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Injection Moulding mini guide
release 09/ /1998
Injection Moulding mini guide 1 contents
C o n t e n t s
Guidelines for production start-up . . . . . . . inlay
4.1.3 Purging compounds
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 . . . . . . 27
1 Product overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.4 Details per product
1.1 Amorphous injection moulding resins . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.2 Semi-crystalline injection moulding resins . . . . . . 7 1.3 Other products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1.5 Preparation before setting 4.1.6 Setting mould and machine
4.1.7 Starting the injection process
4.1.8 Setting temperature, speeds and pressures
4.1.9 Mould temperature control
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.1 Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.2 When can resin pick up moisture? . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.3 When can moisture be a problem? . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.4 Importance of drying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.5 Pre-drying times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.6 TVI test for checking moisture content . . . . . . . . . 12
4.2 Optimizing production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
4.2.1 How to improve venting
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 . . . . . . . . . 33
4.2.2 How to improve mould release
4.2.3 How to influence mould shrinkage
4.2.4 How to use hot runner tooling systems 4.2.5 How to save energy
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
3 Injection moulding machine
. . . . 15
5 Quality assurance
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.1 Choosing a machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.2 Screw geometry and design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 3.3 Vented barrels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.1 Quality control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 5.2 Visual control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 5.3 Mechanical control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 5.4 Weight control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.5 Dimensional stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 5.6 Stress control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 5.7 Viscosity control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 5.8 Other methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
4.1 Setting up production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.1.2 Purging; change-overs
Injection Moulding mini guide 1 Contents
Injection Moulding mini guide 1 contents
6 Part defects and
c o r r e c t i v e a c t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
6.1 Fault diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 6.2 Fault descriptions, causes and actions . . . . . . . . . 40
6.2.1 Black specks
6.2.14 Sink marks
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
6.2.15 Splay / streaks 220.127.116.11 Splay
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
18.104.22.168 Gate splay 22.214.171.124 Streaking 6.2.16 Stringing 6.2.17 Voids
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
6.2.2 Blisters, bubbles
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
6.2.3 Blush / flow marks
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
6.2.4 Burn marks / diesel effect 6.2.5 Delamination
6.2.18 Warpage, part distortion 6.2.19 Weldlines / knit lines
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
6.2.6 Dimensions of part 6.2.7 Discolouration 6.2.8 Flash
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
7 Reusing materials 8 References
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
6.2.9 Jetting 6.2.10 Pitting
Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
6.2.11 Record grooves
6.2.12 Release problems
126.96.36.199 Sticking in cavity 188.8.131.52 Sticking on core 184.108.40.206 Sticking of sprue 6.2.13 Short shots
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Excessive drying times should be avoided.02 0.02 0.1 0.1 0. 0.02 0.02 Predrying Profile °C 1 40-80 2 40-80 3 65-80 5 40-80 6 40-80 7 40-80 9 40-80 11 60-90 12 60-90 13 60-90 14 60-90 15 50-70 1780-120 1880-100 1980-110 23 65-95 2580-100 2980-120 3080-120 3180-120 3280-100 33 60-80 3460-100 3660-100 100-130 37 100-130 38 39 60-80 40 60-80 4180-100 4280-120 4380-120 140-180 47 140-180 48 140-180 49 140-180 50 140-180 51 140-160 52 135-140 53 120-170 54 °C 220-260 230-260 250-270 200-230 180-210 240-270 250-280 240-270 250-280 260-290 250-280 230-270 290-320 280-300 280-310 290-320 300-330 280-300 290-330 280-300 280-300 260-280 280-300 280-300 300-320 280-310 270-290 260-280 280-300 280-310 290-320 370-410 370-410 360-400 370-410 370-415 360-380 350-400 360-410 °C 210-250 220-250 240-260 190-220 180-200 220-260 245-275 220-260 230-270 240-280 230-270 220-260 280-310 270-290 270-290 290-320 280-320 260-280 290-310 280-300 270-290 240-260 260-280 260-280 280-300 280-300 250-270 240-260 270-290 270-300 280-310 350-405 360-410 360-400 370-410 360-405 360-380 350-410 360-400 °C 220-260 230-260 245-265 195-225 185-205 230-270 250-280 230-270 240-280 250-290 240-280 230-270 290-320 280-300 280-310 290-320 300-340 280-300 310-330 290-310 280-300 260-280 280-300 280-300 300-320 300-320 270-290 260-280 280-300 280-300 290-320 360-415 370-420 370-410 380-420 370-415 360-380 350-410 370-410 °C 220-260 230-260 240-260 195-225 185-205 210-250 250-280 230-270 240-280 250-290 230-270 220-260 280-310 270-290 270-290 280-310 280-320 260-280 290-310 270-290 260-280 240-260 260-280 260-280 280-300 280-300 250-270 240-260 270-290 270-290 280-300 350-405 360-410 360-400 370-410 360-405 345-365 350-400 350-390 °C 200-240 220-250 230-250 180-210 170-190 210-250 230-260 210-240 220-250 230-260 210-240 200-230 270-300 260-280 260-280 265-295 240-280 240-260 270-290 250-270 240-260 220-240 240-260 240-260 260-280 260-280 230-250 220-240 260-280 260-280 260-280 340-395 350-400 240-380 350-390 350-395 320-340 350-370 325-365 Hours 2-4 2-4 2-4 2-4 2-4 2-4 2-4 2-4 2-4 2-4 2-4 2-4 2-4 2-4 2-4 2-4 4-6 2-3 2-4 2-4 2-3 2-3 2-4 2-3 2-3 2-4 2-3 2-4 2-3 2-3 2-3 4-6 4-6 4-6 4-6 4-6 4-6 4-6 4-6 °C 85-95 85-95 85-95 80-85 80-85 85-95 90-100 90-100 95-105 100-110 90-100 80-90 120 120 120 120 120 100-120 110-120 100-120 100-110 80-100 80-100 80-100 110-120 110-120 70-80 80-100 100-110 100-120 100-120 150 150 150 150 150 160 150 150 1 2 3 5 6 7 9 11 12 13 14 15 17 18 19 23 25 29 30 31 32 33 34 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 CL100B CL101 CL200 CL300 CL500U XL1339 XL1562 1760T 5730 6370 6380U 79 79 79 79 79 81 79 80 79 80 82 DR48 DR51 VAC3001N VX5005 VX5011 VX5022 260HPR 3007 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 October 1998 Temperature Profiles are only guidelines.02 0.02 0. Please check with your local GE Plastics’ representative to ensure you have the most up-to-date information.1 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0. Drying times as mentioned are ‘hot residence times’ (pellets are at drying temperature) resulting in low moisture levels as indicated.02 0.1 0.02 0.1 0.02 0.PET 53 83 84 54 50 50 47 47 48 49 47 47 48 48 48 48 49 50 50 51 47 50 50 52 310SE0 312C 315 325(C)(F) 325M 357X 359 3607U 362 4012 4022 4031 4032 412 420(SE0) 430 451E 4521 457 4631 467 5021 5031 508 5510 553 735 7523 771 8032(U) 815 830 855 865 Xenoy ® PC/PBT 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 57 76 79 57 57 57 57 57 Mould Melt temp.02 0.6/PA6 78 ACF6 AFG6 AFR200B AFR200Y 61 61 62 63 AFR450B AFR450X1 AFR450X2 AFR460B AFR470X1 AFR470X2 AFR560B AFR682A1 AG3(K) AG4(K) AG5(K) AG6(K) AG6ST01 AG6ST43 AG7(K) AG10(K) AK6 AK8 ALM ALY540A ALY640A1 AST02 AST03 AST04 AST41 AST43 AST44 AS6 A28(K)(N) A28UL BFR200A BFR200Y BFR450A BFR450B BFR460A BFR552Y3 BGS6H1 BG3(H) BG4(H) BG5(H) BG6(H)(U) BG6ST02 BG6ST41 BG6ST43 BG10(H) BG7(H) BG8 BK8 BLM BPP01 BST01 BST02 BST03 BST04 BST42 BST43 62 64 64 62 64 64 62 65 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 66 66 67 67 68 67 67 67 67 67 67 61 67 67 69 69 70 70 70 70 70 71 71 71 71 69 69 69 71 71 71 72 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 BST44 BS6 BS10 BT6 B28(H)(N) B28(U)(UL) B40 CFR200Y Lexan ® PC 73 70 70 69 74 74 74 75 FL900P GR1210 HF1110R HF1130R HF1140R HF500R LS1 LS2 LS3 ML3019 ML3041 ML3042 ML3260 ML3286 ML3400 ML3513 ML3562 ML3729 OQ1020LN OQ1030LN OQ3620 OQ2830 OQ4320 OQ4820 101(R) 103(R) 104R 121(R) 123R 124R 1278R 134R 141(R) 143(R) 144R 161R 163R 164(R) 201R 2014R 2034 221R 223R 241(R) 243R 23 23 18 18 18 18 18 19 17 17 18 17 19 17 19 17 19 18 25 25 17 17 19 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 19 17 19 19 19 19 19 19 17 19 19 18 18 19 19 261R 263R 2814R 3412R 3413R 3431R 500R 503R 920(A) 923(A) 940(A) 943(A) 950(A) 953A Noryl ® PPE/PS 19 19 17 17 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 19 19 V180HF V190 725A 731(S) 33 40 29 29 Noryl GTX ® PPE/PA CTI2550 FN150 GFN1(V) GFN1720 GFN2(V) GFN3(V) HB1525 HB3525 HF180 HF185 HIN120P IN120 N110(S) N110HG N190 PX1112(A) PX1115 PX1134 PX1180 PX1181 PX1185 PX1786G PX2245 PX9406N SE0 SE1 SE90 SE100 SE1GFN1 SE1GFN2 SE1GFN3 V0150B V01505 V01525 V01550 V02570 V03505 V03550 V090 29 33 29 30 29 31 32 29 33 33 29 29 34 34 33 29 29 29 36 36 36 37 33 29 29 29 33 29 29 29 37 37 36 29 37 30 29 38 39 GTX810 GTX820 GTX830 GTX914 GTX918W GTX924 GTX934 GTX944 GTX954 GTX964 GTX974 Ultem ® PEI 41 41 41 42 42 43 43 43 43 43 43 AR9300 ATX100F ATX200F CRS5001 CRS5201 CRS5311 1000 1010 1010F 1110(F) 2100 2110 2200 2210 2300 2310 2312 2400 2410 4000 4001 6000 7801 9075 Valox ® PBT .02 0.02 0. .Injection Moulding mini guide 1 inlay Injection Moulding mini guide 1 inlay Profile Cycolac ® ABS CRT3370 EP GPM5500 GPM5500M GPM5500S GPM5500T GSM G121 G320 G360 G361 G365 G366(M) G368 SEA2 S157 S570 S700(S)(T) S701(S) S702(S) S703 S704(S) S705 S706(S) VW300 VW55(M) XS158M X37 Cycoloy ® PC/ABS 2 3 1 1 1 1 7 1 7 9 9 9 9 7 5 5 1 1 1 1 3 1 3 1 6 5 5 9 C1000(A) C1000HF C1100(A) C1100HF C1200(HF) C1200HFM C2100HF C2800 C2950 C6200 C6400 LG9000 Enduran ® PBT 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 15 14 15 15 12 7062(X) Gelon ™ PA6.02 0.02 0. to be used for start-up.02 0.02 0. Nozzle Zone 3 Zone 2 Zone 1 Hopper Moisture content °C 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 80-100 80-100 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 80-120 80-120 80-100 80-100 80-120 80-120 80-120 80-120 % max.05 0.1 0.02 0.
