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Submitted by: KUBANOORAYA SANDESH 4SO11MCS01 St Joseph Engineering College
CONTENTS: 1) STEREOLITHOGRAPHY 2) FUSED DEPOSITION MOULDING 3) LAMINATED OBJECT MANUFACTURING 4) 3D PRINTING (Z402 SYSTEM) 5) OBJECT QUADRA SYSTEM 6) SANDERS MODEL MAKER 7) RAPID TOOLING
It is the first RP system developed by 3D SYSTEMS of Valencia in California, USA in 1996. First Model developed was 250/50 followed by 250/30, 3500, 5000 and 7000.
SLA is a laser based Rapid Prototyping process which builds parts directly from CAD by curing or hardening a photosensitive resin with a relatively low power laser.
Laser Type: Helium Cadmium Laser (He-Cd) Laser Power: 24mW Laser Life: 2000 hours Re-coat material: Zaphir Minimum Slice Thickness: 0.1mm Beam Diameter: 0.2mm Scan Speed: 0.75m/sec Maximum Part Volume: 0.25x0.25x0.25 m Maximum Part Weight: 9 kgs
i. SLA CONTROL AND SET UP SOFTWARE: It operates on SLA 250 and SLA 500 machines. It has got three packages. a) SLA VIEW: UNIX based system for viewing and positioning. b) BRIDGE WORKS: UNIX based software for generating support structures. c) SLA SLICE: Slicing and system operation software. ii. iii. MAESTRO: UNIX based software MS WINDOWS NT SOFTWARE (3D LIGHT YEAR): It is used for viewing, positioning, support generation and slicing, build station for operating SLA machine.
8) Laser unit is long rectangular about 4 feet long and remains stationary. R.25 inches to allow for building of supports 4) The solid model is also oriented for optimum build which involves placing complex curvatures in XY plane where possible and rotating for least Z height as well as to where least amount of supports are required 5) The . 6) Some systems have Zaphir recoater blade which actually softens up resin and delivers it evenly across the part surface. Stereolithography Apparatus Operation: 1) The process begins with the solid model in various CAD formats 2) The solid model must consist of enclosed volumes before it is translated form CAD format into . 7) The slice files are then masked to create four separate files that control SLA machine ending with 5 extensions L. 7) Behind the build chamber resides the laser and optics required to cure resin. SLA HARDWARE: The build chamber of SLA contains 1) A removable VAT that holds the build resin. Acrylate Resin Epoxy Resin has better material properties and less hazardous but require large exposure time for curing.Build Materials Used: Epoxy Resin.STL FILE 3) The solid model is oriented into the positive octant of Cartesian co-ordinate system and then translate out Z axis by at least 0.STL FILE is verified 6) The final .STL FILE one which supports in addition to original file are then sliced into horizontal cross sections and saved as slice file. 2) A detachable perforated build platen on a Z axis elevator frame 3) An automated resin level checking apparatus 4) VAT has a small amount of Z movement capability which allows computer to maintain a exact height per layer. 4 . 5) A recoated blade rides along the track at the top of the rack and serves to smooth the liquid across the part surface to prevent any rounding off edges due to cohesion effects. V and PRM.
thus providing a solid anchor for the rest of the part. Disadvantages: 1) It requires Post Processing. i. Final step is Post Processing. SLA uses laser to scan the cross section and fill across the surface of resin which is cured or hardened into the cross sectional shape. 3) Tooling. Post Processing: 1) Ultraviolet Oven (Post Curing Apparatus) 2) An Alcohol Bath. 9) R file is the range file which contains data for solid or open fields as well as re-coater blade parameters. Post Curing. Applications: 1) Investment Casting.e. 2) Wind Tunnel Modeling. sharp corners & tall columns can be fabricated with ease. The first few support layers are actually cured into perforations into platen. I. 5 . 3) High cost of Photo Curable Resin.e. By building. 4) Injection Mould Tools. The V file contains actual line data that the laser will follow to cure the shape of the part. Advantages: 1) Parts have best surface quality 2) High Accuracy 3) High speed 4) Finely detailed features like thin vertical walls. 2) Careful handling of raw materials required. The four build files are downloaded to SLA which begins building supports with platen adjust above the surface level. The platen is lowered as the slices are completed so that more resin is available in the upper surface of the part to be cured. Clean the part in the alcohol bath and then go for final curing. Vector file.8) Important one is V file.
Diagram: Fig: Stereolithography Apparatus 6 .
a little longer than the filament diameter which is the entry to the heating chamber. 7 . Heating Chamber and Tips. they continue to push or pull the material depending on direction of rotation. f) When the wheels are turned in and end of the filament is placed between them. g) When loading the filament is pushed horizontally into the head through a hole. 3) Elastomer. e) The wheels have a plastic and rubber thread and are spaced approximately 0. 2) Compact and removable unit.07inches apart and turn opposite to one another. b) These are computer controlled.FUSED DEPOSITION MOULDING Introduction: Fused Deposition Modeling is an extrusion based rapid prototyping process although it works on the same layer by layer principle as other RP systems. c) Capable of precision loading and unloading of filament. 2) Acrilonitrile Butadine Styrene plastic. Software can be operated on various types of workstations from UNIX to PC based. d) It consists of two parallel wheels attached to a small electric motor by gears. Dry Blocks: a) These are raw material feeding mechanisms and are mounted on back of head. Extrusion Head: 1) It is a key to FDM technology. Fused Deposition Modeling relies on standard STL data file for input and is capable of using multiple build materials in a build or support relationship. 3) It consists of Dry Blocks. Build Materials: 1) Investment Casting Wax. Software Used: FDM machine uses Quick Slice software to manipulate and prepare the incoming STL date for use in FDM machines.
