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School of Engineering University of Warwick ES440/911 Computational Fluid Dynamics Lab session Week 15: Fortran I Novak Elliott

( A. Introduction The goal of this lab session is to give a quick introduction to the most useful features of the Fortran 90 programming language for scientific applications. Fortran, an acronym for Formula Translation, is a general-purpose, procedural, programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. Originally developed by IBM in the 1950s, Fortran came to dominate this area of programming early on and has been in continual use in computationally intensive areas such as climate modelling, computational chemistry and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for half a century. There have been many revisions of the Fortran language, each being designated by the year the ANSI standard was proposed. Thus we have Fortran 66, Fortran 77, Fortran 90, Fortran 95, Fortran 2003, and the latest revision in progress is tentatively entitled Fortran 2008. The most common Fortran version today is still Fortran 90, although Fortran 77 is still used in legacy code. There are also several versions of Fortran aimed at parallel computers. The most important one is High Performance Fortran (HPF), which is a de-facto standard and indeed many features have made there way into official ANSI revisions. Users should be aware that most Fortran 90 compilers allow a superset of Fortran 90, i.e. they allow non-standard extensions. In this lab session we will emphasize standard ANSI Fortran 90 which will give your programs greater portability to other platforms (such as linux, for example). Finally, given that Fortran is half a century old and many other languages have been developed since its creation, one may reasonably ask: “Why bother learning Fortran?” or “Shouldn’t I learn C++ instead?” There are many arguments for and against one language over another but what should always be remembered is that every programming language was designed with a specific purpose in mind. Fortran was designed to be very good at number crunching but is not very good for generating graphics. Similarly, Java’s strength is web applications, C is great for direct access to hardware and C++ is good for object-oriented tasks. Admittedly, with a deep understanding of the subtleties of the C++ language one can write a C++ program with the same computational efficiency as a Fortran program and arguably with ‘prettier’ syntax. However, writing a fast number crunching program in Fortran is much simpler and achieves the same result. Moreover, some of the leading commercial CFD packages on the market (e.g., Star CCM+, CFX) allow users to write their own code in Fortran to extend the capabilities of the software to solve highly customised problems, a service often offered by CFD consultant engineers.

1 Getting up and running A Fortran program is simply a sequence of computer instructions written as lines of text. Next open a command prompt (start->Run…>type ‘cmd’ then press enter). area ! Statements (where the work is done) radius = 10.0D0 area = 3.f90) and compiling it into object code and then linking all of the object code together into a single executable program (circle. you have just written your first Fortran program! Now lets have a look at what we’ve just done. We will start by looking at a simple example: program circle implicit none ! This program simply calculates the area of a circle ! Declarations (variables and constants) real(8) :: radius. Run this program. Fortran Basics 1. g95. and type the following command: g95 –o circle circle.exe. You should see the following output: The area = 314.1592 Congratulations.f90 You should now have a program called circle. Fortran Programming Tutorial 1.f90’).141592D0 * radius * radius write (*.*) 'The area = '. Sometimes the compiling and linking is done in separate stages but in our case its done all in one go so from here on we will simply refer to the process as compiling and g95 as the compiler.exe.f90 in your home directory (File>Save as->choose ‘All Files’ and type ‘circle. .2 Compiler and linker We began with a text file and ended up with a computer program – how did we do it? The answer is by using the compiler and linker. change to your home directory (type ‘i:\’). The text has to follow certain syntax to be a valid program. area end program circle Open the program Notepad (start->Run…->type ‘notepad’ and hit enter). copy and paste the above text and then save the file as circle.B. 1. which is a program for reading source code (circle.exe). Note that g95 is actually a Fortran 95 compiler but is backwards compatible with Fortran 90.