02 0.2 0. Drying times as mentioned are ‘hot residence times’ (pellets are at drying temperature) resulting in low moisture levels as indicated.02 0. 0.02 0.02 0.2 0.6/PA6 78 ACF6 AFG6 AFR200B AFR200Y 61 61 62 63 AFR450B AFR450X1 AFR450X2 AFR460B AFR470X1 AFR470X2 AFR560B AFR682A1 AG3(K) AG4(K) AG5(K) AG6(K) AG6ST01 AG6ST43 AG7(K) AG10(K) AK6 AK8 ALM ALY540A ALY640A1 AST02 AST03 AST04 AST41 AST43 AST44 AS6 A28(K)(N) A28UL BFR200A BFR200Y BFR450A BFR450B BFR460A BFR552Y3 BGS6H1 BG3(H) BG4(H) BG5(H) BG6(H)(U) BG6ST02 BG6ST41 BG6ST43 BG10(H) BG7(H) BG8 BK8 BLM BPP01 BST01 BST02 BST03 BST04 BST42 BST43 62 64 64 62 64 64 62 65 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 66 66 67 67 68 67 67 67 67 67 67 61 67 67 69 69 70 70 70 70 70 71 71 71 71 69 69 69 71 71 71 72 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 BST44 BS6 BS10 BT6 B28(H)(N) B28(U)(UL) B40 CFR200Y Lexan ® PC 73 70 70 69 74 74 74 75 FL900P GR1210 HF1110R HF1130R HF1140R HF500R LS1 LS2 LS3 ML3019 ML3041 ML3042 ML3260 ML3286 ML3400 ML3513 ML3562 ML3729 OQ1020LN OQ1030LN OQ3620 OQ2830 OQ4320 OQ4820 101(R) 103(R) 104R 121(R) 123R 124R 1278R 134R 141(R) 143(R) 144R 161R 163R 164(R) 201R 2014R 2034 221R 223R 241(R) 243R 23 23 18 18 18 18 18 19 17 17 18 17 19 17 19 17 19 18 25 25 17 17 19 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 19 17 19 19 19 19 19 19 17 19 19 18 18 19 19 261R 263R 2814R 3412R 3413R 3431R 500R 503R 920(A) 923(A) 940(A) 943(A) 950(A) 953A Noryl ® PPE/PS 19 19 17 17 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 19 19 V180HF V190 725A 731(S) 33 40 29 29 Noryl GTX ® PPE/PA CTI2550 FN150 GFN1(V) GFN1720 GFN2(V) GFN3(V) HB1525 HB3525 HF180 HF185 HIN120P IN120 N110(S) N110HG N190 PX1112(A) PX1115 PX1134 PX1180 PX1181 PX1185 PX1786G PX2245 PX9406N SE0 SE1 SE90 SE100 SE1GFN1 SE1GFN2 SE1GFN3 V0150B V01505 V01525 V01550 V02570 V03505 V03550 V090 29 33 29 30 29 31 32 29 33 33 29 29 34 34 33 29 29 29 36 36 36 37 33 29 29 29 33 29 29 29 37 37 36 29 37 30 29 38 39 GTX810 GTX820 GTX830 GTX914 GTX918W GTX924 GTX934 GTX944 GTX954 GTX964 GTX974 Ultem ® PEI 41 41 41 42 42 43 43 43 43 43 43 AR9300 ATX100F ATX200F CRS5001 CRS5201 CRS5311 1000 1010 1010F 1110(F) 2100 2110 2200 2210 2300 2310 2312 2400 2410 4000 4001 6000 7801 9075 Valox ® PBT .02 0.2 0. Nozzle Zone 3 Zone 2 Zone 1 Hopper Moisture content °C 40-60 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 40-60 40-60 40-60 40-60 60-80 60-80 60-80 80-100 % max.2 0.02 0.2 0.PET 53 83 84 54 50 50 47 47 48 49 47 47 48 48 48 48 49 50 50 51 47 50 50 52 310SE0 312C 315 325(C)(F) 325M 357X 359 3607U 362 4012 4022 4031 4032 412 420(SE0) 430 451E 4521 457 4631 467 5021 5031 508 5510 553 735 7523 771 8032(U) 815 830 855 865 Xenoy ® PC/PBT 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 57 76 79 57 57 57 57 57 Mould Melt temp. . to be used for start-up.2 0.02 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.02 0.Injection Moulding mini guide 1 inlay Injection Moulding mini guide 1 inlay Profile Cycolac ® ABS CRT3370 EP GPM5500 GPM5500M GPM5500S GPM5500T GSM G121 G320 G360 G361 G365 G366(M) G368 SEA2 S157 S570 S700(S)(T) S701(S) S702(S) S703 S704(S) S705 S706(S) VW300 VW55(M) XS158M X37 Cycoloy ® PC/ABS 2 3 1 1 1 1 7 1 7 9 9 9 9 7 5 5 1 1 1 1 3 1 3 1 6 5 5 9 C1000(A) C1000HF C1100(A) C1100HF C1200(HF) C1200HFM C2100HF C2800 C2950 C6200 C6400 LG9000 Enduran ® PBT 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 15 14 15 15 12 7062(X) Gelon ™ PA6.2 0.2 0.2 0. Please check with your local GE Plastics’ representative to ensure you have the most up-to-date information. Excessive drying times should be avoided.02 Predrying Profile °C 5760-110 6170-120 6270-100 63 40-80 6490-120 6580-100 6690-110 67 70-90 68 70-90 69 60-80 70 70-90 7170-120 7270-100 73 60-90 74 60-80 75 70-90 7640-100 7860-100 79 60-80 8060-100 8160-100 8260-110 100-125 83 125-140 84 °C 260-285 260-290 260-280 260-280 260-290 260-280 270-290 260-280 260-290 240-260 250-270 250-280 260-280 220-250 220-240 240-260 250-270 255-280 255-270 255-270 265-275 265-285 325-360 340-380 °C 265-275 250-270 250-270 250-270 260-280 250-270 260-280 250-270 260-280 230-250 240-260 240-270 250-270 210-240 210-230 230-250 240-260 245-270 250-265 250-265 260-275 260-275 320-340 340-360 °C 260-280 260-280 260-280 260-280 270-290 260-280 270-290 260-280 270-290 240-260 250-270 250-280 260-280 220-250 220-240 240-260 245-265 250-270 250-270 250-270 260-280 260-280 320-340 340-360 °C 255-280 260-280 260-280 260-280 270-290 260-280 270-290 260-280 270-290 240-260 250-270 250-280 260-280 220-250 220-240 240-260 240-255 240-260 240-265 240-265 250-275 250-275 310-330 330-350 °C 240-260 270-290 270-290 260-280 270-290 260-280 270-290 260-280 270-290 240-260 250-270 250-280 260-280 220-250 220-240 240-260 230-245 230-250 230-250 230-250 240-270 240-270 300-320 320-340 Hours 4-6 4-6 4-6 4-6 4-6 4-6 4-6 4-6 4-6 4-6 4-6 4-6 4-6 4-6 4-6 4-6 2-4 2-4 2-4 2-4 4-6 4-6 3-4 3-4 °C 110-120 75-85 75-85 75-85 75-85 75-85 75-85 75-85 75-85 75-85 75-85 75-85 75-85 75-85 75-85 75-85 110-120 110-120 90-100 100-110 110-120 110-120 125-135 130-140 57 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 CL100B CL101 CL200 CL300 CL500U XL1339 XL1562 1760T 5730 6370 6380U 79 79 79 79 79 81 79 80 79 80 82 DR48 DR51 VAC3001N VX5005 VX5011 VX5022 260HPR 3007 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 October 1998 Temperature Profiles are only guidelines.2 0.2 0.2 0.
1. mould and material for all standard GE Plastics’ resins.Azloy ® Azmet ® Technopolymer Structures Remex ™ Engineering Plastics Kapronet ® Purging Compound 7 .1 Amorphous injection moulding resins Cycolac ® Cycoloy ® Lexan ® Noryl ® Noryl ® Xtra Ultem ® ABS Resins PC + ABS Thermoplastic Alloys PC Polycarbonate Resins PPE + PS Modified PPO ® Resins PPE + PS Modified PPO ® Resins PEI Polyetherimide Resins 1.1 Product overview This Injection Moulding mini guide – supplementary to the Injection Moulding brochure that shows detailed information – is specially designed as a handy pocket guide and quick reference for use on the shop floor.3 Other products Azdel ® . The inlaid pages show details on pre-drying and temperature settings of machine.2 Semi-crystalline injection moulding resins Enduran ® Lomod ® Noryl GTX ® Supec ® Valox ® Xenoy ® PBT Thermoplastic Polyester Resins Flexible Engineering Thermoplastic Resins PPE Modified PA Alloys PPS Polyphenylenesulphide Resins PBT + PET Thermoplastic Polyester Resins PC + PBT Thermoplastic Alloys 1.
