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Beyond Interior Design
Interior Design and Global Impacts 2007
Where Design Comes to Life®
INTERIOR DESIGN AND GLOBAL IMPACTS 2007
1. Beyond Interior Design 2. Indoor Air Quality 3. Materials & Products 4. Selling Green 5. Reference Guide
Where Design Comes to Life®
American Society of Interior Designers
Inc. LEED AP Cris Argeles. BuildingGreen. H2 Ecodesign. 7 group Holley Henderson. 7 group Nadav Malin. Inc. Editors Tristan Roberts and Allyson Wendt. LLC Scot Horst. Design and Layout Julia Jandrisits.Beyond Interior Design Interior Design and Global Impacts 2006 ONE OF FIVE PAPERS ON TOPICS IN SUSTAINABLE DESIGN Other papers in the series Indoor Air Quality Selling Green Materials and Products Reference Guide Research/Writing Team Kirsten Childs. Graciously sponsored by Lightolier® Steelcase® TOTO® Tricycle VISTA® Wilsonart® Laminate . Inc. BuildingGreen. BuildingGreen. ASID.
asid. This publication. or parts thereof.. DC 20002-6006 www. may not be reproduced in any form without written permission of the American Society of Interior Designers. . NE Washington.© 2006 American Society of Interior Designers 608 Massachusetts Ave. Printed in the United States of America.org All rights reserved.
............................... 11 Natural Resource Depletion ............ 3 2 THE BASICS OF INTEGRATED DESIGN ..............................................................5 Integrated Design and Sustainability ................... 20 ENDNOTES .................................... 21 APPENDIX: QUESTIONNAIRE .... 22 ....................................... 9 The Role of the Residential Interior Designer ............................................................................................... 11 Energy Use .......................... 9 The Role of the Commercial Interior Designer ......... 15 Pollution ......................................... 9 The Designer’s Role Beyond Design and Construction ......7 3 INTEGRATED DESIGN AND THE INTERIOR DESIGNER .. 17 5 INTEGRATED DESIGN AND GREEN BUILDING RATING SYSTEMS ................................................... 4 Integrated Design ............................................................................................................................................. 11 4 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND SUSTAINABLE DESIGN STRATEGIES ................................Table of Contents 1 INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF KEY CONCEPTS .......................................................................................... 4 Traditional Design ............................................................................
Interior design is a key aspect of any green building process.2 The production of energy from fossil fuels. by the design of the space itself. at least in part. The United States. It is an integral part of any building construction or renovation project. Sustainable design is a way of thinking that considers the impact of these issues on the environment and on human health in the context of building and construction. Good interior design. interior designers can begin to help mitigate these impacts. the construction and operation of residential and commercial buildings consumed 40 percent of the energy1 and 72 percent of electricity produced in the United States in 2003. operation.3 Beyond this enormous consumption of fossil fuels.5 Further. products and systems from a network of raw materials that stretches around the globe. buildings and industrial uses at the rate of approximately 2. nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and large quantities of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2). all of which have major environmental impacts. including the use of land. It is the design discipline that is most explicitly concerned with how people will experience their built environments and therefore has huge implications for human health. region and the whole planet. beginning with an understanding of how every choice aﬀects the environment.4 Nationally.2 million acres per year. the construction. it is estimated that 408 billion gallons of water were withdrawn from natural sources for use during 2000. And the occupants of those spaces use energy and other resources in ways that are driven. Recent surveys show that rural land is being converted to roads.INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF KEY CONCEPTS 3 1 Introduction and Overview of Key Concepts Interior design doesn’t exist in a vacuum. Choices made in designing an interior space have environmental and human health implications that extend far beyond the space itself into the neighborhood. maintenance and renovation of buildings and interiors generates waste and pollution in many forms. generated approximately 24 percent of the world’s total energy related carbon dioxide emissions in 2002. . By taking an informed approach to the way design decisions are made. Building interiors are ﬁtted with materials. Ideally. all central tenets of sustainable design. must be informed by all these interconnections and impacts. their supporting infrastructure and their associated maintenance represent an enormous proportion of mankind’s direct and indirect impact upon the environment. result in the release of air pollutants. such as sulfur dioxide (SO2). Buildings. natural gas and oil requires extraction. as well as issues of how design choices will aﬀect the environment. with less than ﬁve percent of the world’s population. This approach requires the designer to address issues relating to the health and well-being of occupants. The actual generation of electricity. which cause acid rain. Sustainable design asks designers to expand their conventional thinking and to focus holistically on the occupants of the homes and other buildings. reﬁnement and transportation. buildings and their interiors are responsible for widespread depletion of natural resources. the resulting buildings contribute to human and ecosystem health while minimizing harm from their construction and operation. creating local and global changes. well-being and productivity. and especially sustainable interior design. Although the total impact of buildings goes far beyond energy use. Sustainable Design The practice of designing buildings (and other things) so that they exist in harmony with natural systems. such as coal. as well as the combustion or burning of fossil fuels for heat and transportation. raw materials and water.
construction and maintenance of buildings and interiors. their project is likely to demonstrate excellent environmental characteristics while providing a highquality interior environment. In a large and complex project.” will be contrasted with the traditional process to better illustrate opportunities for more environmentally beneﬁcial design. Participation early in the project by all team members—preferably before the schematic design phase starts—allows each professional within the team to draw on the expertise of the others in the development of a reﬁned and cohesive design. For both the interior space and the building as a whole to perform optimally. extending that same recognition by seeing how professionals who are responsible for diﬀerent building systems have important information to oﬀer each other. and two. the overall goal is to familiarize the interior designer both with broader environmental considerations. This early coordination avoids duplication of eﬀort and common errors that result from lack of seeing the big picture. Specialized roles have therefore been created around the design. The interior designer on a residential or a commercial project should be engaged as a key participant from the beginning of the design process. the drawings are handed oﬀ to the next member of the team to complete the next portion. A more collaborative process. . electrical and plumbing) engineer and general contractor. integrated design. that provides an avenue for full recognition of these considerations in the building process. “integrated design. Traditional Design Traditional design is a linear process in which no team member is fully cognizant of the methodologies and goals of other members. massing. and so on down the line. and mechanical and electrical system design with an understanding of how those choices will aﬀect spaces inside the building. the design process is not traditionally collaborative. the recognition of the interconnectedness of diﬀerent building systems. MEP (mechanical.4 BEYOND INTERIOR DESIGN — INTERIOR DESIGN AND GLOBAL IMPACTS Integrated design is a collaborative design process that has two sides: one. If a knowledgeable team communicates eﬀectively about the sustainability goals. but needs to be an integral part of the overall design approach. and can contribute to decisions related to site selection. understanding those systems requires specialized knowledge. The key to integrated design in a residential or commercial project is communication. as well as with a tool. orientation. 2 The Basics of Integrated Design Because of the complexities of diﬀerent building components and systems. many more roles can exist. isolated discipline. Although the design of any building or interior requires the work of all of these professionals. interior designer. When one member of the project team completes his or her portion of the project. interior design cannot be seen as a separate. While some aspects of this paper will have direct implications for interior design. The roles can include those of the architect.
