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Prof. Ali M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley Copyright

c

A. M. Niknejad

VCC RIF IF +LO Q1 Q2 LO +RF Q5 RE RE IEE Q6 RF Q3 Q4 +LO

The single balanced Gilbert cell with differential output rejects the RF at the IF port but the LO feed-through remains. A double balanced mixer has a differential RF and a differential LO (double balanced )

A. M. Niknejad

As before, the RF stage is a transconductance stage. Degeneration can be used to linearize this stage. Because the bias current at the output is constant IEE /2 regardless of the LO voltage, the LO signal is rejected. This relies on good matching between transistor Q2 and Q4. The differential operation also rejects even order distortion. Viewed as two parallel Gilbert cells, this mixer is also more linear as it processes only half of the signal. The noise of this mixer, though, is higher since the noise in each transistor is independent.

A. M. Niknejad

Mixer Operation

VCC +is RIF IF is +LO Q1 Q2 LO +RF Q5 RE RE IEE Q6 RF +RF Q5 RE RE IEE Q3 Q4 +LO +LO Q1 Q2 LO Q6 RF Q3 Q4 +LO is VCC RIF +is IF

The AC operation nearly identical to a single balanced Gilbert cell. Even a single ended output, though, effectively multiplies the signal by 1, thus rejecting the RF signal.

A. M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. 4/28

SN Ri By denition we have F = SN Ro . If we apply this to a receiving mixer, the input signal is at the RF and the output signal is at IF. There is some ambiguity to this denition because we have to specify if the RF signal is a single or double sideband modulated waveform.

For a double sideband modulated waveform, there is signal energy in both sidebands and so for a perfect multiplying mixer, the F = 1 since the IF signal is twice as large since energy from both sidebands fall onto the IF. For a single-sideband modulated waveform, though, the noise from the image band adds doubling the IF noise relative to RF. Thus the F = 2. If an image reject lter is used, the noise in the image band can be suppressed and thus F = 1 for a cascade of a sharp image reject lter followed by a multiplier.

A. M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. 5/28

Since the mixer will downconvert any energy at a distance of IF from the LO and its harmonics, all the noise from these image bands will be downconverted to the same IF. For a Gilbert cell type mixer, the current of the Gm stage produces white noise which is downconverted. Summing over all the harmonics, we have

k=

1 2 |ck | = T

s(t)2 dt

0

where the last equality follows from Parsevals Theorem. For a square waveform s(t), the harmonic powers fall like 1/k 2 . Thus the third harmonic contributes about 10% to the switching pair noise.

A. M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. 6/28

In addition to the noise folding discussed above, the Q1 Q2 switching pair itself will contribute noise at IF. If Q1/Q2 are both on, they act as a differential amplier and introduce noise. When only Q1 or Q2 is on, though, the noise is rejected due to the degeneration provided by the transconductance device. Thus we generally use a large LO signal to minimize the time when both devices are conducting. Its therefore not surprising that the noise gure of the mixer improves with increasing LO amplitude.

A. M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. 7/28

Lets take a typical example of RF = 1GHz, IF = 1MHz. This requires an LO = RF IF , close to the RF.

To resolve the IF frequency components, we need to simulate several cycles of the IF, say 10, so Tsim = 10TIF But that means that we must simulate 10, 000 RF cycles

10TIF 10fRF 10 1000 Tsim = = = = 10, 000 TRF TRF fIF 1

If we are conservative, we may insist that we simulate at least 10 points of the RF cycle, that implies 100, 000 points per simulation. This is a long and memory intensive simulation. We encountered a similar problem when simulating IM3

A. M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. 8/28

Transient simulation is slow and costly because we have to do a tight tolerance simulation of several IF cycles with a weak RF. The SpectreRF PSS analysis is a tool for nding the periodic steady-state solution to a circuit. In essence, it tries to nd the initial condition or state for the circuit (capacitor voltages, inductor currents) such that the circuit is in periodic steady state. It can usually nd the periodic solution within 4-5 iterations. In the mixer, if we ignore the RF signal, then the periodic operating point is determined by the LO signal alone.

A. M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. 9/28

PSS Iteration

Since typical PSS run converges in 4-5 cycles of the LO, or a simulation time of about 5TLO , the overall simulation converges several orders of magnitude faster than transient at the IF frequency. PSS requires that the circuit is not chaotic (periodic input leads to a periodic output). High Q circuits do not pose a problem to PSS simulation since we are nding the steady-state solution. The high Q natural response takes roughly Q cycles to die down, thus saving much simulation time.

A. M. Niknejad

PSS Options

We can perform PSS analysis on driven or autonomous circuits. An autonomous circuit has no periodic inputs but produces a periodic output (e.g. an oscillator). For PSS analysis we need to specify a list of large signals in the circuit. In a mixer, the only large tone is the LO, so there is only one signal to list. We also specify the beat frequency or the frequency of the resulting periodic operating point. For instance if we drive a circuit with two large tones at f1 and f2 , the beat frequency is |f1 f2 |. Spectre can auto-calculate this frequency. An additional time for stabilization tstab can be specied to help with the convergence. For a mixer this is not needed.

A. M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. 11/28

Periodic AC (PAC)

Once a PSS analysis is performed at the beat frequency, the circuit can be linearized about this time varying operating point. Note that for a given AC input, there are as many transfer functions as there are harmonics in the LO. We specify the frequency range of the AC input signal as either an absolute or relative range. A relative range is a frequency offset with respect to the beat frequency. We also specify the maximum sidebands to keep for the simulation. Note that this does not affect the accuracy of the simulation but simply the amount of saved data.