Special care must be taken to keep Lexan and Noryl GTX resins as dry as possible during storage.1 Storage GE Plastics’ resins are supplied in the form of ready-to-process pellets in sealed bags or containers.4 Importance of pre-drying Most thermoplastics absorb atmospheric moisture. When this reaction occurs.2 When can resin pick up moisture? · during transport and storage · during prolonged exposure to atmosphere. which reduce the cosmetic and physical properties of moulded components. The removal of moisture is therefore essential to ensure optimal performance of the final part. Although Noryl resin has one of the lowest moisture 9 . Specially Lexan. silver streaking. even after initial drying · on its way to the machine hopper. all containers must be kept dry and away from sunlight since UV radiation could affect both packaging and contents.2 Materials 2.3 When can moisture be a problem? · pellets packed too deeply in the trays of drying ovens: lack of air circulation will prevent drying · inefficient drying equipment · machine hopper lid not sealed 2. however. when no hot (dry) air is used · in case of high relative humidity 2. blisters or degradation. 2. resulting in loss of properties. polymer chains break. Excessive moisture can manifest itself in splay. Ultem and Valox as hygroscopic resins demand proper pre-drying before moulding: these polymers do react with moisture at high (processing) temperatures. which under normal processing conditions can cause degradation of the polymer. No special storage conditions are necessary.
minutes Gardner Falling Dart Impact Nm Effect of moisture content on impact strength of Valox 310 resin 45 40 30 50 secs moulding cycle — wet 0. This is caused by the fact that too long or too high air temperature may drive out required additives: resin will process poorly. Ultem and Xenoy.08 0. It is recommended to dry regrind materials separately. Due to a larger surface area of the pellets. It is important that the typical drying times assume that the pellets are up to drying temperature ‘before the clock starts’. see enclosed inlay.5 Pre-drying times absorption levels of engineering plastics.05% moisture 11 0 240 Melt temperature. Excessive drying time with Cycolac resin may give a slight surface oxidation of the pellets resulting in colour shift of light colours. For filled materials the drying time might be slightly longer. 90% of Noryl resin’s moisture is removed anyway during the first hour of drying. at 120°C 0. it is recommended not to dry for longer periods of time as indicated in the enclosed inlay.Injection Moulding mini guide 2 Materials Injection Moulding mini guide 2 Materials 2.02 0 0 30 60 90 120 Drying time. exceeding drying times may result in surface defects due to oxidization. recycled resins have a faster pick-up rate of moisture: drying time should in general be increased from 4 to 6 hours.20 Although exceeding recommended drying times will not affect the properties of resins such as Lexan. 400 300 200 100 0 0 30 60 90 120 Drying time. the allowed moisture level is the same. Valox.particularly where surface appearance is critical. °C 270 . colours change. minutes 0. Effect of drying time on impact strength of Effect of drying time on moisture content of Lexan resin 800 Izod Notched Impact J/m Lexan resin.5% moisture — dried 0.06 0.10 0. it is advised to dry before moulding . Drying time taken to get the pellets up to drying temperature does not practically contribute to the effective overall drying. For details per grade. With Noryl resin.04 0.25 Moisture % 700 600 500 0. parts get brittle.
Valox and Xenoy resins. rather than moisture. GE Plastics has developed a simple. Place the other slide immediately on top of the granules. To avoid misleading conclusions.02 to 0. as bubbles that appear in only some granules might be trapped air. fast and low-cost method to determine whether moisture-sensitive thermoplastic pellets are dry and ready for processing.Injection Moulding mini guide 2 Materials Injection Moulding mini guide 2 Materials 2. a quick check can be done by using a heater band of the moulding machine. but not for glass reinforced grades. If only one or two bubbles are present. a straight edge or tongue depressor. the test requires little in the way of equipment and calls for just four simple steps. Cycoloy resin: 275°C. The TVI test can be used for Lexan. Not to be used for Supec and Lomod resins. PICTURE 3 Press the two slides together with a straight edge until the granules are flattened out to about 12 mm diameter. they may be only trapped air and no moisture: to be sure. 13 . Lexan resin: 290°C. a pair of tweezers and ideally a surface pyrometer to check the plate temperature – if no hot plate is available. it is advisable to always test at least four granules. use at least three or four pellets.1%. Amount and size of bubbles indicate percentage of moisture. unwieldy lab techniques are impractical in most moulding shops.6 TVI test for checking moisture content PICTURE 1 Measuring moisture content can be done by laboratory equipment such as the Carl Fischer titration method or others. two glass microscope slides. Called TVI (Tomasetti’s Volatile Indicator). PICTURE 4 12 Remove the sandwiched slides and allow to cool. PICTURE 2 Use tweezers to place three or four pellets from the drier on one of the slides. and many large bubbles moisture above 0. Cycolac resin: 250°C. In brief. Noryl.Valox and Xenoy resins: 250°C. Moisture is denoted by bubbles in the flattened granules: the number and size increase with the amount of moisture present.03%. Cycoloy. The necessary equipment is a hot plate capable of maintaining various temperatures from 200 to 350°C. See pictures. Ultem.05 to 0. numerous bubbles indicate 0. Ultem resin: 350°C. Cycolac. Noryl and Noryl GTX resins: 280°C.1%. Since these long. Noryl GTX. this method means heating a few pellets to their melting point and observing whether bubbles are present (indicating moisture in the resin) or absent (indicating a dry material). Heat two microscope glass slides on hot plate for about two minutes (be sure surface is clean) . A few small bubbles mean moisture contents of 0.
material degradation · too short .always related to melt temperature .high residence times may change colours 15 . packing problems Residence time · residence time · residence time .no melt homogeneity.1 Choosing a machine Shot size % · shot size % .insufficient plastification and homogeneity of plasticized material · colour pigments . inconsistent part quality. part defects · shot size > 90% .can cause material degradation. depending on resin type · too long .3 Injection moulding machine 3.in general 30 to 90%.maximum 6 to 12 min. depending on resin type and in relation to residence time and melt temperature · shot size < 20 % .
.p. 1 mm smaller than sprue top · nozzle temperature .grades with special fillers preferred 0.10 . Xenoy resins for all other resins for all resins not recommended · too high r.p.10 .heater band plus adequate control · drooling .p. not for Valox resin · shut-off nozzles .as low as practicable.for all resins · reversed taper nozzles .p. · circumferential speed .0. .3 Vented barrels Do’s · sliding ring valves · ball check valves Nozzles .Injection Moulding mini guide 3 Injection Moulding Machine Injection Moulding mini guide 3 Injection Moulding Machine 3.m.breakage of glass fibres in glass filled products .m. · too high r. Xenoy or Lomod resins using vented barrel equipment · don’t process FR grades using vented barrel equipment · don’t use vented barrel equipment for critical appearance applications · don’t change material frequently · don’t use filters in nozzles · don’t use – if possible – a vented barrel machine Screw speeds 16 · r.p.3 to 10 mm of plasticizing stroke.p.m.always in relation to screw diameter · circumferential speed .material degradation .0. .m.for all resins .inability to control melt temperature Non-return valves / back flow valves 3. but beware of insufficient plastification 17 .adjust moulding cycle: screw rotation must fall in cooling time · r.m.25 m/s.most important · circumferential speed . · too high r.p.check nozzle radius Screw cushion · do monitor carefully the temperature profile of the barrel · do keep residence times below 8 min.5:1 - for Valox. · too high r.m. · r. not advised for other resins · nozzle orifices . .for Cycolac resin. dependent on screw diameter/ material compression · don’t process Ultem.m.as large as possible.2 Screw geometry and design L/D ratio and compression ratio · L/D 22:1 to 25:1 · L/D 18:1 to 24:1 · CR 2:1 to 2. Supec.not recommended · open nozzles .increased wear of screw and barrel .for Supec resin.20 m/s.5:1 · CR’s higher than 2.unfilled and filled grades preferred 0. · do contact your local GE Plastics’ representative for any advice on vented barrel processing Don’ts · screw cushions .
avoid eye or skin contact with smoke. move screw as far forward as possible 4. Contamination with foreign or degraded resins can cause problems.1.4 Production 4.1 Safety General recommendations for safety in injection moulding are: appropriate protective clothing should always be worn when handling hot materials and during cleaning operations.1 Setting up production 4. dust and vapours by installing an exhaust hood over the injection moulding machine nozzle. 19 . close off hopper feed 2. purging of the cylinder is required. Start-up from an empty and clean barrel is straightforward: barrel heaters are set according to the advised temperature profiles. set the barrel heaters to normal processing temperatures. empty plasticizing cylinder 3. 4. fumes.2 Purging. Actual degradation of the to-be moulded material may result in parts which neither look nor perform satisfactorily.1. The initial shots should be checked for contaminants in the moulded parts. reduce barrel temperatures to recommended levels When starting up again. such as delamination or black specks. and individual adjustments are made as production starts. continuous and direct removal of processing fumes and dust with a local exhaust system and a re-supply of fresh air will promote good workplace ventilation. During breaks in production the following steps are advised: 1. extrude until residual material is completely purged and begin moulding. change-overs When changing materials during moulding. Similar ventilation precautions should be taken for all cleaning operations.
Its accelerated degradation at even the lowest melt temperatures. for transparent parts. Purging should always be done with adequate ventilation. Xenoy PC/PBT resin). or. HDPE PS. 4. PS PE. PC. never switch off the heating when the resin is still in the barrel. Extra care must be taken with POM. Switching colours involves purging until the original colour is completely displaced. Be sure to avoid danger of splatter when purging. SAN ABS. During reassembly of threaded components of the injection unit. PMMA. Since ABS is not particularly compatible with other polymers. decrease temperatures and purge with FR ABS. Cycoloy resin Never switch off the heating when PC/ABS is in the barrel: reduce barrel temperatures to 160°C. Colours and FR FR Cycolac resin Production stagnation longer than 10 minutes or with normal shut down: purge with standard ABS. The purging material should be pressed out immediately and submerged in cold water before being disposed off. HDPE PS. then make temperature adjustment and continue moulding. PMMA PE. all FR ABS must be removed before increasing heat settings. SAN PC. PS HDPE. (Cycoloy PC/ABS resin. it is strongly recommended to clean the screw thoroughly before starting moulding.1. Problems that may occur include material degradation. GF PC GF PC. screw surface or nozzle area. In some cases special procedures are necessary. it is imperative that all traces of other polymers are purged out before starting moulding Lexan material. PP. Lexan resin Extended interruption of production may result in melt discolouration: purging is necessary. Purging can be done with nozzles either in place or removed. will produce unacceptable quantities of formaldehyde. care must be taken that no grease is in contact with the cylinder. PMMA. Always purge FR Cycoloy.1. PMMA.Injection Moulding mini guide 4 Production Injection Moulding mini guide 4 Production 4. otherwise black specks will occur or even the screw could be damaged.3 Purging compounds As with all PC containing thermoplastics resins. if materials are not compatible. standard ABS is the best purge material. as advised for some Lexan grades. Otherwise results may be unsatisfactory. HDPE Thorough purging is especially essential before moulding Lexan resin in transparent. Add purging material with the screw rotating slowly. Reduce to 170°C or clean screw with other material. When changing from a high viscosity thermoplastic to FR ABS. or a production run ends . PS PS. thorough purging of the cylinder is essential to remove all traces of previous polymers. translucent or bright colours. PMMA Noryl. but removal allows cleaning and inspection for foreign matter. When using pigmented or flame-retardant materials.4 Details per product When a material change is necessary. PP. Ideally a machine should only be used for moulding PC. resulting in black specks. clean the screw and barrel mechanically. PP. PP. 21 . When changing to another ABS or another thermoplastic. CHANGING FROM OTHER POLYMERS TO LEXAN RESIN 20 Cycolac resin Cycoloy resin Lexan resin Lomod resin Noryl resin Noryl GTX resin Noryl Xtra resin Supec resin Ultem resin Valox resin Xenoy resin ABS. Since the melt temperature required for Lexan resin is often higher than the degradation level of other thermoplastics. delamination in the moulded parts. PC.