Italic Roman Font is used for generic descriptons and Arial Font is used for input and output from the command line. Commercial Fortran codes often contain about 50% comments.7 Blank spaces Blank spaces are ignored in Fortran 90 with one exception: within numeric constants. One can then break the statement into two or more lines.6 Continuation A line may be up to 132 characters long and occasionally a statement will not fit into a single line. Well-written comments are crucial to program readibility. million = 1 000 000 is invalid. if you remove all blanks in a Fortran 90 program.1. and use the continuation mark & at the end and at the beginning of the continuation. 1. the program is still syntactically correct but almost unreadable for humans. That exception aside.8 Exercises 1(a) Identify 3 errors in the following Fortran 90 program: .14159265358979D0 & & * radius * radius 1. 1. The implicit none statement ensures that all variables are explicitly declared and makes programs easier to debug and understand – do NOT omit this statement! 1.3 Comments The lines that begin with with a "!" are comments and while they are ignored by the computer they make the program more readable for humans.4 Program Organisation The structure of a Fortran program is: program name implicit none declarations executable statements end program name Note: Courier Font is used for Fortran commands. Example: ! The next statement goes over two physical lines area = 3. Therefore.

2 Types and declarations Every variable must be defined in a declaration. in the beginning of the program. which may only be 32 bit (24) on some machines. the test area program should have been written like this: . Variables. The first character must be a letter! Fortran 90 does not distinguish between upper and lower case. We will be using the integer type for general counting and indexing operations. in fact. It is then often desirable to define them only once. Note: the real type has the same accuracy as the machine architecture. compile the program as test.*) 'The value of int is '.1. For example. It also makes programs more readable. This establishes the type of the variable. the digits 0-9. this is what debugging is all about and accounts for the majority of program development time! 2. the real(8) type for high accuracy (28 = 64 bit) numerical computations and the character type for reporting. it assumes all input is upper case.exe and run it. and the underscore ‘_’ character. 2. The most common declarations are: integer :: real :: real(8) :: complex :: logical :: character :: list of variables list of variables list of variables list of variables list of variables list of variables The list of variables should consist of variable names separated by commas. Variable names Variable names in Fortran 90 may be up to 31 characters in length and chosen from the letters a-z. The output should be: The value of int is 12 Hint: if the compiler generates error messages then these will help identify the problems in the code – don’t be afraid of these. & int end test 1(b) Correct these errors.program test implicit none ! integer :: int int = 12 write(*.3 The parameter statement Some constants appear many times in a program. declarations and types 2. 2. This is what the parameter statement is for.

stop 2(b) Write a program to check your answer to part (a).0D6 3. XY3Z4Q.0D6 is two million. 2. area area = pi * radius * radius The syntax of the parameter statement is variable type. Expressions and assignment 3. geometry dimensions (pipe diameter).g.141592D0 real(8) :: radius.0D0 -0. parameter :: name = constant Note the following: • Once a variable is assigned a value in a parameter statement it becomes a constant whose value cannot change for the rest of the program • A variable can appear in at most one parameter statement • The parameter statement(s) must come before the first executable statement Common uses of the parameter statement in CFD programs are to define fluid properties (e. Here are some examples for the integer type: 1 0 -100 32767 +15 and the real(8) type: 1. 5a.real(8).4 Exercises 2(a) Which of the following variable names are invalid. 2. initial conditions (ambient temperature) and boundary conditions (inlet velocity). number1. parameter :: pi = 3. density).1 Constants The simplest form of an expression is a constant. 3. Hence. NO1. NO 1.333D-1 The D-notation means that you should multiply the constant by 10 raised to the power following the "D". AT&T. and why? A5. while 3.25D0 2. variable.333D-1 is approximately one third. NO_1. .

0D0 is a real(8) constant.3. These consist of an arbitrary sequence of characters enclosed in apostrophes (single quotes): 'ABC' 'Anything goes!' 'It is a nice day' Strings and character constants are case sensitive. which has right-to-left precedence. Its best to use brackets to ensure that each expression is evaluated in the order intended. except the exponentiation operator **. the old BIMDAS rule from primary school. The last type we will deal with are character constants. A problem arises if you want to have an apostrophe in the string itself. These are most often used as an array of characters.e. called a string. Subtraction} i.Note: do not leave off the D! 1. Division} {Addition. All these operators are calculated left-to-right.{Brackets} {Indicial exponentiation} {Multiplication./ +.0 is implicitly a real constant whereas 1. If the . you should double the apostrophe: 'It''s a nice day' 3. which has a quite different meaning for integers and higher precision types (real(8)). In this case.2 Expressions The simplest expressions are of the form operand operator operand and an example is x + y The result of an expression is itself an operand. Note: Extreme caution must be taken when using the division operator. In the circle program try changing the value of pi from a real(8) constant to a real constant and see what happens to the area! The reasoning behind this is found below in section 3. hence we can nest expressions together like x + 2 * y This raises the question of precedence: Does the last expression mean x + (2*y) or (x+2)*y? The precedence of arithmetic operators in Fortran 90 are (from highest to lowest): () ** *.

