You are on page 1of 43

SCHOOL OF COMMUNICATION AND MEDIA STUDIES

PUBLIC RELATIONS IN PORTUGAL:

A LACK OF UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONCEPT OR

A NON-RECOGNITION OF THE PROFESSION?

Kelly Gomes Pereira

School of Communication and Media Studies

PUBLIC RELATIONS IN PORTUGAL:

A LACK OF UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONCEPT OR A NON-RECOGNITION OF THE PROFESSION?

As we know, in our days Public Relations have been developing and establishing itself as a strategic function, fundamental to the Organizational Management. From a simple set of techniques, Public Relations are seen, today, as a Communications’ Science discipline.

However, although there have been some good changes and developments, there seems to persist a non-recognition of the great areas of the PR professional and its real strategic role, both in an organizational and societal level.

Specifically in the Portuguese scenario, as a professional it seems to me that there is a very simplistic consideration of the Public Relations activity, often associated essentially with Media Relations and even worse, due to a linguistic limitation, considered as costumer service. This tendency is certainly related with the historical context of the profession, with the lack of entities and standards regulating and defending the profession and, most importantly, the non-accreditation of the profession, as well as the inadequate or non demonstration of real results of PR strategies and actions.

This was the starting point for an investigation within the Portuguese market, where I intended to study and analyze under which name are considered the Public Relations in Portugal, how are they seen and which are considered to be its sub-disciplines.

This is exactly the reason why there have been established the Stockholm Accords, June 2010. Created not as a manifest but rather as a platform of understanding and consensus among professionals, this document intents to establish what are Public Relations, their role, their functions and their domains. According to John Paluszek (2010), this document is a process by which it is intended to establish the future of Public Relations. This document is therefore an important element and also a starting point for all research developed.

In specific terms, what’s the major aim of this empirical study? Objectively it is intended to study the current performance of the Public Relations profession in Portugal, more specifically in the Communication Agencies and Consultancies sector. "Public relations in Portugal: A lack of understanding of the concept or a non- recognition of the profession?” was the question to wish I tried to answer trough the application of surveys to a universe of 226 Communication Agencies, Consultancy and Public Relations, specifically, to the General Directors of the companies since, as a responsible for the company, it is estimated that they are representative of the organizational way of act and think.

In short, the entire study took place around two key stages: a prior content analysis, which in turn gave rise to the second and most important phase of the study, the implementation of the survey by inquiry. Let's See:

1. CONTENT ANALYSIS

Through a prior content analysis I tried to realize the relevance of the study here proposed and analyze to what extent there is in fact a non-recognition of the real role of the PR. To fulfill this aim, I examined the websites of the 18 Agencies advertised in the Advertising and Communication Yearbook (2010) in the Communication, Consulting and Public Relations sector of Portugal. Here I analyzed, in particular, the functions and activities that these companies refer to as being the core of PR. Ultimately, it is intend to realize if there’s a consensus regarding the sub-disciplines of Public Relations or if, on the other hand, there is a non-recognition of the key areas of the PR professional. I decided, therefore, for a quantitative content analysis method, establishing as a information unit the frequency of certain characteristic of the content.

This analysis was carried out taking into account the sub-disciplines that I considered as being part of Public Relations practice. To do so I considered two of the most recent Public Relations perspectives which I believe are closer to the current reality of the PR field. Therefore, they are the prospect of White & Mazur (1995) and Wilcox, Cameron & Xifra (2006).

This choice was made considering their recent character and the depth with which they have worked the theoretical field of PR. White & Mazur, for example, started their work

by saying that “Public relations has been poorly regarded in the corporate world and outside.” (White & Mazur, 1995: 3).

It is assumed, therefore, that the prospects of these authors, White & Mazur (1995) and Wilcox, Cameron and Xifra (2006), are more complete and up to date of Public Relations. Starting from this theoretical framework, I developed a proper framework, where is the patent the prospect taken into consideration in the study regarding my view on which sub-disciplines comprise the Public Relations practice, built by the confluence of the two aforementioned authors and a personal view on some categories which seem to make sense, given the current reality we live in. Having said that, let’s see the sub- disciplines that have been considered in this study as constituents of Public Relations:

Table 1 The sub-disciplines of Public Relations

Public Relations Activities

Corporate Communication 1

Media Relations 8

Issues Management 2

Community Relations 9

Publicity 3

Crises Management 10

Investor Relations 4

New Business 11

Financial Communication 5

Digital Communication 12

Lobbying 6

Internal Comunication 13

Public Affairs 7

Communication in the Public Interest 14

1 It is understood by Corporate Communication what encompasses marketing communication, organizational communication and management communication. It may be seen as a Framework in which various communications specialists working from a mutually established strategic framework can integrate their own communications input.(van Riel, 1992: 1)

2 It is understood by Issues Management, the identificación y resolución de diversos asuntos o temas que pueden afectar a la organización.(Wilcox, Cameron & Xifra, 2006: 14).

3 It is understood by Publicity, an activity where “Public relations sources provide what they judge to be newsworthy information publicity with the expectation that editors and reporters will use the information. Publicity is information provided by an outside source that is used by the media because the information has news value. This is an uncontrolled method of placing messages in the media because the source does not pay the media for placement.” (Cutlip & Center, 2009: 29)

4 Investor Relations, the “creación y mantenimiento de la confianza de los inversores y creación de buenas relaciones con la comunidad financiera(Wilcox, Cameron & Xifra, 2006: 14).

5 It is understood by Financial Communication “all of the strategies, tactics, and tools used to share financial data and recommendations with investors and other interested parties.” (International Encyclopedia of Communication, s.d.)

6 By Lobbying it’s understood “(…) the specific efforts to influence public decision-making either by pressing for change in policy or seeking to prevent such change. It consists of representations to [and/or policy relevant discussion with] any public office holder on any aspect of policy, or any measure implementing that policy, or any matter being considered, or which is likely to be considered by a public body.” (Public Relations Institute of Ireland, 2011)

7 Public Affairs is “(…) una participación eficaz en la política pública y ayuda a la organización a adaptarse a las expectativas públicas.” (Wilcox, Cameron & Xifra, 2006: 14).

8 The Media Relations, “trabaja con los medios de comunicación social cuando pretende publicity o para que actúen en función de los intereses de la organización.” (Wilcox, Cameron & Xifra, 2006: 13).

The construction and development of this frame is important not only from the point of view of content analysis but fundamentally because it worked, as well, as a basis for all the investigation, as we shall see later.

In a holistic way, I feel that these sub-disciplines, presented above, represent the major areas of the roll of Public Relations. On one hand, its role as a relationships mediator with different audiences and specific groups of interest, on the other hand, the scope of its action in an organizational level, since they act not only as a function that drives the communicative behavior of the Organization, but also as a strategic role in the resolution of crises, in issues management and in the relationship management with the various stakeholders.

The analysis carried out allowed us to realize the lack of consensus and a panoply of different functions that are usually associated with Public Relations, fact that highlights the difficulty of defining, concisely, the practice areas of PR. The presence of different names for similar functions the occurrence of several names, many of them checked only once and, most importantly, the distinction between Public Relations and Internal Communication, for example, is certainly a proof that this area is not consensual at all. 15

The analysis allowed us to realize, in the first instance, the existence of a wide array of different names and roles associated to Public Relations, which highlights the difficulty of defining concisely the areas of activity of the PR. There was a wide disparity in the

9 Consider by Community Relations “(…) actividades con la comunidad para mantener un entorno mutuamente beneficioso, tanto para la organización como para la propia comunidad.”(Wilcox, Cameron & Xifra, 2006: 14).

