4/5/2013

Electric Distribution Systems Basic Protection Schemes

Ing. Susana Torres, MSc

April-2013

1. Transformer Protection 1.1 Standars
• IEEE C37.2. IEEE standard electrical power system device function number. • IEEE C37.90. IEEE Standard for relays and relay systems associated with electric power apparatus. • IEEE Std C37.91. IEEE Guide for Protecting Power Transformers. • IEEE Std 242. Chapter 11 of IEEE Recommended Practice for Protection and Coordination of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems. (Buff Book). • IEEE Std C37.108. IEEE Guide for the Protection of Network Transformers

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51N (in solid grounded systems) • Secondary Overcurrent Protection 50G. 51G.1 Typical Settings of Protective Devices for Power Transformers Source: Industrial Power Systems. 51. 51G2 (ground overcurrent) • Differential Protection (87) Source: Industrial Power Systems. CRC Press. Shoaib Khan. 51 (phase overcurrent) 51G1.Boucholz relay Sudden gas pressure relay (63SP) Winding overtemperature (49) Oil temperature (23Q) • Primary Overcurrent Protection (high voltage side) 50. 2008 2 . 50G. CRC Press. Shoaib Khan.2 Protective Devices and Features • Devices Oil Immersed Transformers: Gas detector relay (63P) . 2008 Table 1. 50N.4/5/2013 1.

2008 3 . CRC Press. Shoaib Khan. CRC Press. Shoaib Khan.1 (Continued) Source: Industrial Power Systems.1 (Continued) Source: Industrial Power Systems. 2008 Table 1.4/5/2013 Table 1.

3 Transformer protection with primary and secondary breaker Source: Industrial Power Systems.4/5/2013 1.4 Transformer protection with a primary Fuse Source: Industrial Power Systems. CRC Press. 2008 4 . Shoaib Khan. Shoaib Khan. 2008 1. CRC Press.

2008 1. Shoaib Khan.4/5/2013 1. 2008 5 .5 Protection of Low Voltage Unit Substation Transformers Source: Industrial Power Systems. Shoaib Khan. CRC Press. CRC Press.6 Electrical Code Rules for Transformer Protection National Electrical Code (NFPA-70) Rules for Transformer Protection Canadian Electrical Code Rules for Transformer Protection Source: Industrial Power Systems.

1 Standars • IEEE Std C37. (Buff Book). • IEEE 620. Motor Protection 2.4/5/2013 2. IEEE Guide for AC Motor Protection • IEEE Std 242. IEEE Guide for the Presentation of Thermal Limit Curves for Squirrel Cage Induction Machines 2. 2008 6 .2 Data required for Relay Selection and Setting Data from Motor Manufacturer Source: Industrial Power Systems. Shoaib Khan. Chapter 10 of IEEE Recommended Practice for Protection and Coordination of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems.96. CRC Press.

2 Data required for Relay Selection and Setting (Continued) Data from Mechanical Equipment Vendor Data from Power Utility Company Source: Industrial Power Systems. Shoaib Khan. CRC Press.1 Synchronous-motor performance curves during acceleration (plot generated during motor design) Source: Industrial Power Systems.4/5/2013 Fig. 2008 2. Shoaib Khan. 2008 7 . CRC Press. 2.

49W Blocked ventilation or cooling. 51S Overload .4/5/2013 2. 49. 51G. 59 Voltage or current unbalance. surge arrestors by Source: Industrial Power Systems. Protection against Abnormal Conditions Caused Environment: High ambient temperature. Shoaib Khan. 39 Source: Industrial Power Systems. 60 or 46 Underfrequency. 49W Lightning and switching surge. Protection against abnormal power supply conditions: Undervoltage. Protection against abnormal conditions caused by the Driven Load: Locked rotor or fail to accelerate. 49W Bearing overtemperature 38 Vibration. 2008 2. 50. 81 B. Shoaib Khan. or 87M C. 2008 8 . or 87M Short circuit. 51. 27 Overvoltage. CRC Press. 50G. Protection against Faults in the Motor or Motor Feeder: Ground fault. CRC Press.3 Recommended Protection A.3 Recommended Protection (Continued) D.thermal protection.