Tip: a) The two tips are externally threaded and screwed up into the heating chamber exit and are used to reduce the extruded filament diameter to allow for better detailed modeling. b) The tips are heated by heating chamber upto above the melting point of the material. the hot extrusion orifices are touching the substrate. 8 .Heating Chamber: a) It is a 90’ curved elbow wrapped in a heating element which serves two primary functions To change the direction of the filament flow so that the material is extruded vertically downwards. To serve as a melting area for the material b) The heating element is electronically controlled and has feedback thermocouple to allow for a stable temperature throughout. c) The heating elements are held at a temperature just above the melting point of the material so that the filament passes from the exit of the chamber is in molten state.. c) The tips can be removed and replaced with different size openings. the two most common being 0.025 inches. internal cavities and thin sections during extrusion as well as to provide a base to anchor (part) to the substrate while building. 2) The substrate is about 1 inch thick and is passed on into a removable tray by one quarter inch pins.012 inch and 0. d) At the end of the heating chamber which is about 4 inch long is the extrusion orifice or tip. e) The tip is the point at which the material is deposited onto a foam substrate to build the model. 3) The foam used is capable of withstanding higher temperature. As for the first few layers of the part. This allows for smooth extrusion as well as time control on material placement. d) The extruding surface of the tip is flat serving as the hot shearing surface to maintain a smooth upper finish of extruded material. Build Substrate: 1) The foam substrate is an expendable work table once which parts are built. 4) The support material is used to support overhangs.
Slicing is a software operation that creates thin horizontal cross sections of STL file that will later be used to create control code for the machine.015 inches. Quick slice gives us options on the FDM system being used. the STL file has to be converted into the machine language understood by FDM. Slicing: Once the part has been properly oriented and or scaled it must be sliced. the typical slices ranging from 0. the slice thickness can be changed before slicing. Part Size: The part must fit into the building box.FDM OPERATION: i. CAD file preparation: Before building the part. the part should be oriented in an optimum position for building. Quick Slice allows To perform simple editing functions on slice files. ii. Also editing function allows repair of minor flaws in the STL file with the options of closing and merging of curves. the build and support materials as well as tip sizes. The STL file is read into Quick Slice and is displayed graphically on screen in Cartesian co-ordinate system (XYZ) Building box represents maximum build envelope of FDM. the slice layer thickness. in that some orientations may require less supporting of overhangs than the others. 9 . Orientation and Positioning: Once the part has been built in appropriate built size. iii. if not it will either have to be scaled down to fit or be sectioned so that the pieces can be built separately and then bonded together later. The shape of the part plays an important role in this.005 inches to 0. In Quick Slice. iv. Quick Slice software is used for this purpose.
Therefore three types of roads are Perimeter. one for part face. Fill Spacing: Fill spacing is the distance left between raster’s or contours that make up interior solids of the parts. road are created graphically by Quick Slice. Getting a Build Time Estimate: Quick slice has a very good build time estimator which activates when an SML file is written. The user is then allowed to preview each slice if so desired to see if the part is going to build as required. B. D. Contour and Raster. 10 . Creating and Outputting Roads: Once all parameters have been set. the approximate amount of time and material to be used for given part. This allows flexibility of building bulkier sections and internal fills quickly by getting finer details on visible areas of a part. it usually begins by outlining the cross section with a perimeter road. A fill spacing set at zero means that part will be built solid. When FDM builds a layer. Sets allow a part to be built with several different settings E. Build time estimate allows for a efficient tracking and scheduling of FDM system work loads. Sets also allow chosen sections of a part to build hollow. A. Basically it displays in the command windows. Sets: Quick Slice uses sets or packages of build parameters. Next it begins to fill remaining internal area in a raster or hatched pattern until a complete solid layer is finished. SML stands for Stratasys Machine Language. Sets contain all of the build instructions for a selected set of curves in a part. C. Two of the build parameters commonly worked with are road width and fill spacing.Build Parameters: A. cross hatched or solid if so desired. another for thicker sections of the part and still another for exposed surfaces of the part. Road Width: Road Width is the width of the ribbon of molten material that is extruded from the tip.g. One set may be used for supporting structure of the part. sometimes followed by one or more concentric contours inside of perimeters.
Finishing a FDM part: FDM parts are an easiest part to finish. c. Process is slower than laser based systems. Medical Applications e. c. Easy Post Processing. d. Concept or Design Visualization. Thin vertical column prove difficult to build with FDM. b. Build Speed is low. b. Building a part: The FDM receives a SML file and will begin by moving the head to the extreme X and Y portions to find it and then raises the platen to a point to where the foam substrate is just below heated tips. After that FDM will build part completely without any user intervention. Direct Use Components. the user then manually places the head at point where the part has to be built on the foam and then presses a button to begin building. Strength and temperature capability of build materials. Investment Casting. Flexible Components Advantages: a. After checking the raw material supply and temperature settings. Safe laser free operation. Disadvantages: a. Physical contact with extrusion can sometimes topple or at least shift thin vertical columns and walls. 11 .E. d. F. Applications: a. c. b.