10 By Crises Management we understand, “(

effective response” (White & Mazur, 1995: 211).

)

having enough forethought to face the unexpected with a fast but

11 New Business are“(…) mechanics of new client acquisition, someone who has the sole focus and capabilities to bring “life-giving” new business to the agency.” (Gass, 2011).

12 Digital Communication “is the ability to create persuasive communications in different media, be it websites, video, audio, text, or animated multimedia.” (Aho, 2005: 1)

13 By Internal Communication we understand a communication which “sirve para responder a las preocupaciones, necesidades de información y de motivación de los trabajadores o empleados de una organización.” (Wilcox, Cameron & Xifra, 2006: 14).

14 Communication in the Public Interest can “(…) ser hoje pensada essencialmente como comunicação para a mudança social podendo ser esta definida como um processo de diálogo público e privado através do qual as pessoas definem quem são, o que querem e como o conseguem obter.” (Escola Superior de Comunicação Social de Lisboa, s.d.)

results and the lack of a greater consensus led to only few categories having a bigger number of occurrences.

Let's see: within the pre-established categories, those with more occurrences were the Internal Communication (8 cases), Media Relations (8 cases), Public Affairs/Public Affairs (6 occurrences), Crisis Communication (6 occurrences) and, subsequently, Corporate Communications and Financial Communication (both with 4 cases).

As regards the emerging categories those with a higher number of occurrences were Events (6 occurrences) and Institutional Communication (4 cases). Its also important to note the Corporate Social Responsibility category (4 cases), an area that has been developing within the business world.

One specific conclusion becomes especially relevant here: the Strategic Communication Consultancy category, had only 2 occurrences, an extremely low value. I believe that one would expect all agencies examined to name this activity as their core business, as an aggregator activity of all their other activities. The concept of strategy seems to be very badly worked in the field of Public Relations Consultancies and Agencies in Portugal. Only 5 occurrences include the notion of strategy, aspect which may also not be contributing to the consideration of this profession as a strategic activity, fundamental to organizational management.

It’s also important to consider, as said above, many of the agencies analyzed do not identify themselves with the notion of Public Relations Consultant, stating themselves as Communication Consultants. This may also be contributing to an ineffective analysis and wrong consideration of the data collected. I consider, however, that even this misinformation gives us a kind of information. Ultimately, this finding demonstrates, once again, the inconsistency and lack of consensus in the area of Public Relations and Strategic Communications in Portugal.

2. PUBLIC RELATIONS IN PORTUGAL: THE SURVEY

Based on this analysis, I developed the most important phase of this research: an exploratory study with a quantitative approach. Quantitative methods were used, in order to gather data which could be statistically managed to obtain more objective results.

2.1

STARTING QUESTION

Public Relations in Portugal: A lack of understanding of the concept or a non- recognition of the profession?

2.2 INVESTIGATION GENERAL HYPOTHESIS

Public Relations exists in Portugal under a range of diferente definitions.

As a guiding line to all this investigation, I’ve started from a general hypothesis which presupposes that Public Relations exist in Portugal under a wide range of different definitions, not recognized as activities of Public Relations. In other words, within a variety of definitions commonly attributed to PR, how do the Agencies / Consultancies of Communication and PR call Public Relation?

2.3 INVESTIGATION GOALS

This study has as a main goal analyze the performance of the PR profession in Portugal, specially in the Agencies and Consultant sector. As already said, the survey is based on the Stockholm Accords, the documents that better represents the PR today, which it’s a fundamental element here in order to understand how professional consider the activities established in it.

Thus, the specific goals of this investigation are:

Analyze if the activities described in the Stockholm Accords are practiced by the Agencies and Consultant sector in Portugal;

Analyze if the activities described in the Stockholm Accords are considered in Portugal as being activities of Public Relations;

Analyze if the practices of the PR professional and Communication Management, established in the Stockholm Accords, are considered in Portugal as practices of Public Relations;

Analyze which are the main sub-disciplines associated with the practice of Public Relations;

2.4

UNIVERSE UNDER STUDY

Having defined the area and path to take, it was mandatory to define the object of this study: the entities acting in the Public Relations sector. The universe in analysis is composed by all the Communication Agencies and Public Relations Consultancy of Portugal. This choice was made considering their main activities and sector, their knowledge and proximity with the Public Relations profession.

With this being said, and having as a ground base the Online Directory of Publicity and Communication (Directório Online Pub & Com), this universe is characterized for being a finite universe, composed by 226 companies, as consulted in June 1 st of 2011. 16 The decision of using this Directory was due to its’ proximity with reality and the truthfulness of its information.

I decided to inquire the General Directors of the Agencies under the study because it is believed that these, as the responsible of the organization, will represent the global opinion and vision of the company.

2.5 SURVEY CHARACTERIZATION

As already said, the inquiry had its base in the Stockholm Accords and in its’ 6 big axes, specifically, Sustainability, Governance, Management, Internal Communication, External Communication, Coordination between Internal and External Communication. Each one of these axes sets out a series of activities related to the Public Relations and Communication Manager professional and each one of these activities were included in the inquiry, so that it was possible to analyze the applicability of the Accords to the Portuguese reality. 17

In this sense, each one of the activities mentioned in each topic is a question. Each question was composed by 3 items or, in other words, by 3 sub-questions. In a simplified way, the questioning process was as you can see above:

Do you practice this activity?

How would you call it within the presented list of PR sub-disciplines?

Do you consider this as a sub-discipline of Public Relations?

16 See Appendix II

In other words, the respondent is asked, in first place, if in his company he practices the activity described. In second place, I ask to which of the sub-disciplines the respondent associates that specific activity. And, finally, in third place, if the respondent considers that activity as one of the sub-areas of Public Relations. In this sense, I wanted to figure out and get to know the activities associated with the PR and Communication professionals. This way, I tried to verify the applicability of the Stockholm Accords in a national level, as well as, analyze how the profession is held and preformed in Portugal.

The inquiry takes a standardized structure, with the same questions for all respondents. This decision was made to ensure that all people surveyed responded to the same questions. The questions had a closed character inquiry, to allow the statistically processing of the data.

As for the scale to be used for the collection of data, it was used a nominal scale through closed multiple choice, i.e., the respondents were able to choose the option to answer from a set of predetermined options. The option for this type of scale was made simply because it is the best option for the collection of data required, allowing an easier treatment to the results collected.

CONCLUSIONS OF THE STUDY

Conducted the investigation and analyzed the data, it was possible to draw important conclusions and, most importantly, open new questions for future studies, in my opinion, extremely necessary in the Portuguese reality.

This survey was applied, as already mentioned, a universe of 226 companies, from which it was possible to obtain approximately 26.5% of responses, a total of 60 companies.

Although scientifically speaking it is not possible to confirm or deny the general hypothesis of the study and we cannot extrapolate the conclusions, given the characteristics of the data collected, it is possible to verify a uniformity of responses. I think this is a great effort and a first approach in the Communication and Public Relations Agencies universe. To make it easier, we segregate the different conclusions from the survey:

1.

THE ACTIVITIES PRACTICE

From the analysis of the results was possible to conclude that, generally speaking, there is a great homogeneity in the responses. In all the questions the majority of the percentages are concentrated on the "Yes" side, i.e., the majority of the respondents practice the activities described in Stockholm Accords.

