Design research: Why, how and what?

Some examples from personal experiences
SEA-DR C 2013 Zulkardi, Professor mathematics education Sriwijaya Univ. Palembang, April 22th , 2013

• • • • Why we need Design Research? How we use Design research? What Design research for student S1,S2,S3? Some ‘personal’ examples

Designing an innovation

Why Design Research so important in education? To Change
• The Netherlands: Developed high quality of learning materials exported to USA called Math in Context (1990-2000)
• South Korea: 2012 started Teaching school mathematics with Story Telling • Indonesia: - PMRI Team: We developed PMRI since 2001 - Government: To change the curriculum The National School (mathematics and Science) Curriculum 2013 (Zulkardi, 2013)

Indonesia: Mean PISA scores for 2000 - 2009 for mathematics, science and reading
410 400 390
Mean score

380 370 360 350 2000

Mathematics Science



How Design Research is used?
• At the national level: The development of PMRI since 2001-some best practices • At the Teacher Education: - PMRI meets Lesson Study - Final Projects: S1, S2, S3

Development of PMRI in Indonesia
PMRI is Indonesian adaptation of “Dutch Realistic Mathematics Education” since 2001. Characteristics Math is students’ activity; use of Indonesian context, models, intertwined among strands, interactivity and contributions of students Results so far Students interest toward math and guided to understand math. concept.

Example of Best Practices of PMRI
1) Designing pre-service (courses) and in-service training (workshops for teachers) Up to 2012, PMRI has been implemented at 23 (33) provinces (Sembiring, Dolk and Hoogland, 2010) 2) PMRI and PISA • Research on Designing PMRI / PISA-type items • Design KLM (National Mathematics Literacy Contest) for Junior High School and workshop PISA for math teachers since 2010 3) Sustainability of PMRI • Development and used ICT-based materials ( portal www. • Developing IMPOME-International Master Program on Realistic Mathematics Education in collaboration Indonesianthe Netherlands (Unsri, Unesa, Utrecht University) since 2009

PMRI meet Lesson Study
• Lesson study in Indonesia since last decade funded by JICA at 3 Teacher Education • SEAMEO mathematics in Qitep Main content: SEA-RME (PMRI) & Lesson Study • National Projects (PM-PMP): Lesson Study for improving the quality of National exam

PMRI meets Lesson Study


PMRI meets Lesson Study

LS Center

• PISA results of Indonesia students • PISA effect to the curriculum and assessment • PMRI and PISA: KLM competition for Junior high School students and workshop PISA for teachers since 2010 (1 city), 2011 (7 Cities) and 2012 (12 cities), 2013 (18?)

What is DR
• the systematic study of designing, developing and evaluating educational interventions (such as programs, teaching-learning strategies and materials, products and systems) as solutions for complex problems in educational practice, which also aims at advancing our knowledge about the characteristics of these interventions and the processes of designing and developing them.

Design Research/Development research
A final note on terminology, following Van den Akker et al. (2006:4) we use design research as a common label for a ‘family’ of related research approaches who may vary somewhat in goals and characteristics – examples are design studies, design experiments, design-based research, developmental research, formative research, engineering research.

Goal of Design experiment
to improve the initial design by testing and revising conjectures as informed by Ongoing analysis of both the students’ reasoning and the learning environment (Cobb et al, 2003. Educational researcher, vol 32 no.1, pp 9-13)

Phase of DR
Steps: • Preparing for a design experiment • Conducting a design experiment • Conducting retrospective analysis

Charateristics: • Extended (iterative) • Interventionist (innovative and design based) • Theory oriented enterprise whose theories do real work in practical educational context

What Design Research that is used at the program s1,s2 and s3?
• S1: Design or implementing valid materials or interventioned by previous designer • S2: Designing and implementing an intervention is requirement at the school or field • S3: Designing, implementing and evaluating an original intervention is a requirement (zulkardi’s personal opinion)

S1/S2: Design research used in Master Program: Designing learning materials Designing assessment materials Designing multimedia materials Designing training materials

S3- Dissertation at the University of Twente Computer ASsisted Curriculum Analysis Design and Evaluation (CASCADE) CASCADE (Nienke Nieveen-1996) CASCADE SEA (Susan McKenney-2000) CASCADE MUCH (Wang Qiyun-2001) CASCADE IMEI (Zulkardi-2002):
Designing a Learning environment that combined F2F course and website for math student teachers in Indonesia

Thanks for your attention
• zulkardi @ • See – Portal of PMRI in Indonesia • See you in the Second SEA-DR next year

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