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1.

Introduction:
All the experiments are performed using the Temperature Measurement and Calibra on apparatus TD400 which is shown in Figure 1.

Fig.1: Temperature Measurement and Calibration Apparatus

1) Liquid in Glass Thermometer: The principle of liquid in glass thermometer is that a known volume of liquid is placed at the bulb of the thermometer connected with a thin tube (capillary). When the temperature increases, the liquid expands in the thin tube and when the temperature decreases, the liquids contracts in the thin tube. The most liquid used is Hg, but it has been prevented earlier because of it toxicity, and now the liquid which used is some type of alcohol such that pure ethanol, toluene, kerosene or Isoamyl acetate, depending on manufacture and working temperature range.

Fig.2: Liquid in Glass Thermometer


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2) Gas Thermometer: It is a mechanical dial calibrated to show the temperature in Celsius. The gas thermometer works on the principle of unknown volume expansion rate of gas (vapor of fluid) for a known raise in temperature. As the gas (vapor above a small volume of fluid) expands with a rise in temperature, its pressure increases and pushes against a mechanical mechanism that turns a calibrated dial.

Fig.3: Gas Thermometer Principle 3) Bi-metal Thermometer It is a mechanical dial calibrated to show the temperature in Celsius. The bi-metal thermometer wirks on the priciple of different expansion rates of two different metal strips fixed (laminated) togather to form a thicker strip that is a composite of the two metals. As temperature increases, one metal expands more than the other and the composite bends, pushing a calibrated mechanical dial.

Fig.4: Bi-metal Thermometer Principle

2. Objectives:
Show the linearity and accuracy of the liquid in glass thermometer by calibration against the reference sensor. Show the linearity and accuracy of Gas (vapor) pressure thermometer by calibration against the reference sensor. Show the linearity and accuracy of the Bi-metal thermometer by calibration against the reference sensor.

3. Equipment:
a. b. c. d. TD400. (Fig.1) Liquid in Glass Thermometer. (Fig.2) Gas Thermometer. (Fig.5) Bi-Metal Thermometer.(Fig.6)

Fig.5: Gas Thermometer

Fig.6: Bi-Metal Thermometer

4. Procedure:
1. Create a blank results table, similar to table 1. Note: if you use VDAS, the so ware will log your results, so you do not need to draw a table. You can also the software to create extra calculated fields of deviation and error. 2. Setup the heater and icebox.
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3. Select a liquid in glass thermometer. Put the reference sensor and thermometer into the icebox (through the holes in its lid). Wait few minutes for the reading to stablize and record them (the reference temperature should be between 0 oC and 1 oC. 4. Now put both devices into the heater tannk (through the holes in its lid). Switch on the heater and note the reference temperature. 5. Stop the experiment and siwtch off the heater when the reference temprature reaches 100 oC. 6. Repeat the experiment for the other gas (vapor) pressure thermometer and bimetal thermometer. Allow the heater water to cool down (and change it if necessary for cooler water) between tests.

5. Results and Discussion


a. Liquids in glass thermometer: Table 1 Results for liquid in glass thermometer Liquids in glass thermometer Reference Indicated Deviation Error Temperature Temperature (difference) (oC) (oC) (oC) (%) 0
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

0
26 36 47 57 69 79 89 100

0
4 4 3 3 1 1 1 0

0%
13% 10% 6% 5% 1% 1% 1% 0%

Liquids in glass thermometer


Indicated Temperature (oC)
120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

REFERANCE TEMERTURE (oC)

Fig.7: Calibration of Liquids in glass thermometer


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b. Gas (vapor) Thermometer: Table 2 Results for Gas (vapor) thermometer Vapor thermometer Indicated Deviation Reference Temperature Temperature (difference) (oC) (oC) (oC)
0 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 26 36 47 57 67 79 91 102 0 4 4 3 3 3 1 -1 -2

Error (%)
` 13% 10% 6% 5% 4% 1% 1% 2%

VAPOR thermometer
Indicated Temperature (oC)
120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

REFERANCE TEMERTURE (oC)

Fig.2: Calibration of gas (vapor) thermometer

c. Bi-metal Thermometer:

Table 3 Results for bi-metal thermometer BI-METAL thermometer Indicated Deviation Reference Temperature Temperature (difference) o ( C) (oC) (oC) 0 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 27 36 48 58 70 80 93 105 0 3 4 2 2 0 0 -3 -5

Error (%) 0% 10% 10% 4% 3% 0% 0% 3% 5%

BI-METAL thermometer
120

Indicated Temperatur (oC)

100 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

REFERANCE TEMERTURE (oC)

Fig.3: Calibration of bi-metal thermometer

6. Conclusions:
We see that all of three types have some error, but deviate from any type to other one. Then, at Tref equal to 70 oC,the Bi-metal has the lowest error, followed by Gas (vapor) Thermometer and Liquids in glass thermometer, respectivily.

7. References:
1. TecQuibment user manuel. 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcohol_thermometer( last access 5th May 2013 )
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