55 70 89.6 282 35.6 wax (ICW06) Elastomer 6.9 (Mpa) 2626 1810 Diagrams: 12 .69 141 282 49.9 58.FDM Material Properties: Material Tensile Strength Tensile Modulus Flexural Strength Flexural Modulus (Mpa) ABDP400 Medical ABSP 500 Investment casting 3.2 Grade 38 (Mpa) 1535 2014 (Mpa) 66.
Fig a: FDM Extrusion Head Fig b: Fused Deposition Model Apparatus 13 .
A heated roller travels across the face of the part being built after each layer to activate adhesive and bond the part layer together. thus allowing focal cutting point of laser to be moved like a plotter pen while cutting through build material in the shape desired.e. 2) Common build material is paper. The feed spindle holds the roll of virgin material whereas the take up spindle serves to store the excess material after the layer is cut. In that models are built up with layers of cross section of the part. LOM was developed by Helices Corporation.0038-0. the excess material is not required for that cross section is being cut away. Torrance. The process of continuous slicing is called slice on the fly. the STL file slices as the part builds. Hence as layers are been added. The LOM has a feed spindle and a take up spindle for the build material. The carriage moves in the X direction and the lens moves in the Y direction on the carriage. System Hardware: 1) LOM system is available in two sizes.LAMINATED OBJECT MANUFACTURING Introduction: Laminated Object Manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technique that produces 3D models with paper. An invisible 25Watts CO2 laser is housed on the back of the LOM and reflected off three mirrors before finally passing through a focusing lens on the carriage. 3) Build material has pressure and heat sensitive additive on the banking. California. LOM is one of the fastest RP processes for parts with longer cross sectional areas which make it ideal for producing large parts. LOM 2030 produces parts upto20x30x24 inches. 4) Material thickness ranges from 0. Softwares: LOM SLICE SOFTWARE: It provides interface between operator and the system. LOM 1015 produces parts up to 10x15x14 inches. LOM does not require a pre slice of STL FILE i.005 inches. LOM is actually more of a hybrid between subtractive and additive process. once the parameters are loaded into LOM SLICE. plastics or composites. 14 .
The LOM SLICE software that comes with LOM machine controls all these. The following description of operation is described with paper as build material. Now there are several parameters the user must consider and enter before building the part. SOFTWARE: 1) As with all RP systems. Part Orientation: The designed shape of the parts to be built in LOM must be evaluated for determining the orientation in which to build the parts. The plate is bolted to the platen with brackets and moves in the Z direction by means of a large threaded shaft to allow the parts to be built up. LOM SLICE creates initialization files in the background for controlling the LOM machine. LOM OPERATION: The way the LOM constructs the parts is by consecutively adhering layers of build material while cutting the cross section of the parts with a laser. Some smoke and other vapors are created since the LOM functions by essentially burning through the sheets of material with a laser. This provides the third degree of freedom where in the LOM is able to build 3D models. First Consideration: Accuracy desired for curved surfaces: Parts with curved surfaces tend to have a better finish if the curvatures of the cross sections are cut in the XY plane. The part being built is adhered to a removable metal plate which holds the part stationary until it is completed. 3) Upon loading the STL file. The benefits here are too full as the part will not only have more accurate curvatures but will also tend to have better laminar strength across the length of the part. one alternative is to build the part at an angle to the axis. 15 . 2) The STL is loaded into the LOM SLICE which graphically represents the model on the screen. therefore LOM must be ventilated either to the outside air or through a large filtering device at rates around 500cubic feet per minute. If a part contains curvatures in more than one plane. This is true due to the fact that the controlled motion of the laser cutting in the XY plane can hold better curve tolerances dimensionally than the layered effects of XZ and YZ planes. the LOM must begin with the standard RP computer file or STL file.This X and Y movement allows for two degrees of freedom or essentially a 2-D sketch of part cross section.
The cross hatch size is given in values of X and Y. Cross hatch sizes are set in LOM SLICE by the operator and can vary throughout the part. However if the part is rather large or has large void areas it can really slow down the build time. There are some third party software renders that have automatic testing functions that will strategically place parts in optimum orientations for the selected section. This is the reason for having varying cross hatch sizes throughout the part. Resulting build time. a finer cross hatch will be easier to remove. Therefore the hatch pattern can vary from square to long thin rectangles. a larger cross hatch can be set to make a part build faster but for thin walled sections and hollowed out areas. Basically the operator puts in a range of layers for which we want a certain cross hatch pattern for sections of the part that do not have integrate features or cavities. 16 . Also since the LOM SLICE creates slices as the part build parameters can be changed during a build simply by pausing a LOM machine and typing in new cross hatch values. the LOM must bring more paper across the top face of the part and then adhere to the previous layer before the laser can begin cutting again. For this reason a general rule have come for orienting long narrow parts is to place the lengthiest sections in the XY plane. Cross Hatching: Cross Hatching is necessary to get rid of excess paper on the individual layers.Second Consideration: Time taken to fabricate a part: The slowest aspect of build process for LOM is movement in Z direction or time between the layers. The LOM operator can either judge where and how the part should be cross hatched visually or use long slice to run a simulation build on the computer screen to determine layer ranges for the needed hatch sizes. A very small hatch sizes will make for easy part removal. This is mainly because after laser cuts across the surface of the beam material. This way the slowest part of the process the actual laser cutting is minimized to a smaller amount of layers. The two main considerations for cross hatching are Ease of part removal.
Laser Power: It is the percentage of total laser output wattage. The rate is given in inches/second. Material Advance Margin: It is the distance the paper is advanced in addition to length of the part. material advance margin. The support wall thickness is generally set 0.System Parameters: There are various controlling parameters such as laser power. Compression: It is used to set the pressure that the heater roller exerts on the layer. but are typically 0. Support Wall Thickness: It controls the outer support box walls throughout a part. 17 .25” in the X and Y direction. LOM 1015 is operated at a laser power of about 9% of maximum 25W laser or approximately 2. The heater speed effects the lamination of the sheet so it must be set low enough to get a good bond between layers. It is measured in inches which are basically the distance the roller is lifted from its initial track by the top surface of part.25W.g. It is usually 6”/sec for `initial pass and 3”/sec for returning pass of heater.015”-0.025”. Values for compression will vary for different machines and materials. Heater Speed: It is the rate at which hot roller passes across the top of the part. This value will be different for various materials or machines but essentially it is set to cut through only one sheet of build material. For e. heater speed. although this value can be changed by operator. and support wall thickness and heater compression.
Diagram: Fig: Laminated Object Manufacturing Process Fig: Typical Cross Hatch Pattern 18 .
However now the most commonly used powder is new gypsum based material with a new binder system as well. The initial powder used was starch based and the binder was water based.008 inches. 19 . a 3D print command is issued and the part file is sent to the machine to build. The relatively inexpensive Z402 is directed towards building concept verification models primarily as the dimensional accuracy and surface roughness of parts are less than higher end systems. Sliced file is Build file.3D PRINTING (Z-402 SYSTEM) Introduction: 3D Printing is a process whereby liquid binder is jetted onto a powder media using ink jets to print a physical part from a CAD data. Binder(water based) Software: Z402 system uses Z corp.STL File Format. Z Corporation incorporates 3D Printing process into the Z402 system. During building a progress bar shows the percentage of part building as well as starting time and estimated completion time. Objects can be scaled. Build Materials: 1. After STL file is imported. Orientation is done. . slicing software. Slice thickness is 0. Starch Powder 2. 3D nesting is possible. Models are built up from bottom to top with layers of starch powder and binder printed in the shape of the cross section of the part. Multiple STL file can be imported to build various parts. The resulting porous material is then infiltrated with wax or another hardener to give part dexterity. copied or moved for optimum part build. rotated. New gypsum powder (water based) 3.
The modular has several important components including the following. Sensors near the containers warn when binder is low or take up is too slow. so it can fit in a fairly confined area. a) Build and Feed Pistons: These pistons provide the build area and supply material for constructing parts. d) Binder Feed and Take Up system: The liquid binder is spread from container to the printer head by siphon technique and excess pulled through the printer cleaning station is drained into a separate container. The overall size of the modular is approximately 3x4 feet. It houses the print head. print cleaning station and the wiper or roller for powder landscaping. Parts built with starch material can be hardened to fit the application necessary. The excess powder is pulled down into a disposable vacuum bag both by gravity and on board vacuum system. Stronger infiltrates such as Synoacrylate can be used to provide a durable part that can survive significant handling. When a build is complete a dialogue box is displayed with final build type of part along with volume of material used and average droplet size of binder used. 20 . While the feed piston raises to provide a layer by layer supply of new material. b) Printer Gantry: The Printer Gantry provides the XY motion of the part building process. This provides the Z motion of the part build. The build piston lowers as part layers are printed. c) Powder Overflow System: It is an opening opposite the feed piston where excess powder scrap across the build piston is collected. Wax infiltration gives the part some strength but also leaves them usable as investment casting patterns. Z-402 System Hardware: Z-402 system is correctly available in only one size which can build models up to 8x11x8 inches.
the part is dipped for few seconds into a VAT of molten wax. Fig: Schematic diagram of Z 402 system 21 . Heat for Infiltration: Part is heated to 200’F for 10 minutes. 6) Layers are printed one after another. b. 2) Bottom cross section of the part is printed. Infiltration: After heating. 7) Final part removed from the powder is ready to be post processed. Powder Removal: Air Brush System. Vacuum Cleaner. then removed and placed on a sheet to dry. Post Processing: a. The machine is brought on line and remaining steps are performed automatically. 5) The next layer of part is printed. 4) Printer Gantry spreads next layer of powder. c. 3) Feed piston is raised to supply more powder.Build Techniques: 1) Blank layers of powders are spread as a starting point for building upon.
Quadra touts fastest start to finish process of any RP machine. The support material easily separates from the model body without leaving any contact points or blemishes to the model. The printer which uses 1536 nozzles jets a proprietary photo polymer developed in house by the object. Advantages: Better material properties. Builds parts up to a maximum size of 11x12x8 inches.OBJECT QUADRA SYSTEM Introduction: The Quadra process is based on the state of art Ink Jet Printing Technology. Material is delivered by a sealed cartridge that is easily installed and replaced. Layer thickness of 20 microns. Because it requires no post processing. 22 . UV Lamps are used which are cheaper. No special staff or training are required. The support material is easily removed by hand after building model. Additional materials with varying properties are under development. Build Technique: Objects will initially offer one grade of material with properties similar to multipurpose resins correctly offered with competitive RP systems. more models built on the system don’t require sanding or smoothing where supports are attached. Jetting of different resins once they become available will not require costly investments in materials or hardware upgrades. Further. 600DPI resolution. Maintenance costs are low. A new cartridge is dropped into place without any complicated procedures or specially trained staff. Quadra deposits a second material that is jetted to support models containing complicated geometry such as oven hanks and undercuts.
Model Maker: Build envelope is 7x7 inches. The supporting wax material is deposited at the same time as the thermoplastic. Plotting system is liquid solid ink jet which dispenses both thermoplastic and wax materials. Software: Both modular utilize Model Works software manufactured by SPI to prepare and manipulate the incoming file for use in the MM machine. 3D printing and Sanders Model Maker. 3. both thermoplastic material i. RTM is a self contained unit with an onboard computer. Smooth cosmetic surface quality can be achieved by pre tracing the perimeter of a layer prior to filling in the interior. The current modular has an onboard computer that can function alone after it receives the prepared file from a dummy PC whose sole purpose is for file slicing and preparation. Although none of these techniques have become as established as SLA or SLS systems show promise. proto support or wax support materials. Rapid Tool Maker: Build envelope is 12x12 inches. Compared to SLA and SLS it is not as established. where the technique involves shooting tiny droplets of ink on the paper to produce graphic images.SANDERS MODEL MAKER Introduction: Ink Jet Printing comes from the printer and plotter industry. Exceptional accuracy allows use in jewellary industry. Accuracy is partly enabled by a milling step after each layer deposition.e. 23 . Common Ink Jet techniques are Multi Jet Modeling. RP ink jet technique utilize ink jet technology to shoot droplets of liquid to solid compound and form a layer of an RP model. MM and MM2 are desktop models. The SMM is produced and distributed by Sanders Prototype Incorporation. 2. Z402 Ink Jet system. Model Maker 2: Second generation machine. USA. The software can be operated through a variety of workstations from UNIX to PC. Sanders Model Maker series captures the essence of Ink Jet Printing technology and builds in a layer by layer fashion similar to other RP systems. It uses several different types of data file formats SMM System Hardware: The MM system has evolved through 3 models: 1. Build envelope is 13x7 inches.
its also necessary to purge by connecting a plastic tube to the spouth and implementing the purge command for 2 seconds. 24 . Immediately after remove the tube and replace the cap to eliminate excess air entering into the print head body. O-Ring: The O-ring is a seal between where the print head can screw into the print head body assembly. This cap must be screwed on tightly to make sure the jet compartment is airtight and connection to the feed line must be secure if there is to be a consistent and even flow of material. There are two processes that enable materials to be transported to the print heads Material is pumped to the feed lines by compressed air within the reservoir during purge operation. The heating of reservoirs. If there is an air bubble in the material. It prevents leaking of materials and introduction of air into the body chamber. Print Head Cap. Purge Spouth and Cap. Each material has its own heated reservoir and is very sensitive to contamination. feed lines and print heads is necessary have a continual flow of materials.Build Materials: Both models use a build and support material to produce 3D model. There is an actual siphon that is conducted from the reservoir to the print head during the model build. This ensures that during part processing the support material will melt away leaving only the part made of build material. It enables the user to purge the jet to assure there is a proper amount of material within the jet. Print Head Purge Spouth and Cap: The purge spouth is very important. This support depends upon the geometry of the part and can be produced around the entire part or just on certain areas. Print Head: The Print Head Assembly consists of Print Head. one for building part and the other for generating necessary supports. Print Head Cap: It is comprised of top that closes the jet off on the connecting position of jet to the feed lines. There are two print heads. Cable and Saddle. The jets sit on the carriage that enables them to move in the X and Y direction while the stage moves in the Z direction. The process should be done prior to every build and as the primary method to correcting a printing malfunction of jet assembly. These materials are wax based with support having a lower melting point than the build.
Model Maker Operation: a) CAD file preparation: Prior to actually building a part. time to build and the quality of the model. This is a very small space.Print Head Body: The print head body is where extra materials are stored until it is printed onto a substrate surface. Saddle: The saddle secures the entire print head assembly to the carriage. part slicing and other build parameters. All of these can be changed as it pertains to the specific characteristics desired for the part. There is a locking device on the MM tool that helps to ensure that the print head is properly positioned to produce optimum printing results.e. Among them are the distance the cutter travels. the STL file must be translated into the system software i. Care should be taken not to touch the tip as it will damage the jet and cause it to be inoperable. Model Works and is used for the purpose of preparing and manipulating the file so that the MM can build it. 25 . From the box we can perform slicing functions. zoom functions. The MW software is very useful and gives user ultimate control over the end product. therefore an air bubble could cause a jet interruption and possibly a failure. Y and Z). A box appears around the grid with a bar that has many functions that allow the user to put the part in its desired orientation. special features detailing opening edges. The file after being read into the MW produces a picture of the file on the screen in Cartesian co-ordinate system (X. The fundamental rule for positioning is to have the longest length of the part parallel to the cutter. layer thickness alterations. b) Positioning the model: There are several characters to consider when positioning the part. part positioning. Tip: The tip is the orifice through which material is printed. The proper substance to remove any debris from the tip is the corner of a Kim wipe.
c. skip layers between jet checks. 26 . b. The user can auto centre the model in Y. The larger and more intricate the model. units. This particular feature is accessed through the configuration button on the MW platform and the configuration notebook contains database of settings. The first tells us the 1D number. e. set number of multiple copies and distance between each offset. The tabs are configuration. The machine requirements are atleast 16mb of ram and preferably 32mb of ram. machine. on MM or MM2. Configurations: Under the tab we are able to scroll through several configurations for slice thickness for each machine type. add cooling time. centimeter and millimeters. jet velocity and acceleration. adjust the temperature. Different parameters can be set with the tabs on the screen. Units: The units tab allows us to select the units in configuration. a. adjust cutter feed rate and set multiple layer out back depth. To make it simple most parts can be sufficiently completed by selecting memory default button. d) Fill: The next important area is fill notebook. Build: This tab has default values for building the model. The notebook is divided into three sections. The choices are inches. programmed and alter the way dimensions are interpreted on the geometry files. the more memory required. memory and build. Each configuration has a ten number that allows us to customize the slice thickness depending on the model being prepared. The second shows us the slice thickness and start/stop light. offset the model in X and Y. Machine: The machine tab allows selecting current machine we are building. Memory: This tab allows the user to select amount of memory depending on the part size and complexity.c) Configuration Selection: This is a very important factor prior to building a part. slice thickness and configuration chosen in the configuration notebook. d.
The slice/slice file is the code the machine will use to generate a layer by layer creation of the model. In order to do that the operator must chose MM button which will send the complete file to MM2 and JOB. select <I> and then <N> this will allow us to chose the mill command and level all substrate. If the part is fragile or as man overhangs. The navigation buttons allows us to view the model slice by slice or at 10% increments. This viewer displays slice cross sections. This ensures that the surface is level. e) Slicing: MM utilizes B view as the viewer of the . It enables the user with a ability to have maximum to minimum support. 27 . the printer and then select OK button. the number of initial support layers and continuing extra support to the top of the model. we must choose a file name. To do so select <3> from initial screen. There is a bar to check for eliminating extra cooling in between layers. But while we are waiting we can check the optical tape receptacle to make sure it is empty and we can mill the substrate. Once we have added the materials.The last section deals with support. We can get a graphical representation by selecting <1> on our opening screen. In order to send the file. Once this is done. g) Build a part: Once the part has been delivered to MM2. the zoom button allows us to adjust the view of the model on the screen and pan buttons allows us to adjust X and Y plane views of the model. To access this function we must select the B view button from the menu. The computer will tell us if additional material is needed and how much to add. we may consider choosing support around the entire part whereas if it is a more rigid or a sturdy part we would only use support where it is needed. it is time to prepare the machine for building. Initially we can check the material reservoirs to determine if we need to add any build or support materials. f) Send to model maker: After slicing and orientation the model must be sent to the onboard computer of MM2. allow 45mm for the material to be liquefied in the reservoir before use. Mill the original surface of the substrate until it has a clean. MM2. Together all of these functions gives the modeler complete control over not only how the machine will build the part but the customization of part prior to the build. it is now time to physically prepare the machine to build model.BIN files generated by MW. bright finish. In addition we can also reinforce the support walls by adjusting the excess support control button. the automated control button gives us a real time build slice by slice.MM2 and . This will also be a determining factor in timeliness of post processing procedure.
small parts Disadvantages: i. Slow build speed when it comes to fabricating parts larger than a 3” working cube. and then press any key to stop the purge. and place the tube on the purge spouth. Allow the jet to purge until we get an even flow of material into the container and allow it to flow for 2-3 seconds. Cut a 3” piece of plastic tubing. select the file we want and build. The jewellary and medical industries have capitalized on this advantage due to their needs for highly accurate. Hold the cylindrical tube over the tube and under <M> choose the respective jet we are purging (build or support) Once the jet has been selected. Before each use. allows the part to sit in recommended VSO solvent solution at 35’C for 30 min increments. another menu will appear that will prompt our actions. Depending on the part size we may want to play with the temperature settings and the time we allow it to soak in VSO.The reset and most important step is to check the jet firing status. from this menu choose the purge command. After making sure that the jets are firing properly. so back into new build. When all the support material has been removed. perform a manual purge to refill the jet reservoir with the material and make sure that the proper amount of air is within the reservoir also. we can refinish our surface. We want support material to be mushy so that we can easily remove it with a tool of our preference. Advantages: The power of the MM family of system lies primarily with the production of small intricately detailed wax patterns. paint it or leave it as it is. h) Post Processing: Post Processing is a hand on process that involves time and attention. Immediately remove the tube from spouth and re-apply the cap. remove purge cap. 28 .
Flow Diagram: Fig: Flow chart representing Sanders Model Maker 29 .
It produces short term production patterns. 30 . Steel tools are very expensive yet typically last indefinitely building millions of parts in a mass production environment. All this leads to the next step which is for RP industry to target tooling as a natural way to capitalize on 3D CAD modeling and RP technology. accuracy. a prototype can be completed in a few days or even a few hours. Unfortunately with RP techniques. functional testing of prototypes often is not due to different mechanical and thermal properties of prototype compared to production part. Role of Indirect methods in tool production: RP technologies offer the capabilities of rapid production of 3D solid objects directly from CAD. there is only a limited range of materials from which prototypes can be made. material properties. Instead of several weeks. numerous processes have been developed for producing tooling from RP masters. Hard Tooling: Patterns are fabricated by machining either tool steel or aluminum into the negative shape of the desired component.RAPID TOOLING Rapid Tooling refers to mould cavities that are either directly or indirectly fabricated using Rapid Prototyping techniques. Consequently although visualization and dimensional verification are possible. These processes are usually known as Soft Tooling Techniques. Injected wax patterns can be used to produce castings. Indirect Rapid Tooling: As RP is becoming more mature. Soft tools can usually be fabricated for ten times less than a machine tool. Indirect RT methods are called indirect because they use RP pattern obtained by appropriate RP technique as a model for mould and die making. With increase in accuracy of RP techniques. The most widely used indirect RT methods are to use RP masters to make silicon room temperature vulcanizing moulds for plastic parts and as sacrificial models or investment casting of metal parts. cost and lead time are improving to permitting to be employed for production of tools. Aluminum tools are less expensive than steel and are used for lower production quantities. Soft Tooling: It can be used to intake multiple wax or plastic parts using conventional injection moulding techniques.
high hardness shell material to an RP pattern and then backfill the remainder of the two shell with inexpensive low strength. the original pattern is pulled from the silicon mould which can be placed back together and repeatedly filled with hot wax or plastic to fabricate multiple patterns. Two filaments are fed into the device. The silicon rubber typically in a two part mix is then blended. These tools are generally not injected due to the soft nature of the material. Next the pattern is fixture into a holding cell or box and coated with a special release agent (a wax based cerosal or a petroleum jelly mixture) to prevent it from sticking to the silicon. First an RP process is used to fabricate the pattern. There are as many or more techniques for silicon moulding as there are RP processes but the following is the general description for making simple two piece moulds. Room Temperature Vulcanization Silicones are preferable as they do not require special curing equipment. the metal to be deposited comes in filament form. low temperature materials on tooling channels. This provides a hard durable face that will endure the forces on temperature of injection moulding and a soft banking that can be worked for optimal thermal conductivity and heat transfer from the body. The spray pattern is either controlled manually or automatically by robotic control.Silicon Rubber Tooling: It is a soft tooling technique. Wire Arc Spray: These are the thermal metal deposition techniques such as wire arc spray and vacuum plasma deposition. After the rubber is fully cured which usually takes 12 to 24 hours the box is removed and the mould is cut into two (not necessarily in halves) along a pre determined parting line. vacuumed to remove air packets and poured into the box around the pattern until the pattern is completely encapsulated. At this point. In Wire Arc Spray. It is a indirect rapid tooling method. Metal can be applied in successive thin coats to very low temperature of 31 . Therefore the final part materials must be poured into the mould each cycle. This rubber moulding technique is a flexible mould that can be peeled away from more implicate patterns as suppose to former mould materials. one is positively charged and the other is negatively charged until they meet and create an electric arc. Another root for soft tooling is to use RP model as a pattern for silicon rubber mould which can then in turn be injected several times. This results in a range of low cost tools that can provide varying degrees of durability under injection pressures. The concept is to first deploy a high temperature. This arc melts the metal filaments while simultaneously a high velocity gas flows through the arc zone and propels the atomized metal particles on to the RP pattern. These are been developed to coat low temperature substrates with metallic materials.
Current wire arc technologies are limited to low temperature materials. The deposition material in this case comes in powder form which is then melted.RP patterns without deformation of geometry. Fig: Wire Arc Spraying 32 . however as well as to metals available in filament form. Vacuum Plasma Spray technologies are more suited in higher melting temperature metals. accelerated and deposited by plasma generated under vacuum.
Epoxy Tools: Epoxy tools are used to manufacture prototype parts or limited runs of production parts. Another approach known as soft surface rapid tool involves machining an oversized cavity in an Aluminum plate. Epoxy tools are used as: Moulds for prototype injection plastic Moulds for casting Compression moulds Reaction Injection Moulds The fabrication of moulds begins with the construction of a simple frame around the parting line of RP model. Then the second side of the tool is cured. The exposed surface of the model is coated with a release agent and epoxy is poured over the model. An alternative process is to build an RP mould as a master so that only a single silicon RTV reproduction step is needed because epoxy tooling requires no 33 . Aluminum powder is usually added to epoxy resin and copper cooling lines can also be placed at this stage to increase the thermal conductivity of the mould. Another frame is constructed and epoxy is poured to form the other side of the tool. In this case a Silicon RTV Mould is cast from RP pattern and silicon RTV model is made from the mould and is used as pattern for aluminum fill deposited. Screw gauges and runners can be added or cut later on once the mould is finished. A loss of accuracy occurs during this succession of reproduction steps. Some machining is required for this method and this can increase the mould building time but the advantage is that the thermal conductivity is better than for all epoxy models. Fig: Soft Surface Unfortunately epoxy curing is an exothermic reaction and it is not always possible directly to cast epoxy around a RP model without damaging it. The offset allows for introduction of casting material which may be poured into the cavity after suspending the model in its desired position and orientation. Once the epoxy is cured the assembly is inverted and the parting line block is removed leaving the pattern embedded in the side of the tool just cast. The two halves of the tool are separated and the pattern is removed.
Metal mixture is powdered steel. Epoxy Tools have the following limitations. It is also one of the quickest. Green parts are powdered metal held together by polymer binder. This process converts RP master patterns into production tool inserts with very good definition and surface finish. Limited tool life Poor thermal transfer Tolerance dependent on master patterns Aluminum filled epoxy has low tensile strength The life of the injection plastic aluminum epoxy tools for different thermoplastic materials is given below Material ABS Acetol Nylon Nylon (gas filled) PBT PC/ABS blends Poly Carbonate Poly Ethylene Poly Propylene Poly Styrene Tool Life (Shots) 200-3000 100-1000 250-3000 50-200 100-500 100-1000 100-1000 500-5000 500-5000 500-5000 3D Keltool Process: This process is based on metal sintering process. 4) Firing the green parts in a furnace to remove the plastic binder and sintering the metal particles together. tungsten carbide and polymer binder with particle sizes of around 5 mm. It is one of the cheapest techniques available. 2) Producing RTV silicon rubber mould from the pattern. The production of inserts including the 3D Keltool process involves the following steps 1) Fabricating the master patterns of core and cavity. Several hundred parts can be moulded in almost any common casting plastic material. 3) Filling the silicon rubber mould with metal mixtures to produce green parts duplicating the masters.special skill or equipment. 34 .
6) Finishing the core and cavity. new rapid tooling methods have come into existence that allow injection moulding and die casting inserts to be built directly from 3D CAD models. These methods come under hard tooling. Classification of Direct Rapid Tooling methods: Direct Rapid Tooling Processes can be divided into two main groups 1st group: It includes less expensive methods with shorter lead times.5) Infiltrating the sintered parts (70% dense inserts) with copper in the second furnace cycle to fill the 30% void space. It includes RT methods that allow inserts for pre production and production tools to be built. Direct RT methods that satisfy these requirements are called methods for firm tooling or bridge tooling. Sterlite of A6 composite tool steel. To overcome some of the drawbacks of indirect method. 2nd group: Solutions for hard tooling are based on fabrication of sintered metal steel. RP processes for firm tooling fill the gap between soft and hard tooling. Classification of Direct RT methods: 1) Firm Tooling Methods Direct AIM DTM COPPER PA TOOLING DTM SANDFORM TOOLING ELECTRO OPTICAL SYSTEM DIRECT CHRONING PROCESS LOM TOOLING IN POLYMER 3DP CERAMIC SHELLS 35 . The material properties allow the inserts using this process to withstand more than 10lakh mould cycles. iron copper powder inserts infiltrated with copper or bronze. This might result in a loss of accuracy and to increase the time for building the tool. Direct Tooling: Indirect methods for tool production necessitate a minimum of one intermediate replication process. 3D Keltool inserts can be built in two materials.
Specific rules apply to the production of this type of injection moulds. The supports are subsequently removed and the mould is polished in the direction of draw to facilitate part release.2002 W/mK for cibatool SL5170 epoxy resin) To remove the maximum amount of heat from the tool and reduce the injection moulding cycle time. The mould is then built using accurate clear epoxy solid style on a Stereolithography machine. ejector pins and clearance holes are added and mould is shelled to a recommended thickness of 1.27mm. The thermal conductivity of SLA resin is about 300 times lower than that of conventional tool steels (. the injection mould is drawn. copper water cooling lines are added and the back of the mould is filled with a mixture made up of 30% by volume of aluminum granulate and 70% of epoxy resin.2) Hard Tooling Methods EOS DIRECT TOOL DTM RAPID TOOL PROCESS LOM TOOLING IN CERAMIC 3DP DIRECT METAL TOOLING DIRECT AIM: DIRECT ACES INJECTION MOULDS: ACES refer to Accurate Clear Epoxy Solid. 36 . Using a 3D CAD package. fan gates. Runners. Stereolithography is used to produce epoxy inserts for injection mould tools for thermoplastic parts because the temperature resistance of curable epoxy resins available at present is up to 200’C and thermoplastics are injected at temperature as high as 300’C. The cooling of the mould is completed by blowing air on the mould faces as they separate after the injection moulding operation. The procedure detailed in is outlined below.
Process is slightly more difficult than indirect methods because finishing must be done on internal shapes of the mould. 37 . Injection cycle time is long. Both resistance to erosion and thermal conductivity of D-AIM tools can be increased by deposition of a 25micron layer of copper on mould surfaces. Advantages: It is suitable for moulding up to 100 parts. Also draft angles of order up to one and the application of the release agent in each injection cycle are required to ensure proper part injection.Disadvantages: Number of parts that can be obtained using this process is very dependent on the shape and size of the moulded part as well as skills of good operator who can sense when to stop between cycles to allow more cooling. A Direct AIM mould is not durable like aluminum filled epoxy mould.
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