This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Frequency bands and its applications:
4. Reqirement of data analysis 5. Tools for system analysis and design 6. Differences
e. it has its fair share of shortcomings and drawbacks. the last phase is nothing but handing over the completed project to the client or customer. 2. As I said before. The first formal description of the waterfall model is often cited as a 1970 article by Winston W. First and foremost. it is nothing but common sense. This phase is commonly referred to as 'Requirement Analysis'. 4. often used in software development processes. 6. which is known as 'System Design'. Pros Cons Since it is not an iterative model. orthodox method of project development and delivery. It employs a systematic. Once the coding and implementation phase has been completed. jumping back and forth between two or more phases is not possible. 7. It is the simplest software process model in terms of complexity and ease of implementation. Once all the repair work. In Royce's original waterfall model. and their inter-relation. in which progress is seen as flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall). . As the name suggests. Pros and cons of the waterfall model in software engineering as well as in software testing. after which you move onto the next phase. 'System Implementation' is the next phase which involves nothing but writing software code and actually implementing the programming ideas and algorithms which have been designed or decided upon in the 'System Design' phase. Being a strictly sequential model. you then move to the next and last phase titled 'System Deployment and Maintenance'. 5. Royce. correcting and re-writing every piece of erroneous or flawed code is completed. This model is extremely easy to understand and therefore. Requirements specification Design Construction (implementation or coding) Integration Testing and debugging Installation Maintenance Thus the waterfall model maintains that one should move to a phase only when it’s proceeding phase is completed and perfected. is implemented at various project management levels and in a number of fields (not just software development). Once you have thoroughly and exhaustively identified and understood all the project requirements. Waterfall Model The waterfall model is a sequential design process. you need to completely analyze the problem definition and all the various project requirements. the following phases are followed in order: 1. This is precisely what happens in the next phase which is known as 'System Testing'. errors or software failures. The code that has been written is subjected to a series of tests and test cases to detect and determine whether there are any bugs. i. and subsequently performing maintenance activities on a periodic basis. it is now time to test the code. The next phase can be reached only after the previous one has been completed. The entire software aspect of the project is broken down into different logical modules or blocks which are identified and systematically documented. 3.1. they are to be properly documented. This involves specifying and designing the project's hardware and software requirements.
A wireless communication network is a solution in areas where cables are impossible to install (e. wireless networks are.improved communications leads to faster transfer of information within businesses and between partners/customers. Low frequency LF 5 30–300 kHz 10 km – 1 km Navigation.office-based wireless workers can be networked without sitting at dedicated PCs. Greater flexibility and mobility for users . Reduced costs . climatic conditions. cheaper to install and maintain. wireless comm.. Very low frequency VLF 4 3–30 kHz 100 km – 10 km Navigation. time signals. long distances etc.000 km Natural and man-made electromagnetic noise 2.You are rarely out of touch . AM longwave broadcasting (Europe and parts of Asia). Tremendously low frequency TLF < 3 Hz > 100.000 km – 10. is influenced by physical obstructions. This can lead to a lot of wastage of time and other precious resources. RFID. in most cases. Frequency bands and its applications: Band name Abbreviation ITU band Frequency and wavelength in air Example uses 1.000 km Communication with submarines 3. Merits and Demerits of Wireless Communication Advantages: Mobility. Due to this. wireless heart rate monitors. interference from other wireless devices 3. bugs and errors in the code cannot be discovered until and unless the testing phase is reached.relative to 'wired'. amateur radio . hazardous areas. Ultra low frequency ULF 300–3000 Hz 1000 km – 100 km Submarine communication. Communication within mines 5. Extremely low frequency ELF 3–30 Hz 100. submarine communication. This process model is not suitable for projects wherein the project requirements are dynamic or constantly changing. Super low frequency SLF 30–300 Hz 10.g.you don't need to carry cables or adaptors in order to access office networks.000 km – 1000 km Communication with submarines 4. 2. Disadvantages: has security vulnerabilities high costs for setting the infrastructure unlike wired comm.) Increased efficiency . time signals. geophysics 6.