AND. an integer division is performed.FALSE. while 3. . E.3 Assignment The assignment has the form variable_name = expression The interpretation is as follows: Evaluate the right hand side and assign the resulting value to the variable on the left. area = pi * radius**2 does not change the value of pi or radius. 3(c) Use spaces and brackets to make the order of evaluation more clear. but these never change value! For example.0/2. or .1 Logical expressions Logical expressions can only have the value . 4.operands are both integers. only area.0 equals 1. which have the expected meaning. otherwise a floating point arithmetic division is performed.. Conditional statements and decision making 4.*) statement (as used in circle program in section 1. A logical expression can be formed by comparing arithmetic expressions using the following relational operators: < less than <= less than or equal to > greater than >= greater than or equal to == equal to /= not equal to Logical expressions can be combined by the logical operators . The expression on the right may contain other variables. 3/2 equals 1. . 3.2 If statements The ability to make decisions is what makes a program useful and the simplest way to do this is with the logical if statement: if (logical expression) executable statement .g.TRUE.4 Exercises 3(a) Calculate the value of the following Fortran 90 expressions (by hand): 2+1-10/3/4 2**3/3*2-5 -(3*4-2)**(3-2**1+1)/-2 3(b) Write a Fortran 90 program that prints these constant expressions using the write(*. 3.NOT. 4.5.1) and check your hand calculations.OR.

then the following syntax should be used: if (logical expression) then statements endif The most general form of the if statement has the following form: if (logical expression) then statements elseif (logical expression) then statements : : else statements endif The execution flow is from top to bottom.This has to be written on one line.true.or. To ensure readability.*) 'x endif elseif (x < 0) then write(*..*) 'x is else write(*.true. (5 == 11/2) . . Here is an example: if (x > 0) then if (x >= y) then write(*. This example finds the absolute value of x: if (x < 0) x = -x If more than one statement should be executed inside the if. .3 Exercises 4(a) Calculate the value of these logical expressions (by hand): (.*) 'x is endif is positive and x >= y' is positive but x < y' negative' zero' You should avoid nesting too many levels of if statements as the logic becomes difficult to follow.false. (2 < 2) . 4. if statements can be nested in several levels.*) 'x else write(*. Then the associated code is executed and the control jumps to the next statement after the endif. it is important to use proper indentation.or.and. The conditional expressions are evaluated in sequence until one is found to be true. .) .

*) function can be used: write(*. expr2. Hint: to read in a number from the user the read(*.*) 'sum = '.*) 'i = '. for example. Loops and arrays 5. sum end do The variable defined in the do-statement is incremented by 1 by default. n. i write(*. This program segment prints the even numbers between 1 and 10 in decreasing order: integer :: i do i = 10.*) 'i ='. What happens if you remove the brackets? 4(b) Write a Fortran 90 program that reads in two integers from the user and then assigns the integer variable t the following value: x+y x-y y 0 if x and y are both positive if x is positive and y negative if x is negative if x or y is zero Print the value of t at the end of the program. -2 write(*.*)'Input first number and press enter: ' read(*. 1. you can define any other integer to be the step. loops are used. such as calculating the pressure in every cell of a CFD model. n sum = sum + i write(*.and then write a Fortran program to check your answers. Here is a simple example that prints the cumulative sums of the integers from 1 through n (assume n has been assigned a value elsewhere): integer :: i. Fortran has the do-loop which corresponds to what is known as a for-loop in other languages. However.*) x 5. i end do The general form of the do loop is as follows: do var = expr1. sum sum = 0 do i = 1. expr3 statements .1 Loops For performing repeated tasks.