As a result. it is too late to add exterior light shelves. then the mechanical engineer designs the building systems within the constraints that resulted from these schematics. the architect. The charrette is an excellent time to bring in the early and active participation of the full design and construction team. Many of these participants are not traditionally included in the early phases of design. At this stage. a group brainstorming session often taking place over a number of days. and which might have allowed for greater daylighting potential and less wasted interior space. The traditional design process is good at producing buildings that achieve conventional performance levels. but the engineer has already speciﬁed a detailed ventilation system using the ceiling plenum for distribution. Finally. after these key decisions have been made. including participation by the interior designer. In a traditional design process. Nor did the designer have the opportunity to suggest to the architect a diﬀerent module size for the building’s structural system that might work more eﬃciently with the client’s existing system’s furniture. a series of plans are handed from one member of the design team to the next. fails to capitalize on opportunities to bridge diﬀerent areas of expertise. even when each individual has good intentions. in either a commercial or residential project. too late to provide feedback about most aspects of the building’s design. For example. Integrated Design Integrated design is a collaborative design process that recognizes the relations among building systems and among the team members that design and install those systems. however. But if a project’s goals include high-energy performance and exceptional human comfort and health. individual team members typically end up inadvertently working at cross purposes. interior designer and the client may never sit down together to discuss and understand the goals of the project. Finally. this process. oﬀering few opportunities for collaboration. which can eﬀectively kick oﬀ the project design by providing a forum for articulating goals and sharing ideas. it would be both time consuming and expensive to make changes to the baseline documents. the interior designer may have wanted to specify raised access ﬂoors with underﬂoor air distribution as a strategy for a ﬂexible oﬃce layout. and a body of knowledge has grown about its application. By the time the MEP engineer sees the design. which he or she perceives as beneﬁting the building’s lighting and heating. so many opportunities to tailor the interior design are lost. In this traditional approach.THE BASICS OF INTEGRATED DESIGN 5 For example. the interior designer receives the drawings. but the process is exponentially enhanced with their involvement. is already widely recognized in commercial building and renovation projects. once the architect has completed the schematic design. Integrated design therefore requires participation of all members of a project team in order to optimize the performance of the building and the way in which it is built. He or she is forced to engineer a larger system to compensate for the likelihood of enormous heat gain associated with the large southern exposure. The integrated design process. the architect may design a building with large expanses of south-facing windows. . equally applicable to new homes and residential renovations. the structural engineer “engineers” the building in accordance with the preliminary drawings. engineer. An integrated design process often begins with a charrette. with little modiﬁcation. These concepts are. which would limit glare and heat gain during the hottest times of day.
industrial hygiene or botany experts The contractor or builder is ideally part of the team from the beginning. daylight modeling. members of an integrated design team could include » Architect » Contractor or construction manager » Engineers » Homeowner » Interior designer » Landscape architect » Subcontractors . However. such as energy modeling. and the construction manager often is chosen early and can participate. typical members of an integrated design team include » Architect » Civil engineer » Commissioning authority » Contractor » Cost estimator » Facility manager and/or maintenance staff » Interior designer » Landscape architect » Lighting consultant » MEP engineer » Owner » Specifications writer » Structural engineer » Tenant or occupants (typically a representative) In an integrated design process. Depending of the scope of a residential project. Generally this is not possible when a competitive bid process is contemplated. the contractor is usually selected early and so may be able to participate in the charrette. all the members of the project team meet together to collaborate from the start of the project. » Other consultants with special expertise. in a negotiated contract.6 BEYOND INTERIOR DESIGN — INTERIOR DESIGN AND GLOBAL IMPACTS On a commercial project.
Through the early communication and meetings. Without early knowledge of the project goals. Team members learn from each other and set priorities and goals that allow them to see the whole picture in development. for example. lighting and color schemes that complement that strategy. it is far more eﬀective to design for energy conservation from the beginning of a project with. who can oﬀer energy eﬃcient lighting considerations. Exposed concrete. Some early decisions that can have large environmental impacts include site selection. Another strategy with environmental beneﬁts that calls for an integrated design process is the use of exposed thermal mass. and a specialist may be added to the team. the interior designer can contribute layout. and shell and glazing choices. With integrated design. which would. When the team is selected and brought together for the ﬁrst time. For example. site selection that reduces heating and cooling needs. . building orientation. perhaps the most important objectives are to understand the basic project goals and to establish a consistent. especially when coupled with a night-ﬂushing system that expels the building’s heat and uses the naturally colder nighttime air to cool the mass. Implementing such a strategy requires collaboration among the architect. Additional members of an integrated design team might include an acoustical engineer. of the major design decisions that most aﬀect the sustainable performance of a building are made in the early phases of design. everybody’s input and expertise is used to inform the design. or an “add on. if the architect is pursuing a daylighting strategy. if not all. rather than allowing one perspective to impose design solutions on the rest of the team. collaborative process that will support those goals throughout the duration of the project. mechanical engineer and interior designer. and a lighting designer. fenestration. Integrated Design and Sustainability When green building features are viewed as simply another step in the design process. than to spend a lot of additional money in retroactively insulating the building or reengineering it to use less energy. If a client wants to reduce energy use.THE BASICS OF INTEGRATED DESIGN 7 While the MEP engineer can usually undertake the basic commissioning process for a home. Many. Energy Modeling A tool used by the design team to determine a building’s potential energy use and to spot opportunities for conservation. the full team of professionals can provide early input relative to the environmental implications of those decisions.” the resulting design often has lower levels of environmental performance and higher cost. Working in tandem from the outset enables each team member to question assumptions and to develop coordinated solutions that result in better building designs. and roof structures can reduce peak cooling loads. who analyzes and mitigates sound transmission issues caused by hard surfaces. the designer may have pursued plans that would make the daylighting strategy less eﬀective. as well as to intervene in a timely manner when the design or objectives seem to be at risk as the design progresses. energy modeling may be an important consideration for larger houses. wise budgeting and well-documented construction documents. brick or stone walls. structural engineer. have increased energy needs and decreased occupant satisfaction relative to averages. in turn.
