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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter discusses the background of the study, statement of the problem, research objectives, significant of research. 1.1 Background of the Study Language is a system of sound used by a group to communicate and carry on their normal activities. There are some of the language variations which are created by people in specific community. The purposes are to express something using language. Iswahyuni (1998:1) states language is medium to express idea, opinion, and feeling in the science and education world. English language can be divided into two categories, non-standard and Standard English (Crimmson, 1967:170). Non Standard English is a dialect spoken by large section of non middle class and often heard to be ugly, corrupted or lazy. Most college-education people who fill position of social, financial, and professional that influence in the community use Standard English. According to Crimmon (1967:175), Standard English has two variants, formal and informal English. Formal English is usually used for formal condition, such as research, business, application letter, papers, thesis, seminar and so on. On the other hand, informal English is called colloquialism because it is often used in daily communication. When colloquial becomes extremely informal, it shades over slang. Slang is the particular language for particular group. Webster (1980) states that slang is language of particular group, trade or pursuit or an informal, non-standard vocabulary changed words and extravagant, forced or facetious figures of speech. Slang usually has a short life, because it is invented to fit a particular situation at a given moment (lerner, 1960:5). Slang language is not an official language or it is informal language, although it is widely used for oral communication in many purposes, as many words quickly become outdated and obsolete because of trends. Slang language is mainly spoken form, which is used in social milieus and in popular media, and to certain extent it is used in song lyrics and publications, such as teen magazines or pop culture magazines. Slang might be called a novelty language, and like most novelties, slang expression is rather likely to be in doubtful taste at the beginning, and extremely likely grow tiresome by too many repetitions. It is impossible to estimate how many them flicker and die out before the general public even becomes aware of them.Even those that sweep the country usually last only a short time. A few years after their vogue they may be completely unknown to the younger generation, and pathetic over to those who remember them. Yet many of them are so effective that much of the sparkle would die out of the language if all slang should come to an end (Encyclopedia Americana, 1989:16-17). There are many ways to express something and one of this ways is singing. By singing the song the singer can express their idea, feelings, and make it more attractive to listener (Frederik, 1988:144). Someone can express their ideas through songs to tell what he or she feels to listener. However, everyone has different ability for to say something or speaking language and

understanding others.The use of slang varies from region to region and from generation to generation. They may use it for communication to one others in making friendship that heard from their friends and song lyrics. Winusubroto (1989:58) states that slang is non-standard words which are known and used by certain group, instances, youngster group, student group, amateur radio organization group, player and jazz music lover and so forth. Slang language in the lyrics of song is also used in communication. There are some various kinds of music, one of them is Rap. Rap is a kind of musi c that comes from black people, especially American, who have particular ways of speech. The Rap is developing and very popular for black people and white teenagers. Setyowati (2001:3) states that Rap is the music of necessity of finding poetry in the colloquial, beauty in anger, and lyricism oven in violence. The language that used in Rap song is slang language. The rapper tends to use slang language to create the lyrics in Rap song. Therefore, it is assumed that 50cents song lyrics use slang language or not, so the writer needs to be done in the later discuss. 1.2 Statement of the Problems The problems of the study are as follows : What are the characteristics of slang used in 50cents lyrics? 1.3 Research Objective Research Objectives study is to answer the question above satisfactory, therefore, the writer would like: To find out the characteristic of slang used in 50cents song lyrics. 1.4 Significance of Research The writer expects that the study can learn more about language,especially concerning slang not only in lyrics but also in other forms.