2008 2.4 Recommended Protection Schemes Fig. 2. Shoaib Khan.2 Typical protection features for MV induction motor (≤1500 hp) controlled by fused starters Source: Industrial Power Systems. CRC Press.3 Typical protection features for MV induction motor (>1500 hp) controlled by circuit breaker Source: Industrial Power Systems.4 Recommended Protection Schemes Fig. Shoaib Khan. 2. CRC Press.4/5/2013 2. 2008 9 .

Protection 10 . 2008 2. CRC Press. 2008 Fig. CRC Press.5 Medium Voltage V.4 Typical protection features for MV motor and captive (unit) transformer Source: Industrial Power Systems.4 Recommended Protection Schemes Source: Industrial Power Systems.4 Recommended Protection Schemes Fig. Shoaib Khan. 2. 2.F. Shoaib Khan.4/5/2013 2.D.

Motor Protection Source: Industrial Power Systems.1 Typical Settings of Protective Devices. Shoaib Khan. CRC Press. Shoaib Khan.4/5/2013 Table 2. 2008 2. CRC Press.5 Electrical Code Rules for Motor Protection National Electrical Code (NFPA-70) Rules for Transformer Protection Source: Industrial Power Systems. 2008 11 .

95. 2008 3. Shoaib Khan. • IEEE C37. • IEEE Std 242.1-2002 Rules for Transformer Protection Source: Industrial Power Systems. Generator Protection 3.5 Electrical Code Rules for Motor Protection (continued) Canadian Electrical Code CSA C22.1 Standars • IEEE Std C37.106. (Buff Book). IEEE Guide for Generator Ground Protection • IEEE C37.4/5/2013 2. IEEE Guide for Protective Relaying of Utility-Consumer Interconnection. Guide for AC generator protection.102. IEEE Guide for Abnormal-Frequency Protection for Power Generating Plants 12 . Chapter 12 of IEEE Recommended Practice for Protection and Coordination of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems. • IEEE C37. CRC Press.101.

3 Recommended Protection Schemes Fig.2 Data required for Relay Selection and Setting Source: Industrial Power Systems. 3. CRC Press. Shoaib Khan. 2008 13 .4/5/2013 3. Shoaib Khan. CRC Press. 2008 3.1 Protection scheme for a HR-grounded generator Source: Industrial Power Systems.

CRC Press.3 Recommended Protection Schemes Fig. Shoaib Khan. 2008 14 . 3. CRC Press.2 Protection scheme for a unit-connected generator Source: Industrial Power Systems.3 Resistance-grounded generator to LV-connected system Source: Industrial Power Systems. 3. 2008 3.3 Recommended Protection Schemes Fig. Shoaib Khan.4/5/2013 3.

Bus Protection 4. Chapter 13 of IEEE Recommended Practice for Protection and Coordination of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems. 2008 4.4/5/2013 3. 3. (Buff Book).1 Standars • IEEE C37. IEEE Guide for Protective Relay Applications to Power System Buses. Shoaib Khan. CRC Press.4 Protection scheme for diesel generator (≤500 kW) connected to a low-voltage bus (≤600 V) Source: Industrial Power Systems.3 Recommended Protection Schemes Fig. • IEEE Std 242.97. 15 .

CRC Press.2 Bus-differential scheme using overcurrent and a stabilizing resistor. Nondirectional Overcurrent Relays Source: Industrial Power Systems. Nondirectional Overcurrent Relays Source: Industrial Power Systems. CRC Press.2 Bus Differential Schemes Fig. 4.1 Bus-differential circuit for a radial system.2 Bus Differential Schemes Fig.4/5/2013 4. Shoaib Khan. 4. 2008 16 . 2008 4. Shoaib Khan.