the best ideas often emerge when participants cross the usual boundaries. a mechanical engineer can inform choices that enhance energy eﬃciency and comfort. cross-disciplinary format while respecting the authority of individual experts on a team.8 BEYOND INTERIOR DESIGN — INTERIOR DESIGN AND GLOBAL IMPACTS In an eﬀective integrated design process. . The design can then emerge organically.”6 Beyond creating collaboration on certain strategies. an interior designer can improve the indoor spaces. facility managers. prospective occupants. Depending on the size and complexity of the project. including energy eﬃciency and a healthy interior environment. with the full beneﬁt of each expert’s input—a structural engineer can contribute to the elegance and eﬃciency of the structure. While each expert plays an essential role in eﬀective integrated design exercises. an integrated design approach beneﬁts environmental goals by facilitating a free exchange of ideas in an open. sustainable design goals. and a cost estimator can manage the budget. Examples include » Reducing global pollution associated with every phase of building/renovation » Minimizing the development footprint of new buildings and infrastructure » Protecting and enhancing the entire building site » Fostering local community goodwill and interaction » Using energy more efficiently » Using materials more efficiently » Using local and resource-efficient materials » Designing durable and flexible buildings for future adaptability » Using water efficiently in buildings and landscape design » Designing interior environments to support well-being and productivity » Minimizing construction and demolition waste By engaging the expertise and inherent wisdom of the entire team at the beginning and throughout the process. can be optimized more readily. a landscape architect and civil engineer can optimize the siting and orientation. and a wide range of specialty consultants may be involved as well. “the team works as a collective to understand and develop all aspects of the design. the owner. a contractor can enhance the constructability of the resulting design. because their views are not as limited by familiarity with the way things are usually done.
such as providing premium indoor air quality and selecting environmentally friendly materials and products. an integrated design team made the connection between the reﬂectivity of interior paint and the number and type of lighting ﬁxtures necessary for the interior. the contractor (or the plumber) and the interior designer—in one place at one time at the beginning of the design process to discuss the project objectives can contribute signiﬁcantly to the success of the project. acoustics and occupant comfort. such as daylighting or good indoor air quality. getting all the players—in this case the homeowner. The integrated design process gives the interior designer the opportunity to discuss how design choices will aﬀect other building systems. The choice of interior ﬁnishes and design can also aﬀect indoor air quality. whether commercial or residential. the size of the HVAC system. The Role of the Residential Interior Designer On smaller residential projects. in one project meeting. Photo: Scot Horst . the lighting engineer was able to signiﬁcantly reduce the number of lighting ﬁxtures needed. The Role of the Commercial Interior Designer A number of items that are central to the interior designer’s work aﬀect the building’s energy use and system design. including the ﬂoor plan. and ultimately reduce. However. partition design. This series of choices—none of which could have been made without the other—led to a higher quality of interior light. even the smallest project. lighting design and interior ﬁnishes. The residential interior designer can often be a voice for a homeowner’s goals. the interior designer can consistently advocate for the client’s goals. can be designed and implemented in a way that reﬂects concern for occupant comfort and health and for environmental sustainability. and for the designer to adapt to building systems choices made by other team members. reduced energy costs. For example. building maintenance. the kind of integrated design process that is becoming more common with commercial projects may require a larger scale that is out of proportion to the potential beneﬁts. Because the interior designer guided the team to select a paint color with a high reﬂectivity. in the companion ASID Indoor Air Quality and Materials and Products papers. and reduced installation and maintenance costs for the HVAC and lighting systems. Even without a fully integrated team or process. the designer faces a number of constraints. such as a bathroom renovation. reduced heat load. The interior designer often has a unique relationship with the homeowner that can facilitate the exchange of ideas among the team and aﬀect the project’s environmental impact. By being present at early discussions and throughout the project.INTEGRATED DESIGN AND THE INTERIOR DESIGNER 9 3 Integrated Design and the Interior Designer No matter what kind of project the interior designer is working on. the HVAC engineer was able to reevaluate. The integrated design process can help the designer meet the challenge of incorporating sustainable design into his or her everyday practice on projects of all sizes. The interior designer can ﬁnd guidance on key issues. the architect. As a result. including ﬁnancial limits and scheduling requirements.
These goals included several practices and materials that the contractor had never used before. including a program involving coordination with a local waste management company. who was most familiar with the homeowner’s needs. Likewise. 4’ x 8’ and 5’ x 10’) in order to minimize waste. but all other decisions were left to the designer. The homeowner wanted to build an addition to an existing home. the contractor would not have understood how the sustainable goals of the project were actually achievable with little. The homeowner worked with the designer to formulate environmental goals and a budget for the project. including a polished concrete ﬂoor (instead of tile or stone).. kitchen and addition. Without this simple integrated process.10 BEYOND INTERIOR DESIGN — INTERIOR DESIGN AND GLOBAL IMPACTS The following example illustrates how a residential interior designer can use these concepts in an integrated design process to create a more sustainable project: A residential interior designer who had an excellent working relationship with a homeowner introduced the homeowner to concepts of indoor environmental quality and environmentally sustainable design. The interior designer initiated a meeting with the architect. bathrooms and several other spaces in the existing home. the contractor did not oppose using any of these products. and did not represent a challenge to day-to-day business. and some local. and served. FSC-certiﬁed woods. The designer already knew where the contractor could ﬁnd these materials and subcontractors (such as concrete polishers) that ﬁt the goals of the project.e. also provided ideas for minor modiﬁcations to the architect’s initial plans based on a more comfortable ﬂow of movement in the space. rapidly renewable materials. to coordinate dimensions shown on the drawings with the standard sizes of the sheet materials to be speciﬁed (i. Based on the meetings with the project team and the homeowner. The contractor had already been chosen by the homeowner and was prepared to coordinate his schedule with the design team and obtain the necessary permits. contractor and homeowner to review the homeowner’s environmental goals. and to make a series of upgrades to the kitchen. such as bamboo. therefore eliminating the potential obstacle of requiring that the contractor research new materials and methods and ﬁnd new suppliers. . among other things. Discussions between the designer and the architect focused on layout issues in the bathrooms. The designer also pointed out how using certain adhesives. The designer. cost and scheduling impact. sustainably harvested materials. sealants and paints that were all available locally would make a big diﬀerence in the indoor environmental quality of the home. the architect would not have known how the interior designer’s layout would aﬀect the space requirements. The main layout was to be determined by an architect friend of the owners. if any. The designer gave the contractor ideas about how they might save money on waste by recycling on the jobsite wherever possible.
