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**Jacek P. Dmochowski∗ , Marom Bikson∗ , Abhishek Datta∗ , Yuzhuo Su† , and Lucas C. Parra∗ ,
**

∗ Department

of Biomedical Engineering City College of New York New York, NY 10031 Email: jdmochowski@ccny.cuny.edu † Neuromatters LLC New York, NY 10005 thus bypassing the brain and limiting the intensity of the ﬁeld in the target region. Additionally, a lack of focal stimulation results from the diffusion of the current through the highly conductive cerebrospinal ﬂuid (CSF). In this paper, we employ precise forward-models of current ﬂow which are leveraged to achieve desired electric ﬁeld intensities at target brain regions while sparing other areas. We consider the international 10/10 electrode placement system with 64 electrodes and optimize the current applied at each electrode such that the resulting electric ﬁeld is as close as possible, in a least squares sense, to a desired ﬁeld. The large number of electrode locations considered does not mean that all electrodes will be energized; rather, the locations should be viewed as candidates to place a smaller number of physical electrodes. A critical factor that will be considered is the maximum total current delivered to the subject. A widely accepted standard for safety and comfort of weak-current electrical stimulation is to limit the total current delivered to 2 mA. As will be shown, this constraint limits the degrees of freedom and thus the achievable intensity and focality. Consequently, we also report unconstrained results to determine the upperbound on transcranial focality. Additionally, these results may be relevant for high-intensity protocols which are routinely used clinically, namely trancutaneous electrical stimulation and electroconvulsive therapy. In general, while the results presented pertain speciﬁcally to tDCS, the proposed framework is applicable to all noninvasive electrical stimulation modalities. The literature on optimizing electrical stimulation is scarce; more surprising is the lack of acknowledgment of the focality problem belonging to the class of beamforming techniques. The nature of the current ﬂow induced by tDCS has been studied in [9]–[11]. In [12], the authors search the electrode position space to locate a bipolar conﬁguration yielding the largest current ﬂow at the target under a total current constraint. The effect of white matter anisotropy on focality is treated in [13]. The idea of utilizing multiple electrodes for optimizing tDCS has been proposed in abstract form [14]. II. P ROBLEM F ORMULATION Consider a heterogeneous volume as in Figure 1 with a scalar conductivity ﬁeld σ (we ignore anisotropy and assume

Abstract—Transcranial electrical stimulation involves the delivery of weak electrical currents to the brain via scalp electrodes to elicit neuromodulatory effects. The current is conventionally passed through two large electrodes resulting in diffused electric ﬁelds. In this paper, we propose a novel paradigm in which multiple small electrodes with independent current controls are systematically optimized to yield targeted and effective stimulation under safety constraints. We employ the ﬁnite element method, in conjunction with a magnetic resonance imagery based model of the human head, to formulate a linear system relating the applied scalp current to the resulting electric ﬁeld. Optimization techniques are then applied to derive stimulation parameters which maximize either intensity or focality at the target location. Results demonstrate that the optimal electrode conﬁguration is strongly dependent on both the desired ﬁeld orientation and the optimization criterion. The proposed scheme yields improvements of 98% in target intensity and 80% in focality compared to the conventional two-electrode montage. Additionally, the presented framework effectively optimizes electrode placement in the classical bipolar conﬁguration, which is useful if only a single channel current source is available. Consequently, the proposed scheme promises to deliver increased efﬁcacy and improved patient safety to clinical settings in which the target site is identiﬁed by a clinician.