2. SUB-DISCIPLINES MAINLY SELECTED

On the other hand, over various questions, there is also a homogeneity in the sub- disciplines chosen as aggregators of the activities described. It is easily verifiable that the sub-discipline chosen for the description of the majority of the activities was Corporate Communication. The O’Dwyer’s PR Services Report, as said Wilcox, Cameron & Xifra, have done a research trough the 500 big companies from Fortune Magazine and discovered that the term used by the majority of them, specifically 165 of them, was Corporate Communication. In a second and distant place, was the term Public Relations, used by only 64 of the companies. I believe that this fact is due to the consideration of the Corporate Communication term as a more generic term to Public Relations (cf. Wilcox, Cameron & Xifra, 2006).

Still regarding this aspect, in second place, as one of the main sub-disciplines of PR, the results shown the Internal Communication sub-disciplines. After these two main areas, “Community Relations”, “Issues Management”, “Publicity” and “Investor Relations” are the most important areas.

Having said this, it would be interesting to study what kind of concept of Corporate Communications this set of respondents has. Do they consider Corporate Communication as a synonym for Public Relations? Or does Corporate Communication represent, in these terms, a less extended concept, mainly related to the External Communication? This analysis would be quite interesting to the extent that would enable us to draw a richer conclusion from this data.

3. ACTIVITY THAT GATHERED MORE “YES, I PRACTICE IT”

Regarding the activity more times executed by the respondents, i.e., the activity that generated more consensus around the "Yes" (93%), was related essentially with the dissemination and publicity to products and services: “Do you contribute to the

development and promotion of products, services or processes that strengthen brand loyalty and equity.” under the axes of External Communication.

This way, we can say that the respondent companies have as main activity the dissemination of products and services, as well as to bring consumer loyalty to the brand, which is a purely commercial activity. As we know, the Public Relations activity does not end merely in this type of activity. Actually, the added value of PR is, in my opinion, the fact that it works in the domain of intangible factors, i.e. PR goes beyond the creation of an isolated act of the buying process as it acts on the establishment of long lasting relationships, which are based on trust and commitment. Nevertheless, the former conclusion represents the reality of the capitalist world we operate in and it comes as a confirmation of the idea that ultimately, the objective of any company is to make profit. Most companies are simply concerned about profits and the sales of their products and services, pushing the importance of other activities to the background. This does not mean it is the right approach, it basically states how the majority is acting.

4. ACTIVITY THAT GATHERED MORE “NO, I DON’T PRACTICE IT”

Regarding the activities that most respondents claim not practice, it is demonstrated that 43% of respondents identify it as the participation in the resolution of organizational problems of their clients, specifically those which are related to the relations with stakeholders; followed with 42% of responses, by the activity of investigation, development and monitoring of the organizational behavior of their clients in the sense of allowing their adaptation to society’s needs. It seems thus, and regarding the respondent companies, that PR’s strategic role in the resolution of organizational problems and its great added value into what concerns the analysis and monitoring of the organizational surroundings - which allows to obtain valuable information that can decrease the degree of uncertainty in the decision making process are seen as secondary. Taking this into consideration, it could be interesting to verify if the clients of the respondent Agencies have in-house PR Departments which assure a certain set of activities, since in case this is not verified, one can then talk about a quite reductive view of the role of PR.

5. CONSIDERATION OF THE ACTIVITIES AND SUB-DISCIPLINES MENTIONED AS BEING PART OF THE PR ACTIVITY

In all questions, it was also possible to verify that the number of respondents which practice the described activity is higher than the number of respondents that consider it as being a Public Relations activity. 63% is the average of respondents which considers the sub-disciplines chosen as being areas of PR. Although this number corresponds to the majority of respondents, it is just slightly over the 50% mark. One would expect a higher percentage, close to the 100% mark, taking into consideration the characteristics of the universe under study. The fact that almost 40% of respondents do not recognize PR’s sub-disciplines reveals a certain ignorance and unawareness towards the real areas where Public Relations act.

6. NON RESPONSE TO THE SUB-QUESTIONS

Also worth mentioning is the 9% average rate of no response into what concerns the designation of the activity and its consideration as a sub-discipline of PR. In other words, this means that an average of 9% of respondents did not answer these questions despite they were asked to. It is possible to believe that this is due to the respondents’ difficulty of classifying the described activity. This fact also reveals, in my opinion, unawareness of the actual sub-disciplines of Public Relations and their domains.

7. MEAN OF RESPONDENTS THAT DON’T PRACTICE THE ACTIVITY DESCRIBED

Furthermore, it is important to state that 27% of respondents indicate not to practice the described activities in the Stockholm Accords, which are questioned here in this survey. Considering that this questionnaire was applied only to companies in the area of Communication, Consultancy and Public Relations, it becomes difficult to understand how 27% of the respondents do not practice the activities described in the Accords as practices of Public Relations.

8. AXIS IN WHICH THE MAJORITY OF THE ACTIVITIES ARE PRACTICED

BY THE MAJORITY OF THE RESPONDENTS

Regarding the axes defined in the Stockholm Accords and the results obtained from the study, it is verified that the axis which presents a higher average of respondents stating

that they practice its activities is the axis of Government. This means that the activities most respondents claim to practice belong to the axis of Government, with an average of 80.5% positive answers. Activities addressed here are, for example, the definition of values, principles, strategies, policies and organizational processes; the fomentation of transparent, authentic and genuine behaviors from companies on the relations with their stakeholders; the investigation towards social networks for the interpretation of the expectations of society and stakeholders; and the fomentation of a culture made of active listening, facilitating adaptation and proactive response.

In comparative terms, the remaining axes featured the following averages of affirmative responses: Sustainability-70.5%; Management-67%; Internal Communication-70.5%; External Communication 77% and finally, Coordination between Internal and external communication Communication 73.5%.

9. ACTIVITIES PRESENT IN THE SURVEY MAINLY CONSIDERED AS RP ACTIVITIES

Meanwhile, for the sub-question “Do you consider that this is a sub-discipline of Public Relations?”, through which one can understand whether the respondent perceives the described activity as part of PR activities or not, the axis of Internal Communication is the one that presents the highest average of positive answers. In other words, despite the fact that the axis of Government is the one where most respondents state to practice activities described within it, the axis of Internal Communication comes as the one where the highest number of positive answers are given when asked to consider the described activities as being part of PR. It can thus be said that Public Relations, within the set of respondent companies, are majorly associated to the activities of the sub- discipline of Internal Communication, namely to activities such as the establishment of mutual understanding of how collaborators understand, accept and help the achievement of the organizational strategy; of how organizational leaders collaborate and communicate with their stakeholders; of how knowledge and organizational policies are shared within the organizational structure of the respondents’ clients; and of how the organizational reputation of the respective clients depends greatly on the actions of its internal stakeholders.

Although the occurrence of a larger number of answers would have been advantageous towards the establishment of more and better conclusions, it can be concluded from this empirical exploratory study that there is a tendency, in the sector of Communication, Consultancy and Public Relations in Portugal, for the association of Public Relations to Corporate Communication and Internal Communication. These are comprehensive concepts which carry a large set of functions for its accomplishment. However, other specific sub-disciplines - where, in my opinion, the strategic role of Public Relations is present come with less representation. Sub-disciplines such as Issues Management, Crisis Management and most importantly, Communication in Public Interest. I consider that this fact reveals a non recognition or, at least, a lower recognition, of this type of functions and the overall strategic role of Public Relations.

