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Social Acceptance and Aggression Among Adolescents: An Analysis of the Japanese Anime Fruits Basket KRYSTAL MILLER

Introduction Personally, adolescence was a difficult time in my life. Not only was I going through puberty, but I was also starting to form closer relationships with my peers. There were periods during that time in my life where I was caught in opposition with my social group and I felt as if I could not win. I was also bullied and taunted quite extensively. Unfortunately, it is now increasingly common to hear stories about young adolescent teens committing suicide due to peer bullying. In 2011, an estimated 20% of US youths reported bully victimization in the past year (LeVasseur, Kelvin & Grosskopf, 2013, p. 1). When I worked as a tutor at a middle school, I witnessed similar things. I noticed young girls being socially isolated from their peers and I noticed boys preferring to scream and physically fight one another during an altercation. I initially examined the Japanese anime Fruits Basket, through a feminist lens since as a female, Tohru Hondaone of the main charactershad the ability to transform members of the Sohma family into animals of the Chinese zodiac. In fact, the only scholarly research I could find on the series explored how Fruits Basket and other Japanese anime portray femininity (Choo, 2008, p. 276). However, after closer examination, I realized that there is a much deeper theme presented in the seriessocial acceptance. Every character in the anime seriesmajor or minor had some type of conflict with members of their social group. It is also interesting to note that every character who has been in an altercation with peers, either directly or indirectly, are all adolescents. There is also a difference in the way each gender handles conflict, which is similar to what I have experienced in reality. The purpose of this paper is to identify the ways in which Fruits Basket portrays adolescent relationships through aggression in order to inform the target audienceadolescent femalesabout the development of their social identity and aggression. Additionally, I will examine the differences seen among both genders in the anime and how the female character, Tohru Hondas portrayal in the series relates to the target audience. I will examine the anime series Fruits Basket using narrative criticism by focusing specifically on the main characters (Tohru, Yuki, and Kyo) by explaining how they are involved in peer aggression.

Description of Artifact

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Fruits Basket: From Manga to Anime Fruits Basket follows the life of Tohru Honda, a sixteen year old orphan and high school student who stops by a house inhabited by the Sohma family. When she moves in with the very rich Sohma family, Tohru is in for some surprises. Tohru finds herself living with Yuki, the popular 'prince' of her class, and Yuki's cousins, irritable Kyo and eccentric Shigure. She also discovers the Sohma family's secret: thirteen of them are possessed by the spirits of the zodiac. If they hug someone of the opposite sex, they transform into an animal. But that's just one of many secrets of this cursed clan.... (Aoki, para.3). Fruits Basket is a classic example of the Shojo genre which is characterized by plot and character development (Damaged927, 2008, para. 4). Generally, there is no antagonist and no heavy drama; however that is made up by focusing on the characters and their lives. Shojo is targeted towards a female audience between the ages of ten and eighteen (Shojo Manga, para. 1). In an interview with Time Magazine when asked why she created Fruits Basket, Japanese manga artist and writer Natsuki Takaya states, I've been asked this question many times in the past, but I still don't have a very clear answer to it. It's just something that occurs to me, through the process of living for myself as me (Somethings About, 2006). Consequently, through identifying with her role as a woman, Fruits Basket is a personal reflection of Takayas personal struggles. In determining its exigency, Shojo was popular in the 90s, especially with the rise of Sailor Moon (Jones, 2013, para. 2). The key to the success of Fruits Basket, which is the best-selling shjo series in both Japan and the U.S., is the way in which it appeals to both male and female readers with a combination of humor and emotion in its saga of an orphaned high school girl who finds refuge with a very eccentric family (Two-Million Fruits, 2006). Takaya states, Above and beyond drawing my creations, I try to incorporate some kind of message. I try not to end as merely a question but try to provide a conclusion within the work. (Somethings About, 2006). Takaya has not expanded on what this message should be but has implied that it is open to interpretation. However, Fruits Basket is listed under teen romance (Aoki, para. 4). Since Fruits Basket is listed under the genre of romance and the protagonist, Tohru Honda, is a female, it is no surprise that someone once described Fruits Basket as a harem comedy for girls (Kimlinger, 2007). The manga series made its debut in 1999 (Fruits Basket, para. 4) and was originally represented by Hakusensha, a manga publishing company based in Japan (Aoki, para. 1). In the US, Fruits Basket was published by the Los Angeles-based manga publisher, TokyoPop. In total, there are twenty-three volumes of the manga series (Available, para. 2). The first manga edition of Fruits Basket was released in the U.S. by TokyoPop in October 2007 (Hackmann,