I. I NTRODUCTION Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an emerging neurotechnology involving the application of small direct currents to the surface of the scalp to elicit modulation of neural activity [1]. It is currently being investigated as a therapeutic tool for a wide array of neurological conditions, including major depression [2], epilepsy [3], Parkinson’s disease [4], and motor and speech rehabilitation after stroke [5], [6]. Moreover, tDCS has been shown to improve cognitive function, speciﬁcally memory, in healthy subjects [7], [8]. A basic tDCS “kit” consists of a pair of electrodes, a battery, and a simple circuit capable of injecting a controlled current intensity at the stimulating electrode while drawing an equivalent return current at the reference electrode. The procedure is inexpensive, well-tolerated, and ﬂexible, with effects lasting well beyond the duration of the stimulation [1]. Two factors hindering the rational clinical deployment of tDCS are the limited stimulation intensities and difﬁculty in precisely focusing the stimulating electric ﬁelds. A signiﬁcant fraction of the injected current is shunted through the scalp,

M. . N . The FEM solution yields. we assume that the direction of the applied current is ﬁxed. when applying currents through electrodes to the boundary of this volume. O PTIMIZATION S CHEMES A. . such as normal to the electrode surface. . The solution is unique given that the electric ﬁeld. current density. the effective resistivity am ∈ R3 relating the current ﬂowing into (out of) the stimulating (reference) electrodes to the electric ﬁeld em ∈ R3 throughout the volume1 : em (rn ) = sm am (rn ). a negative unit current density at the reference electrode. s = . . the resulting potential distribution V in the volume can be found as the solution to Laplace’s equation [15]: ∇ · J = ∇ · (σ E) = −∇ · (σ ∇V ) = 0.2 0. . and work with scalar magnitudes sm ). . m = 1. Head model segmented into various tissue categories based on T1weighted MRI image. the solution does not have a closed-form. . tissue brain skull CSF scalp muscle air electrode gel C ONDUCTIVITY VALUES a1 (rN ) a2 (rN ) · · · aM (rN ) e(r1 ) s1 s2 e(r2 ) . It is clear that the nature of the ﬁeld is intimately related to the individual current densities sm . Consider a setup in which M stimulating electrodes and an additional reference electrode are available (as there are 64 total electrodes in the 10/10 conﬁguration. If we now simultaneously stimulate all electrodes such that the current density magnitude at electrode m is given by sm .65 0.465 0. n = 1. .3 TABLE I σ ASSIGNED TO MODEL COMPONENTS . Brain shown in blue. then the linearity of Laplace’s equation dictates that the net electric ﬁeld at location rn is given by: Fig. M = 63). (3) isotropic conductivities as listed in Table I). here we want to achieve a speciﬁed electric ﬁeld at a single node while minimizing the electric ﬁeld elsewhere.. . a common scheme is to enforce a hard linear constraint (e. However. . 1.01 1. and zero current density perpendicular to the scalp at all other boundary locations. (2) The net electric ﬁeld is a linear combination of the individual electric ﬁelds yielded by each bipolar conﬁguration as computed by the FEM solver. . . . J) is speciﬁed at all locations on the outer boundary. denote the desired electric ﬁeld at the target node by eo ∈ R3 : a sensible choice for the direction speciﬁed by eo is radial 1 We abandon classical physics notation in favor of linear algebraic conventions.9 × 107 0. III. E (or equivalently. . . Let Bm . The columns of A represent linearly independent “paths” which may be intelligently combined to yield a maximally focal (or intense) net electric ﬁeld at the target. a numerical approximation may be found by discretizing the volume into a set of ﬁnite elements. aM (r1 ) aM (r2 ) . Optimizing for Focality In the beamforming literature. Because the tissue has no net current sources or sinks. (4) a1 (r1 ) a1 (r2 ) . The problem of choosing the coefﬁcients sm to shape the induced ﬁeld is analogous to the “beamforming” problem in array signal processing [18]. . enforce a desired gain for a given direction) while utilizing the remaining degrees of freedom to minimize the total power. Red indicates the gel between electrode (magenta) and scalp (purple). . the current density at the reference ∑ electrode is given by − m sm .where em (rn ) denotes the electric ﬁeld vector at FEM node rn ∈ R3 . In general.. induced by stimulation of electrode m.334 1 × 10−15 5.) Thus. a2 (r1 ) a2 (r2 ) . . With M stimulating electrodes. Below. and solving (1) using ﬁnite element method (FEM) [16]. inside the tissue has zero divergence: ∇ · J = 0 (∇ = ∂ ∂ ∂ [ ∂x . the current density J. . we have M degrees of freedom at our disposal. each with a single conductivity value. . we propose several optimization schemes suitable for optimizing non-invasive electrical stimulation modalities. Analogously. To that end. (1) Stacking column-wise across the discrete location space and re-writing in matrix form results in: e = As. and sm is the applied current density magnitude (for simplicity.g. ∂z ] is the gradient operator. e(rn ) = M ∑ m=1 em (rn ) = M ∑ m=1 sm am (rn ). [17]. . e(rN ) sM conductivity (S/m) 0. Note that assuming uniform electrodes across the scalp. 64 electrodes are placed according to the international 10/10 system. This fact allows us to tune these current densities such that the resulting ﬁeld is optimal with respect to a speciﬁed measure. . denote the mth set of boundary conditions: Bm consists of unit current density applied to electrode m. . ∂y . for each Bm . and assuming continuity of electric potential and current density at tissue boundaries. with vectors denoted by lower-case bold font and matrices with upper-case bold. where A= e= ··· ··· .