Should this occur after thorough purging of the machine. empty the screw to prevent overheating. Purging should be done within the melt temperature range of the particular Noryl grade. drying is not recommended. showing as dark spots in moulded parts. CHANGING FROM LEXAN RESIN TO OTHER POLYMERS Noryl resin Where other materials are used after Lexan polymer. Chemical purging compounds are not recommended. PP or PS will do. 23 . Because the processing temperatures of these materials are within the same range as used for Lomod resins. Purge at the processing temperature of Ultem resin. otherwise Lexan resin will adhere to the cylinder walls and may pull off metal particles and degraded resin as it cools and contracts. Thorough purging is essential when changing to Ultem resins. Best purging material is polycarbonate or some proprietary compounds. Ultem resin CHANGING FROM OTHER POLYMERS TO ULTEM RESIN 22 Lomod resin Lomod resin requires no special purging procedures: normal purging with HDPE. otherwise contamination can cause chemical reactions that degrade Ultem resin. A thorough inspection should be made of cylinder. followed by the standard start-up procedure. the following steps are recommended: · maintain cylinder temperature for interruptions of up to 15 minutes · lower cylinder temperature by 40°C for periods from 15 minutes to 2 hours · reduce further to 170°C for interruptions from 2 to 12 hours · purge out barrel and shut off heat for periods longer than 12 hours Noryl Xtra resin Purge always with PS after process interruption. INTERRUPTION OF PRODUCTION PS and PMMA are effective purging materials for all Noryl resins. Since the processing temperature of Ultem resins (350 to 410°C) is well above the degradation level of most other thermoplastics. screw and check rings for cracks and proper fit. Purge with a PMMA and drop the cylinder temperatures if the resins to be moulded afterwards are POM. thorough purging to remove all traces of Lexan material must be done before the barrel has cooled. HDPE. take extra care with POM even at the lowest temperatures used for moulding Ultem resin. FR polymers which contain nitrogen must be purged completely. remove the screw and clean both cylinder and screw. This contamination will show as black specks in the mouldings when production is restarted. When moulding has to be stopped. continue to purge until the actual barrel temperature has reached 350°C. there is no need to reduce cylinder temperatures. it is essential to remove all traces of other polymers to avoid contamination resulting in black specks. Do NOT purge directly with PA or ABS after Lexan resin. Best purging material for Ultem resin is glass-filled Lexan regrind.Injection Moulding mini guide 4 Production Injection Moulding mini guide 4 Production Contamination with nitrogen-containing polymers such as ABS and PA or FR polymers can cause chemical reactions that may severely degrade the polycarbonate. ABS or PA. PP or glass-filled PC are suitable materials for purging the barrel after moulding Supec resin. LDPE. As with Lexan resin. Its accelerated degradation produces unacceptable quantities of formaldehyde. Supec resin Keeping Lexan resin overnight or over a weekend in the cylinder is generally not recommended but can be done in the following way: · reduce cylinder temperature to 170 to 180°C · leave heaters on · ensure that the temperature never drops below 160°C. · during production delays.
the moment Lexan material is fed in. If stopping for the weekend. . however. Xenoy resin · When is the specified machine available? · Is the machine in good working order. switch off temperature settings after purging the barrel. For stubborn cases purging can be done by using glass fibre-filled Lexan resin. core pulling devices.? · Any trimming equipment. The screw must be left in its forward-most position with the barrel heaters set at 200°C for long periods of time. free from problems. either PS or HDPE may be used as purging material. Valox resin · Where is the material stored? · Is the material pigmented? In what colour? · Does the material contain recycle? And in what percentage? · Does the material need pre-drying? · Temperature and time of pre-drying? And with what equipment? Mould · Where is the mould stored? How can it be transported? · What clamping equipment is needed? · Does it fit in with the specified machine data.? · What cylinder is needed? And what nozzle? · Should the cylinder be purged? · Has the additional equipment been planned: core pulling devices.1. This reduces black speck contamination during start-up. the hopper must be shut off at the throat and the machine should continue running until all residual resin is run out of the barrel. shrink fixtures needed? 25 Never switch off the heating when PC/PBT is in the barrel: reduce barrel temperatures to 160°C. When shutting down the machine. robots etc. If temperatures are dropped too low. empty the barrel and drop temperature settings to around 200°C. Stopping production for more than 30 minutes: purge barrel empty and drop temperature settings down to 200°C. Ultem resin will stick on metal parts and pull off particles. Similar to Lexan resin. etc. purging for glass-reinforced Valox resin may not be necessary. INTERRUPTION OF PRODUCTION Part · Was the part produced before? On what machine? · Has the previous experience been recorded? · How many mouldings are needed? By when? · Any special measuring equipment needed? · Weight and size of moulding: cylinder and clamping force? Material Short breaks: empty barrel and shut off hopper.Injection Moulding mini guide 4 Production Injection Moulding mini guide 4 Production 4.? · Are the mould and clamping devices ready to use? · What temperature control is needed and what equipment does this require? Machine 24 When changing over to Valox resins from higher melt temperatures or heat sensitive materials. The settings should be reduced to 300°C. Purging can be completed by high viscosity PE or GE Plastics’ Kapronet ® purging compound.5 Preparation before setting CHANGING FROM ULTEM RESIN TO OTHER POLYMERS Purging the cylinder after moulding of Ultem resin parts can be done by using Lexan polycarbonate. tiebars. air ejectors. that result in black specks. Put Lexan resin in the hopper when temperature settings are still at the high level as used for Ultem resin. Due to the ‘scrubbing’ action of glass fibres. lubricated. with clean mould platens etc. When stopping production for overnight.
Slow injection speeds should be used during start-up. where part geometry and mould design demand for it.m. Too high melt temperatures may result in colour changes when pigmented resins are used. · set ejectors · set speed of the clamping unit · set up the mould safety protection · heat up mould to the required temperature Setting the injection unit 26 · bring injection unit into rear position · check nozzle radius and diameter · check penetration depth of nozzle · check the centring of the nozzle to the sprue bushing · heat up cylinder · set cylinder temperatures (not too high) and screw speed · after having heated up the cylinder. However. higher melt temperatures can be used: the residence times at those temperatures should be kept as short as possible. optimize and store the various functions · record machine setting data · ensure that mouldings are correctly taken out and transported away · ensure quality control · aim for a ‘fully-automatic’ machine cycle to ensure uniform moulding quality 4. set nozzle contact force · make sure the mould is closed · initially set material feed somewhat lower than the required shot weight · set the position for change-over to hold-on pressure based on safety side · plasticize stepwise under manual control. to be used for starting up the production. speeds and pressures Temperatures Cylinder-. Injection speed 27 · set the operational selector switch to manual · set injection time.6 Setting mould and machine 4. mould. then optimize them after a few shots Injection speed is largely governed by the complexity of the part. ensuring that the two mould halves remain together. In general the settings must be optimized after several shots. sequence and damping · if visually acceptable mouldings are being produced. They are typical for most applications.Injection Moulding mini guide 4 Production Injection Moulding mini guide 4 Production 4.and melt temperature settings as advised are guidelines.8 Setting temperatures. the mould quality and the gating system. after-pressure time and pause time initially somewhat longer than necessary.1. switch over from ‘manual’ to ‘semi-automatic’ mode.p.1. check quality · where necessary. if necessary by bolting · lock mould and thoroughly tighten up clamping bolts · set clamping force at desired level · set mould safety device: low pressure and high pressure · set mould opening stroke. to a low value: plastification time should be slightly shorter than cooling time · check mould locking force · harmonize machine movements to obtain a better balance of speeds.7 Starting the injection process Mounting the mould and setting the clamping unit · set mould height on the machine with the clamping unit closed · check clamping devices · fix mould securely to the lifting tackle. Take following steps: · increase or reduce metering · optimize injection speed · observe the material cushion in front of the screw · check pressure build-up during injection · check cooling time and if possible shorten it · set screw r.1. while observing how the material feeds: this should be consistent and not in jerky movements · after a short pause. with damping. . purge out manually and check the melt temperature · set injection speed and injection pressure to average values Setting the machine controls When all settings have been checked.