Social Acceptance and Aggression Among Adolescents 3 2007, p.1) and quickly became the best-selling manga series in TokyoPops history (TwoMillion Fruits, 2006). The anime series of Fruits Basket was adapted by the manga series and was released as a twenty-six-episode series. Directed by Akitaroh Daichi, Fruits Basket was released in Japan through the anime company, StudioDeen (Fruits Basket). In 2001, Fruits Basket was released in North America by FUNimation (Two-Million Fruits, 2006), which has also produced the popular anime series Dragon Ball Z and Baka the Tests-Summons the Beast (FUNimation Shows). In 2001, [Fruits Basket] received the Kodansha Manga Award in the shjo manga category and the Best Manga award at the 2007 American Anime Awards (Two-Million Fruits, 2006).

Description of Method Narrative Criticism: Adolescent Social Development and Fruits Basket Fruits Baskets success at award shows is directly related to the content of its storyline. Fruits Basket is a perfect example through which the narrative method could be used because for every character, past experiences greatly shape their present. Narratives are important since they allow us to interpret reality because they help us decide what a particular experience is about and how the various elements of our experiences are connected (Bennett, 1978). Put differently, narratives provide us insight into how we view the world and how our experiences may relate to others. Since narratives are a personal reflection of our experiences, the personal narrative is part of the study of everyday life, particularly performance in everyday life and the culture of everyday talk (Langellier, 1989, p. 243). Narrative criticism seeks to understand how personal narratives are understood in a text. Through the rhetorical method of narrative criticism, [the rhetor] is interested in participants perceptions and meanings of particular phenomena through the way they talk about their lived experiences (Brown, Dodd & Vetere, 2010, p. 218). The purpose of the analysis is to uncover the underlying motivations that the rhetor had through the creation of each characters personality through their past experiences. However, in order to discover the rhetors motives, both the narrator and the audience must recognize the discursive form of the story and understand the storys meaning (Foss, 2009, p. 309). There are specific steps that will be incorporated in this analysis that are pertinent to narrative criticism to expose the principal message of the story. In order to examine adolescent development, I must identify the features of the Fruits Basket narrative. The features of narrative criticism are the setting, characters, narrator, events, causal relations, audience, theme, and type of narrative (Foss, 2009). In identifying these

Social Acceptance and Aggression Among Adolescents 4 features, one must explore why each is significant to the narrative. However, it is important to choose the steps that are best displayed in ones argument. In this particular analysis, since I am arguing about adolescent development and aggressive behaviour and how that relates to Fruits Basket, I will focus on the school setting, the theme of social acceptance, character personality development, the main events leading to aggressive behavior and the ways in which the target audience can identify with the Tohru. My method of analysis is to identify the ways in which adolescents understand their social identity according to Erikson in addition to identifying the significance of the peer group during adolescent development.

Erikson and Adolescent Social Development According to Developmental Psychologist Erik Erikson, a persons identity in society both personal and culturalaffects the way in which that person understands their social identity. Eriksons theory on the id, ego, and superego all relate to how adolescents form their social interactions with peers. Erikson has hypothesized that the co-constructivist nature of meaning-making described as the ego, personal and socio-economic features of the egosynthesis, includes interrelated factors of personal and cultural others which affect both individual and future generational bicultural identity integration (Bazuin-Yoder, 2011, p. 78). Seeing that the target audience of Fruits Basket are adolescents and that the main characters in the anime series are also adolescents (Tohru, Kyo, Yuki), it is important to understand how this stage of development influences both groups. Erik Erikson explored the period of adolescence in his Stages of Psychosocial Development. According to Erikson, adolescence is a period of identity crisis (Goth, Foelsch, SchulterMuller, Birkholzer, Jung, Pick & Schmeck, 2012, p. 2). For Erikson, the two poles of adolescence are presented by identity versus role confusion when the young person is faced with a dilemma of finding the balance between earlier childhood identification and self-positioning in the system of roles (Rubtsova, 2012, p. 4). Therefore, adolescents are at a time in their lives in which they are developing their own opinions and system of beliefs. Erikson is one of the few scholars who has pointed out that social identity is very important for the process of personality development in adolescence. Erikson describes identity as a fundamental organizing principle, developing constantly throughout life and providing a sense of continuity within the self and others, which allows the individual to function anonymously from others (Goth, Foelsch, Schulter-Muller, Birkholzer, Jung, Pick & Schmeck, 2012, p. 2). The formation of an identity is significant during adolescence because it is a time in which individuals are establishing a self-concept (Tanti, Stukas & Halloran, 2008, p. 362).