Denoting the (ﬁxed) electrode area by A. In this case. It is not straightforward to extend this safety constraint to multiple electrode stimulation. particularly in the case of cortical stimulation. Since the sum of positive currents equals the sum of negative currents. The safest approach is to limit the sum of all positive currents to Imax . P ERFORMANCE M ETRICS In order to assess the focality of a given ﬁeld. In those cases. this may not be an accurate representation of the safety limitations of electrical stimulation as some electrode conﬁgurations may act only locally. while eo denotes the desired ﬁeld orientation at the target. (8) where it should be noted that eT o Cs is the projection of the electric ﬁeld at the target node on a vector pointing in the direction of the desired ﬁeld. (12) for which an iterative solution may be found using conventional numerical ∑ methods (see section V). s 2 may be especially valid if the set of stimulating electrodes are a considerable distance apart. 2 (5) where C= [ a1 (rno ) a2 (rno ) ··· aM (rno ) ] . the ℓ1 norm Note that m |sm | = ∥s∥1 is by deﬁnition ∑ of the current density vector (the term | m sm | accounts for the current through the reference electrode). The framework of (4) easily allows one to formulate the problem of optimizing intensity: recall from (5) that C consists of the rows of A corresponding to the target node. Optimizing for Intensity The optimization of focality corresponds to maximizing tDCS safety. The above safety constraint is guided by the notion that the effect of the injected current is globally additive. the linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) procedure selects the one with the lowest overall 2 electric ﬁeld power ∥As∥ across the volume: slcmv = arg min ∥As∥ subject to Cs = eo . it may be desirable to sacriﬁce focality and rather maximize the electric ﬁeld at the target location. The results will be compared to conventional large padelectrodes. this is equivalent to limiting the sum of absolute values of all currents to 2Imax . Thus. for example. we analogously deﬁne smax = Imax /A. (6) and no is the index of the target node. IV. (9) As the numerical evaluations will show. by limiting the maximum total current we are not only satisfying a sensible safety constraint but also encouraging solutions in which a majority of the current is being guided through just a few electrodes.5 r|F (r) = 0.5 is given in Figure 2. it may be suitable to relax the safety constraint on ∥s∥1 and rather limit the absolute value of the current at each individual electrode. we plot the half-max radius against the target intensity in the desired direction (i. The solution to (5) follows from the method of Lagrange multipliers as: ( )−1 T [ ( T )−1 T ]−1 slcmv = AT A C C A A C eo . A pad-electrode is simulated. Thus. (11) n ∥e(rn )∥ where T (r) is a set consisting of all nodes within radius r of the target node. its magnitude conveys the desired target intensity. we deﬁne the following metric which quantiﬁes the proportion of the electric ﬁeld magnitude contained within a sphere of increasing radius around the target: ∑ n∈T (r ) ∥e(rn )∥ F (r ) = ∑ . (7) Unfortunately. with Imax typically equalling 2 mA. or sampled. the maximization of the intensity in the desired direction at the target takes the form of a linear programming problem: smax = arg max eT o Cs subject to: s ∑ ∑ |sm | + sm ≤ 2smax . However. B.. the safety constrained LCMV problem follows as: slcmv−con = arg min ∥As∥ subject to: s 2 (10) Cs = eo and ∑ m |sm | + ∑ m sm ≤ 2smax .or tangential to the