To note that contrarily to what could be expected, as referred in the beginning of this work, after analyzing the results obtained, Public Relations seems to have little association with Media Relations activities. I believe this is due to the fact that this area is not regarded in the Stockholm Accords. That is, given that the whole inquiry was developed based in this document, none of the questions especially emphasized the Media Relations activities or Press Agency. Nevertheless, it was verified by the content analysis of the website of some of the main Agencies in the country, this tendency to associate PR to this type of activities, which is believed to be a result from the origins of the profession in the model of public information.

10. NON RESPONSE TO THE SURVEY

Finally, it is important to mention the high rate of non response verified in this study. Although there was a period of one month and ten days to answer, only 26.5% of respondents chose to answer. This demonstrates, in my opinion, the non proactive attitude of the Portuguese labor market into producing more and better knowledge. It urges a change in mentality so that is given a greater importance to the realization of this kind of studies, so that investments are made in students and professionals who intend to make this type of investigation while, at the same time, the collaboration of all parties is imperative for drawing better conclusions.

Overall, I believe that a greater collaboration from the professionals in the sector would have been essential for achieving better conclusions. It is known for fact that there is some unawareness of the true role of Public Relations, mainly in its more strategic side and closer to organizational management, as well as non-accreditation towards its real contribute. Nonetheless, it is the professionals themselves which are, in this case, making the realization of this kind of studies harder and they don’t seem to show any concern or collaboration towards any development being made in their own profession.

It may be interesting as well to bring the Palo Alto axiom into the equation, in which it is believed that it is impossible to not communicate and that every behavior is a form of communication. In this case, the non response from most of the Agencies contacted represents itself a form of communication. Is it possible to say that this non collaboration and non response from a great number of Agencies represents a non- recognition of the area of Public Relations and a non-recognition of the need and urgency to make the PR profession uniform and credible? Can one consider that as these companies do not answer, they do not see the need for developments in this area? Do these companies even feel affected by the non-recognition and accreditation of PR practices? It could be interesting, in my point view, to verify what this non behavior represents as a form of communication.

Bibliographic References

Bibliography

Aho, K. (2005) Digital Communication for All Students. San Francisco: Macromedia;

Almeida, J. F., Pinto, J. M. (1995) A investigação nas Ciências Sociais. Lisboa: Editorial Presença;

Anuário de Publicidade & Comunicação (2010). Lisboa: Workmedia;

Bell, J. (1997) Como realizar um Projecto de Investigação. Lisboa: Gradiva;

Botan, C. H., Taylor, M. (2004) Public relations: State if the field. Journal of Communication, 54(4), pp. 645661;

Broom, G. M. (2009) Cutlip & Center’s effective public relations. 10ª Edição. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall;

Bütschi, G., Steyn, B. (2006) Theory on Strategic Communication Management is the key to unlocking the boardroom. Invited debate paper for the Journal of Communication Management, 10 (1);

Chilosi, A., Damiani, M. (2007) Stakeholders vs. shareholders in corporate governance. Department of Economics-Univeristy of Pisa and Department of Economics, Finance, and Statistics-University of Perugia MPRA Paper No. 2334;

Cozier, Z., Witmer, D. (2001) The Development of a Structuration Analysis of New Publics in an Electronic Environment, in Heath, Robert (Ed.), Handbook of Public Relations, New York:

Sage Publications;

Diefenbach, T. (s.d.) Intangible Resources - a Categorial System of Knowledge and other Intangible Assets. United Kingdom: Open University Business School;

Dilenschneider, R. L. (2010) The AMA Handbook of Public Relations. United States of America: American Management Association;

Drucker, P. (1954) The practice of management. New York: Harper & Row;

Duarte, J. (s.d.) From The Stockholm Accords to Communicative Equations: A Fresh Look to Public Relations Role in Network Organizations. Lisbon’s Superior School of Mass Communication and Media Arts;

Eiró-Gomes, M., Duarte, J. (2005) Públicos “Virtuais” para Cidades “Reais”. 4º Congresso da Associação Portuguesa de Ciências da Comunicação, 4º SOPCOM, Comissão Editorial da Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal, pp.613 623, disponível em http://conferencias.ulusofona.pt;

Eiró-Gomes, M., Duarte, J. (2005) Que públicos para as Relações Públicas?. Actas dos III SOPCOM, VI LUSOCOM e II IBÉRICO Volume II, Comissão Editorial da Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal, pp. 453 461, disponível em http://conferencias.ulusofona.pt;

EiróGomes, M. (2006) Relações Públicas ou a Comunicação como acção. Lição para o concurso de Professora Coordenadora, apresentado em Lisboa a 28 de Junho de 2006 (artigo não publicado);

Elliot, P. (1972) The Sociology of the Professions. London: Macmillan;

Ferreira, J. M. C., (2001) Teoria geral dos sistemas e abordagem sociotécnica, in Ferreira, J. M. C., Neves, J., Caetano, A., Manual de Psicossociologia das Organizações. Portugal: McGraw- Hill, pp. 49 75;

Gonçalves, G. (2010) Introdução à Teoria das Relações Públicas. Porto Portugal: Porto Editora;

Gonçalves, G. (2010) The image of public relations in Portugal. A self-monitoring problem or a structural problem? Paper proposto para a “Section of organizacional and strategic communication” para a 3ª Conferência Europeia de Comunicação ECREA, a realizar em Hamburgo, Outubro de 2010;

Greene, C.N., Adam, E.A. Jr. & Ebert, R.J. (1985) Management for effective performance. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall;

Gregory, A. (2008) Public Relations and Management. Theaker, A. ed. The Public Relations Handbook. 3ªEd., London. pp. 51-69;

Gregory, A., Watson, T. (2008) Defining the gap between research and practice in public relations programme evaluation - towards a new research agenda. Journal of Marketing Communications, 14:5, pp. 337 350;

Gregory, A. & White, J. (2008) Introducing the Chartered Institute of Public Relations Initiative in Ruler, B., Vercic, A. T., Vercic, D., Public Relations Metrics Research and Evaluation. New York: Routledge, pp. 307 317;

Grunig, J. E. (2001) Two-Way Symmetrical Public Relations Past, Present, and Furture, in Handbook of Public Relations. New York: Sage Publications, pp. 11 50;

Grunig, J., White, J. (1992) The Effect of Worldviews on Public Relations Theory and Practice, in Grunig, J. Excellence in Public Relations and Communication Management. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., pp. 31-64;

Grunig, L; Repper, F. (1992) Strategic Management, Publics and Issues, in Grunig, J. ed. Excellence in Public Relations and Communication Management. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 117-158;

Harlow, R. (1976) Building a definition of public relations.

199-214;

Public Relations Review 2, pp.