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The Influence of the Peer Group in Adolescent Social Development A major way in which adolescents form identity is through social groups with peers (Nawaz, 2011, 95). Peer groups play a major role in the development process, especially the identity development, during adolescence. The influence of peer groups becomes more important during adolescence than during childhood. They not only provide them emotional support, but are also the source of status they need for identity achievement (p. 106). The peer group is not the same for every individual since there is evidence that how a person is perceived within the group affects their social identity. Depending on their status in peer groups adolescents have different interactions and relations with peers, they develop and demonstrate different behaviors and attributes, and they receive different evaluative feedback from others (Levina & Ivanora, 2012, p. 99). That feedback could be negative. For example, if a person is considered a pariah among peers, that person is much more likely to be treated negatively than a person who is deemed to be much more popular and attractive. Unfortunately during adolescence, peer rejection is a dominant form of negative treatment among peers at this age (Masten, Eisenberger, Borofsky, Pfeifer, McNealy, Mazziota, & Dapretto, 2009, p. 143). Social exclusion in adolescence often includes ostracism, teasing, harassment and bullying (Feigenberg, F. L., King, S. M., Barr, J. D. & Selman L. R., 2008, p. 166). Experience with peer rejection in childhood is a huge indicator of adjustment problems in adulthood and is often stable during the school years (Cillessen, Bukowski, & Haselager, 2000). There are negative consequences for adolescents who are not accepted by their social group. Peer-rejected children are more likely than accepted children to drop out of school, engage in criminality, develop substance-abuse problems, and suffer from depression and anxiety as adolescents and adults (Ollendick, Weist, Borden, & Greene, 1992; Parker & Asher, 1987). Peer-rejected children often develop deficits which include maladaptive aggressive and withdrawn behaviors (Dodge, Coie, Pettit, & Price, 1990), emphasizing the importance of the peer group in adolescent identity and behavior. Eriksons theory of Psychosocial Development is important to my analysis because it provides a framework in which to base the motives of each characters social behaviour in addition to a better understanding of the target audience. In Fruits Basket, because the major characters are adolescents, the peer group has a major influence in how they perceive their environment. Much of their self-concept was determined by their childhood experiences. In addition, their identity within the peer group is marked by their peers perception of them. Consequently, every major character is affected by some form of aggressioneither social or physical. Fruits Basket correlates with adolescent social

Social Acceptance and Aggression Among Adolescents 6 development in that it suggests that adolescents are greatly influenced by their social identity with others. The series also displays the differences between genders in aggression practices. First, I will briefly describe each main character in the anime series of Fruits Basket, but at the same time explain their social identity within the peer group and how that results to them being involved in a form of aggression. Additionally, I will explore how Tohruas the main female protagonistinfluences the target audience of adolescent girls through her behavior.

Findings of Analysis

Looking at Fruits Basket and relating it to adolescent development, I argue that the anime is attempting to explain social identity and aggression to its adolescent female target audience through its female protagonist Tohru Honda by reinforcing the gender norms associated with girls in the face of conflict. By also mentioning the other main male characters, I also attempt to explain to the female audience that Takaya is trying them that males in this age group also share a need for belonging but that there are differences in the way they handle conflict. I will argue my analysis of Fruits Basket by focusing on the three main characters of the seriesTohru, Yuki, and Sohmausing five supporting points: (a) The school institution is the fundamental place where adolescents learn to form their social interactions with peers and consequently, the creation of their identity outside the home, (b) Social acceptance is important in adolescent development because it affects the way the characters behave and perceive their individual role within the social group, (c) Adolescent personality is heavily influenced by past experiences, (d) Adolescent experiences and gender affect their behaviour towards others, and (e) Female adolescents can identify specifically through Tohrus character on how social norms influence how they should manage aggression. Also, female adolescents learn how and why males differ in aggression in comparison to females.