95-2002.91-2000. IEEE 620-1996. 1991. 2001.96-2000. IEEE C57. 2000.109-1993. IEEE Standard Requirements for Secondary Network Protectors. IEEE Guide for AC Generator Protection.102-1995. 1991. 1995. 2000. 1992.92-2000. Power Transformers Ability to Withstand Short Circuit and Amendment No.115-1991. IEEE Guide for Distributed Digital Control and Monitoring for Power Plants.12. IEEE Guide for Loading Dry-Type Distribution and Power Transformers.STANDARDS Transformer Protection IEEE C37. IEEE C37. IEEE Guide for the Protection of Network Transformers. IEEE Guide for Abnormal-Frequency Protection for Power Generating Plants. IEEE 122-1991. IEEE Recommended Practice for Functional and Performance Characteristics of Control Systems for Steam Turbine Generator Units. 1992. REFERENCES . Guide for Loading Oil-Immersed Distribution and Power Transformers up to and Including 100 MVA with 55°C or 65°C Winding Rise. IEEE Guide for Loading Mineral-Oil-Immersed Power Transformers Rated in Excess of 100 MVA.108-2002. IEEE C37. IEEE Guide for Protection. IEEE C37. 2002.4/5/2013 REFERENCES . 2000. Interlocking and Control of FossilFuel Unit Connected Steam Stations. IEEE Guide for Presentation of Thermal Limit Curves for Squirrel Cage Induction Machines. 2002. 1991. IEEE Guide for Protective Relaying of Utility-Consumer Interconnection. 1996. IEEE Recommended Practice for the Protection of Wire-Line Communication Facilities Serving Electric Power Stations. IEEE C37.106-1987 (R 1992).101-1993.96-1999. 1999. IEEE 502-1985 (R 1992).STANDARDS Motor Protection IEEE C37. 1995. IEEE Guide for Protective Relay Applications to Power Transformers. IEEE C57.44-2000. IEEE C57. IEEE Guide for Generator Ground Protection. IEEE C57. 1993. Generator Protection IEEE C37. IEEE 1046-1991. IEEE Guide for AC Motor Protection. 2000. IEEE C57.59-2001. 17 . IEEE C57. IEEE Guide for Loading Mineral-Oil Immersed Power Transformers. IEC 76-5. IEEE C57.12. 1993.1. Guide for Dry-Type Transformer Through-Fault Current Duration. 1992.91-1995. IEEE 487-1992. Guide for Transformer Through-Fault Current Duration.

and control. Electrical Power Transmission System Engineering: Analysis and Design. protection. 2nd Edition. Third Edition. C.gedigitalenergy. 1990. American National Standard for General Requirements of Synchronous Machines. 2006 Bayliss. 1977.113. C. ANSI C50.12-1982. American National Standard Requirement for Gas Turbine Driven Cylindrical Rotor Synchronous Generators. CRC Press. automation. 2008 James A. National Electric Code. The Art & Science of Protective Relaying. R. ANSI C50.10-1990. McGraw-Hill. Industrial power systems. IEEE Guide for Protective Relay Applications to Transmission Lines Bibliography NFPA 70. Power system protection. No. NEC-2011 Shoaib Khan. Third Edition. John Wiley & Sons.4/5/2013 REFERENCES . 2008 Turan Gönen. 1999 J. Inc. Lewis Blackburn. NY. NY. Transmission and Distribution Electrical Engineering. IEEE Cat. Paul M.com/multilin/notes/artsci/index. 1992. Electric power distribution. Bus Protection IEEE C37. Momoh.13-1989. American National Standard Requirement for Cylindrical Rotor Synchronous Generators. IEEE Tutorial on the Protection of Synchronous Generators. Transmission Lines IEEE Std C37.14-1977. IEEE Guide for Protective Relay Applications to Power System Buses.STANDARDS Generator Protection IEEE 1129-1992. 1989. Protective Relaying: Principles and Applications. 1997. 2009 Anderson. CRC Press. American National Standard Requirement for Salient-Pole Synchronous Generators and Generator/Motors for Hydraulic Turbine Applications. ANSI C50. 2007 Russell Mason. 1982.97-1997. (Application Engineer General Electric Co. ANSI C50. http://www.htm) 18 . IEEE Recommended Practice for Monitoring and Instrumentation of Turbine Generators. CRC Press. 95 TP 102. CRC Press.

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