and to prospective clients. hospital or home does not have to look or feel diﬀerent to be an environmentally friendly project. how sustainable design. with features such as enhanced daylighting. An oﬃce. both commercial and residential interior designers can play an important role post construction and post occupancy. An eﬀective project usually demonstrates. . the energy use by buildings and their need for materials is enormous. Occupant feedback can provide insight into which sustainable strategies worked well and which were less successful in a project. successful projects serve to enhance a designer’s reputation and are an eﬀective way to encourage word-of-mouth referrals. A successful completed project that embodies environmental and human health features helps demonstrate to everyone involved in the project. However. In this way. 4 Environmental Impacts and Sustainable Design Strategies The construction and operation of buildings and homes has the potential to cause numerous and far-reaching impacts on the environment. all life. both the designer and the occupants can beneﬁt. Natural Resource Depletion Designing buildings and interiors that conserve natural resources. and by maintaining a relationship with the owner over time. ultimately. the designer can use a number of strategies to reduce that burden on our raw material resources. in fact. Prospective clients will beneﬁt by seeing a designer’s work ﬁrsthand. looks and feels better than a conventional project. as well as seeing the goodwill between the designer and the owner. that sustainable design is simply good design. Receiving occasional access to a completed project for walk-throughs with potential new clients provides a way of displaying successfully completed work.INTEGRATED DESIGN AND THE INTERIOR DESIGNER — ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND SUSTAINABLE DESIGN STRATEGIES 11 The Designer’s Role Beyond Design and Construction In addition to their key roles during design and construction. habitat and water has long-term beneﬁts for preserving the environment and the raw material resource base that sustains human activities and. Raw Material Resources As discussed at the beginning of this paper. This section provides speciﬁc strategies that can be used to minimize these impacts— strategies that the designer can use in an integrated design process to meet a client’s environmental and design goals. land. Interior designers have a unique function in designing the spaces that occupants use daily. good indoor air quality and thermal comfort. The designer can use that feedback to improve the design of subsequent projects and to avoid repeating mistakes.
ceiling tile. and tile. a small investment of time and eﬀort can often yield the names of designers and manufacturing facilities based regionally and nationally. wallboard. Rather than automatically assuming that it is necessary to purchase all new items. such as layout and ﬁnishes. rainwater gargoyles. ﬂooring. may be valuable items that can be used creatively to provide a renovation with a sense of the building’s history. and the U. Although imports have become increasingly prevalent. to create the new look sought by the client. while using other elements. carpet. Reusing furniture and furnishings reduces waste.12 BEYOND INTERIOR DESIGN — INTERIOR DESIGN AND GLOBAL IMPACTS The reuse of existing building stock and building elements not only saves large quantities of raw materials. as well as separating out recyclable building materials during demolition and construction. An Internet search easily yields many used materials exchanges.S.7 The use of materials with recycled content such as steel. reduces the use of raw materials and the underlying energy costs associated with the extraction. often including the fuel value of its constituent parts.htm . cabinets and millwork are also readily salvageable. Although in many cases deteriorated buildings need to be demolished. much can be saved when an old building is renovated instead. Decorative elements. cast iron railings and hand-hewn beams. Other used building materials that can be salvaged are appliances and lighting and plumbing ﬁxtures in good working order. are often environmentally preferable to products made from nonrenewable resources. ﬂoors and ceilings.53 per ton in certain regions. Products that are made with rapidly renewable materials.29 per ton nationally. in addition to the many exchange venues on the Internet. such as the recycled glass countertop shown above. On many renovation projects.epa. the designer may determine that it is feasible to reuse furniture “as is” or to refurbish it. such as terra cotta details. In 2004 these fees averaged $34. A growing industry of mostly local companies caters to salvaging. such as bamboo. furniture and furnishings are replaced well before their useful life is up. conserves raw materials and often saves money for the client. such as Habitat for Humanity® International. Environmental Protection Agency provides a listing of some on its Web site: www. and also reduces the associated pollution. Before using such ﬁxtures. Items can also be donated to organizations. cotton and hemp furnishings. The purchase of materials that are harvested or manufactured in close proximity to the project reduces the embodied energy of the materials represented by transportation and energy costs. Photo: Ice Stone. can reduce the use of new materials and lower the environmental impact of a project. Inc. In many cases. transportation and primary processing of virgin materials. and wool carpet and upholstery. gov/jtr/comm/exchange. Embodied Energy The energy expended in the process of creating a product. refurbishing and reselling many of these elements. the designer must evaluate these products to ensure that they meet new energy and water consumption eﬃciency standards. recycling used materials into new products requires signiﬁcantly less energy than processing raw or virgin materials. but reached as high as $70. countertops. The shell of the building can be saved. wheatstraw cabinetry. such as walls. Typically. and interior architectural elements. not only has an environmental beneﬁt but can also save the client from having to pay landﬁll tipping fees. Doors. Rapidly renewable materials are those that Specifying materials with recycled content. quality and style. Goodwill Industries International® and other nonproﬁts. Many communities have thriving markets for such items and both nonproﬁt and for-proﬁt “used building materials” stores exist throughout the country. can be salvaged or refurbished. the designer can evaluate existing furniture for condition. cork or linoleum ﬂooring. it also preserves architectural and design links to the past. Salvaging used materials that would otherwise be landﬁlled.