High frequency HF 7 3–30 MHz 100 m – 10 m Shortwave broadcasts. cleaning. microwave remote sensing. in different business. Predictive analytics focuses on application of statistical or structural models for predictive forecasting or classification. Over-the-horizon radar. high-frequency microwave radio relay. Bluetooth. focusing on business information. satellite television broadcasting. suggesting conclusions. amateur radio 11. EDA focuses on discovering new features in the data and CDA on confirming or falsifying existing hypotheses. Extremely high frequency EHF 11 30–300 GHz 10 mm – 1 mm Radio astronomy. millimeter wave scanner 4. amateur radio. television broadcasts and line-of-sight ground-to-aircraft and aircraft-to-aircraft communications. GPS and two-way radios such as Land Mobile. Data analysis has multiple facts and approaches. mobile phones. a species of unstructured data. microwave ovens. The term data analysis is sometimes used as a synonym for data modeling. amateur radio. RFID. encompassing diverse techniques under a variety of names. Land Mobile and Maritime Mobile communications. Data mining is a particular data analysis technique that focuses on modeling and knowledge discovery for predictive rather than purely descriptive purposes. some people divide data analysis into descriptive statistics. Very high frequency VHF 8 30–300 MHz 10 m – 1 m FM. exploratory data analysis (EDA). wireless LAN. In statistical applications. Reqirement of data analysis Analysis of data is a process of inspecting. Marine and mobile radio telephony 9. Automatic link establishment (ALE) / Near Vertical Incidence Skywave (NVIS) radio communications. Medium frequency MF 6 300–3000 kHz 1 km – 100 m AM (mediumwave) broadcasts. Super high frequency SHF 10 3–30 GHz 100 mm – 10 mm Radio astronomy. and structural techniques to extract and classify information from textual sources. science. while text analytics applies statistical. amateur radio 12. ZigBee. Business intelligence covers data analysis that relies heavily on aggregation. and confirmatory data analysis (CDA).7. amateur radio and over-the-horizon aviation communications. radio astronomy. FRS and GMRS radios. avalanche beacons 8. Data integration is a precursor to data analysis. All are varieties of data analysis. microwave devices/communications. transforming. weather radio 10. citizens' band radio. and supporting decision making. Data can be of several types Quantitative data data is a number Often this is a continuous decimal number to a specified number of significant digits Sometimes it is a whole counting number . and modeling data with the goal of highlighting useful information. amateur radio. linguistic. communications satellites. most modern radars. microwave devices/communications. DBS. Ultra high frequency UHF 9 300–3000 MHz 1 m – 100 mm Television broadcasts. and data analysis is closely linked to data visualization and data dissemination. and social science domains. wireless LAN. directed-energy weapon.
and Event Modeling. designing for each event the process to coordinate entity life histories.Categorical data data one of several categories Qualitative data data is a pass/fail or the presence or lack of a characteristic The process of data analysis Data analysis is a process. identifying. within which several phases can be distinguished 5. modeling and documenting the events that affect each entity and the sequence (or life history) in which these events occur. and contrasts with more contemporary agile methods such as DSDM or Scrum. attributes (facts about the entities) and relationships (associations between the entities). . Data Flow Modeling examines processes (activities that transform data from one form to another). which is an office of the United Kingdom's Treasury. and Tom DeMarco's structured analysis. The names "Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method" and "SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN" are registered trademarks of the Office of Government Commerce (OGC). Data Flow Modeling The process of identifying. The result is a data model containing entities (things about which a business needs to record information). such as Peter Checkland's soft systems methodology. external entities (what sends data into a system or receives data from a system). Larry Constantine's structured design. and data flows (routes by which data can flow). Entity Event Modeling A two-stranded process: Entity Behavior Modeling. SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN is one particular implementation and builds on the work of different schools of structured analysis and development methods. Edward Yourdon's Yourdon Structured Method. SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN can be thought to represent a pinnacle of the rigorous document-led approach to system design. Tools for system analysis and design SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN is a waterfall method for the analysis and design of information systems. data stores (the holding areas for data). Michael A. modeling and documenting the data requirements of the system being designed. modeling and documenting how data moves around an information system. Jackson's Jackson Structured Programming. The three most important techniques that are used in SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN are: Logical data modeling The process of identifying.
Software engineering is to tell the practicalities of developing and delivering useful software. The term software engineering first appeared in the 1968 NATO Software Engineering Conference and was meant to provoke thought regarding the perceived "software crisis" at the time Systems engineeringis an interdisciplinary field of engineering that focuses on how complex engineering projects should be designed and managed. TDMA and CDMA 1. Software engineering is a part of system engineering. 2. Issues such as logistics. the application of engineering to software. Systems engineering deals with work-processes and tools to handle such projects. complex projects. TDMA is short for Time-Division Multiple Access while CDMA is for Code-Division Multiple Access. 4. Their abbreviation meanings actually give light to the manner they optimize channels. CDMA uses a process called Spread Spectrum ‘“ scattering of digital bits in pseudo -random manner and collecting them for interpretation.Differences 1. CDMA allows numerous users to use the channel at the same time while TDMA does not. System engineering deals with all aspects of computer-based system development. System engineering is to identify the roles of hardware. 2. Software engg and systems engg Software engineering (SE) is the application of a systematic. . and automatic control of machinery become more difficult when dealing with large. people. 5. model and scale a solution to a problem. development. quantifiable approach to the design. that is. database and other system elements involved with that system which is going to be developed. the coordination of different teams. and maintenance of software. 3. disciplined. TDMA emerged and was utilized first. and the study of these approaches. it is the act of using insights to conceive. software. TDMA chops or divides the channel into sequential time portions as each user has its respective right turn for channel use. In layman's terms. operation. CDMA is the more recent technology gradually replacing TDMA. and it overlaps with both technical and human-centered disciplines such as control engineering and project management.
. Using this network tower. Faster on EVDO platform which is applicable in GPRS is again very Data transfer: CDMA only slowforward There is one physical channel and a special code for Every cell has a corresponding every device in the coverage network. CDMA and GSM CDMA Improve this chart GSM Currently 3.S. Dominant standard worldwide except the U.9/5 (533 votes) Global System for Mobile communication SIM (subscriber identity module) Card 75% Stands for: Code Division Multiple Access Storage Internal Memory Type: Global 25% market share: Dominance: Dominant standard in the U.89/5 1 2 3 4 5 Rating: 3. which serves the Network: code. the signal of the device is multiplexed. and the mobile phones in that cellular same physical channel is used to send the signal area.61/5 1 2 3 4 5 Rating: 3.S.3.6/5 (548 votes) Currently 3.
the type of data (such as text or image or binary value) is described. After each data object or item is given a descriptive name. This process is called data modeling and results in a picture of object relationships. Data Abstraction & Data Dictionary A data dictionary is a collection of descriptions of the data objects or items in a data model for the benefit of programmers and others who need to refer to them. A first step in analyzing a system of objects with which users interact is to identify each object and its relationship to other objects. In computer science. its relationship is described (or it becomes part of some structure that implicitly describes relationship). and a brief textual description is provided. Abstraction tries to reduce and factor out details so that the programmer can focus on a few . abstraction is the process by which data and programs are defined with a representation similar in form to its meaning (semantics). possible predefined values are listed.4. while hiding away the implementation details. This collection can be organized for reference into a book called a data dictionary.
while high-level layers deal with the business logic of the program. portability is the key issue for development cost reduction. Decision tables. Static decision table Input Function Pointer '1' '2' '9' Function 1 (initialize) Function 2 (process 2) Function 9 (terminate) A decision tree is a decision support tool that uses a tree-like graph or model of decisions and their possible consequences. low-level abstraction layers expose details of the computer hardware where the program is run. it is the basic motivation behind datatype. In the 1960s and 1970s a range of "decision table based" languages such as Filetab were popular for business programming. The prerequirement for portability is the generalized abstraction between the application logic and system interfaces. In computer programming. abstraction can apply to control or to data: Control abstraction is the abstraction of actions while data abstraction is that of data structures. 5. to help identify a strategy most likely to reach a goal. and utility. associate conditions with actions to perform. 6. but in many cases do so in a more elegant way. specifically in decision analysis. It is one way to display an algorithm. For example. When software with the same functionality is produced for several computing platforms. A system can have several abstraction layers whereby different meanings and amounts of detail are exposed to the programmer. including chance event outcomes.concepts at a time. Portability and Versatility / Robustness Portability in high-level computer programming is the usability of the same software in different environments. Control abstraction involves the use of subprograms and related concepts control flows Data abstraction allows handling data bits in meaningful ways. like flowcharts and if-then-else and switch-case statements. . resource costs. For example. Decision table and decision tree Decision tables are a precise yet compact way to model complicated logic. Decision trees are commonly used in operations research.
Robustness is a consideration in failure assessment analysis. Building executable programs for different platforms from source code. robustness is the ability of a computer system to cope with errors during execution or the ability of an algorithm to continue to operate despite abnormalities in input. such as fuzz testing. are essential to showing robustness since this type of testing involves invalid or unexpected inputs. Formal techniques. Also fault injection can be used to test robustness. In computer science. calculations. etc. this is what is usually understood by "porting". Various commercial products perform robustness testing of software systems. . Reinstalling a program from distribution files on another computer of basically the same architecture. The harder it is to create an error of any type or form that the computer cannot handle safely the more robust the software is.Software portability may involve: Transferring installed program files to another computer of basically the same architecture.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.