Setting: The School Institution The school is an important place for adolescents, since it as a place where children form social relationships with peers. Childrens peer interactions provide a social space within which they engage in directing, evaluating and criticizing one anothers actions and demeanour through unmitigated disagreements, contradictions and corrections (Cromdal, 2004; Goodwin, 1983). In Fruits Basket, although there are two predominant settingsthe Sohma home and the high schoolI will focus my analysis on the school setting since it is the most important.

Social Acceptance and Aggression Among Adolescents 7 In Fruits Basket, the high school is the place where many of the characters have met each other. Although Tohru Honda found the Sohma home by chance, she already knew Yuki and Kyo because they are her classmates at the high school she attends. The earlier interaction between each main character at the high school resulted in a sense of trust among them. Having a good social network within an organization facilitates access to information, resources, power, and favour (Fukuyama, 1995; Ibarra, 1997; Moss Kanter, 1993; Lin, 2001; Timberlake, 2005). Therefore, by already being a part of Yuki and Kyos peer group, Tohru gained an advantage of being offered a place to stay. Additionally, peer interaction in the school setting is significant in determining ones identity with a group. A high school setting is a place that changes daily, and students vie for acceptance, identity, and survival as they intermix with peer groups (Hartnett, 2007, p. 36). By interacting with peers in a classroom, adolescents are able to learn how to socialize with likeminded individuals which is critical in developing social skills. Through such interaction and association within peer networks, early adolescents are theorized to experience validation, acceptance, and affirmation at school (Cairns & Cairns, 1994). In addition, positive interactions with peers are critical to satisfaction with everyday school experiences for any student (Wentzel, Barry, & Caldwell, 2004). The closest friends and enemies that all three of the main characters interact with are all a part of their peer group. Tohrus closest friends are Arisa Utoni and Hanajima Saki (Tohru Honda) who are her peers at her high school, and her prime enemy is the Prince Yuki Fan Club (Prince Yuki). Unfortunately, Yuki and Kyo do not appear to have any friends in the anime, although Yuki does have female (and male!) admirers. Nevertheless, every character mentioned is all acquainted with one another in the school setting. All characters form bonds with one another, voice opinions, and manage conflict with their school peers. This social interaction within the school setting is important because it allows for the development of individual ideas (Johansen, 2011, p. 689).

Theme: Social Acceptance Tohru is viewed as a threat to the Prince Yuki Fan Club who considers her to be a witch because she lives with their idol Yuki Sohma. Although Tohru has friends, she is shunned by the club members within her peer group. Yuki is adored by every member of his peer group, especially members of the Prince Yuki Fan Club. However, as the rat of the Chinese zodiac he is combative with the catKyowho is the only one in the series who does not admire Yuki. The predominant theme in Fruits Basket is social acceptance because all three characters are shunned in some way by members of their social circle. There is also evidence that supports that the main characters want to be accepted within their core group of peers. Although selfless,

Social Acceptance and Aggression Among Adolescents 8 Tohru often second guesses her actions in order to please those around her. For example, in one episode when Kyo and Yuki were walking her home from school and she saw that they were ignoring her, she immediately thought that it was because of something she had done. Both Kyo and Yuki had to assure her that it had nothing to do with her, telling her that they just had things on their mind. It is clear in the anime that Kyo begins to develop feelings for Tohru. While he lacks generosity for people in general, he develops a soft spot for Tohru. One day, when Tohru caught a fever, he made her soup all day using the leaves from Yukis garden. It is evident that he wants to be accepted by Tohru. Yuki, on the other hand, is very reserved. He has trouble creating bonds with other peers. For example, although Yuki did not apply to be a member of the student council, he was elected president since he is inadvertently very popular among his school peers. Nevertheless, Yuki lacked the social skills to participate in a campaign. Despite Yukis atypical social relations with his peer group, as an adolescent, he and the other two characters have a natural inclination to create social ties and to be accepted within their peer group. Peer group affiliations have also been demonstrated to be associated with other experiences related to sense of belonging. For instance, group membership during early adolescence is associated with heightened interest and enjoyment in school and with greater academic engagement (Wentzel & Caldwell, 1997). Eriksons theory of adolescent development is important in Fruits Basket since Tohru (sixteen years old), Yuki (sixteen to eighteen), and Kyo (sixteen to eighteen) are adolescents (Tohru, Yuki, Kyo). Eriksons theory is unique among developmental theories in that he attempted to describe the process of development over the course of the lifespan (Hamman & Hendricks, 2005, p. 72). Understanding an adolescents past experiences in addition to the present is momentous in explaining how aggressive peer behavior is reflected through their social identity.