Heath, R. L. (2001) Handbook of Public Relations. New York: Sage Publications, pp. 1 11;

Hosea, M. (2010) Stick with the glue that holds diverse industry together. Marketing Week, 29 July 2010, pp. 27 - 30;

Kent, M. L., Taylor, M. (2002) Toward a Dialogic Theory of Public Relations. Public Relations Review, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 21-37;

Lesley, P. (1997). Lesley’s Handbook of Public Relations and Communications. Chicago:

Contemporary Books;

LʼEtang, J. (2009) Public relations: concepts, practice and critique. London: Sage Publications;

Lourenço, S. (2009). Relações Públicas e mudança social: a sua importância e o seu papel no desenvolvimento de projectos sustentáveis. Tese de Mestrado, Escola Superior de Comunicação Social Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa;

Lourenço, S., Eiró-Gomes, M. (2009) O papel e a responsabilidade das Relações Públicas na sustentabilidade de um mundo global. Paper submetido no 8º LUSOCOM Comunicação, Espaço Global e Lusófonia, pp. 1488 - 1499, disponível em http://conferencias.ulusofona.pt;

Nunes, T. (2011) Terceiro Sector - Relações Públicas como Negociação e Compromisso. Tese de Mestrado, Escola Superior de Comunicação Social de Lisboa, 2011;

Paine, K. D., Draper, P., Jeffrey, A. (2008) Using Public Relations Research to Drive Business Results, Institute for Public Relations;

Paluszek, J. (2010) The Stockholm Accords: Developing a global program to shape PR's future. Public Relations Tactics, Public Relations Society of America, October 2010, pp.18;

Pasadeos, Y., Berger, B., Renfro, R.B. (2010) Public Relations as a Maturing Discipline: An Update on Research Networks. Journal of Public Relations Research, 22:2, pp. 136-158;

Pestana, M. H., Gageiro, J. N. (2000) Análise de Dados para Ciências Sociais A complementaridade do SPSS. 2ª Edição, Lisboa: Edições Sílabo;

Pirson, M., Malhotra, D. (2008) Unconventional Insights for Managing Stakeholder Trust. Mit Sloan Management Review, vol. 49 No. 4, pp. 43 50;

Quivy, R., Campenhoudt, L. V. (1992) Manual de Investigação em Ciências Sociais. Lisboa:

Gradiva;

Raposo, A. (2010) Teoria dos jogos: um instrumento para a tomada de decisão em Relações Públicas. Tese de Mestrado, Escola Superior de Comunicação Social Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa;

Rodrigues, P., Eiró-Gomes, M. (2009) A Institucionalização das Relações Públicas na Comunicação das Marcas de Luxo. Paper submetido no 6º SOPCOM Sociedade dos Media:

Comunicação, Política e Tecnologia, pp. 4182 - 4198, disponível em http://conferencias.ulusofona.pt;

Ruler, B., Vercic, A. T., Vercic, D. (2008) Public Relations Metrics Research and Evaluation. New York: Routledge;

Sha, B. (2011) Does accreditation really matter in public relations practice? How age and experience compare to accreditation. Public Relations Review 37, pp. 111;

Smith, H. J. (2003) The Shareholders vs. Stakeholders Debate. Mit Sloan Management Review, vol. 44 No. 4, pp. 85 90;

Soares, J. V. (2005) Comunicação nas Organizações e Relações Públicas. 4º Congresso da Associação Portuguesa de Ciências da Comunicação, 4º SOPCOM, Comissão Editorial da Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal, pp.513 520, disponível em http://conferencias.ulusofona.pt;

Soeiro, A. (2003) Relações Públicas em Portugal - Uma Profissão Mal Amada -. O Paradoxo De Uma Profissão. Instituto Superior da Maia;

Sorrel, M. (2009) Sir Martin Sorrel on the Renaissance of Public Relations. The Strategist, PRSA;

Sriramesh, K.; Vercic, D. (2009) The global public relations handbook: theory, research, and practice. New York: Routledge;

Stacks, D. W. (2006) Dictionary of Public Relations Measurement and Research. Institute for Public Relations;

Stewart, Thomas A. (1999) Capital Intelectual A nova riqueza das organizações. 1ª Edição. Lisboa: Edições Sílabo, pp. 115 - 147;

Steyn, B, (2007) Contribution of Public Relations to Organizational Strategy Formulation, in E.L. Toth, The Future of Excellence in Public Relations and Communication Management:

Challenges for the Next Generation. Capítulo 8, pp. 158-166. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Steyn, B., Niemann, J. (2008) Institutionalising the Strategic Role of Corporate Communication/Public Relations Through its contribution to Enterprise Strategy and Enterprise Governance. Paper submetido para o 10º encontro anual da EUPRERA Conference, a realizar em Milão em Outubro de 2008;

Steyn, B. (2009) The Strategic Role of Public Relations Is Strategic Reflection: A South African Research Stream. American Behavioral Scientist, 53(4) pp. 516532;

United Nations World Commission on Environment and DevelopmentWCED (1987) Our Common Future (Relatório de Brundtland). New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press;

Van Riel, C. B. M. (1992) Principles of Corporate Communication. London: Academic Service, pp. 1 - 26;

Wilcox, D. L., Cameron, G. T., Xifra, J. (2006) Relaciones Públicas - Estrategias y Tácticas. 8ª Edição. Madrid: Pearson Educación. pp. 1-89;

White, C., Park, J. (2010) Public perceptions of public relations. Public Relations Review, nº 36, pp. 319324;

White, J., Mazur, L. (1995) Strategic Communications Management Making Public Relations Work. Singapore: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company;

Xifra, J. (2008) Prefácio. Em Introdução à Teoria das Relações Públicas. Porto Portugal:

Porto Editora, pp. 5 - 7;

Online Resources

Addsolutions

(s.d.)

Serviços.

[Internet].

Available

in:

Agenda

2011];

in:

Setting

(s.d.)

Relações

Públicas.

[Internet].

Available

Bailey’s, R. (2011) Public relations - or communication?. PR Studies [Internet]. Available in:

Ban (s.d) Ban. [Internet]. Available in: http://www.ban.pt/ [Accessed at May 20th 2011];

C&C Consultores (s.d.)

online.net/index.php/competences [Accessed at May 20th 2011];

Competências.

[Internet].

Available

in:

Cunha Vaz e Associados (s.d.) Serviços. [Internet]. Available in: http://www.cunhavaz.com/pt [Accessed at May 20th 2011];

Escola Superior de Comunicação Social (2006) Manifesto para a Acreditação da Profissão de Relações Públicas em Portugal. [Internet]. Available in:

Escola Superior de Comunicação Social (s.d.) Comunicação no Interesse Público. [Internet]. Available in: http://www.escs.ipl.pt/index.php?conteudo=disciplinas&id=144 [Accessed at August 25th 2011];

European Communication Monitor (2008) Trends in Communication Management and Public Relations. [Internet]. Available in: http://www.communicationmonitor.eu/ECM2008- Results.pdf [Accessed at June 20th 2011];

European Communication Monitor (2009) Trends in Communication Management and Public Relations. [Internet]. Available in: http://www.communicationmonitor.eu/ECM2009-Results- ChartVersion.pdf [Accessed at June 20th 2011];

European Communication Monitor (2010) Status quo and challenges for Public Relations in Europe. [Internet]. Available in: http://www.communicationmonitor.eu/ECM2010-Results- ChartVersion.pdf [Accessed at June 20th 2011];

European Communication Monitor (2011) Empirical Insights into Strategic Communication in Europe. Available in: http://www.communicationmonitor.eu/ECM2011-Results- ChartVersion.pdf [Accessed at June 20th 2011];

Falconi, T. M. (2010) Reinventing accounting, assuring, public relations and communication

professions to adapt to integrated reporting: a quick report from St James Palace in London.

in:

Global

Alliance.

[Internet].

Available

palace-in-london [Accessed at April 15th 2011];

Falconi, T. M. (2010) Accords being integrated in Portuguese academic institutions. Global Alliance. [Internet]. Available in: http://www.stockholmaccords.org/sustainability/accords- being-integrated-in-portuguese-academic-institutions [Accessed at May 01st 2011];

Fonte (s.d.) Serviços. [Internet]. Available in: http://www.fontecomunicacao.pt/ [Accessed at May 20th 2011];

Frontpage

http://www.frontpagecc.com/oquefazemos.html [Accessed at May 20th 2011];

(s.d.)