disrupts natural water ﬂows. In addition to identifying areas that need to be protected during building design and construction. Portions of a site with exceptional wildlife habitat. and access roads—damage to the land and site ecology can generally be minimized and greater biodiversity preserved. they cause localized temperature increases of anywhere from a couple of degrees Fahrenheit to 10 degrees or more when compared to the surrounding undeveloped and naturally vegetated areas. By limiting the extent of the site area that is disturbed during construction and reducing the development footprint—including building footprint. making the immediate vicinity warmer than it would be if the pavement and buildings were not present. As noted in the example in the previous section. The informed designer can be an advocate for a client’s needs and for environmental concerns. reduces diversity. in place can be signiﬁcantly less expensive than. wastewater and transportation. such as dimensional planning. building or renovating in an urban locale with existing infrastructure. several other key precautions will help protect the environment and the inherent natural quality of the site. and following applicable local and national codes for site selection. “Heat islands” are formed in areas where a large proportion of the natural vegetation is replaced by buildings.ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND SUSTAINABLE DESIGN STRATEGIES 13 are replaced in less than 10 years through natural processes. Strategies. Because these surfaces absorb heat from the sun. A carefully designed sediment and erosion plan that is implemented during building construction minimizes the loss of topsoil and prevents soil sedimentation in local water bodies and storm drainage systems. the designer can use strategies. with a resultant loss of biodiversity. Buildings that fall within these micro-climate areas require more air conditioning. and reduces open space available for recreation and future needs. pavement and other impervious structures and surfaces. such as electrical. In the case of a housing development. If a new building is called for. to get the most out of the materials that are used. Tipping the scales too heavily and quickly in the direction of development unnecessarily destroys wildlife habitats. development needs must be balanced with land and habitat conservation to preserve the quality and biodiversity of the natural world. Land and Habitat Conservation While the conversion of natural landscapes for new construction continues side by side with economic expansion. the designer can signiﬁcantly reduce waste. the designer can help a client ﬁnd and evaluate spaces suited to the project requirements by investigating existing buildings or undertaking research of the existing local stock of buildings for sale or lease. water. both can often be met without undue compromise. Instead of assuming that a new building is essential. mars the beauty of the natural landscape. store and rerelease solar energy. These temperature increases aﬀect wildlife that is sensitive to such changes. which uses energy and further pollutes the atmosphere. wetlands and or unique natural conditions should be set aside. such as annual agriculture cycles or short-term forestry cycles. . the designer can suggest ways to group the community of buildings to reduce the overall construction footprint. paved driveways and walkways. By designing room dimensions that respond to standard or modular building products. thereby preserving land for the enjoyment of the whole community. building on an undeveloped site or greenﬁeld. and environmentally preferable to. such as installing light-colored or Urban Heat Island A densely populated area in which pavement and buildings absorb.
lessens the impact of heat islands and improves the quality of the local environment. such as toilets (1. the integrated design process oﬀers a more open forum in which environmental issues are treated proactively and holistically. These may fall more or less within the traditional scope of the interior designer. but again. sewage conveyance and treatment fees. In desert or arid regions. Recent advances have also made these ﬁxtures. signiﬁcant advances have been made.6 gallons per ﬂush/gpf). showerheads (2. such as low-ﬂow showerheads. and possibly eliminate. and ﬁxtures that are substantially more eﬃcient than required by EPAct are readily available. Since then. high-eﬃciency systems equipped with slow drip distributors. reﬂective pavement. When irrigation is called for.5 gpm). including lawns. can help oﬀset the urban heat island eﬀect and can also help control stormwater runoﬀ. long-term water usage for landscape irrigation. an interior designer who integrates environmental values into his or her work need not be bound by the traditional scope of the profession. which in turn also helps alleviate the burden on municipal water supplies and water treatment plants. gardens and trees. the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) established a national manufacturing standard for plumbing ﬁxtures. urinals (1. The speciﬁcation of water-eﬃcient plumbing ﬁxtures and technologies substantially reduces the potable water used in commercial buildings and houses.5 gallons per minute/gpm) and faucets (2.14 BEYOND INTERIOR DESIGN — INTERIOR DESIGN AND GLOBAL IMPACTS vegetated green roofs.8 By implementing water conservation strategies throughout building and landscape design. Conn. With indoor water use. such as this one in Mashantucket. designers draw less of the available supply.0 gpf). Potable Water Consumption If the rate of ground water depletion surpasses the rate at which it is replenished—as is currently occurring in many parts of the United States—wells must be drilled deeper and at greater cost to extract the water from subterranean aquifers. As these examples illustrate. or in those areas with seasonal dry periods. help minimize the discharge of eﬄuent and chemically treated water back into the ecosystem. Several speciﬁc strategies can be used to reduce potable water consumption. often with reduced water quality as a result of salt water intrusion and other types of contamination. using maximum amounts of “open-grid” paving and/or light-colored. It also reduces the use of municipal water conveyance systems—both supply and disposal—thereby helping to avoid the need for new infrastructure and the construction of new treatment facilities. and reduce the costs associated with potable water use. and the integrated team approach to building design and construction empowers any professional to air an opinion or initiate a discussion. and increased risks of land subsidence. along with the planting of shade trees and vegetation. a substantial amount of water is used to irrigate residential landscaping. moisture sensors and timers can decrease waste through runoﬀ and evaporation while increasing irrigation eﬀectiveness. Photo: Green Roofs for Healthy Cities .. Rivers are also being depleted of their natural ﬂow. more satisfying to use than earlier versions. Green roofs. harming their ecosystems. Issues like the wise use of resources and the preservation of open land are universal. A xeriscape approach—the careful selection of native or drought-resistant species—allows designers to reduce.
and have demonstrated no increased odor—a great concern among potential first-time specifiers or users—and are easy and inexpensive for an informed maintenance staff to maintain. By retrofitting 1. protection of this vital natural resource is a critically important. By harvesting and storing rainwater. while mitigating harmful eﬀects of stormwater runoﬀ and reducing potable water consumption. Inc. particularly in commercial buildings.0 gpm aerators to lavatory faucets and 1. such as water for toilet ﬂushing and for landscape irrigation. rainwater cannot return naturally to replenish groundwater sources. » Individual low-flow faucet aerators can be attached to existing lavatory and kitchen faucets. » Ultra low-flow showerheads with flow rates of 1. Instead it is shunted to stormwater drainage systems. water waste from such fixtures can be substantially reduced without affecting performance. Even in areas where water shortage is not currently an issue. ﬂooding and ﬂushing of hazardous materials into local waterways.5 gpm are available as both wall-mounted and handheld units. Although federal law requires mining sites to be restored. These urinals have been widely used for years. Energy Use The enormous amount of energy consumed by buildings causes environmental harm due to extraction. By creating a virtual energy model early in the process and reviewing multiple optimization . Computerized energy modeling can be used to guide and optimize the eﬃciency of the design of the mechanical system and envelope of a building. Low-ﬂow faucets often use aerators to improve their performance while saving water. These devices use aerators to enhance the quality of the water flow and maintain wetting efficiency. mining. Designing both commercial and residential buildings for high energy eﬃciency helps reduce these environmental impacts. With any non-standard system. which cause erosion problems.8 to 1.1 gpf) for liquid wastes. or strip. most coal in the United States is extracted through surface. typically in cisterns on the building roof or in the basement.6 gpf or less) for solid wastes and a short/half flush (only uses 0.ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND SUSTAINABLE DESIGN STRATEGIES 15 The following provide some basic guidance: » Unlike conventional toilets.5 gpm aerators to kitchen faucets. and compare satisfactorily with conventional high water flow showers. This process entails removing large quantities of earth to reveal a coal vein. the interior designer can play an important role in developing or coordinating signage to guide users. » Waterless urinals look similar to normal urinals and function similarly. but are designed to work without the use of any water for sewage conveyance. Photo: Kohler. sustainable objective that often carries associated energy and infrastructure cost savings. Stormwater drainage is another important environmental consideration in sustainable building. For example. reﬁnement and transportation of fossil fuels.9 the damage to the original ecosystem is often irreversible. with mountaintops frequently leveled and valleys ﬁlled in. dual-flush toilets have two flush options: a full flush (the standard 1. and in dense urban and suburban settings. and air pollution from burning fuels. Buildings present impervious surfaces. designers can supply much of a building’s nonpotable water needs.