Characters: Development of Personality Tohru is considered to be sweet and Kyo would often say that she needs a backbone so that she isnt taken advantage of. Her dominant characteristic as a people pleaser is directly related to her deceased mother. Tohru was very close to her mother since her father died when she was very young. However, her mother also died one day in a car crash. Throughout the series, Tohru is often seen carrying a picture of her smiling mother, and her thoughts would bring us to her describing how her mother would have wanted her to help such and such a person. It appears through her flashbacks that Tohru learned to be a people pleaser at her mothers persistence. Since adolescence is characterized as a time where social interactions are increasingly important in developing the self-concept, research suggests that parenting and family

Social Acceptance and Aggression Among Adolescents 9 socialisation experiences may enhance or hinder the individuals ability to deal effectively with the developmental issues of adolescence (e.g. Ainsworth, 1982; Grotevant & Cooper, 1985; Zimmermann & Becker-Stoll, 2002). Put differently, the role of the caregiver in a childs life is influential in how that child socializes with peers later on in life. Tohru is not the only person influenced by their caregiver. Although Yuki is well-liked by his peers because of his good looks, he is also considered to be conceited and stand-offish since he avoids interacting with his peers. He also has problems with females since he refuses to go near one (for fear that he will turn into a rat!). Later in the series it is revealed through Yukis thoughts that he suffered emotional abuse from Akito, the headmaster of the Sohma family. Akito Sohma kept him [Yuki] isolated from the rest of the family and convinced him no one liked or needed him. Because of this emotional abuse, Yuki has low self-esteem and feels isolated. (Yuki Sohma). This abuse from his caregiver explains Yukis abnormal social skills among his peer group since caregivers are responsible for influencing adolescent behavior. Kyo is portrayed as overly aggressive. He is often seen fighting Yuki and is prone to yelling. However, like Tohru and Yuki, his personality was shaped by past experiences. According to Chinese legend, the cat (Kyo) was left out the zodiac because the rat (Yuki) tricked it (Kyo Sohma). Consequently, Kyo is not only rude towards Yuki, but towards everyone, although he increasingly becomes nicer to Tohru throughout the series.

Kernel Events: Social Identity and Aggression Tohrus aggression stems from the Prince Yuki Fan Club since they are known for terrorizing Tohru because she is always around their love Yuki. However, in the Fruits Basket anime, there are moments when the audience hears the thoughts of some of the group members of the club. For example, whenever she is around Yuki, the group leader Motoko Minagwa, would speak really fast, turn red, and stutter. However, in her thoughts, in which the audience hears out loud, she would confess her love for Yuki. Motokos underlying motives for Yukis admiration, as well as the other members, created a sense of jealousy towards Tohru. This jealousy contributes to the intense anger club members have for Tohru, especially when they find out that Tohru has been living with Yuki. Like true adolescents, jealousy causes retaliation. The preferred method of aggression by the Prince Yuki Fan Club is relational or social aggression. This is significant because females are more prone to this type of aggression than males (Crick & Grotpeter, 1995). Characteristics of social aggression include behaviors that harm others through damage (or the threat of damage) to relationships or feelings of acceptance, friendship, or group inclusion (Crick et al., 1999, p. 77). The fan club uses social aggression as a reactive mechanism to perceived their threat Tohru. [Social aggression] can be reactive or defensive, as in excluding a peer, one is angry with from the group, or proactive, offensive or instrumental, as in coolly spreading rumors to damage anothers social standing to enhance ones