A. M. Niknejad

PAC Picture

1.0 2.0 0.1 1.9 0.9 1.1 2.1 3.0 2.9 3.1

fo fi

fi fo 2fo fi

2fo 3fo fi

3fo 4fo fi

fo + fi

2fo + fi

The input frequency fi is translated to frequencies fi + kfo , where fo is the beat (LO) frequency. The k = 0 sideband corresponds to the DC component of the LO signal (e.g. time invariant behavior). The non-zero components, though, correspond to mixing. E.g. k = 1 correspond to frequency down-conversion. k = +1 is the normal up-conversion. k = 2 is the 2nd harmonic mixing fi 2fo .

A. M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. 13/28

PNoise

fo fi

fi fo 2fo fi

2fo 3fo fi

3fo 4fo fi

fo + fi

2fo + fi

PNoise is a noise analysis that takes the frequency translation effects into account. The simulation parameters are similar to PAC with the exception that we must identify the input and output ports (for noise gure) and the reference side-band, or the desired output frequency. For a mixer, this is k = 1.

A. M. Niknejad

Coupled Inductors

I1

M L1 L2

I2

+

V1

+

V2

Consider a set of coupled inductors. In particular, for two coupled inductors, we have

V1 = jL1 I1 + jM I2 V2 = jM I1 + jL2 I2

A. M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. 15/28

Magnetic Flux

+ V1

+ V2

+ V3

By imposing physical arguments, we can show that 1 k 1. When M > 0, a positive current in one winding induces a positive voltage across the second winding. Likewise, M < 0 induces a negative voltage. Recall that the magnetic ux can couple in a positive or negative orientation depending on the physical orientation of the windings.

A. M. Niknejad

Magnetic coupling is due to magnetic ux linkage. A current leads to ux which couples to other nearby circuits. A time-varying ux induces a voltage

di d v dt dt If |k | = 1, we say that the inductors (windings) are perfectly coupled. In practice |k | < 1 but using a magnetic core, we can come close to ideal. i

A. M. Niknejad

Ideal Transformer

I1 I2

+

V1

+

V2

1 V1 = V2 N I1 = N I2

The ideal transformer has the above current/voltage relationship In fact, the second equation is superuous if we demand energy conservation (e.g. the transformer is a passive device). It is understood that that an ideal transformer does not work at DC but at any AC frequency, the above relations hold. How do we build such a transformer from coupled inductors?

A. M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. 18/28

ideal transformer

Lx

N :1

Ly

We can show that the above circuit is totally equivalent to two coupled inductors. In particular, note that an ideal transformer is embedded into the model. To see this, note that

jLy I2 I2 V1 = jLx I1 + (I1 + )jLy = j (Lx + Ly )I1 + N N jLy jLy Vy I2 jLy = (I1 + ) = I1 + I2 V2 = 2 N N N N N

A. M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. 19/28

We can solve the following three equations to nd the equivalence

Ly Ly L1 = Lx + Ly L2 = 2 M= N N Solving for the parameters, we have Ly = nM = N 2 L2 k L1 L 2 M = =k n= L2 L2 Ly = N L2 = k Lx = L 1

A. M. Niknejad

L1 L2

2 L1

L2

L 2 = k 2 L1 k 2 )L1

EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. 20/28

Ly = (1

Leakage/Magnetization Inductance

(1 k )L1

2

ideal transformer

N :1

ideal transformer

N :1

k 2 L1

k 2 L1

We identify the parasitic inductors as the leakage inductance (because it goes away as k 1) and the magnetization inductance. We see that even if k = 1, two coupled inductors do not behave like an ideal transformer unless L1 A large shunt inductor correctly predicts the DC/AC transition (DC currents are shorted)

University of California, Berkeley

A. M. Niknejad

Transformer Construction

s+ p+ ps-

The transformer on the left is a typical low frequency transformer which uses a core to couple the ux. By isolating the primary and the secondary, there is negligible capacitive coupling. The second transformer is a high frequency version, where the wires are twisted together to maximize coupling. The core is inactive at high frequency but the boosted inductance is useful for rejecting common mode currents in the circuit.

A. M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. 22/28

In high frequency applications, we cannot make L1 large. In fact, above around 100MHz, magnetic cores are lossy. Without a core, high inductance requires many windings, which ultimately results in excessive winding capacitance and non-magnetic behavior. Thus in a high frequency applications |k | < 1 and L is nite. If possible, we can ensure that L Z0 , where Z0 is the typical impedances presented to the transformer.

A. M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. 23/28

Tuned Transformers

N :1

k 2 L1

Otherwise, we can use capacitors to tune away the effects of nite L, resulting in more narrowband matches.

A. M. Niknejad

On-chip structures are planar. Two square spirals wound together form a 1:1 transformer. The bilar layout and symmetric bilar have coupling factors of 0.7 0.8.

A. M. Niknejad

N:1 Transformers

An n : 1 transformer is designed by using fewer turns. Alternatively, turns from the secondary can be put in parallel to lower the resistance.

A. M. Niknejad

Multi-Layer Transformers

Multiple metal layers can be utilized to form more compact and higher coupling factor structures. The primary is connected on the top two metal layers (in series), forming a high inductance. The secondary is a single layer inductor.

University of California, Berkeley

A. M. Niknejad

Baluns

+

+ V2 + V3

+ V1 V2

+ V1

A balun is useful for converting single-ended single into balanced (differential) signals. The inverse is also easily accomplished. A symmetric single layer transformer balun layout is shown above. The common center can be connected to AC ground.

A. M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. 28/28

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