O

que

fazemos.

[Internet].

Available

in:

Gass, M. (2011) Ad Agencies: Three Things a New Business Director Needs for Success. Fuel Line [Internet]. Available in: http://fuelingnewbusiness.com/2011/04/12/ad-agencies-three- things-a-new-business-director-needs-for-success/ [Accessed at August 25th 2011];

Global Alliance (2011) A CIPR diploma paper on the Accords by Rachel Cockburn from Leedsmet. [Internet]. Available in: http://www.stockholmaccords.org/accords/a-cipr-diploma- paper-on-the-accords-by-rachel-cockburn-from-leedsmet [Accessed at April 10th 2011];

Global

2011];

Alliance

(2010)

The

Stockholm

Accords.

[Internet].

in:

[Accessed at April 10th

Available

Global Alliance (2010)

General

Comments.

[Internet].

Available

in:

Green

Media

(s.d.)

Serviços.

[Internet].

Available

in:

http://www.greenmedia.pt/menu/page/serviços [Accessed at May 20th 2011];

Available in:

2011];

Guess

What

PR

(s.d.)

Serviços.

[Internet].

Identidade Digital (s.d.)

digital.com/servicos.aspx [Accessed at May 20th 2011];

Serviços.

[Internet].

Available

in:

Imago (s.d.) Áreas de Competência. [Internet]. Disponível em: http://www.imago.pt/pagina/217 [Accessed at May 20th 2011];

Infopédia

relacoes-publicas/ [Accessed at August 15th 2011];

(s.d.)

Profissão.

[Internet].

Available

in:

Inforpress Grupo (s.d.)

O

que

fazemos.

[Internet].

Available

in:

International Encyclopedia of Communication (s.d.) Financial Communication. [Internet]. Available in: http://www.communicationencyclopedia.com/ [Accessed at August 25th 2011];

Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão (2011) Métodos Quantitativos Aplicados. [Internet]. Available in: http://pascal.iseg.utl.pt/~vescaria/mqa/ [Accessed at September 10th 2011];

Ipsis (s.d) Serviços. [Internet]. Available in: http://www.ipsis.pt/ [Accessed at May 20th 2011];

Lift Consulting (s.d.)

Áreas

de

Prática.

[Internet].

Available

in:

http://www.lift.com.pt/areas_pratica.html [Accessed at May 20th 2011];

 

M

Public

Relations

(s.d.)

Competências.

[Internet].

Available

in:

http://www.mpublicrelations.pt/pt.php [Accessed at May 20th 2011];

Omniconsul (s.d.) Serviços. [Internet]. Available in: http://www.omniconsul.pt/ [Accessed at May 20th 2011];

Parceiros

de

Comunicação

(s.d.)

Áreas

de

Especialização.

[Internet].

Available

in:

Porter Noveli (s.d.) Práticas. [Internet]. Available in: http://www.porternovelli.com/iberia

[Accessed at May 20th 2011];

Public Relations Institute of Ireland (s.d.) Regulation of lobbyists. [Internet]. Available in:

Public Relations Society of America (s.d.) Public Relations Defined. [Internet]. Available in:

Pub&Com (s.d.) Agências de Comunicação, Consultoria e Relações Públicas. [Internet]. Available in: http://publicidadecomunicacao.workmedia.pt/sectores/agencias-de-comunicacao- consultoria-e-relacoes-publicas/ [Accessed at May 25th 2011];

Universal Accreditation Board (2000) APR Practice Analysis of the Public Relations Profession. [Internet]. Available in: http://www.praccreditation.org/Practice%20Analysis.html [Accessed at August 15th 2011];

World Public Relations Forum (2010) The Stockholm Accords. [Internet]. Available in:

World Public Relations Forum (2010) New draft of the Stockholm Accords. [Internet]. Available

30th 2011];

Seminars and Conferences

Eiró Gomes, Mafalda (Professor Coordinator of Public Relations at the School of Communication and Media Studies), Communication for Social change (Comunicação para a Mudança Social). School of Communication and Media Studies, 2010;

Gregory, Anne (Leeds Business School, Leeds Metroplitan University), Ethics and Professionalism. School of Communication and Media Studies, 2010;

Paluszek, John & Gregory, Anne (Global Alliance International Forum), The Stockholm Accords A call to action for Public Relations and Communication in a Global Society. School of Communication and Media Studies, 2011;

Nadim, Habib (School of Communication and Media Studies), The Stockholm Accords A call to action for Public Relations and Communication in a Global Society. School of Communication and Media Studies, 2010;

Xifra, Jordi (Faculty of Tourism and Communication of the University of Girona, Spain) Public Relations as Negotiation and Commitment - Third Sector (Terceiro Sector - Relações Públicas como Negociação e Compromisso). Master Thesis, School of Communication and Media Studies, 2011.

Appendix I

Universe in Analysis

Significant Categories

Frequencial Count

Corporate Communication

4

Issues Management

 

Publicity

 

Investor Relations

1

Finantial Communication

4

Lobbying

2

Public Affairs

6

Media Relations

8

Community Relations

 

Crises Management

8

New Business

 

Digital Communication

3

Internal Communication

8

Communication in the Public Interest

 

Emerging Categories

Frequencial Count

Events and Content Management

2

Media production and content

1

Edition

1

Brochures

1

Media Events and PR

2

Events

6

Events and Sponsoships

1

Business Communication Diagnosis

1

Communication Planning (tradicional media and new media)

1

Institutional Relations

1

Lobbying/Public Affaris/B2B

1

Institutional Communication

4

Organizational Communication

1

Product Communication

3

Consumer communication

1

Brand Communication

2

Marketing Communication

2

Studies on Brands

1

Rebuilding, lifting and development of brand identity

1

Research

2

Visual and Graphic Communication

1

External Communication

2

Internationalisation of companies

1

Strategic Communication Consulting

2

Strategic Consultancy

2

Communication Consultancy

1

Intenal Consultancy

1

Public Relations Consultancy

1

Communication Audit

1

Training and Coaching

1

Training

3

Training of spokespersons

1

Training

1

Media Training

1

Endorsement

2

Reputation

2

Business Image

1

Audit in communication and image

1

Management of disputes between companies

1

Inovation and Techonology Communication

1

Online Communication

1

Word of Mouth & Mobile Marketing

1

Online Reputations Studies

1

Social Media Communication

1

Social Media Management

1

Content Management for Social Media

1

Digital & Social Media Strategies

1

Social Media Monitoring

1

Online Crises Management

1

Development of Social and Professional networks

1

Training for Social Media

1

Health Communication

1

Business Social Reponsability

4

Projects for Social Reponsability

1

Appendix II

Universe in Analysis

Universe in Analysis

Agenda Setting;

Grupo GCI;

M Public Relations;

Sistema 4 Publicity, Promotion and Marketing;

BAN Corporate & Media Relations;

Parceiros de Comunicação Consultants in Communication and Image;

Sair da Casca Consultancy and Communication in Sustainable Development;

Lift Consulting, Consultants of Communication;

Gatekeepers Press Agency;

Encore Audio-visual Production;

Green Media;

Plenimagem;

Cidot Communication Studio;

Quintela & Reis Associados;

C&C Consultants of Communication;

Newsline Press and Communication;

Twoway MBC Group;

Flecta;

Guess What Comunicação;

Arte Franca;

AddSolutions;

Brandcom Communication, Image and Events;

Cunha Vaz & Associados, Consultants;

Jervis Pereira Representation and Consultancy;

AEMpress;

Unimagem Communication and Image;

LIVE Comunicação Global;

MSG Mensagem Society of Communication Professionals;

Front Page Consultants of Communication;

Comunicarte;

Sinapse Media;

Grupo Inforpress;

BeChosen Services and Consultancy of Field Marketing;

Sopexa Portugal;

Ogilvy Public Relations;

Próxima Geração Media, Communication, Technologies and Services;

YoungNetwork;

Leadwide Consulting;

Publivision;

Media Consulting Consultants of Communication;

Businessgolf;

Toomuch Design;

Weber Shandwick | D&E Communication and Image;

Porter Novelli;

Boutik Marketing;

Ducks Consultancy, Production and Services;

Reputation;

Média Alta Image and Communication;

Gen Desing Studio;

Homens & Sistemas Organization and Development of Enterprises;

Inezborges Design Agency;

Multicom Comunicação;

Hill & Knowlton;

Éter Azul;

Media Duyes Strategy and Communication;

Publicenso Image and Communication;

Global Fashion;

Choice Global Communication;

Publiconnect;

Click Perfil;

Press Club;

Strongmedia;

Ideias em Baú Communication;

Spirituc Marketing and Internal Communication;

Ethical Social Responsibility Projects;

Criasons;

Fonte;

Thelab;

Gautier & Associados;

DesignCorner;

Designsete;

Uppartner Marketing Communication;

Last Lap;

Hamlet;

Mercury Associates;

Over & Jervis MCW;

Speak Communication and Design;

EDC Communication, Marketing and Events;

D+ Publicidade Marketing and Publicity;

MSImpacto Communication and Press Agency;

Pressmedia;

Fix;

4xclusive Events | Comunication | Public Relations;

Infobus Communication and Services;

CF Comunicação Portugal;

RSG Brand Design;

Press Release Advisory, Consultancy and Communication;

Omnisinal;

Ulled Comunicação;

Mediagate;

Get Communication Design;

Studio Design & Branding;

Sudler & Hennessey;

Lewis PR;

Efígie Image and Communication Agency;

Ipsis Public Relations Consultants;

Global Press Communication & PR Consulting;

Imagemplus;

SOAP State of the Art Presentations;

Metacriações Communication Agency;

Triple Design;

Mediana;

Alenproduções Communication and Image;

XN Brand Dynamics;

Única Special Projects, Image and Marketing;

Posicionandum;

Proger Próxima Geração;

Vexo Integrated Communication;

Emirec Communication;

RP Margem Communication;

Draft Flow;

Eurequipa Opinion, Marketing and Consultancy;

Excentric;

Boutique Criativa Publicity Creativity and Production;

Studycom Communication Consultancy;

Filmconsultants;

Faxinforme Information and Services Management;

LineUP, Eventos que Marcam!;

APS Comunicação;

Formato Verde Communication, Creation and Management of Content;

Bloo;

Analima Communication and Marketing;

SketchPixel Animation Studio;

Brand Team;

Celeuma Publicity and Communication;

Psicare Marketing in Healthcare;

Say U Consulting;

Midlandcom Consultants of Communication;

MediaHealth Portugal;

Zona Verde Consultancy and Advanced Studies;

Comunica mais a;

BRN Real Estate Communication;

The Brand Communication and Marketing Agency;

Hora Marketing & Communication;

Market Iniciative;

Fun Communication and Events;

Encontro d’Ideias;

Show Press;

Companhia do Texto;

Walk move your brand;

Identidade Digital;

Best Vintage Comunicação;

Grupo Consultores;

Primeira Imagem Consultants of Communication;

A&L Design;

Designability;

AC Communication;

ymed Global Communication;

SI Communication;

Pure Ativism;

Ideiateca Management and Sales Consultants;

Academia Looking;

Effectivity;

Big Om Global Communication;

Free Lance Comunicação;

QI Porto de Ideias;

CNA Communication Products;

Lisbon Communication Office;

XMP Management and Means of Communication;

Douro Spirit;

Imago Image and Communication;

Dadavox Communication & Marketing;

Addisplay;

LK Comunicação;

Mola Ativism;

Status Events;

SalesUp Comercial Advisory and Consultancy;

Vantag Comunicação;

Aximage Communication and Image;

Best News®;

Bússola Market Research and Communication;

Shark Bite Integrated Communication;

PR3D;

Adworks Publicity, Design and Communication;

Dot One;

AdMKT Marketing and Communication in Outsourcing;

Marques & Associados Creative;

4 Ventos Communication Studio;

Adventure By You;

L2J Enterprise Consultants;

PA Leading;

Empower;

Fire Communication;

Lp Mkt;

Buzz Communication Agency;

Central de Informação;

Paulo Noguês & Associados;

Generator;

AtlânticoPress Communication and Image;

Inédia Communication Strategy and

Bloco D Design and Communication;

Consultancy;

ADBD Communicare Associated Consultants;

Unstress Concept;

Maisimagem Global Communication;

Macambira & Araújo;

Next Power;

Yellowtail;

Buzzmedia;

Volume Comunicação e Tecnologias;

Rita Ribeiro Comunicação;

Campanha Communication Strategy;

PressDirecto Communication and Public Relations;

Corpcom Corporate Communication;

Atelier de Comunicação;

Companhia das Soluções;

Atelier Nunes e Pã;

Omniconsul Consultants of Communication;

Complementar Marketing Consultancy;

Força Motriz;

Matéria Escrita Consultants of Communication;

Adverbe;

Punchline;

SpeedCom Marketing, Communication and Image;

Opinion Maker Organizational Communication;

Fullmedia Audio-visual Production and Communication Advisory;

High End Communicators;

Sales Group;

Blue Line;

Deskprovider Administrative Services;

LPM Comunicação;

Idea Can;

Bluepoint Marketing & Events;

Zincodesign;

Appendix III

Survey Template

Public Relations in Portugal

The survey that follows was built aiming to be as clear as possible, easy and fast filling, keeping the same response schema on all issues.

Here we will enumerate various activities which we consider to be within the framework of services and activities that your Consultant/Agency offers to its clients.

Thus, for all questions consider the following affirmation:

In the set of services that your Consultant/Agency offers, (…)”

1. Do you participate in the definition of organizational values, principles, strategies, policies and processes?

Yes

How would you designate the activity described above?

Corporate Communication

Issues Management

Publicity

Investor Relations

Financial Communication

Lobbying

Public Affairs

No

Media Relations

Community Relations

Crises Management

New Business

Digital Communication

Internal Communication

Communication for the Public Interest

Do you consider that this is a sub-discipline of Public Relations?

Yes

No

2. Do you define and prioritize your clients’ stakeholders at any given time according to the different organizational contexts?

Yes

How would you designate the activity described above?

Corporate Communication

Issues Management

Publicity

Investor Relations

Financial Communication

Lobbying

Public Affairs

No

Media Relations

Community Relations

Crises Management

New Business

Digital Communication

Internal Communication

Communication for the Public Interest

Do you consider that this is a sub-discipline of Public Relations?

Yes

No

3.

Do

you

involve

and

engage

key

stakeholders

sustainability policies and programs?

in

the

organization’s

Yes

How would you designate the activity described above?

Corporate Communication

Issues Management

Publicity

Investor Relations

Financial Communication

Lobbying

Public Affairs

No

Media Relations

Community Relations

Crises Management

New Business

Digital Communication

Internal Communication

Communication for the Public Interest

Do you consider that this is a sub-discipline of Public Relations?