In both cases. This modeling process produces a set of results that include a number of the designer’s options paired with their cost and environmental impacts. energy-eﬃcient lighting plan. denotes products that are more energy eﬃcient than average. EnergyGuide labels. and provide him or her with a variety of system and materials options to consider. new windows have energy efﬁciency labels from the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC). Heating and cooling systems should then be matched appropriately with building needs to prevent over. enhance the readability of computer and television screens. Renewable. . building eﬃciency.S. Strategies. and the designer’s role is to supply data to the modeling engineer. environmental impacts and budget. energy-eﬃcient lighting scheme. Occupancy sensors and dimming controls can be designed and installed for further conservation. designers can reliably achieve a high level of energy eﬃciency. which allows consumers to compare similar window products. to control heat gain. and can select a best scenario that meets project goals. such as dishwashers. Placing maximum levels of light where it is required for tasks while providing lower levels of ambient light in the rest of the space makes for a ﬂexible. The NFRC labels include an objective performance rating for U-factor and Solar Heat Gain Coeﬃcient (SHGC) for the particular window.or under-sizing systems. refrigerators and washers. The inverse of U-factor.and double-glazed residential windows. the design team can choose glazing options to maximize natural daylighting. since 1993. typical single. as well as indirect beneﬁts. while using architectural devices. generate substantial savings through reduced heating and cooling needs for homes. An integrated design approach to lighting can reduce energy consumption from lights by up to 50 percent. site-generated energy oﬀers an excellent option for reducing fossil fuel use and adding more sustainable options to the nation’s energy infrastructure. A smart combination of task and ambient lighting can also eliminate discomfort associated with glare and over-lit spaces. can be used to compare the energy use of a particular appliance to similar products. televisions. Similarly. Additionally. such as reduced cooling needs and reduced pollution. a lighting model allows for the testing of diﬀerent scenarios to achieve a high quality. Designing a thermally eﬃcient building envelope with high R-value wall and roof insulation and low U-value windows is one of the best strategies for reducing energy use in both hot and cool climates. such as orienting the building to maximize passive solar heat and light gain. the lower the heat loss. required by the Federal Trade Commission to be displayed on certain appliances. and can be used as an alternative to. reduced energy use has direct beneﬁts. and provide a safely lit environment. Also. This work is highly specialized. computer monitors. Environmental Protection Agency energy performance criteria. Department of Energy and U. with smart glazing and thermal breaks.16 BEYOND INTERIOR DESIGN — INTERIOR DESIGN AND GLOBAL IMPACTS options. In tandem with a passive solar strategy. An Energy Star rating for oﬃce equipment. such as computers. and appliances. or replacements for. High-performance windows. The designer and the client then have a basis for making a decision in terms of desired look.S. as well as cutting cooling costs by reducing heat from light ﬁxtures. copiers. Energy Star labeled windows meet certain U. Rooftop photovoltaic (PV) arrays and building integrated PV (BIPV) R-Value Measure of resistance to heat ﬂow. such as smart glazing and interior light shelves. The higher the R-value. allow for the natural assets of the site to be used to maximum eﬀect.
it is distinguished from pollution that originates from concentrated sources. such as swimming and ﬁshing. water and air pollution. Incinerating solid waste. Water Pollution The National Water Quality Inventory 2000 Report to Congress reports that of the water bodies assessed. In places where the power grid is available. Pollution Contamination of the environment from building-related processes is a massive problem and a complex one because earth. it is not uncommon for contaminated materials and liquids to escape the barriers of a landﬁll and leach into surrounding soils.gov/windows.ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND SUSTAINABLE DESIGN STRATEGIES 17 systems. visit www. expressed as a number between 0 and 1. but often in a more leachable form. are sent to appropriate facilities. Although landﬁll sites must conform to federal regulations. For more information on Energy Star. usually in landﬁlls. polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) containing materials. Commonly referred to as nonpoint source (NPS) pollution. In addition to the air pollution produced. Solar heat gain coeﬃcient (SHGC) The fraction of solar gain admitted through a window. For example. asbestos. The interior designer can help minimize soil pollution by reusing materials and specifying nontoxic materials. Careful management of demolition and construction waste can minimize the burden on landﬁll sites and ensure that hazardous materials including mercury.energystar. These are practical. they can be the sole source of power. another common option. ash. and lead paint. lakes and wells as the contaminant is distributed through the constant movement of underground water. Private and public grants are available to oﬀset the ﬁrst cost of such systems and can usually be found by contacting a local utility. eﬃcient and successful applications for solar energy and should be used wherever conditions permit. Solar thermal energy is also used throughout the United States to heat domestic hot water and pool water.11 Contaminants introduced into water bodies by precipitation and runoﬀ from urban and agricultural lands represent the leading cause of water pollution. 40 percent of streams. remaining aware of both the local and the global impacts of all decisions in terms of their eﬀect on soil. Soil Pollution Landﬁlls remain the primary means for the disposal of waste. usually containing the same toxic wastes contained in the solid waste. In remote areas where there is no power grid. does not avoid these problems. aﬀecting streams. still remains to be disposed of. 45 percent of lakes and 50 percent of estuaries were unclean for human activities. are becoming more aﬀordable in many states. potentially compounding pollution or causing it to appear far from its source. Therefore. which generate electricity from the sun’s energy. water and air all interact with each other. air pollution from smokestacks can be washed into the soil after a rainstorm and subsequently introduced into groundwater sources.10 This soil pollution in turn spreads to groundwater. everyone involved in building design and construction should take a holistic approach to all decisions. such as sewage treat- . a lowercost system can be installed by tying it into the grid and selling power back to the local utility in what is called a grid intertie system.