warpage A decrease of the holding pressure at the end of the holding pressure time : .reduce overall orientation Several effects can be created by changing the screw advance speed during injection. e. shape of gating.type and grade of material .reduces mould deformation . weld lines or similar defects. 29 . part thickness. it consolidates the melt by excluding air. depends on many things: .reduce visibility of weld lines . they .keep melt temperature in the mould at a higher level . It can be used in a similar way for solid mouldings as a trick to reduce splay caused by (too high) moisture content. High back pressure is also used in structural foam moulding to prevent pre-blowing of the blowing agent.sink marks .enables reduction of clamping force .reduces matt spots in the gate area A slower speed at the end of injection . it is difficult to recommend exact levels of after pressure.type of gating . Injection pressure After pressure (hold pressure) After pressure compensates for volume shrinkage of the melt during cooling in the mould. A slower speed at the start of injection . Insufficient holding pressure may lead to: . mixing additives and sometimes to obtain a homogeneous melt with low-compression screws.complexity of the part . For GE Plastics’resins.voids . dry colouring. which should always be started at the minimum level.reduces tendency for jetting . it increases shear on the material: high shear may be necessary for masterbatching.stress in the gate area . depending on surface quality.increase surface gloss .g. Back Pressure has two functions: 1. the lowest pressures which still provide the desired properties. It should be maintained until the ‘gate is frozen’: the corresponding duration of after pressure should result in a constant part weight during moulding. appearance and moulding cycle are preferred. fast injection speeds in general are desirable.quality and polish of the mould . 2. through grille areas etc.improve transfer of pressure in the mould . after pressure may vary from 30 to 80% of the injection pressure. etc.increased shrinkage Too high holding pressure may lead to: . The level of injection pressure.improves venting due to reduction of air compression Profiled injection speed can control shear in some areas of the moulding.material viscosity Generally.avoid premature freezing of the melt .reduces internal stresses .give better welding of weld lines .problems with ejection of the moulding .Injection Moulding mini guide 4 Production Injection Moulding mini guide 4 Production However. Back pressure 28 The injection pressure should be established to mould full parts consistently with a satisfactory finish – free of sink marks.can reduce variation of properties of the moulding . thereby ensuring consistency of shot volume and removing splay caused by entrapped air.reduces warpage because differences in shrinkage in the moulding far and close to the gate are reduced Since after pressure is mould-related.variations in part dimensions .
p. Attention must be paid when moulding flame retardant.high melt temperature needed .danger of warpage during use of part Water-based or oil-based units needs to · heat up the mould to operating temperature . glass fibre-filled.extremely important when using hot-manifold and hot-runner moulds · Amorphous materials 30 hot moulds .reduces the time to heat the mould up to the required temperature .higher level of in-mould crystallization .9 Mould temperature control · Semi-crystalline materials hot moulds . levels of back pressure should not exceed 10 bar. In general.improve properties .during production results in · mould temperature below 100°C: water-based · mould temperature above 100°C: oil-based or pressurized water-based · heat transmission of oil is about half that of water: heat transmission surface area with oil is twice as big as for water · pipes and couplings must take the heat requirements Mould cooling system · optimization of cycle time · insurance of high and uniform quality of mouldings Mould temperature · very important parameter · controls cycle time · controls product properties surface appearance dimensions shrinkage warpage crystallization rate moulded-in stress levels thermal behaviour of the moulded parts · periodically clean entire temperature control circuit by flushing with a special solution: removes dirt and lime · use insulating plates to insulate mould from machine .no dramatic change of shrinkage values cold moulds 31 .crystallization after moulding . The maximum level of back pressure is related to screw diameter and screw r.high shrinkage values cold moulds .m.high injection pressures needed . 4.Injection Moulding mini guide 4 Production Injection Moulding mini guide 4 Production The main function of back pressure is to improve mixing of the material: in most cases a low back pressure of 4 to 5 bar is sufficient to get a homogeneous melt without overheating the material.filling difficulties .before production · remove heat from mould cavity and control tool temperature during production · keep mould at uniform temperature .1. pigmented resins and polymer blends.
mould temperature and cooling time. melt temperature. Main parameters are injection pressure. Factors that influence shrinkage are cavity pressure and aftershrinkage.and mould temperature have less influence on mould shrinkage. or increase in an uncontrolled way. Parts moulded out of materials such as Noryl GTX resin can show increased dimensions resulting from pick-up of moisture in the air. mostly high injection pressures and overfilling are the major causes of problems.3 How to influence mould shrinkage 32 Apart using well-known silicones-free release agents – not to be used when mouldings are painted or decorated afterwards – changing processing conditions can influence mould release. In general it is important to closely control the mould temperature. not only due to longer residence times at higher temperatures. With beaker-shaped mouldings. This requires cooling the mould with separate fluid circuits. it could be necessary to increase the injection pressure in order to fill the part. If lowering the injection speed does not help. afterpressure and afterpressure time. Attention when soft moulds are used: the copper foil may damage the mould surface. but also through the often not completely balanced flow/temperature control in a hot runner system. 33 .2. Increase of cooling time often has a positive effect. This may result in big differences in temperature in the various zones of hot runner blocks or nozzles.Injection Moulding mini guide 4 Production Injection Moulding mini guide 4 Production 4. too low mould temperature can result in insufficient flow.2 How to improve mould release Too high mould temperature can lead to part warpage.and runner systems (loss of pressure).01 mm thick foil and gradually going thicker. it is important to keep the core lower in temperature than the cavity the part will shrink on the core and not stick in the cavity. it can be found by trial and error how much the venting can be increased before the part will show flash. but it lowers the amount of air that has to leave the mould within a certain period of time. resulting in a large temperature increase causing the incoming plastic to burn. A well-designed cooling layout. 4. Aftershrinkage depends on the temperature of the part when it leaves the mould. melt. its heat content will be concentrated in a small volume. together with a correct way of connecting the various cooling channels – a ‘parallel’ layout rather than a ‘serial’ one – can help to keep the mould temperature as even as possible over the total mould surface. such as burn marks or short shots. Overpacking – too high injection pressure. The amount of venting that is possible or required can be tested by taping very thin copper foil on the closing surfaces of the mould. leading to overpacking. injection pressure. Starting with 0.2 Optimizing production 4. Cavity pressure is dependent upon mould temperature. injection speed. where no ejector pins are available. the first thing to do is to lower the injection speed. due to the hygroscopic behaviour of the polyamide present in Noryl GTX resin. At 23°C and 50% RH saturation can take months.2. (RH). level of afterpressure and afterpressure time and. A good way of checking is weight control of the parts during production. This temperature again relates to the melt temperature. most importantly.1 How to improve venting Whenever a given mould creates problems with venting. for too long – can create release problems: lowering injection pressure obviously is needed.2. Although mould release is different for each GE Plastics’ resin. (pressure x volume = constant). However. The level of this moisture pick-up and the speed with which it occurs depend on relative humidity. temperature and wall thickness of the moulding.4 How to use hot runner tooling systems Hot runners tend to make the whole process of moulding in general more susceptible to material degradation. The temperature should not fluctuate too much. 4. 4. This does not increase venting. Parameters like back pressure.2. No burn marks on the part due to the diesel effect: as air cannot escape quickly enough. the dimensions of gate. the venting should be increased. it will be compressed.
the harder it becomes to maintain part consistency. (in case of problems for example). Purging the cylinder is rather easy. Also important is the possibility to heat the zones separately by using different control units. pull the cylinder back from the mould directly after plasticizing – in case of a shut-off nozzle · use insulated plates between mould and machine · aim for optimal control of the mould temperature. whilst purging the hot runner system is much more difficult. the cost of it.5 How to save energy Quality assurance 5. are recommended. It is therefore advisable to prescribe procedure. Where materials have a narrow processing window.2 Visual control This is the most important control method. makes the discovery of deviations from the optimum on moulded parts more difficult. 34 5. mechanical testing can be difficult. thermal and physical properties can occur. conditions and equipment carefully. not least. but also material: · do not keep the machine nozzle always against the mould: after the gate is frozen. however. the allowed temperature difference between ‘temp-in’ and ‘temp-out’ of the coolant is a balance between quality of moulding (1 to 2°C) and economics (3 to 5°C) · keep screw r. as there is mostly a direct correlation between appearance and properties of the moulding. This is especially important in case a hot runner system has not been used for a long period of time. Also very important with hot runner systems is the option of an electrical circuit that allows gradual heating up. The power can be varied and thus uniform temperatures created. The effects of costly engineering to attain certain unnecessarily high standards should always be borne in mind. Successful quality control is based on the comparison of production parts with samples of a good quality and known properties. 4. This might be difficult to remove from the mould surface and it could lead to staining. and to experiment with testing. For all parts. the main points are material degradation and unsatisfactory part performance. Material that can be processed using a wide range of processing conditions provide an almost negligible rejection rate.p. deviations in mechanical. Sometimes however it may be necessary. and thus rejection rates increase. control methods should be related to the desired performance of the application. and. Mechanical testing demonstrates whether material quality and processing conditions affect the 35 .Injection Moulding mini guide 4 Production 5 Also very important is the lowering of the temperature of the hot runner when the moulding process is interrupted.2. Eventual moisture present in the heater cartridges can evaporate: it avoids the chance of short circuiting. otherwise too much degradation of the material might occur. Accepting the quality of the material. The narrower this window. Tips that not only save money.3 Mechanical control Due to the varying shapes and sizes of moulded parts. Quality control systems based on statistical process models. This processing flexibility. at a low level: the plastification time should be slightly shorter than the cooling time · do not use a cylinder with a too high capacity for the actual shot weight 5. Extensive descriptions of deviations are discussed in Chapter 6 ‘Part Defects and Corrective Actions’. however.1 Quality control Effective quality control enables simple yet accurate testing of materials and parts for behaviour and defects under processing conditions. otherwise the mould would be filled with degraded material.m. such as SPC.
It demonstrates whether the material has been properly pre-dried and/or degraded during moulding.5 Dimensional stability Factors such as orientation of polymer chains. sink marks. The prime objective is to check for material degradation during processing. etc. and can also be related to practical requirements. For all materials the MVR (melt volume rate) or MFR (melt flow rate) can be used – same test. 5. crosslinking and other desired or undesired processes can occur. 5. These are very dependent upon moulding conditions. The delta flow data of MVR and MFR show the change of the material during and after processing. internal stresses and filling rate of the cavity have an influence on performance characteristics of a part. the intrinsic viscosity or IV method is used. fast and easy method that can be carried out at the production location. mouldings: a light source with a linear polarized filter can then be used to detect internal stress concentrations. Differences in flow ‘before and after’ indicate material degradation: any deviation from original granulate flow could be related to either ‘abusive’ moulding or non-controlled part ageing. Dimensional stability is thus dependent upon the control of all setting parameters on the moulding machine. MFR in g/10 min. since weight variations will be more readily noticeable than those of dimensions.) A simple but effective way to check stress in parts moulded out of Lexan resin is to observe them after 24 hours immersion in a 80°C solution of 100 g dishwashing powder with 10 g gloss agent in 1 liter water. (GE Plastics’ representatives can supply more information. 5.4 Weight control An economical.7 Viscosity control Measuring viscosity of plastics materials can be used to check possible degradation of the resin resulting from injection moulding. It can also assist in checking bubbles and voids. part design and tool design.Injection Moulding mini guide 5 Quality Assurance Injection Moulding mini guide 5 Quality Assurance mechanical properties of the part. Stress levels can also be checked using stress corrosive fluids such as TnBP for Noryl resin and toluol N propanol for Lexan resin. or other deviations from the filling rate of the cavity in the tool. Complete mouldings should be used and a detailed study of each application is required to set correct parameters. The percentage loss in IV of the material due to moulding of the part is an indication of material degradation. Often preferred over dimensional methods. UV ageing/weathering or heat ageing.. which assesses the component’s ductility. using mouldings produced under optimal conditions.6 Stress control Due to tool or part design it is not always possible to produce really stress-free parts. just a different way of measuring the result: MVR in cm3 /10 min. This affects impact properties. For transparent materials such as Lexan resin it is often advisable to produce pre-production test . Wide variations in weights of parts can indicate insufficient production and/or machine tolerances. phenomena such as thermal degradation. Stabilizing part weight in general indicates stabilized processing conditions. A common procedure is the falling dart test. 36 37 5. For Lexan PC and PC blends such as Cycoloy and Xenoy resins. weak knitlines. During processing. Information on exact figures can be obtained via GE Plastics’ representatives. as do other deviations from optimal processing such as bubbles. Thermal stability tests can be carried out for shrinkage and/or deformation of parts following preconditioning at just above the resin’s heat distortion temperature.