In conducting the research, the writer has to collect and review the related review the literature related to the research. Literature is needed to give theoretical explanation. There are some related literatures that will be explained in this chapter. Slang Slang is nonstandard use of word in a language of a part social group. Slang terms are often particular to a certain subculture, such as: musicians, skate boarders and drugs users. Another theory of slang by Menchen (1936: 481) slang is expressions that do not belong to Standard English. For example: whats up? is an example of term for asking about people or greeting a person. The articles byKelly fox Some Thoughts on Slang, she described some statements or people thoughts of term slang. 2.1 Definition of Slang People speak differently in formal contexts and in formal contexts, especially when speaking informally, people often use slang: an informal but colorful words and expressions.Slang is an unconventional words or phrases that express something new or something old in a new way. Slang words sometimes flippant, impolite, and improper. Lighter (1994:xi) defined slang as informal, non-standard, non-technical vocabulary composed chiefly of novel sounding synonyms for standard word and phrases. Anderson and Trudgill (1983) in Bad Language mention the typical of slang, some of them are: Slang is typical of informal situation The formality of language is tied to the situation: in formal situation people expect formal language and in formal situation they expect informal language. Slang will be the last choice for anyone attempting to use language for formal, persuasive or business purposes since they will be considered as a rude people. More slang words will be found in the conversation between friends if compared with the conversation between employer and employee. Slang is typical of spoken language Since the situation in which we write are more formal than the situations in which we talk, as stated above that slang is typical of formal situation, automatically slang belong to typical of spoken language. The example is like when go and watch soccer, they will hear a lot of slang from the crowd but the next morning when people read about the match in the newspaper, there will be far less slang in the papers coverage of the game. Slang is found in words, not in grammar Every language contains vocabulary and grammar. Since there is not grammar of slang, slang cannot be considered as language. That is way, when people talk about slang it is referred to words not grammar or pronunciation. Slang is not swearing Swearing is type of language use in which the expression refers to something that taboo in cultural and usually express strong emotions and attitudes. That is definitely different with slang. Even though slang terms may contain some

taboo words, but it is used for fun and the important thing is that slang words used without emotion. Slang is creative Creativity took an important part in the invention of many slang words. The point of slang words is often to be starling, amusing or shocking. Slang expressions- for example, the apple of ones eye (one favorite), square heads (stupid person), for the first time they are used they are truly creative. Those words attract other peoples attention but when it is used over and over again, its freshness is lost and it turns into rather ordinary lexical items. This then creates a need for few expression and new expression and new metaphors. Since slang is another way to express either something new or something old in a new way, there is constant desire to create new and dramatic expression. Slang words changed continually, it is very unusual for slang words to live on the language for thousand years. By those reasons, creativity is very important in the development of slang words. 2. 2 The Characteristic of Slang Slang began to creep into English literature although many writers and schools were fiercely against it, saying that it was vulgar, corrupted, uncultured, secret and false, the dialect of the rabble, of beggars, of gypsies and of thieves. Today any writer may use slang freely, especially in fiction, song lyrics and drama (slang of the dukes http://www.Slang The following is the characteristics of slang language: 1. Creativity Creativity means that slang language has cleverness, imagination, productivity, and talent. 2. Flippant Flippant means that slang language has irrelevant word of the contexts. Example; for these games and stupid tricks, these bitches on my dick, from these bitches on our dicks, fucking chicken with no ribs. 3. Fresh Fresh means that slang language has familiar words, different words, up to date words. Example: Dime means small amount of money 4. Onomatopoeic Onomatopoeic means that slang language has imitation words. Example: Buzz likes wind. One use of slang is a simple way of circumventing social taboos. The mainstream language tends to shy away from explicitly evoking certain realities. Slang, and also the informal forms of language, permits one to talk about these realities in a special language stripped of a usual connotation in the normal register. Slang vocabularies are particularly rich in a certain domains, such as sexuality, violence, crime, and drugs. Originally, certain slang designated the speech of people involve in the criminal underworld, hooligans, bandits, criminals, etc. therefore, their vocabulary carried very vulgar connotations, and was strictly rejected by the speakers of proper language. Other groups, generally those on the margins of mainstream society who were excluded or rejected by it, developed their own

slangs. Slang is a language based off of shortened words; something like a contraction but used to shorten speech in a hasty manner. All those topics in the lyrics can influence the use of slang, for instance, motherfucka, shit, damn, fuck, bit, gangsta, and etc. The use of slang is not only meant for coarse words or under words, but can also used in talk among friends or college, for instance, wanna, (want to), gonna (going to), thang (thing), baby (sweat heart), etc. 2.3 50cent in Rap Song