Examples: integer :: i(10) real(8) :: x(100) Each element of an array can be thought of as a separate variable. This is the responsibility of the programmer. Note: The do-loop variable must never be changed by other statements within the loop! This will cause great confusion.5) . Fortran arrays are indexed from 1 and up. For example. a consists of 20 real(8) numbers stored contiguously in memory. Arrays are usually manipulated using do-loops. That is. One-dimensional arrays The simplest array is the one-dimensional array. Thus the first number in the array is denoted by a(1) and the last by a(20) The type of an array element can be any of the basic data types. the declaration real(8) :: A(3. expr2 is the terminating bound. Matrices are usually represented by two-dimensional arrays. A one-dimensional array corresponds to a vector. and expr3 is the increment (step).end do var is the loop variable (often called the loop index) which must be integer. You reference the i'th element of array a by a(i). The data construct Fortran uses for representing such objects is the array. while a two-dimensional array corresponds to a matrix. Here is a code segment that stores the 10 first square numbers in the array sq: integer :: i. sq(10) do i = 1. 10 sq(i) = i**2 end do Note: A common bug in Fortran is that the program tries to access array elements that are out of bounds or undefined. 5. For example. expr1 specifies the initial value of var. which is just a linear sequence of elements stored consecutively in memory.2 Arrays Many scientific computations use vectors and matrices. the declaration real(8) :: a(20) declares a as a real(8) array of length 20. and the Fortran compiler will not detect any such bugs! Two-dimensional arrays Matrices are very important in linear algebra. By convention.

34. Hence we get the graphical picture: (1. 3. Fortran 90 does have dynamic memory allocation so that one can allocate just the right amount of memory. 55.4) (1.4:5) are undefined. 1.1) (1. 5(c) Write a program that solves the following three simultaneous equations: x + 2y + 3z = 6 4x + 5y + 6z = 15 7x + 8y = 15 Hint: recall from linear algebra AX = B. 3 ! Loop through each row r do r = 1.2) (1. 3 a(r. 21.1) (3.5) In the old days of Fortran 77 it was standard practice to declare arrays that were larger than the matrix we wanted to store since Fortran 77 did not have dynamic memory allocation.2) (2.c) = dble(r)/dble(c) end do end do The elements in the submatrix A(1:3.2) (3. ! Loop through each column c do c = 1. X = A-1 B .4) (2. A typical example of this might be: real(8) :: A(3. which can be figured out in the program itself.5) (3. 5. 13. 1.3) (1. 2.1) (2.5) integer :: r. Do not assume these elements are initialized to zero by the compiler (some compilers will do this. It is useful to think of the first index as the row index. we will leave this topic for the week after next so for the time being simply declare fixed sized arrays as above. 8.3) (3.4) (3.c ! We will only use the upper 3 by 3 ! part of this array. However.3) (2. but not all). The first few Fibonacci numbers are: 0. 89… 5(b) Write a program that prints out a 10 x 10 checker board using ‘1’s and ‘0’s. 5. thus it was usual to make the array big enough to handle the worst case scenario.5) (2.defines a two-dimensional array of 3*5=15 real(8) numbers.3 Exercises 5(a) Write a program that calculates and prints out the first 100 Fibonacci numbers. and the second as the column index.

Compiling Fortran 90 in F211 under UNIX If g95 is unavailable on your computer then as a workaround you may use the f90 compiler available on primrose. e.g95./circle <enter> Some useful UNIX commands: ls list the contents of current directory rm myfile delete file called filename mkdir myfolder create a folder called myfolder cd myfolder change to folder called myfolder cd . iv. Make sure that Hummingbird Exceed is installed on your computer. a general purpose unix machine. If it is not then reboot your computer. v.C. i.. To create a fortran file named circle. . ii.. D. Double click on the desktop icon labelled primrose and enter your user name and password (Ignore the error message about not being able to create a log file).f90 type: nedit circle. for a windows machine choose ‘Self-extracting Windows x86’.f90 & <enter> To compile this file type: f90 –o circle circle. vi.g.f90 <enter> To run this program type: .org. change out of folder called myfolder iii. Useful resources The g95 compiler is free and can be downloaded from http://ftp.