Social Acceptance and Aggression Among Adolescents 10 own. In all cases, there are actual or potential relationship consequences to the victim. (Spieker, Campbell, Vandergrift, Pierce, Cauffman, Susman & Roisman 2012, p. 355). In one episode of Fruits Basket, the Prince Yuki Fan Club gains entry into the Sohma home to try and find evidence that Tohru is a witch. They plant cameras around the home searching for incriminating evidence. They also interrogate Tohrus friend Hanajima Saki for exclusive information about Tohru. Unfortunately for them, they did not succeed. Nevertheless, the fan clubs preferred method of aggression is indirect aggression by talking negatively about Tohru behind her back. Even though Yuki is usually composed, whenever he is around Kyo, he is ready to fight him since Kyo is always instigating him. For example, whenever Yuki would make a smart comment, Kyo would attempt to fight Yuki. Kyos personality is very combative. He is ready to fight and argue with anyone who comes near him and starts a conversation. His response is not surprising since social rejection makes adolescents argumentative, disruptive, and aggressive, more socially awkward and insensitive, less skilful in engaging in pro-social play, and having more negative interactions with teachers (Bierman, 2004; Coie, Dodge, & Kupersmidt, 1990). Both males prefer physical aggression. In fact, every male introduced as a member of the Sohma family prefer physical combat. This is not surprising since research has shown that males prefer physical aggression (Little, Jones, Henrich, & Hawley, 2003) in the face of conflict.

Audience: Female Relationships in Reality Gender roles and societal norms may be an indication as to why males are more prone to physical violence than females. The male gender role encourages many forms of aggression. Psychologists and popular writers who have analysed the male gender role have claimed that men are expected to be tough, violent, and aggressive (Eagly & Steffen, 1986, p. 310). Yuki and Kyo may be more prone to use physical aggression since society accepts such behaviour from males who are normally viewed as strong and masculine. Research has also supported the gender stereotypes since men are rated as more aggressive than woman and on more extreme qualities such as assertiveness and competitiveness (Spence & Helmreich, 1978). Assertiveness, a trait more commonly accepted by males may account for why males are always fist-fighting or using other methods of physical aggression in contrast to females. When the Prince Yuki Fan Club use aggression, it is often indirect or with the aim of harming social relationships with others. The female gender role emphasizes avoiding physical harm to oneself (Eagly & Steffen, 1986, p. 310) which explains why females are less likely to use physical aggression than males. In Fruits Basket, Tohrus personality remains the same. She is neither angry nor sad, but always positive and optimistic. Even when she is faced with conflict, Tohru does not show

Social Acceptance and Aggression Among Adolescents 11 aggression. This is important since Tohru is the female protagonist in the series. Since the target audience is adolescent females, Tohrus behaviour is a model for that group. The traditional female gender role places little emphasis on aggressiveness. Also, the primacy that this role gives to caring and other communal qualities may favor behaviors incompatible with aggressiveness toward other people (Eagly & Crowley, 1986). In other words, Tohru may be modelling behaviour attributed to her gender role in response to conflict to the adolescent female audience.

Conclusion and Contribution to Rhetorical Theory I find that the Fruit Baskets narrative provides a much need discussion on adolescent peer behavior and aggression. Through the main charactersTohru, Yuki, and Sohmait is clear that their identity within the social group influences their behaviour. Being adolescents, their period of development is marked by an increased need for social acceptance within the peer group. If this is not met, then aggression is impending since adolescents spend a great deal of their energy on forming social bond. For Tohru in particular, her gender as female shapes the behaviour of the female adolescent audience since her kind and non-confrontational demeanor conforms to the female gender role that of avoiding physical altercation and aggression. This analysis of Fruits Basket is especially important for the target audience. It serves to stimulate conversation about peer relationships and gender differences in response to conflict. By identifying with Tohru, adolescent females are shown how to behave when aggression presents itselfcool, calm, and collectedreinforcing the social norms for females in society. Additionally, since Yuki and Kyo are also main characters in Fruits Basket, the significance for them in the analysis is paramount. By viewing the personal characteristics of the males in the series, the target audience of adolescent females will understand that although adolescents of both genders are prone to identity conflict and aggression in relation to the peer group, there are gender differences in how males and females respond to conflict.


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Social Acceptance and Aggression Among Adolescents 19

Fruits Basket

Manga written by Natsuki Takaya

Anime directed by Akitaroh Daichi

Social Acceptance and Aggression Among Adolescents 20

I argue that the anime is attempting to explain social identity and aggression to its adolescent female target audience through its female protagonist Tohru Honda by reinforcing the gender norms associated with girls in the face of conflict. By also mentioning the other main male characters, I also attempt to explain to the female audience that Takaya is trying them that males in this age group also share a need for belonging but that there are differences in the way they handle conflict.

YouTube Link:

Netflix Link: