuanian Welsh Old Frisian Old Saxon French Old Irish Old English Latin Portuguese Spanish Italian Dutch Danish and Swedish German Indo-European Old High German Greek Æ. ay. iwe ovus ovo uevo uovo ieuw y eu ewos iuwl eos Ἀεί . untried. Old Saxon niuwi. fresh. Middle Dutch nieuwe.New24 Most of the words for new may be generated from negating the word for eternity. The adverb is Old English niwe. German neu. novel. Sanskrit navah. Danish and Swedish ny. Greek neos. Dutch nieuw. nouvel nue neowe. inexperienced.Online Etymology Dictionary (suggested) word for eternity. io aevum or aeuum (cf. Lithuanian naujas. αἰϝών) aevum or aeuum (cf. (earlier: niwe) novus Novo. nova nuevo. Old Frisian nie. niowe. αἰϝών) eeuwig evig ewig ewig ." from Proto-Germanic *newjaz (cf. nuova nieuw ny neu *néwos niuwl neos Vowel core (symbolizing eternity?) *ewjaz jau ye au aujas ewydd ie iuwi ouveau ue eowe. Old High German niuwl. niowe. Gothic niujis "new"). Old English neowe."new" (cf. nueva nuovo. unheard-of. recent. Latin novus. iowe. from the adjective. Russian novyi. In this sense the words for new have been derived from the expression “not eternal”: Language Words for New (from New in dictionary) *newjaz jauns yeni nau naujas newydd nie niuwi nouveau. αἰϝών) aevum or aeuum (cf. Welsh newydd "new"). Hittite newash. from PIE *newo.

u) Table 6: Divine names (derived from the PIE-root *deiwos. dzhyu. eua ju u y ý Yeu.Divine Names Principal divine names have been structured as the words for “Eternity”. jò. dzè.Arpitania. djou. Basically their structure consists of a sequence of vowels.The dialects SAVOYARD . Jehouah. Tio YHVH. dyeu. yu. Tiw and æ (“I”) The I's Antipodes The Ego-pronouns and Divine Names in Savoy French Dialects . eiuo Yu (jeu. Iau Iu. Jehovah. *deiwos 30. djyu. jyu. djò. T or Z. dyeû. io IU. Instead of an alphabetical order however the vowel sequence normally starts with an “I”-vowel. jou. *Dyeus) 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Frédéric Mistral's Mirèio). Dyaus) Dyu31. *Dyeus. Occitan Lithuanian Nimes Egyptian Latin Icelandic Old English Latinised Hebrew Old High German Proto-Germanic Swedish Welsh Danish Old Norse: PIE Savoy Teiws Iao Diéu25 diẽvas Dïou26 Iu IU-piter (Jupiter and Juno) Deus Tiur27 Tīw Tius. è. yo. ju. yau. yo Iua. sometimes preceded by a consonant D. “Yiou” & “Dïou” in the dialect of Nimes Archaic Fetishism Ancient Egypt – The Light of the World (Vol. Iau28 Ziu29 and Cyo Tiwaz (*Tîwaz. dyou. IAΩ.eu . (djeu. yeû. *Tē₂waz) Tjur duw Tyr Týr Dyeus (*Dyēus Ph2tēr. A great number of names has been based on the IU-. you. dju. dzu) Vowel Core eiu Iao iéu iẽva ïou Iu Iu eu iu iu iu. dyo. 1-page 506) by Gerald Massey Etymology for Dæy. Iao (IAΩ). respectively YU-sequence: Dialect/Language Divine name Gothic Phoenician. yeu.

Ī A E O U Ī A E H O U Ī A E H O U Ω34 Ī A E H O U Y Ω 32 prototype IU (“to come and go”) for the vowel IAOU – transits: symbolized by the ass's utterance “ee-aw” 33 The central vowel “A” has been inserted to completed the sacred triad: Aiu.. Ioa. Iao.The I-position The mainstream category locates the long Ī-vowel in front of the others. Iahu 34 Inserting will be proceeded until the 7-vowel name Jehovah has been reached . Ī Ī U32 Ī A U33 ..

(Source: Proto-Indo-European *éǵh₂. do. t’ tü 3°p M u(l). æ E. Dialect/Language Slavic Bulgarian Ossetian Thy/Southern Jutland Savoyard dialects Neapolitan Sardinian Latin Portuguese Romanian Romansch Occitan. t’ të. m’ iòu 2°p tü. “T” or “Z”) and leading consonants (mostly “s”). dzou. é.) 36 Frédéric Mistral's Mirèio). eu. mi jo (extracted from Dios) jou from: *IOU → d'IU-piter (→ Jupiter) ūk 38 Vowel Core (j)a a ææ Ae. Polish Czech. ieu (extracted from Dieu) Ih. zde. Slovak French Walloon Catalan Surselvisch Hittite Ego-Pronouns35 *(j)azъ (see for further descendants) Аз (az) æз æ DE. dye. Lengadocian German Occitan . pr. 1st person singular . dé / dè. joni (extracted from Dius) јас ja (extracted from Dyaus) já (extracted from Dyaus) je (extracted from Dieu) dji. ou eie eo eo. zounh) eje eo (extracted from Theos) eo.The Pronouns Ego-Pronouns With the exception of the Savoyard dialects (which prefer to start with a consonant) most of the vowel cores in the ego-pronouns are similar to the divine names. ju. ich jo (extracted from Dios) io . ze. 1°p a (l’) iòu më.JE. zhou. sujet atone 1ère p. sing. al ei(l) së lu ei F eilo la eilo N o. eau iéu36.Pl. zou. de (deu). ul.Gascon Italian / Spanish Villar-St-Pancrace Sicilian Macedonian Surmeirisch. J'. dè. m’ iòu 37 iu. è. ego (extracted from Theos) eu (extracted from Deus) eu (extracted from Deus) jau. 1°p nû* nû* 2°p òû* vû* vû* 3°p M î(z) së lû* iè F eilâ (eilaz) lâ* eilâ 38 Sicilian . zhe. The majority of the ego-pronouns start with an I. jo.eu. la . pers. ejo eu eu iau.lu . ye. yo iòu iu ja ja já je ji jo jou u 35 Personal pronoun. eau iéu ih io io. o. A great number of these ego-pronouns may be extracted from divine names by eliminating the trailing (mostly “D”. yo (extracted from Dios) iòu më. 37 Patois of Villar-St-Pancrace (for the moment this site unfortunately seems to have been lost) : Personal pronouns: (Cas sujet Cas régime atone tonique direct indirect) Sg. dzeu.

Old Albanian Nîmes u39 (< *udh < *uǵ) yiou. . mïou (extracted from Dïou) u yiou 39 Source: Proto-Indo-European *éǵh₂.

Portuguese. Lithuanian . tum tvam tui (very informal). Sorbian Ubykh English Icelandic Macedonian . Romanian Spanish Galician Latvian Faroese French Czech . je thoo. which obviously seem to correlate to the divine names: Language German Norwegian Swedish . Catalan . դուն (tun) Western dialect ‫( דו‬du) ‫( تو‬tu) ‫ تو‬tū (very informal).The Thou-pronouns The easiest way to investigate the Thou-pronouns is the study of the table in the T–V distinctionwebsite. Tu tú/teg tu/toi/te ty wæghʷa you (thou/thee) þú/þig ти (ti) ти (ty) ту (tu) ты (ty) դու (du) Eastern dialect. ti tu. Ido . Shetland [duː] thu ti ti or chdi tu tú tu. I decided to restrict to list to the second-person singular-pronouns. Polish . Italian . Serbian Ukrainian Tajik Russian Armenian Yiddish Kurdish Urdu Hindi Sanskrit Bengali Gujarati Thou-pronoun du du/deg du/dig dû/do hi (very close). tumi tu . je/jou. mostly replaced by ye [ðuː]. Southern [ðʌu]. zu jij. Slovak . ‫ تم‬tum tū (very informal). Danish Frisian (West) Basque Dutch Scots Gaelic (Scottish) Slovene Welsh Aragonese .

jo. in Gaelic languages another verb will be used 44 From: Old High German ni ein.Wikipedia 41 Yes and no .nei.nein ja. yea. oui. the words for yes and no in other languages originate from a process of devaluation and semantic erosion.The words for yes and no40 Like the English contraction of Old English yea so into yes." næfre (never)→ no Gaelic languages 2 Romanian Welsh Hungarian German Dutch Swedish and Danish Norwegian Icelandic French 4 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Table 7: The words for yes and no 40 Yes and no . comprising the words yea. nese . meaning this one (it is this one). from PIE pronomial stem *i. Gothic jains "that.non. Old Frisian jen. nic . 43 More frequently. anena "that. and is thus surely so. -. and no. hoc ille → oui46." id "it.(cf. Old Norse enn. from PIE *yam-.no gea -.: joho . ge "so" (see yea) + si "be it!.(cf. In essence. si. three-form. Middle Dutch ghens." Lithuanian ans "he"). and so.41 Ja has been derived from yon: Old English geon (adj. Yes and Ja Yes is derived from a compound of an Old English adverb. you")." third person imperative of beon "to be" (see be). 47 In Latin. which means not a single one. 45 a word of affirmation. gese "so be it!. Sanskrit ena-. while no comes from an Old English adverb næfre that means never. non similarly devolved from noenum.nee ja. 45 ni ein → nein44 Etymology gea42 → yea. gyse -. *jai-." Old Church Slavonic onu "he.nâ "tá" (is) or "níl" (is not) 43 da – nu . 46 The French oui was formerly oïl (after which Langue d'oïl is named). .nem ja.nehej ) ja.nay . and nej (emph. whereas yea and nay were the responses to positively framed questions. which means surely. nay. Language English Old English Yes/No-Form 4 4 Yes – No .(see yon). -. ba da – ba nu ie – nage igen." from Proto-Germanic *jaino. from pronomial stem *i. -. jawel. Earlier forms of English had a four-form system. yes.) "that (over there). that one. which also means not one.expressions yea -." probably from gea. Languages have systems named two-form." Latin idem "the same. third person pronoun. German jener. gise → yes si "be it! → si. noenum → non47 Ja from Proto-Germanic *ja-. de. Old High German ener. came from the Vulgar Latin hoc ille. yes and no were the alternative responses to a question posed in the negative. jo/jau. and four-form systems for expressing the affirmative and the negative depending on how many words for yes and no they employ. in turn. -. Originally stronger than simple yea.nei já. doch.ne .Wikipedia 42 Old English gise. jú -. -. yes -. which.

Tiu god of war”) + *dagaz (“day”) *Tīwas dagaz) Tīwesdæg 51 Tysday týsdagur Ziestag/ziostag Tiwas.Tuesdays and Thursdays48 In Nordic names Tis or Tir. Tuesdays Dialect/Language Estnisch Dutch Jiddisch Westfriesisch Finnisch Norwegian Danish Tuesdays teisipäev (Actually 'second day' 50) Dinsdag From Middle Dutch dinxdach. Mediterranean words have been designed to devote the name of Thursday to Jove (Jupiter). dinxendag. Tiues Tys týs Zies. týrsdagr. Compound of teisi. from *Tīwaz (“Tyr. The Bretonic words Yaou49. Ziu 48 49 50 51 Names of the days of the week Jours de la semaine en breton relates Yaou → to Jeudi. Tiuas Tīwes. from Týr (“Tyr”) and dagr (“day”) (Proto-Germanic *Tīwas dagaz) tisdag (from Nordic god Tyr and dag . from ding (“thing.day) Divine Core tiis tiis Tir Tir Schwedisch Englisch Proto-Germanic Old English Scots Färöisch Old-German Tis Tuesday . to (Astronomie) Jupiter and to (Mythologie) Jupiter. tend to have been encoded in the words for Tuesday.literally "Tiw's Day"). dinsendach. Diriaou as well as the Welsh word dydd Iau for Thursday also relate to Jove. Zios. assembly”) dinstik tiisdei tiistai Tirsdag tirsdag From Old Norse týsdagr.(see teine) and päev Tiwaz .

Dé hAoine or Aoine (Friday). Joibe Joi Jou ( Jeudi60 ) Dijous 59 Jours de la semaine en breton relates Yaou → to Jeudi.e. related to iēiūnium (“fast”. Dzou. Diardaoin (related to the fasting day Aoine → friday) and in Galician xoves and xueves.derivation probably similar to Déardaoin - Déardaoin From Dé (“day”) + Idir (“Between”) + Dhá (“two”) + Aoine (“fast”) (literally. Dejeû. Dezyeu. A rather confusing etymology is found in the Gaelic words Déardaoin. i. aíne. Diriaou Dydd Iau Giovedì Jueves Jeudi Jeudi Nm. For this reason even the Irish name for Thursday applies a religious multi-vowel core. Dedyu. “fast” (Fridays were originally days for fasting in Roman Catholicism. Dé Céadaoin or Céadaoin54 is Wednesday. followed by Déardaoin (Thursday) and 3. Yeu Joi Joi Jou Jou Yaou. The Irish fastdays are: 1. The Bretonic words Yaou52.Thursdays Mediterranean words have been designed to devote the name of Thursday to Jove (Jupiter). which seem to be related to dies Jovis. "day Between Two Fastings"). from Latin iēiūnum53) is a multi-vowel word. Dju. the first fast of the week. Yaou Iau Ioue Iue Jeu Jeu. Dezyeû. “sacrifice”). D(E)Zhu.. 2. Dzyeû. Dialect/Language Asturian Galician Scots-Gaelic Irish-Gaelic Thursdays Xueves 55 Xoves 56 Diardaoin 57 Divine Core . Djou. Diriaou as well as the Welsh word dydd Iau for Thursday also relate to Jove. Aoine (From Old Irish aín.) from céad (“first”) + aoine (“fast”). although its name has not been derived from Jove itself. Gioverì Gövgia 58 Neapolitan Romanche Breton Welsh Italian Spanish French Savoyard Friulian Romanian Lyon Catalan 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Gio Göv Iaou. to (Astronomie) Jupiter and to (Mythologie) Jupiter. Dzhyu. Jours de la semaine en asturien Jours de la semaine en galicien Jours de la semaine en gaélique écossais Jours de la semaine en romanche giorno di Giove from Giove (Jove) Source: Dictionnaire Etymologique Du Patois Lyonnais . D(E)Zhou.

Dijaus 61 Dies Jovis Dy' Yow Divine Core Jou Jou. Jau Jovis Yow 61 Jours de la semaine en occitan .Dialect/Language Latin Occitan (aranais) Latin Cornish Thursdays Dies Jovis Dijòus (dies Iovis).

Inishtooskert (Inis Tuaisceart in Irish) is the northernmost of the Blasket Islands. Of course this name may refer to Dyaus or a Celtic Tuisco. desayuno (breakfast) Irish: aíne. dejuni (fast). 66 Breakfast? . Compare Spanish ayunar. adjectival form of *Hyeh₂ǵ-ye/o. jejunum French: jeun. who may have been hiding ever since the Roman legions drove the Druids into the Irish Sea.+ iēiūnō ?) English: jejune. The name means "northern island". as well as extensive ruins of ancient stone buildings67.+ jeûner (“to fast”) or from Vulgar Latin disieiūnāre. Fast Breakfast and Fast Dejeuner (French: breakfast) and desayuno (Spanish: breakfast) is related to iēiūnium (fast) which has been derived from Proto-Indo-European *Hyeh₂ǵ-yu-. also Italian digiuno. The island is also known as An Fear Marbh (the dead man) or the sleeping giant due to its appearance when seen from the east (as in the photograph at the web-page). Inishtooskert holds important seabird colonies. holy”). which refers to the island Inish-Tuiscirt. French jeun. looking like a relict of the stone age. The holiness of these expressions is expressed in the great number of vowels. Today the island is named Inishtooskert. from Latin ieiūnus. from Late Latin ieiūnāre. → lua micul dejun. jeûne.Sacrifice. 65 From Vulgar Latin root *aiūnāre. leading to Dé hAoine or Aoine (Friday). At Inis Tuaisceart I only found one housing structure68 at the web collection of photographs. Divine names like Tuaisco or Tuisco Sometimes I read books such as Tomás O'Crohan's book “The Islandsman”. Other related words are: • • • • • • • • • • Aromanian: agiunu (which clearly demonstrates the correlation to ἅγιος (holy). 62 Frühstück 63 dé. bricfeasta66 (breakfast). related to ancient Greek ἅγιος (hágios. Ireland.Irish Translation 67 Inishtooskert 68 Inishtooskert structure . jeûne (fast). aoine (fast). Cf. from Late Latin ieiūnāre 64 Ajun: Probably ultimately from Latin ieiunium or ieiunus through a root *iaiunus > *aiunus. Dalmatian: dezun (fast) Catalan: dejú. Spanish ayuno. present active infinitive of ieiūnō. from adiūnāre. “sacred. 'hungry'. French jeûner. also Italian digiunare.(“to sacrifice”). → petit déjeuner (breakfast63) Italian: digiuno (fast) Portuguese: jejum. → desdejuni62 (breakfast → form Latin: dis. The equivalent Aromanian word also carries the sense of 'starving'. ayuno (fast). mic dejun (breakfast) Spanish: yeyu. jejuno (fast) → desjejuar (breakfast) Romanian: ajun 64 ajuna65 (fast). County Kerry.

who report what happens in the world to Odin.Evening . and burned. ." However as a multi-vowel symbol the word “eve” may be older than Christianity. .December 24 (in German: "Heilige Nacht" . In some parts of Bohemia also a May-pole or midsummertree is erected on St. Odin has a spear and his black ravens. On the Eve of St. Parallels have been drawn between the legend of Sinterklaas and the figure of Odin. Dutch: "Vastenavond" ) .Chapter 62. downward"). Huginn and Muninn. who was worshipped in Northern and Western Europe prior to Christianization74: • Sinterklaas rides the rooftops on his white horse which has various names.Carnival May-eve69 Eve of St.. in his Description of Westineath. John's Eve."Holy Night") New Year's Eve – December 31 This practice is based on the story of Creation in the Book of Genesis: "And there was evening. The term is an anglicized version of the Latin word adventus. In some parts of Sweden on the eve of May Day lads go about carrying each a bunch of fresh-gathered birch twigs. which may be considered as more or less multi-vowel words. It is then rolled to the top of a hill.James George Frazer The custom of kindling bonfires on Midsummer Day or on Midsummer Eve is widely spread among the Mohammedan peoples of North Africa.James George Frazer 70 But in Sweden midsummer is the season when these ceremonies are chiefly observed.or “advent”-feasts such as: • • • • • • • • • Fast-evening (German: “Fastenabend” . In these countries Midsummer Day (the twenty-fourth of June. who listen at chimneys to find out whether children are bad or good and report to Sinterklaas. strewed over with yellow flowers. The Midsummer Fires. every family sets up before their door a green bush. meaning "coming. a major god among the Germanic peoples. 72 Advent is a season observed in many Western Christian churches as a time of expectant waiting and preparation for the celebration of the Nativity of Jesus at Christmas. 71 In some parts of the Pyrenees a tall and slender tree is cut down on May Day and kept till Midsummer Eve. writing in 1682 says: "On May-eve.The Golden Bough .The Golden Bough. which the meadows yield plentifully.. set up.eve. Section 5. The Fire-Festivals of Europe. Odin rides the sky with his gray horse Sleipnir. All Hallows' Evening (Halloween) .The Golden Bough . Old Style) is called l’ánsa˘ra. leading to the words “eve” and “west”. John (23d June) the houses are thoroughly cleansed and garnished with green boughs and flowers. particularly in Morocco and Algeria.West The words for evening have been derived from the root *we. John (23d June)70 Midsummer Eve71: In Cornwall " there was formerly a great bonfire on midsummer.October 31 Saint Nicholas -eve (Dutch: Sinterklaasavond) – December 5th Advent72. and there was morning – the first day. Eve As multi-vowel words “evening” and “west” may have been religious symbols. wholly or partially in leaf. 69 Sir Henry Piers." 73 Julaftonen (Christmas Eve) 74 Source: Sinterklaasavond . which may also be indicated by the number of “eve”. commencing on Advent Sunday Christmas Eve73 .Sinterklaas is the basis for the North American figure of Santa Claus.(and Sanskrit avah) "down. • Sinterklaas carries a staff and has mischievous helpers with black faces. it is common both to the Berbers and to many of the Arabs or Arabic-speaking tribes.

thiustere (nfri. respectively the “absence of light”. “Dark” (German: düster. (duisternis) . Greek νύχτα (núchta. Dutch nacht (“night”). German English Scots Latin Word for “night” nacht night nicht lux Derivation from “light” No licht → nicht → nacht no light → night No Licht → nicht No lux → nux → nox The fact that the Aryans have a common name for night. nyht. German Nacht (“night”). neaht. oe.). ofri. naht. niȝt. Night The night seems to be defined as the negation. is due to the fact that they reckoned by nights76. but of nights. Dutch: duister77) seems to be related to duuster. depending on the moon's position75: They assemble. 75 Germania. from Proto-Germanic *nahts (“night”). duyster . Dusis → sunset Dysis (Δύσις) was the deity of sunset. on stated days. reckon. nyght. but not for day (q. Danish nat (“night”). Cognate with Scots nicht. from Proto-Indo-European *nókʷts (“night”). Dis (-Pater) was a Roman god of the underworld. West Frisian nacht (“night”). which they account the most auspicious season for beginning any enterprise. ðīestre. Icelandic nótt (“night”). Both seem to correlate to Dyaus Pitar.Online Etymology Dictionary 77 duister (donker). Nor do they. either at the new or full moon. neicht (“night”). Decisions had to be made. næht (“night”).nl .Evening In Germanic traditions the evening had been the most important part of the day. Oxford translation (ed. unless upon some sudden emergency. like us. from: thiustri. Brooks) at Project Gutenberg 76 night . duyster. ðēostre. E. ðystre pgm. Low German Nacht (“night”). Language Dutch. Latin nox (“night”). in their computation of time. *þiustria-.v. from Old English niht. Swedish natt (“night”).etymologiebank. “night”). neht. [Weekley] From Middle English night. Tsjuster) . by the number of days.

evening forenicht.evening avond . 78 evening (n.evening78 Danish Dutch Mercian English Old Frisian Scots Finnish Romanic Italian Waloon French Lithoanian Slovakian Latin aften . evenin ilta.evening aband .evening eve. shijhe. .evening eve of night → evening cwildtid . ehtoo seară sera Screne. sunset from root *we. west. late”). woeye soir vakaras večer vesper 79 From: "evening star. Sanskrit avah "down. by extension "calm. evening.become evening (cf.evening abend .evening Etymology Old English æfnung .) 79 Vespers "sixth canonical hour" the native name was evensong (Old English æfen-sang)."down" æfnian . peaceful"). evening ewnd .Words for Evening Language ProtoGermanic Old High German German Words for evening *æbando . downward") æfen ." From Latin serenus ("cloudless".evening efen . or from Latin sērō (“at a late hour.evening. from sērus (“late”).

Words for west In Norse mythology. *Austron (Proto-Germanic). from PIE *aus"to shine" (especially of the dawn). and Baltic Aušra ("dawn". Table 8: Words for west From: „vesper” From English “West” → (Gr. Latin Aurōra. Greek Ἠώς (Ēōs). an s-stem) → Indian Uṣas. Language PIE-root Proto-Germanic Spanish. Hausōs (PIE *h₂ewsṓs. Austri and Vestri ("Northern. Eastern and Western") are four dwarfs in the Prose Edda book. Eastre. Portuguese French Romanian Old Norse Icelandic Scots Greek Words for West Etymology *wes*wes-toeste ouest Vest vestr Vestur Wast Δύση Probably from: Dysis (Δύσις).f. Words for East *aus*aus-to-. Germanic *Austrōn. from *austra-. c.) hesperos & (Lat. Suðri. the deity of sunset. Eostre (Northumbrian). toward the sunrise" Language PIE Proto-Germanic Old Frisian Greek Latin French Spanish Dutch . a goddess of fertility and spring.is from an extended stem *h₂ews-tro-. *austraast aurion aurora est este oost Table 9: Words for east morning dawn From Middle English Etymology To shine "east.) vesper Words for east Easter has been derived from: • • • Easterdæg (Old English). Southern.or *h₂ausōs-. Lithuanian Aušrinė). Norðri. resp.

or to see Definition and etymology To see → to know wise I know to know I see I see I see wise wise To see To know wise wise to know.I or O: Language PIE root Proto-Germanic Avestan Old Russian Danish Latin Bulgarian Old Norse German Gothic Polish Dutch Old English Old English Doric Words for to know.Wise The word wise is a multi-vowel word as well.E. or to see *weid*wisaz vaeda vedat vid videō vidya viss weise weitan wiedzieć wijs wis witan woida Vowel core uuei uui uae ue ui ui ui ui uuei uuei uuei uuij uui uui uuoi Table 10: Words for to know. wit I know . to be followed by any other combination of one or two other vowels A. The vowel-core starts with a U/V.

...........................................................................................................2 Divine Names and the Pronouns.................................................................................................3 Eternity........................................................................................................8 “Ea”-tree...................................................................................................................................22 Breakfast and Fast...........3 Words made up from listing vowels..........................................................................................................................................................................................................Contents Introduction.14 The Thou-pronouns...................................................................................................................................................................................8 Tyr/Tis (Yew in Nordic languages)...............................................................24 Words for Evening........................6 The Claudian Letters..................................................................12 The I-position................................................................................. Matrimony.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3 Wise.................................2 The words for yes and no......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 AEIOU.........................................................................................................................................................13 The Pronouns..........................................14 Ego-Pronouns....................6 A-E-H-I-O-U-Ω ........................... Fast........................................................................................................................................................7 Eternity . Sacrifice......................................................................................................................27 .....2 Tuesdays and Thursdays................................24 Dusis → sunset......................................................................................................................................................26 Wise...................25 Words for west...................................................................................................................................................................................................... Evening....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................23 Eve................................................................................................................................................................2 Eternity................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................16 The words for yes and no.............................De Elocutione..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................26 Words for east......................West...... Fast....................................3 East..................................................8 Tree-names.............................................22 Divine names like Tuaisco or Tuisco........................................................................................................1 Design structure............................................................................................................11 Divine Names...........................................................8 Rivers .................. Yew & Ivy (æ) and New..................................................................................................................................................................10 New................................................................................................................................................................................6 Vowel invocations in magical papyri...................................................................and Ivy-Trees....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................8 Yew...............................................................................................................4 Runes..........................................................................................................................2 Antipodes.....................................................................17 Tuesdays and Thursdays........9 Matrimony..........................9 Table of the words for Yew.....................................................................................................................................................8 Old English...........................................................19 Tuesdays..............................................................................19 Thursdays...................................................................................................................................................................................Matrimony – Yew & Ivy (æ)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................24 Night............................3 Breakfast................................................23 Evening..17 Yes and Ja...............................................................................................22 Evening .....................................................................................................................................8 Jewish........................................................................................................................................................ West........................................20 Sacrifice...................................................

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful