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Cyanosis a bluish discoloration of the skin caused by

insufficient oxygen

Erythema a reddish color of the skin caused by a congestion of

blood in the vessels

a yellow discoloration of the skin; may indicate bile

Jaundice in the blood or as a result of liver or gallbladder

flat spots on the skin, such as

Macules freckles

Papules firm, raised areas such as pimples or the early stages

of chicken pox

Vesicles blisters, or fluid-filled sacs such as those seen in
advanced stages of chicken pox

Wheals itchy, elevated areas with an irregular shape; insect

bites and hives

Ulcer a deep loss of skin surface that may extend into the
dermis; may cause bleeding or scars

Eczema a non contagious, inflammatory skin disorder caused

by an allergen or irritant.

Impetigo highly contagious skin infection caused by

streptococci or staphylococci organisms.

material including fluid, pus, or cells that escaped
Exudate from blood vessels and has deposited in tissues
(ex-white exudate on tonsils as seen in Strep throat)

Axial skeleton main trunk of the body composed of the skull, spinal
column, ribs, and breastbone.

forms the extremities and is composed of the

Appendicular skeleton shoulder girdle, arm bones, pelvic girdle, and leg

areas where the cranial bones have

Sutures joined together

spaces or “soft spots” that allow for enlargement of

Fontanels the skull as the brain grows during infancy and

Foramina openings in bones that allow nerves and blood
vessels to enter or leave the bone.

bones of the spinal column including 7 cervical

Vertebrae (neck), 12 thoracic (chest), 5 lumbar (waist), 1

sacrum (back of pelvic girdle), and 1 coccyx

found in certain bones (vertebrae, ribs, sternum,

Red Marrow cranium, proximal humerus and proximal femur)

where RBC’s, platelets, and some WBC’s are

Compound/Open the bone breaks and ruptures through the skin which
creates an increased chance of infection

Osteomyelitis bone inflammation usually caused by a pathogenic

organism; pus develops within the bone marrow

increased porosity or the softening of the bones
Osteoporosis caused by low estrogen in females, prolonged lack of
calcium in the diet, and a sedentary lifestyle

Scoliosis a lateral curvature of the spine

moving a body part toward the

Adduction midline

moving a body part away from the

Abduction midline

Fascia a tough, sheet-like membrane that covers and

protects muscle tissue

shrink in the size or losing strength
Atrophy in a muscle

a group of inherited diseases that lead to chronic,

Muscular Dystrophy progressive muscle atrophy

chemicals located at the end of each axon that allow

Neurotransmitters the nerve impulses to pass from one neuron to

Central Nervous consists of the brain and spinal cord


Peripheral Nervous System consists of the nerves

cerebrovascular accident (stroke) occurs when blood
CVA flow to the brain is impaired, resulting in a lack of
oxygen to the brain tissue

Meningitis an inflammation of the meninges of the brain and/or

spinal cord and is caused by a microorganism

a condition of increased intraocular (within the eye)

Glaucoma pressure caused by en excess amount of aqueous

humor (the fluid in the eye); a leading cause of

Otitis Media ear infection; most common in children due to a

shorter Eustachian tube

Diastole ventricular rest (filling with blood)

ventricular contraction (pumping
Systole blood)

Hypertension high blood pressure; a systolic pressure over 140

and/or a diastolic pressure over 90

heart attack; occurs when a blockage in the coronary

Myocardial Infarction (MI) arteries cuts off blood supply to the heart resulting in
death of tissue

inflammation of a vein where a clot

Thrombophlebitis forms

a hardening or thickening of the arterial walls,

Arteriosclerosis resulting in a loss of elasticity and contractility

occurs when fatty plaques (cholesterol) are deposited
Artherosclerosis on the artery walls

occurs when the heart muscles do not beat

Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) adequately to supply the blood needs of the body;
may involve right side or the left side of the heart

acute pain in the chest caused by interference with

Angina Pectoris the blood supply or oxygen to the heart

Hypoxemia deficient oxygenation of the blood

Splenomegaly an enlargement of the spleen; can result from too

many red blood cells, liver disease, mononucleosis

tiny hair-like structures in the respiratory airways
Cilia that move mucous and trapped particles up to the
esophagus where they can be swallowed.

each lung is enclosed in a membrane

Pleura or sac called pleura

a double-layered membrane or sac that covers the

Pericardium outside of the heart that is filled with a lubricating

fluid, pericardial fluid, that prevent friction as the
heart beats or contracts

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary used to describe any chronic lung disease that results
in obstruction of the airways-emphysema and
Disease chronic bronchitis are examples

Duodenum the first 9-10 inches of the small intestine (digestive

enzymes released)

Jejunum the next 8 feet of the small intestine (the middle);

the final 12 feet of the small intestine; where the

Ileum small intestine connects to the large intestine (at the
cecum); absorption

a membrane covering the abdominal

Peritoneum organs

Oliguria below normal amounts of urination; seen in kidney

disease or early kidney failure

excessive urination seen with

Polyuria Diabetes

absence of urination; advanced
Anuria kidney failure

Cystitis urinary bladder inflammation or infection; more

common in females

a chronic disease caused by a decreased secretion of

Diabetes Mellitus insulin

Insulin dependent diabetes milletus occurs early in life; usually more severe type that
(Type 1) requires insulin

Non insulin dependent diabetes mature onset, usually, occurs in obese adults with a
tissue resistance to insulin; can be controlled with
mellitus (Type 2) diet

an inflammation of the uterus, cervix, and fallopian
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) tubes caused by untreated STD’s; can result in
infertility due to scarring

an enlargement of the prostate gland in males; may

Prostatic hypertrophy be benign or malignant

lasting a short period of time, but

Acute relatively severe

lasting a long period of time;

Chronic re-occurring

pertaining to the
Visceral organs