skull surface. a more local safety constraint guided by skin reaction and sensation levels directly under each electrode may be more appropriate. the projection of the electric ﬁeld at the target onto a unit vector pointing in the speciﬁed orientation). In the forthcoming results. the resulting current distributions are more broadly distributed than with the ℓ1 norm constraint. Such a procedure An example for F (r) and r0. but at the expense of larger current ﬂow through the brain. as a square arrangement of 5 small electrodes (approximately 5 cm side-length. bipolar electrodes on one side of the head will not affect brain tissue on the other side of the head. In addition. We deﬁne the “half-max-radius” (analogous to the full-width-half-max) as the radius which contains half of the total electric ﬁeld: r0. and sm ≤ smax . From all current distributions s that satisfy the hard constraint. the amount of current injected into the stimulating electrode is constrained to Imax .e. the solution of (7) is free to take values outside of the allowable range for safety: in conventional bipolar tDCS. see Figures 4 and 5). In some cases. ∀m. This has the advantage of potentially requiring fewer independent current-control channels. We thus also formulate the individually ℓ1 constrained LCMV problem as: slcmv−ind = arg min ∥As∥ subject to: s ∑ Cs = eo and |sm | ≤ smax . To evaluate the relative . Thus.5. as undesired brain regions are spared by the stimulation. Optimization with an ℓ1 norm constraint is popular due the the fact that the resulting solutions often exhibit sparseness. the resulting electric ﬁelds are more focal than those produced by (8).

the optimization of currents was performed in MATLAB (Mathworks. M ETHODS The anatomical model was derived from an MRI of the head of a 35-year old healthy male recorded with a 3T Philips Achieva scanner (Philips Medical Systems. only the nodes corresponding to the brain were taken into account for the optimization. UK). VI.e. we also compare to current ad-hoc approaches for placing electrodes to achieve desired tangential and radial current directions. each electrode is modeled as a cylinder of 12mm diameter and 2mm depth. the coronal slices are shown for a target intensity of 0.5 M = 63 free electrodes to yield the mixing matrix A.16 V/m). followed by further segmentation of the volume into the following categories: electrode. brain. Natick. and optimized for intensity (10). note that with the simulated pad montage. optimized for focality without safety constraint (7). Netherlands). and not the distribution of the optimal unconstrained currents (7) change with an 2 The coronal slice is shown using the radiological convention: from the vantage point of the clinician facing the patient. When specifying tangential current ﬂow. and then stimulating a single electrode with an input current density of 1 A/mm2 . R ESULTS To quantify the beneﬁts of optimizing the applied currents and to establish an upper bound on achievable intensity and focality. CSF. two “ad-hoc” small electrode arrangements (4-by-1 or bipolar). scalp. Additionally. the ﬁeld intensity at the target is 0. skull.5 of 40mm at 0.3 V/m. Additionally. In the case of a radial desired ﬁeld. Radial stimulation Beginning with the radial case. the optimized results are compared to a bipolar conﬁguration in which adjacent electrodes are oriented in the desired direction. Note that the visualization of the scalp currents is thus ﬂipped left-to-right with respect to the slice. V.2 0 0 50 r (mm) 100 150 Fig.25 V/m (the curve terminates at the maximum feasible intensity. the beneﬁts of optimizing for focality become apparent. At the intensity attained by the simulated pad and ad-hoc schemes (0. 