They give possibilities to optimize.1 Fault diagnosis If a part has been produced satisfactorily and it goes wrong. Part defects and corrective actions 6. test methods for both application and material are provided. observe. Many new software and hardware tools enhances the quality of moulds. filling phases can be analyzed to get information about orientation.Injection Moulding mini guide 5 Quality Assurance 6 5. etc. The principle is not to change conditions immediately. NEMKO. For these standards. that is to say reduce melt temperature to what it was before. don’t reduce speeds or pressures or mould temperature to compensate. This avoids possible confusion between moulder and end-user. For example. Using pressure sensors in moulds. SEMKO. something has changed. Identify problem . · machine: check heating of cylinder mould temperature control material cushion locking of mould etc. Never adjust one condition to compensate for a failure or change in another condition. Identify causes of defects 38 · test. The cause should be identified and rectified . visualize and monitor basic settings of the injection moulding machine. machines and mouldings produced with them. Differences in quality can be signalled immediately. etc. by checking and replacing thermocouples. appearance and crystallinity of moulded parts.8 Other methods Very reliable methods of quality control are tests according to government and agency standards such as VDE. Ask questions · what has changed ? · what is fault? · when did it start? · how often does it occur? · where is fault? · is the fault randomly situated or always in same place? · etc. 39 . KEMA. if melt temperature has increased. Deviations of several shots following each other can be calculated statistically and monitored afterwards. conclude and study ‘history of faults’ · injection speed: test · screw speed: test · back pressure: test · melt temperature: test · etc. More and more computer-based control systems are used nowadays.
CAUSES Small air-or gas-filled hollows in the moulding.2 Blisters.2 Fault descriptions. (for details on purging. purge with an appropriate material in general: Kapronet for Lexan PC: ground acrylic or regrind Lexan resin for Ultem resin: regrind Ultem resin or glass-filled Lexan resin – don’t drop temp. see pages 19 to 24) 2. 3. check and adjust melt temperature 4.Injection Moulding mini guide 6 Part Defects and Corrective Actions Injection Moulding mini guide 6 Part Defects and Corrective Actions 6. 5.1 Black specks 6. 4. mostly present in transparent resins. check for dead edges: nozzle.2. check for screw wear · melt overheating ACTIONS — IN ORDER AS SHOWN 1. 6. 2. control holding / injection pressure increase back pressure increase mould temperature check back flow valve allow for adequate venting enlarge gate shorten land length 41 . gates/runners 5. bubbles Dark spots due to thermal damage Blisters can cause bulges on the surface DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION Small black areas (spots) inside the material. settings while purging. 7. do proper housekeeping 3. cooling voids.2. check for impurities: use uncontaminated material. back flow valve. causes and actions 6. CAUSES machine mould machine · down time too long · barrel switched off over a long period of time · poor purging of barrel · dirty plasticizing unit · inadequate nozzle · dead edges in gate/ runner system material · granule impurities · degradation by other resins · pick-up of degraded material from cylinder wall during cooling · · · · · · injection pressure too low inadequate functioning of back flow valve suck-back too long plasticizing too fast air trap in the hopper feed improper feed mould ACTIONS — IN ORDER AS SHOWN · volatiles and trapped gas · mould temperature too low · thin to thick transition material 40 1.
caused by the temperature gradient between machine nozzle and mould sprue bushing. 4. shorten or eliminate standard sprue bushing: use a hot sprue bushing 6.p. adapt injection speed add a large cold slug area add cold wells at the end of runner systems control nozzle heat better: if necessary add beryllium copper tip (not recommended for FR resins) 5.add vents to ejector pins .3 Blush / flow marks 6.Injection Moulding mini guide 6 Part Defects and Corrective Actions Injection Moulding mini guide 6 Part Defects and Corrective Actions 6.2. CAUSES Burn marks are (often) brown streaks. decrease nozzle temperature reduce melt temperature improve mould cavity venting . 3. 4. enlarge gate to reduce frictional burning 11. 9.m. nozzle and tip: avoid and eliminate any dead pockets or sections check venting channels for dirt decrease injection speed decrease injection pressure use programmed injection check for heater malfunctioning reduce screw r. alter position and/or increase gate size 1.2. 6. A halo around the direct sprue is the result of cold material in the nozzle tip section. 7. 8. 5. clean flow must exist from the cylinder. Eliminating the temperature gradient will minimize the blush and halo effects. 3. They are usually caused by overheating the material due to entrapped air (diesel effect): this causes the darkening in colour. CAUSES machine mould machine mould · injection speed too slow or too fast · injection pressure too low · hold pressure too long · · · · · · · inadequate mould cooling mould too hot around gate mould too cold gate too small wrong gate location gate land length too long wrong hot runner system material · problems with back flow valve · injection speed too fast · back pressure too high · inadequate venting: entrapped air · frictional burning · check sprue diameter material · melt too hot or too cold: may create shear ACTIONS — IN ORDER AS SHOWN · melt temperature too low ACTIONS — IN ORDER AS SHOWN 42 1. adaptor.add vents to parting line of part 10. 43 .4 Burn marks / diesel effect Dull spot (corona) near the sprue Diesel effect (burns) due to entrapped air at the end of the flow path DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION Blush and flow marks are the result of variations in material temperature. 2. 2.
4. 3. 5. 3. 6.Injection Moulding mini guide 6 Part Defects and Corrective Actions Injection Moulding mini guide 6 Part Defects and Corrective Actions 6. amorphous resins behave differently to semi-crystalline materials.6 Dimensions of part DESCRIPTION Cosmetics article with flaked off ‘skin’ Excessive shrinkage means part dimensions differing from expected ones. 2. increase injection pressure increase cooling time increase mould temperature maintain uniform cycle time operation check machine for erratic operation check the percentage regrind to virgin material increase gate size reduce gate land length relocate gate if glass-filled compounds balance runner and/or gate system reduce number of cavities to balanced system 45 . CAUSES machine DESCRIPTION Separation of layers in the moulded part that can be peeled off: flaking of surface layers. 9. CAUSES · · · · · · · · · · injection pressure too low injection hold pressure time too short overall cycle too short back flow valve cracked excessive cylinder clearance heater bands burned out mould machine · injection speed too high mould too hot gates too small (related to inadequate pressures) gating in the wrong place mould too small — IN ORDER AS SHOWN · mould too cold · sharp corners in gate area · shear heat caused at sharp corners material ACTIONS · · · · · melt too hot poorly melted incompatible colour dyes cross contamination with other polymers too much use of recycled material — IN ORDER AS SHOWN ACTIONS 44 1.2. 9.2. 4. 10. 7. 2. 7. 11. 8. 5. 8.5 Delamination 6. increase melt temperature increase mould temperature decrease injection speed eliminate contamination check percentage regrind dry material purge equipment change material radius all sharp corners at gate 1. It results from insufficient layer bonding due to inhomogeneities and high shear stresses. 6.
8.decreasing screw speed . lower nozzle temperature 4.8 Flash Colour streaks due to poor blending in the plasticizing unit Large area overspraying DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION The appearance of areas in the moulding with a deviating colour. 3.reducing back pressure 3. 2. CAUSES machine material machine · contamination mould · check sprue diameter · pin-point too small · poor venting · melt too hot or too low: may create shear · long residence time · instability of polymer/ pigments · clamping pressure too low · injection pressure too high · injection speed too fast mould ACTIONS — IN ORDER AS SHOWN · · · · inadequate mould supports clamping force too low damaged mould surface: parting line excessive projected area material 46 1. provide additional vents in mould 10. CAUSES A film of material attached to the moulding at the mould parting line. move mould to smaller shot size press to reduce residence time · melt too hot · viscosity too low ACTIONS — IN ORDER AS SHOWN 1. purge heating cylinder 2. 4. check residence time 5. check for proper cooling of ram and feed zone 9.reducing cylinder temperature . 7. 5.2. check machinery purging 6. 6. shorten overall cycle 7. lower material temperature by . reduce injection speed reduce injection pressure and/or booster time increase clamping force check mould for proper mould support and/or parallelism reduce melt temperature reduce mould temperature check excessive vent depths change to higher clamping machine 47 .2.7 Discolouration 6.Injection Moulding mini guide 6 Part Defects and Corrective Actions Injection Moulding mini guide 6 Part Defects and Corrective Actions 6. check hopper and feed zone for contaminants 8.
wrong mixing or crosslinking during processing. 4. giving hang-ups · melt temperature too low · injection pressure too low DESCRIPTION mould A turbulent flow in the resin melt: the melt strand enters the cavity in an uncontrolled way. 6.Injection Moulding mini guide 6 Part Defects and Corrective Actions Injection Moulding mini guide 6 Part Defects and Corrective Actions 6. 2. CAUSES machine · wrong or worn out screw.9 Jetting 6. CAUSES · shear in gating · sharp corners material · inhomogeneous material · contamination ACTIONS — IN ORDER AS SHOWN machine · injection speed too fast mould · · · · mould too cold gates too small gate land length wrong wrong gate location material 1. get shear down lower back pressure decrease injection speed change temperature profile check regrind percentage check shot size vs part check hot-runner: torpedoes · melt too cold ACTIONS — IN ORDER AS SHOWN 48 1. 7.10 Pitting DESCRIPTION Jetting starting at the gate.2. 8. spreading over the entire moulded part Pitting is the presence of unmelted particles due to difficult dispersion of additives. 3.2. 4. 7. 2. decrease injection speed check nozzle heating increase mould temperature increase melt temperature increase gate size avoid gating at thick section modify gate location or angle: directly into wall or pin use tab gate or submarine plus pin 49 . 5. It shows as a serpentine line on the part surface. 5. the strand is not fused homogeneously with the melt that follows. 6. Too little restriction when filling the cavity: material is injected in empty space (wrong gate angle). Due to cooling down. 3.
