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Induction motor is similar in action to a Poly-phase Transformer with a Short Circuited rotating Secondary.

When normal Voltage is applied to the stationary motor, it takes larger current like transformer for short time. At the time of starting there is no back emf to block the Initial Inrush Current. Starters are used to: Reduce heavy starting currents and prevent motor from overheating & Provide overload and no-voltage protection.

Stator Resistance Starter Direct On-Line (DOL) Starter Star-Delta Starter Auto Transformer Starter Rotor Resistance Starter Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) Soft Starter

Resistance was added in series with each phase of the stator winding. Initially the resistances are kept maximum in the stator circuit. Hence reduced voltage is applied to the stator, which reduces the high starting current. Resistances are gradually cut-off from the stator circuit, when motor starts running. Simple in construction and cheap. More Power loss and Less Starting Torque.

Simplest and most in-expensive to all starting methods. Directly connects the contacts of the motor to the full supply voltage. The starting current is very large, normally 6 to 8 times the rated current & the starting torque is likely to be 0.75 to 2 times the full load torque. To avoid excessive voltage drops in the supply line due to high starting currents, the DOL starter is used only for motors with a rating of less than 5KW.

The Star-Delta starting is very common and extensively used, compared to the other types of the starters. Stator windings connected first in Star and then in Delta, Since it is connected in star, at starting each phase of the stator winding gets 1/3 times of line voltage. Line current drawn by the motor at starting is reduced to one-third as compared to starting current with the windings connected in delta. Star- Delta starting reduce the starting torque to one third that obtainable by direct delta starting.

The principal of operation is same like Star-Delta starter , but more expensive, Complicated and Bulkier. The starting current is limited by applying the reduced stator voltage using three phase Auto Transformer. Suitable for both Star and Delta connected motors Starting current and torque can be adjusted to a desirable value by taking the correct tapping from Auto Transformer. Whereas in Star-Delta, we can adjust the voltage only to a factor of 1/3 .

Applicable for Slip ring Induction Motor and it allows external resistance to be connected to the rotor through slip rings and brushes. Initially, the rotor resistance is set to maximum and is then gradually decreased as the motor speed increases, until it becomes zero. The rotor impedance method allows the motor to be started while on load. Very bulky, expensive and limited starting frequency Considerable amount of heat is generated through the resistors when current runs through them.

The drive consists primarily of two parts, one which converts AC (50 or 60 Hz) to DC and the second part which converts the DC back to AC, but now with a variable frequency of 0-250 Hz. It controls the speed of the motor by changing the output frequency and this is a big advantage if there is a need for speed regulation during a continuous run. The rated motor torque is available at a low speed and the starting current is low, between 0.5 and 1.0 times the rated motor current, maximum 1.5 x In. Another feature of VFD is the soft stop function, which is very useful when stopping pumps (to avoid water hammering) and Conveyor belts (to avoid material damage)

It has thyristors in the main circuit, and the motor voltage is regulated with a printed circuit board. Principle - When the motor voltage is low during start, the starting current and starting torque is also low. During the first part of the start , the voltage to the motor is so low, it eliminates the unnecessary jerks during the start. Gradually, the voltage and the torque increase so that the machinery starts to accelerate. We can adjust the torque to the exact need, whether the application is loaded or not. Another feature of the soft starter is the soft stop function, which is very useful when stopping pumps (to avoid water hammering) and Conveyor belts (to avoid material damage)