if any. driveways and sidewalks. and maximizing vegetated areas reduces the amount of stormwater runoﬀ and associated pollutants. buildings can reduce their responsibility for this type of pollution by designing for energy eﬃciency and decreasing materials demands. steel mills and fertilizer manufacturers. sulfur dioxide (SO2) is primarily emitted from power generation plants.18 BEYOND INTERIOR DESIGN — INTERIOR DESIGN AND GLOBAL IMPACTS ment plants or industrial complexes. mining runoﬀ and other sources.g. most buildings use electricity generated at these plants and are therefore implicated. power plants and waste incinerators. Vegetated swales or planted buﬀer zones instead of concrete curbs help mediate stormwater. manufacturing plants. which is destroying forests in . most residential and commercial design projects are not sources of this type of pollution. Strategies that reduce impervious surfaces include designing smaller parking areas.. Nonpoint Source Pollution Water pollution from natural precipitation that runs along the surface of the land and eventually transports any contaminants it encounters to receiving water bodies. mercury was identiﬁed as a major pollutant in lakes and estuaries in parts of the United States. petroleum reﬁneries. It is also still used in manufacturing processes involved in the production of building and interior materials. their eﬄuent and the smoke. water in their manufacturing process. the manufacture of one square yard of carpet typically requires the use of approximately 8. interior designers can mitigate this water use and potential pollution issue by specifying solution-dyed carpet products. gases and particulates discharged from their stacks and chimneys have wide distribution via groundwater and air currents. Nitrogen oxides (NO2) are emitted in great quantities from electrical utilities and industrial boilers. Although sediment. fertilizers and pesticides from agricultural lands are the most common NPS pollutants. as do pipes directing such water to stormwater drainage systems. While these sources are stationary. stormwater runoﬀ resulting from urban development and hydrocarbon use (e. Among the major global atmospheric pollutants. For example. collecting and using stormwater for uses such as irrigation also reduces the environmental burden of runoﬀ. primarily for dyeing the yarn and washing to eliminate excess dye. allowing natural bioremediation to occur. or eﬄuent. dripping oil or spilled gasoline from vehicles. to mention a few. or using widely available permeable materials as a substitute. such as asphalt and concrete. These approaches also slow the rate of runoﬀ. on a project site. However. As discussed in the previous section on potable water use. While the carpet industry tries to ensure such water meets state and federal regulations for pollutant levels before it is returned to any receiving body. Mercury is a heavy metal and a persistent organic pollutant (POP) originating from the smoke stacks and ﬂues of coal-ﬁred power generation facilities. Most of that water ends up as treated discharge wastewater.9 gallons of water13. such as lawnmowers and snowblowers) has become an increasingly large source of water pollution. steel mills. speciﬁcally as an essential ingredient in ﬂuorescent lamp manufacturing and as a stabilizer in some plastics.12 While cleaning up the sources of mercury pollution and improving manufacturing requirements are of vital importance. or unburnt fuel from two-cycle engines. In 2000. Limiting the total area of impervious surfaces. Since the most signiﬁcant sources of point source water pollution are factories and power plants. which use minimal. These two chemicals are the main contributors to acid rain. Global Atmospheric Pollution Stationary sources of air pollution include industrial plants.
As noted above. boats and lawnmowers. and are serious contributors to water pollution and resultant disruption of aquatic ecosystems. between space. herbicides and pesticides. thereby contributing to global warming. which release greenhouse gases in addition to other pollutants. Illustration: Global Warming Art Greenhouse Gas Emissions The greenhouse eﬀect results when gases in the atmosphere absorb radiation from the earth’s surface. Indigenous species are also well acclimatized to the seasonal rhythms of the region and. such as asthma. The chart above shows the ﬂows of energy. including carbon dioxide (CO2). trucks. where maintaining high-quality air is essential for the well-being of the community. Although the impact of any one building is small in relation to overall energy use. designers and builders can help minimize the demand for new manufactured products from factories that contribute to air pollution. By using resource-eﬃcient building practices. at the same time eliminating the need for fertilizers. Planting native or wildﬂower meadows instead of monoculture grass lawns reduces the need to use lawnmowers and trimmers. Building design and construction also has an impact on other major sources of air pollution. these facilities also generate mercury emissions and carbon dioxide (CO2). such as coal and oil. Designing energy-eﬃcient buildings and interiors helps alleviate dependence on industrially produced power. especially at the local level. including gas combustion engines in cars. shade trees and waste receptacles. and promoting bicycle use encourages sustainable transportation options. well equipped with amenities. including industrial and manufacturing processes and transportation. operations and maintenance. As we have discussed throughout this paper. buildings should be designed to be as energy eﬃcient as possible and to use renewable energy sources. are major consumers of petroleum. such as benches. Human activities have increased the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. the impact of thousands of sustainably designed. Siting commercial buildings and residential communities in close proximity to mass transit terminals. in watts per square meter (W/m2).ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND SUSTAINABLE DESIGN STRATEGIES 19 Europe and both South and North America. the atmosphere and the earth’s surface. used in well-designed landscaping. particulates. including those discussed in this paper. nitrogen oxides. Most electricity is generated by burning fossil fuels. which spread across millions of acres of American lawns. which contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone (O3) or smog. Sidewalks and paths for pedestrian movement. . a major greenhouse gas. thus contributing to global warming. do not need to be excessively watered. Human activities. encouraging carpools and vanpools. have dramatically increased atmospheric concentrations of these greenhouse gases. resulting in increased respiratory illness. trapping heat in the atmosphere. further encourages a reduction in vehicular use. Burning fossil fuels to power these vehicles releases greenhouse gases. energy-eﬃcient buildings will result in signiﬁcant energy savings and greatly reduced air pollution. and VOCs. when these practices become commonplace.14 There are many ways to reduce the release of greenhouse gases from building-related construction. methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O).