to repeat the cycle.11 Record grooves 6. 3. CAUSES machine DESCRIPTION Resembles the grooves of gramophone records. increase injection speed increase injection pressure increase melt temperature increase mould temperature check mould textures check cycle time: cooling decrease injection pressure decrease injection hold time decrease injection speed decrease booster time reduce and adjust feed for constant cushion check for poor mould finish or corrosion on mould surface increase mould opening time decrease material temperature by lowering cylinder temperatures and/or nozzle lower mould temperature adjust the cavity temperature to a 20°C differential between mould halves check mould for undercuts and/or insufficient draft and taper use proper mould release 51 .Injection Moulding mini guide 6 Part Defects and Corrective Actions Injection Moulding mini guide 6 Part Defects and Corrective Actions 6. 12. 6. 3. 7.2.12 Release problems 6.it loses its flow (below HDT) before actual contact. 50 1. 4. 2.as material nears cold tool . 11. 5. 8. 2. 9. CAUSES · · · · injection pressure too high injection speed too high holding time too long too much material feed mould · cavity too hot – release is better from hot mould (20°C below HDT) · mould too cold · poor mould finish material machine · injection speed too low · injection pressure too low mould · melt too hot ACTIONS — IN ORDER AS SHOWN · mould too cold · different texture of mould halves: polished vs coarse grain material · melt too cold ACTIONS — IN ORDER AS SHOWN 1. The melt that follows flows over cooled melt. 10.2.12. At slow speed .2. 13. 5. the moulding does not release from the mould but sticks in the cavity (female mould side). 4.1 Sticking in cavity Concentric record grooves DESCRIPTION At end of cycle.
polish worn or rough sprue bushing 53 . CAUSES machine machine · injection pressure too high mould · core too hot · core bending · creation of vacuum — especially on thin-walled parts ACTIONS · · · · · · injection pressure too high too much material feed nozzle frozen nozzle diameter too large for sprue bush inadequate draft angle drool from nozzle mould — IN ORDER AS SHOWN 1. 13.12. 4.2 Sticking on core 6.2. 2. 6.Injection Moulding mini guide 6 Part Defects and Corrective Actions Injection Moulding mini guide 6 Part Defects and Corrective Actions 6.12. 7. the sprue does not release from the mould but sticks in the sprue bushing. 4. 2. 10. for difficult jobs 1:15 provide more effective sprue puller: . CAUSES At end of cycle. 3.2.3 Sticking of sprue DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION At end of cycle.increase sprue puller by increasing taper of sprue puller . 7. 3. 5. 8. 9. 9. 11. 52 decrease injection pressure decrease injection hold time decrease booster time increase die-closed time decrease mould temperature at sprue bushing leave nozzle against mould: no pull back raise nozzle temperature check incorrect seat between nozzle and sprue: sizes and alignment of holes in nozzle and sprue bushing sprue bushing hole must be larger: reduce nozzle diameter for sprue bushing being used check polishing of sprue check proper design of sprue puller pin check cone of sprue: usually 1:20. 8. 10. the moulding does not release from the mould but sticks on the core (male mould side). 5. check cycle time: cooling decrease injection pressure decrease injection hold time decrease booster time adjust feed for constant cushion decrease mould-closed time increase core temperature decrease cylinder and nozzle temperature check mould for undercuts and/or insufficient draft check mould for bending: rule of thumb is 1:5 for core diameter to core length · too hot · ineffective sprue pullers ACTIONS — IN ORDER AS SHOWN 1. 12. 6.
6.Injection Moulding mini guide 6 Part Defects and Corrective Actions Injection Moulding mini guide 6 Part Defects and Corrective Actions 6. if glass-filled check material flow length vs wall section thickness increase nozzle diameter check restrictions of nozzle. 5. 4. runners and actual gating increase gate size of sprue and runner system Resulting from incomplete filling of the mould: parts of the moulding are not formed. 8.2. 2. DESCRIPTION increase dosage increase injection pressure increase booster time forward increase material temperature by increasing cylinder temperatures increase mould temperature. 3.13 Short shots ACTIONS — IN ORDER AS SHOWN Solidified flow front on a glass fibre reinforced housing 1. 9. 7. CAUSES machine · · · · · improper feed injection pressure too low injection speed too low injection time too short faulty back flow valve ring mould · poor mould venting · mould too cold material · melt temperature too low · viscosity too high 54 55 .
14 Sink marks ACTIONS — IN ORDER AS SHOWN Sink marks due to wall thickness variations 1. 12. Too high holding pressure – useless when gating is too small – creates very high stresses in gate areas. increase injection speed to maximum range sometimes lower injection speed: crystalline materials increase injection hold time increase injection pressure reduce melt temperature reduce mould temperature check for hot spots: separate water channels in cooling system / add heat pipes such as thermal pins or beryllium copper slugs for spot cooling enlarge and/or add vents to mould parting line increase size of sprue and/or runners increase gate size and reduce gate land length relocate gate next to heavy or thicker areas core out heavy wall sections where possible incorporate textured surfaces machine · injection pressure too low · injection pressure time too short · short of shot capacity mould · mould temperature too high: too high shrinkage · gate too small: leads to early cooling/freezing at the gate.2. 5. 4. 3. 6. 2. 10. 9. 13. CAUSES 8. holding pressure cannot help anymore to compensate for the shrinkage · land length too long · wrong dimensions rib vs wall material 56 · melt too hot 57 . A heavy rib intersecting a thin wall may show up sink marks: these are very difficult to eliminate by varying processing conditions.Injection Moulding mini guide 6 Part Defects and Corrective Actions Injection Moulding mini guide 6 Part Defects and Corrective Actions 6. 7. DESCRIPTION Visible defects resulting from insufficient cooling before removal from the mould. 11.
lower nozzle temperature 5. 4. 11. 5. in machine nozzle or hot runner · trapped volatiles material Gate splay is the appearance of dull spots around the gate. lumps in sections of the moulded parts. check moisture content after pre-drying 3.lowering cylinder temperature . 7. 15. 12.2. 2. 3.15. silver streaks. check effectiveness of drying equipment: temperature and time 4. 9. CAUSES 6. check pre-drying: dry material before use 2.15.2 Gate splay DESCRIPTION · injection pressure too low or too high · injection speed too low or too high · back pressure too low mould · frictional burning at gate.15 Splay / streaks 6. 8. splash marks are the result of (a) moisture on the pellets which should be removed under recommended drying times and temperatures (b) products of degradation due to overheating (c) residual non-aqueous volatiles in material (a) and (c) will produce fine lines emanating from the gate all over the part whereas (b) will show up as coarse lines. reduce back pressure check for drooling check for contamination (e. 14.decreasing screw speed . decrease injection speed raise mould temperature shorten or eliminate screw decompression shorten overall cycle increase back pressure.lowering back pressure · melt too cold ACTIONS 59 — IN ORDER AS SHOWN 1. 13. (too high shear forces tearing the surface layer).2. resulting from temperature differences in the material. Often moisture streaking resulting from improper pre-drying. lower material temperature by: . 16.2. in case of drooling. 10.g.Injection Moulding mini guide 6 Part Defects and Corrective Actions Injection Moulding mini guide 6 Part Defects and Corrective Actions 6.1 Splay DESCRIPTION Splay marks. decrease injection speed increase mould temperature increase melt temperature increase gate size change gate location . CAUSES · · · · melt too hot contamination in resin excessive moisture Noryl resin: degradation of material due to too long pre-drying at high temperatures — IN ORDER AS SHOWN machine · injection too fast mould · mould too cold · gate too small · improper gate location or too sharp angle gate to part material ACTIONS 58 1. water or oil leaking into mould cavity) barrel purging (hang-ups) allow for adequate venting open gates move mould to smaller shot-size press machine · degraded material hot spot in cylinder material hang-up area at nozzle tips or adaptors 6.
dull and lamellar areas on the surface of a moulding. 5.3 Streaking DESCRIPTION The appearance of large. 2. 4.2.Injection Moulding mini guide 6 Part Defects and Corrective Actions Injection Moulding mini guide 6 Part Defects and Corrective Actions 6. 3. CAUSES Burnt streaks due to excessive residence time in the plasticizing cylinder machine · damaged back flow valve ring mould · areas of hang-up · hot spots material · contamination caused by stock or machine if steady pattern: machine if erratic pattern: material pigmentation / instability of material ACTIONS Streaks due to excessive moisture content of the granules — IN ORDER AS SHOWN 1.15. 6. check for material contamination by other resins check barrel purging check for cracked or worn back flow valve ring check for worn feed screw check for excessive clearance on screw/barrel dimensions check for overheated cylinder heater bands check for overheated nozzle heater bands Air streak (near the sprue) due to sucked in air during decompression 60 Glass fibre streaks (clearly visible weld line) 61 . 7.
5.2. use suck back: only for crystalline materials lower back pressure lower or increase nozzle temperature use different temperature profile do not use sprue breaks · mould temperature too low · incorrect material flow · part wall too thick material · melt too hot · wrong material grade: some Lexan resin types more sensitive ACTIONS — IN ORDER AS SHOWN 1. redesign part to obtain equal wall sections 62 63 . 3.17 Voids DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION Stringing is the appearance of a thin plastic string coming from the sprue. due to thermal shrinkage that draws material away from the fluid core of a part.16 Stringing 6. increase nozzle size and/or runner system 8. 2. 3. decrease injection speed to medium range increase holding time reduce melt temperature increase mould temperature check gate size: too small results in freezing at gate with voids and sinks in other areas of the part 6. 2. 5.2. increase gate size and reduce gate land length 7.Injection Moulding mini guide 6 Part Defects and Corrective Actions Injection Moulding mini guide 6 Part Defects and Corrective Actions 6. CAUSES machine · back pressure too high · nozzle temperature too high mould machine · wrong sprue material · · · · injection pressure too low injection pressure time too short injection speed too high back pressure too low mould · insufficient melt strength CORRECTIONS — TRY IN ORDER AS SHOWN 1. CAUSES Vacuole hollows (‘empty bubbles’) in the moulding. 4. 4.
Injection Moulding mini guide 6 Part Defects and Corrective Actions Injection Moulding mini guide 6 Part Defects and Corrective Actions 6. increase injection pressure increase injection hold time increase injection speed raise melt temperature by increasing cylinder temperatures raise mould temperature check for proper venting of the part vent the cavity in the weld area provide an overflow well next to the weld area change gate location to alter flow pattern 65 >>> . 10.18 Warpage. notice fibre orientation redesign part to equalize wall variation in moulded part – heavy and thin walls in same part create differential shrinkage stresses · wrong part design machine · injection speed too slow · injection pressure too low · injection time forward too short · mould too cold · insufficient venting · inaccurate functioning of back flow valve · distance from gate excessive material · melt too cold ACTIONS — IN ORDER AS SHOWN 1. 4.2. 3. 11. Weld lines are not just surface marks.2. 12. part distortion 6. 3. or because the part was taken too hot from the mould. 7. 64 equalize temperature of both mould halves observe mould for uniform part ejection check handling of parts after ejection from mould check part weight: take care with Valox resin increase injection hold time increase cooling time increase or reduce injection pressure increase mould close time increase or reduce mould temperature set differential mould temperatures to counteract warpage due to part geometry use shrink fixtures and jigs for uniform cooling of the part check gate locations and total number of gates to reduce orientation additional gates may be required to overcome overpacking or underpacking on large parts increase gate dimensions change gate location if glass-filled. 5. stress raisers. 7. 6.19 Weld lines / knit lines DESCRIPTION A dimensional deformation of the moulding resulting from frozen-in stress. 4. The streams of plastic should be hot enough to fuse adequately. 2. 5. 9. 16. 8. but can be points of weakness: notches. 13. 8. Basically it is due to pressure differences between areas. 2. CAUSES — IN ORDER AS SHOWN part mould 1. CAUSES Colour differences at a weld line part mould · wrong part design · part too heavy machine · insufficient cooling time · too high injection pressure · wrong gate location: different shrinkage in different flow directions · too big undercuts · inadequate ejector pins · cavity too hot material DESCRIPTION · orientation of fillers · wrong material choice ACTIONS These lines occur where two plastics flow fronts in the mould meet. 6. 15. 9. 14.
increase gate and/or main runner system 11. 66 67 . Parts that show traces of over heating or burning. as with virgin materials. Although many resins show minimal reduction in properties after regrinding. or by mixing regrind with virgin material. the material should not be reused. faulty mouldings. If there is the slightest doubt whether degradation or contamination has occurred. only ‘regrinding’ will be discussed here. Care should be taken to ensure that reground material is not degraded and is clean and free from impurities. should never be reground. Sprues. clean and eventually upgrade the material. This can be done by using reground resin on its own.Injection Moulding mini guide 6 Part Defects and Corrective Actions 7 10. This activity of reusing materials is called ‘regrinding’ . and so on. and also parts with humidity related defects such as splash. Care must also be taken when reusing flame retardant or heavily pigmented materials. reduce gate land length 12. sprues. GE Plastics’ product range of selected post-consumer recycle materials is called Remex ™ Engineering Plastics. Obviously reground materials should be of the same composition and not be mixed with other plastic grades. short shots. runners and faulty mouldings produced from GE Plastics’ resins can all be reground. To avoid misunderstanding. It is also very important that reground materials are properly pre-dried. spot heat particular area with thermal pins or cartridge heaters 13. special attention is required to ensure that reground materials in principle are not used for impact critical applications. such as with injection moulding. use textured surfaces Reusing materials Thermoplastics resins in general can be recycled into similar applications: this means that a company can grind. During production. This activity of reusing materials is called ‘recycling’ . can be reground directly in the production facility and reused.
impact behaviour of final parts . UL requirements . These differ from case to case.flame retardancy.moulding conditions of second moulding process GE Plastics understands that the plastics processing community wants to take advantage of this important feature of thermoplastics materials. being related to customerdefined part quality requirements and applicable standards and regulations. for example in steps of 10. while the company can only be held liable for the quality of delivered of virgin material. The recommended methodology to determine whether. .define the critical characteristics and the acceptable level of performance in agreement with the final end-user .measure the characteristics of the parts produced with these levels .proper pre-drying .physical properties . 20.preparation of material prior to use . GE Plastics recommends the use of a specific methodology wherever plastics are to be reground for reuse.UV resistance . and to what extent. it is committed to supplying the information which will allow processors to achieve the levels of quality and performance expected by customers.chemical resistance . reground materials can be used for the production of industrial products is as follows: . 30%.conduct trials with different mixing levels of regrind.colour stability .compare the obtained values with the acceptable level of performance and select accordingly . The following factors should be borne in mind when using reground materials: . etc.Injection Moulding mini guide 7 Reusing Materials Injection Moulding mini guide 7 Reusing Materials In general. it is very difficult to quantify what mixing percentages of reground : virgin material are possible.disposal of dirty parts .moulding conditions of first moulding process .agree with the end-user the maximum acceptable proportion of regrind 68 69 . Therefore.
Regloplas. Michael Renger. Werkmetaal..8 References · Spuitgieten Kort en Bondig.J. Menges/Mohren. Bühler · Einführung in die Kunststoffverarbeitung.M. Tony Whelan. Menges/Mohren. 1992 · Injection Molding of Engineering Thermoplastics. 1990 * · Handbuch der Temperierung mittels flüssiger Medien. Gordon. 1993 · Plastic Part Design for Injection Molding. 1993 · Understanding Injection Molding Technology. M. Walter Michaeli. 1994 · Spritzgießwerkzeuge. John Goff. 1992 · several internal and external GE Plastics’ publications · numerous suggestions given by GE Plastics’ specialists * A word of thanks for the permission to quote some phrases ** A word of thanks for the permission to use pictures of mouldings with defects 71 . K. 1992 ** · Total Quality Process Control for Injection Molding. Gastrow. Christof Kempf.I. 1992 · Schnelles betriebssicheres Einstellen der Spritzgießmaschine. 1994 · How to Make Injection Molds. Klaus Niemann. Herbert Rees. Robert A. 1990 · Maschineneinstellstrategie für Spritzgießmaschinen. 1993 · Injection moulding of thermoplastics. 1992 * · Guide to surface defects on thermoplastic injection molded parts. Malloy. 1991 · Injection Molds.W.
PO Box 117 NL . OR ADVICE CONTAINED HEREIN IS GIVEN IN GOOD FAITH. Z. product or design in the infringement of any patent or other intellectual property right. (I) THAT THE RESULTS DESCRIBED HEREIN WILL BE OBTAINED UNDER END-USE CONDITIONS.L.GE Plastics European Headquarters General Electric Plastics B. EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. RECOMMENDATIONS. Viale Brianza. or as a recommendation for the use of such material. Planta 3 08034 Barcelona Spain Tel. Gagelboslaan 4 NL . nor any oral recommendation or advice. supersede. Cycolac®. (34) (93) 252 16 00 Fax (34) (93) 280 26 19 DISCLAIMER: THE MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS OF THE BUSINESSES MAKING UP THE GE PLASTICS UNIT OF GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY.V.P. Noryl®.65428 Rüsselsheim Germany Tel. USA. ALTHOUGH ANY INFORMATION. EXCEPT AS PROVIDED IN GEP’S STANDARD CONDITIONS OF SALE..20092 Cinisello Balsamo (Milano) Italy Tel. (31) (164) 29 23 91 Fax (31) (164) 29 17 25 United Kingdom GE Plastics Limited Old Hall Road Sale Cheshire M33 2HG United Kingdom Tel. Nothing in this or any other document. GEP MAKES NO WARRANTY OR GUARANTEE. Each user must identify and perform all tests and analyses necessary to assure that its finished parts incorporating GEP materials or products will be safe and suitable for use under end-use conditions. USA. Lexan®. Noryl® Xtra. (33) (1) 60 79 69 00 Fax (33) (1) 60 77 56 53 Italy General Electric Plastics Italia S. vary. AND AVAILABLE UPON REQUEST. (31) (164) 29 29 11 Fax (31) (164) 29 29 40 Headquarters Sales Region General Electric Plastics B. 67 F .4600 AC Bergen op Zoom The Netherlands Tel. GEP AND ITS REPRESENTATIVES SHALL IN NO EVENT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY LOSS RESULTING FROM ANY USE OF ITS MATERIALS OR PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN.I.. (44) (161) 905 50 00 Fax (44) (161) 905 51 19 Germany General Electric Plastics GmbH Eisenstraße 5 D . 181 I . to grant any license under any patent or other intellectual property right of General Electric Company or any of its subsidiaries or affiliates covering such use or design. ITS SUBSIDIARIES AND AFFILIATES (“GEP”). OR (II) AS TO THE EFFECTIVENESS OR SAFETY OF ANY DESIGN INCORPORATING GEP MATERIALS.4623 AD Bergen op Zoom The Netherlands Tel.A Avenida Diagonal. shall be deemed to alter. No statement contained herein concerning a possible or suggested use of any material. recommendations. (39) (02) 61 83 41 Fax (39) (02) 61 83 42 11 Spain General Electric Plastics Ibérica S. PRODUCTS. Xenoy®. PRINTED ON THE BACK OF ORDER ACKNOWLEDGMENTS AND INVOICES.A. Injection Moulding mini guide IMG Eng/3M/0998 . RECOMMENDATIONS OR ADVICE. Cycoloy® and Enduran® are Registered Trademarks of General Electric Co. 1 Plasticslaan. or advice for its own particular use. Each user bears full responsibility for making its own determination as to the suitability of GEP’s materials. Gelon™ is a Trademark of General Electric Co. * Company not connected with the English company of a similar name. or waive any provision of GEP’s Standard Conditions of Sale or this Disclaimer. Guénault B.V. St.R. 652-656 Edificio D. or should be construed.91002 Evry-Cedex France Tel. WHICH ARE INCLUDED IN THE APPLICABLE DISTRIBUTOR OR OTHER SALES AGREEMENT. Ultem®. Valox®. USA. ARE SOLD SUBJECT TO GEP’S STANDARD CONDITIONS OF SALE. products. unless any such modification is specifically agreed to in a writing signed by GEP. (49) (6142) 6010 Fax (49) (6142) 65746 France General Electric Plastics France S. Noryl® GTX®. product or design is intended.p.à.
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