1. respectively. In all cases. and muscle. The image is then automatically segmented into four tissue categories (brain. in which the stimulating electrode is surrounded by 4 returns. Finally. The acquisition matrix has size 256-by-256-by-190 with a voxel size of 1mm-by-1mm-by-1mm.16 V/m with a half-max radius of 80mm. MA) using disciplined convex programming [19].5 0. we choose a cortical target for which we specify both radial and tangential stimulation (Fig. the solutions were algebraically rereferenced to Iz which serves as the reference in the presented results. Amsterdam.8 F (r) (mm) 0. The labeled volume is then translated to a ﬁnite element mesh using Simpleware’s ScanFE software and isotropic conductivity values are assigned to each tissue type following Table I. we show the coronal slice of the electric ﬁelds and optimal current distributions for all six schemes in Figures 4b-g (radial) and 5b-g (tangential) – for all focality optimized schemes. the LCMV with currents constrained at each electrode exhibits an excellent focality-intensity trade-off: r0. 3 As expected due to the increased degrees of freedom. Immediately. conducting gel.1 0. Oxford. Exeter.5 of 57mm. air. For the sake of clarity. 2. the ad-hoc 4by-1 conﬁguration attains the same target intensity with an r0.. Manual correction of the automated segmentation is then performed using Simpleware’s ScanIP tool (Simpleware. while maintaining a halfmax radius less than 69mm. Meanwhile. RI) by ﬁxing one electrode as the reference (i.6 0. conducting gel with a 1mm thick layer and surface area equal to that of the cylinder rests directly under the electrode. optimized for focality with the individual electrode constraint (9). We then compute the half-max radii and feasible target intensities for the following: simulated large-pad electrodes. containing half of the electric ﬁeld (∝ r0 . merits of optimization over the use of small electrodes. The model is then ﬁtted with electrodes placed on the scalp according to the international 10/10 system. and skull) using FSL’s Brain Extraction Tool and Automated Segmentation Toolbox (FSL. Providence. and small-electrode arrays optimized for focality with the ℓ1 norm constraint (8). we refer to these benchmark conﬁgurations as “ad-hoc”. scalp. Cz). UK). as the LCMV-ℓ1 scheme achieves ﬁeld intensities of up to 0. CSF. Most striking is the fact that the the LCMV method with unconstrained currents achieves a half-max radius of only 30mm – note that only the magnitude.16 V/m (0. the LCMV-ℓ1 method yields an 80% improvement in focality over the pads and 47% over the ad-hoc scheme. The segmented head is shown in Fig. it was assumed that the current density is uniform across the surface of the electrode. Proportion of electric ﬁeld conﬁned in a sphere of increasing radius.4 r0. Figures 4a and 5a depict the focality-intensity curves for the radial and tangential directions. Laplace’s equation (1) is solved in Abaqus (Simulia. the benchmark will be the “4-by1” conﬁguration [16]. 3 We deﬁne the improvement as the percentage decrease in the volume 3 ).23 V/m) in the radial (tangential) case. 3). The current distributions are displayed using a modiﬁed version of the EEGLAB topoplot function which renders the scalp currents in 2D [20] using the conventional schematic for the 10/10 international system 2 . grounding the chosen reference. This procedure is repeated for all . Following this computation.

representing a 97% (98%) improvement in achieved target intensity over the simulated pad (ad-hoc 4by-1) montage. From Figure 4g.increased target intensity. but certainly not focality.29 V/m. representing an improvement of 63% and 112%. We have found that this conﬁguration is a reasonable approximation to the optimal conﬁguration in the case of a desired tangential ﬁeld. the dependence of electrode conﬁguration on desired ﬁeld orientation has so far not been recognized. there are fewer degrees of freedom available to the optimization schemes.48 V/m..e. From a functional point of view. 5 out of 64. respectively. Radial and tangential directions were deﬁned here relative to the skull as this surface is the major determinant for placing electrodes. Another ﬁnding which is intuitively satisfying relates to . Targeting a cortical node in radial (red) and tangential (blue) directions. the maximum intensity scheme yields a target intensity of 0. the ℓ1 norm constrained solution yields an improvement of 52% in focality over the simulated pad scheme. (a) Target Fig.g. many clinical trials have no well-deﬁned target areas. does not necessarily correspond to the tangential or radial directions deﬁned here. which electrodes to use as the returns. This slight difference accounts for a signiﬁcant reduction in half-max radius. with rings of alternating polarity centered over the target. respectively. The individually constrained and unconstrained LCMV solutions yield massive improvements over conventional methods. Tangential stimulation Consider now Figure 5a. we believe that it is paramount to identify the precise site of action of electrical stimulation paradigms – in that case. For example. the intensity optimized conﬁguration takes the form of a “semi-distant” bipolar. Here again. it may be that focal stimulation is not desirable: if the target is unknown. At 0. but is unlikely to be appropriate for tangential ﬁelds.29 V/m and half-max radii 80 and 69mm. While in hindsight the solution seems obvious. the optimization’s role is not in determining amount of current injected. D ISCUSSION We have demonstrated that the nature of the safety criteria drastically affects the resulting optimal solutions. The more conservative safety criterion of limiting the total current had the advantage of leading to solutions with a small number of electrodes. Note that the unconstrained currents resemble a spherical sinc with non-arbitrary weights applied to the involved electrodes and an additional ring emerging (compared to the radial case). we observe that this unconstrained solution resembles a “spherical sinc” function. the simulated pad and ad-hoc bipolar montages attain target intensities of 0. the maximum intensity scheme yields a target intensity of 0. if efﬁcacy and safety are to be systematically optimized. which details the focality-intensity trade-off in the case of tangential stimulation. Despite its simplicity.29 V/m is 12%. with the stimulating electrode placed directly over the target. one may stimulate broadly and rely on the behavioral paradigm for speciﬁcity.31 V/m. and the target resting between the electrodes. until further clarity emerges on the desired target locations for speciﬁc conditions. VII. Experimental work is still outstanding to establish the importance of stimulation orientation. if 4 is the available number of independently controlled stimulators). r0. with the difference being the location and magnitude of the return electrodes. the 4-by-1 montage is a suitable design for radially oriented currents. with the half-max radius not exceeding 45mm at 0. Finally.23 and 0. It may also be useful to modify the proposed approach and explicitly search for the best subset of electrode locations among a large number of candidate locations (e. However. and how much current to pass through them). In terms of target intensity. Moreover. In this case. which due to its extensive folding. Herein lie the beneﬁts of performing a patient-speciﬁc optimization of the applied currents: the nominal 4-by-1 arrangement is only an approximation to the ideal solution (the unconstrained LCMV). over the simulated pad and ad-hoc bipolar montages.. The optimization scheme here serves to identify the placement of the most intense bipolar conﬁguration. It is interesting to note that the LCMV-ℓ1 solution (Figure 4d) is a non-trivially modiﬁed version of the ad-hoc 4-by1. The customarily employed distant bi-polar conﬁguration may be optimal in terms of intensity (at least in the case of a radial target). the ad-hoc bipolar conﬁguration considered in this paper is not currently used in practice. At present.5 remains constant. the present results justify the increased complexity in software and hardware required for targeting. thus. The reduced improvement in focality compared to the radial case may be attributed to the fact that tangential stimulation leads to larger target intensities – at these larger intensities.23 V/m. but rather the location of the bipolar montage. It is difﬁcult to ﬁnd structure in the individually constrained optimal current conﬁguration. and the idiosyncrasies of patient anatomy are indispensable to the computation of the maximally focal conﬁguration (i. 3. while using the same amount of input current. The maximally intense montage is bipolar with the pair of electrodes arranged in the direction of desired orientation. Turning to Figure 4f. the improvement over the ad-hoc bipolar montage at 0. the target direction will likely be deﬁned based on the cortical anatomy.

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