5 Integrated Design and Green Building Rating Systems Using an integrated design process along with a green building rating system. . renewable energy certiﬁcates (REC) and tradable renewable certiﬁcates (TRC) are available on a national basis. A green building rating system is often used during the team meeting at the beginning of the project. The interior designer can support this eﬀort by designing useful facilities for bicycle storage and showering. NASA GSFC. and generally support the process of creating a sustainable building. in addition to aesthetics. the impact of light pollution can be mitigated. can improve building design by including concern for environmental impacts during the design process. Rating systems (which are covered in greater details in other ASID white papers in this series) provide ideas for a number of key environmental considerations that can be incorporated into the overall design approach. to guide discussion and help the team consider ecological. Light Pollution Night-time illumination for outdoor areas provides safety for pedestrians and motorists. encourage collaboration. However. Photo: Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon.20 BEYOND INTERIOR DESIGN — INTERIOR DESIGN AND GLOBAL IMPACTS A number of regional utilities oﬀer ways to purchase renewable energy. durability. Carbon dioxide emissions from vehicles running on gasoline currently accounts for nearly one-third of energy-related greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. such as LEED® and the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) Model Green Home Building Guidelines. specifying shielded outdoor ﬁxtures and avoiding excessively bright luminaries. which can disrupt nocturnal habitats and reduce night-sky views. and other programs. Methane is a major greenhouse gas that has 21 times greater potential than carbon dioxide to trap heat in the atmosphere.17 Strategies described previously to reduce single-occupancy vehicle commuting present an important opportunity to slow global warming. wasting energy and disrupting local nocturnal habitats. poorly designed exterior or landscaping lighting schemes cause glare and may result in light spill into neighboring homes and properties. to direct discussion. whether the project is commercial or residential. The rating system can also be used throughout the integrated design process.16 minimizing landﬁll usage by diverting waste through salvage. Poorly designed exterior lighting can contribute to light pollution.15 Because landﬁlls produce almost one-third of the national emissions of methane. reducing night-sky views. reuse and recycling programs ultimately reduces methane emissions. no matter the size of the project. such as green tags. North America is outlined with dots of light when seen from space at night. By eliminating any type of lighting directed upward. maintenance and cost.18 Interior designers can help ensure that any indoor lamps are designed to minimize the amount of light that escapes into the night sky through windows or skylights. sustainability and health factors in a comprehensive manner. function.
United States Geological Survey. National Water Quality Inventory: 2000 Report. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2000.” Environmental Building News. 3.gov/docs/ 1. 17. EPA 430-R-02-003. while promoting high building performance and an enhanced quality of life for all occupants and users.usgbc. 2005. 1999. Oﬃce of Water.energy. 11. National Resources Inventory 2001 Annual NRI: Urbanization and Development of Rural Land. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2000.C. U. November 2004. 18.S. 13. “Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2004. U. Only once the basic values have been clariﬁed and the design direction established should the team concentrate on the requirements for achieving speciﬁc points. the use of a rating system can also have the unfortunate eﬀect of encouraging the design team to focus narrowly on individual points or measures that appear easiest to achieve rather than on the measures that will result in the best overall building. “Integrated Design. 30 U. Vol. Environmental Protection Agency. http://buildingsdatabook. NSWMA Research Bulletin 05-3. Edward W. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA 430-R-02-003. February 2005. April 2002. March 2005.” Energy Information Administration. To minimize this tendency. USGS Circular 1268. 11. U.S.S. EPA-841-R-02-001. Environmental Protection Agency. 8.S. U. U. August 2002. 15.S.INTEGRATED DESIGN AND GREEN BUILDING RATING SYSTEMS — ENDNOTES 21 In some situations. Department of Energy. The process can contribute to reduced environmental impacts at the global. http://www. Inventory of U. USGS Circular 1268. U. The Carpet and Rug Institute (CRI). Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act.eere. July 2003.eere.S. Inventory of U. 7. Buildings Energy Data Book: 1. National Water Quality Inventory: 2000 Report. 14.S. http://buildingsdatabook.1.S.S.3.1 Building Sector Energy Consumption. United States Geological Survey. August 2005. The Carpet Industry’s Sustainability Report 2003. EPA-841-R-02-001.org/greenguidelines. an integrated design approach is an excellent way to coordinate and develop the sustainable qualities of a project. Inventory of U. For additional details. Environmental Protection Agency.6. visit the USGBC Web site at www. For additional details. 25 10. August 2005. No. 12.” U.. 2. NSWMA’s 2005 Tip Fee Survey.pdf. Endnotes 1. August 2002. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2003. U. Buildings Energy Data Book: 1. . November 2003. 2004.1 Building Sector Energy Consumption.eere.S. Hutson et al.nahbrc. shtml?page=0. U.. April 15.S. February 2005. IESNA Recommended Practice Manual: Lighting for Exterior Environments (IESNA RP-33-99).1.energy. 9. 13. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 103-03. USGS. 4. visit the NAHB Web site at www.gov/greenpower/markets/certiﬁcates. EPA 430-R-05-003. regional and local levels. Greenhouse Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2000. Oﬃce of Water. As discussed throughout this paper. Department of Energy. 16. conversations within the design team from the project’s inception should use the rating system primarily as a springboard from which to explore the owner’s values and the best environmental solutions for expressing those values.pdf.energy. Natural Resources Conservation Service.S. 6. Hutson et al. Repa. April 2002. Illuminating Engineering Society of North America.gov/docs/ 1. 5. Department of Energy. Environmental Protection Agency.S. DOE/EIA-0573 2004. Greenhouse Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2000. “Ground-Water Depletion Across the Nation. 40 CFR Part 258 (Subtitle D of RCRA).org.
4. 10. Explain how reducing construction waste destined for landﬁlls aﬀects global warming. What could be considered the primary strategy in reducing natural materials depletion during construction and ﬁt-out? 5. 8. and list some examples of these gases. Name three strategies for reducing potable water consumption of a building. Provide ﬁve examples of energy eﬃcient strategies that can be implemented throughout a building. How can the selection of a building site—whether commercial or residential—aﬀect the environment? Name four sustainable approaches to selecting a site. How is the environment positively aﬀected by the use of human-powered transport? 9. . Explain how both a commercial and a residential interior designer can be involved in the integrated design process. What are some diﬀerences between traditional design processes and integrated design processes? 2. What strategies can be employed? 7. Explain how greenhouse gases can contribute to global warming. 6. Discuss this new expanded role for the interior designer and what it means.22 BEYOND INTERIOR DESIGN — INTERIOR DESIGN AND GLOBAL IMPACTS Appendix: Questionnaire The following questions are oﬀered for the beneﬁt of the reader to evaluate whether the learning objectives of the paper have been achieved: 1. What are the fundamental goals of any sustainable design process? How are these achieved? 3.
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