Yes

No

4.

Do you inform and shape the organization’s overall two-way communication

abilities?

Yes

How would you designate the activity described above?

Corporate Communication

Issues Management

Publicity

Investor Relations

Financial Communication

Lobbying

Public Affairs

No

Media Relations

Community Relations

Crises Management

New Business

Digital Communication

Internal Communication

Communication for the Public Interest

Do you consider that this is a sub-discipline of Public Relations?

Yes

No

5. Do you seek constant feedback for a mutual understanding of how front-line

people comprehend, accept and achieve the organization’s strategy?

Yes

How would you designate the activity described above?

Corporate Communication

Issues Management

Publicity

Investor Relations

Financial Communication

Lobbying

Public Affairs

No

Media Relations

Community Relations

Crises Management

New Business

Digital Communication

Internal Communication

Communication for the Public Interest

Do you consider that this is a sub-discipline of Public Relations?

Yes

No

6.

Do you develop and foster relationships with community groups, government

agencies, investors, groups of active citizens, confederations, traditional and digital media, and other situational stakeholders?

Yes

No

How would you designate the activity described above?

Corporate Communication

Issues Management

Publicity

Investor Relations

Financial Communication

Lobbying

Public Affairs

Media Relations

Community Relations

Crises Management

New Business

Digital Communication

Internal Communication

Communication for the Public Interest

Do you consider that this is a sub-discipline of Public Relations?

Yes

No

7. Do you oversee the development and implementation of internal and extern

communications to assure consistency of content and accurate presentation of the organization’s identity?

Yes

How would you designate the activity described above?

Corporate Communication

Issues Management

Publicity

Investor Relations

Financial Communication

Lobbying

Public Affairs

No

Media Relations

Community Relations

Crises Management

New Business

Digital Communication

Internal Communication

Communication for the Public Interest

Do you consider that this is a sub-discipline of Public Relations?

Yes

No

8. Do you interpret societal expectations for sound economic, social and environmental commitments that yield a return to the organization and society?

Yes

How would you designate the activity described above?

Corporate Communication

Issues Management

Publicity

Investor Relations

Financial Communication

Lobbying

Public Affairs

No

Media Relations

Community Relations

Crises Management

New Business

Digital Communication

Internal Communication

Communication for the Public Interest

Do you consider that this is a sub-discipline of Public Relations?

Yes

No

9. Do you apply social networking, research skills and tools to interpret stakeholders’ and society’s expectations as a basis for decisions?

Yes

How would you designate the activity described above?

Corporate Communication

Issues Management

Publicity

Investor Relations

Financial Communication

Lobbying

Public Affairs

No

Media Relations

Community Relations

Crises Management

New Business

Digital Communication

Internal Communication

Communication for the Public Interest

Do you consider that this is a sub-discipline of Public Relations?

Yes

No

10.

Do you communicate the value of the organization’s products/services and

relationships with stakeholders thereby creating, consolidating and developing its financial, legal, relational and operational capital?

Yes

How would you designate the activity described above?

Corporate Communication

Issues Management

Publicity

Investor Relations

Financial Communication

Lobbying

Public Affairs

No

Media Relations

Community Relations

Crises Management

New Business

Digital Communication

Internal Communication

Communication for the Public Interest

Do you consider that this is a sub-discipline of Public Relations?

Yes

No

11. Do you seek constant feedback for a mutual understanding of how and how

well organizational leaders collaborate and communicate with stakeholders?

Yes

How would you designate the activity described above?

Corporate Communication

Issues Management

Publicity

Investor Relations

Financial Communication

Lobbying

Public Affairs

No

Media Relations

Community Relations

Crises Management

New Business

Digital Communication

Internal Communication

Communication for the Public Interest

Do you consider that this is a sub-discipline of Public Relations?

Yes

No

12.

Do you try to bring the organization’s “voice” and interests into stakeholders

deliberations and decisions?

Yes

How would you designate the activity described above?

Corporate Communication

Issues Management

Publicity

Investor Relations

Financial Communication

Lobbying

Public Affairs

No

Media Relations

Community Relations

Crises Management

New Business

Digital Communication

Internal Communication

Communication for the Public Interest

Do you consider that this is a sub-discipline of Public Relations?

Yes

No

13. Do you ensure stakeholders participation to identify information that should

be regularly, transparently and authentically reported?

Yes

How would you designate the activity described above?

Corporate Communication

Issues Management

Publicity

Investor Relations

Financial Communication

Lobbying

Public Affairs

No

Media Relations

Community Relations

Crises Management

New Business

Digital Communication

Internal Communication

Communication for the Public Interest

Do you consider that this is a sub-discipline of Public Relations?

Yes

No

14. Do you oversee the development and implementation of internal and external communications to assure consistency of content and accurate presentation if the organization’s identity?

Yes

How would you designate the activity described above?

Corporate Communication

Issues Management

Publicity

Investor Relations

Financial Communication

Lobbying

Public Affairs

No

Media Relations

Community Relations

Crises Management

New Business

Digital Communication

Internal Communication

Communication for the Public Interest

Do you consider that this is a sub-discipline of Public Relations?

Yes

No

15. Do you deliver timely analysis and recommendations for an effective governance of stakeholders relationships by enchasing transparency, trustworthy behavior, authentic and verifiable representation, thus sustaining the organization’s “license to operate”?

Yes

How would you designate the activity described above?

Corporate Communication

Issues Management

Publicity

Investor Relations

Financial Communication

Lobbying

Public Affairs

No

Media Relations

Community Relations

Crises Management

New Business

Digital Communication

Internal Communication

Communication for the Public Interest

Do you consider that this is a sub-discipline of Public Relations?

Yes

No

16.

Do

you

seek

constant

feedback

knowledge and policy are being shared?

Yes

How would you designate the activity described above?

Corporate Communication

Issues Management

Publicity

Investor Relations

Financial Communication

Lobbying

Public Affairs

for

a

mutual

No

understanding

of

Media Relations

Community Relations

Crises Management

New Business

Digital Communication

Internal Communication

Communication for the Public Interest

Do you consider that this is a sub-discipline of Public Relations?

Yes

No

how

17. Do you participate in the solution of organizational issues, as well as lead those specifically focused on stakeholders relationships?

Yes

How would you designate the activity described above?

Corporate Communication

Issues Management

Publicity

Investor Relations

Financial Communication

Lobbying

Public Affairs

No

Media Relations

Community Relations

Crises Management

New Business

Digital Communication

Internal Communication

Communication for the Public Interest

Do you consider that this is a sub-discipline of Public Relations?

Yes

No

18. Do you assist all organizational functions in crafting and delivering effective communication?

Yes

How would you designate the activity described above?

Corporate Communication

Issues Management

Publicity

Investor Relations

Financial Communication

Lobbying

Public Affairs

No

Media Relations

Community Relations

Crises Management

New Business

Digital Communication

Internal Communication

Communication for the Public Interest

Do you consider that this is a sub-discipline of Public Relations?

Yes

No

19.

Do

you

research,

communicative behavior?

develop,

monitor

and

adjust

the

organization’s

Yes

How would you designate the activity described above?

Corporate Communication

Issues Management

Publicity

Investor Relations

Financial Communication

Lobbying

Public Affairs

No

Media Relations

Community Relations

Crises Management

New Business

Digital Communication

Internal Communication

Communication for the Public Interest

Do you consider that this is a sub-discipline of Public Relations?

Yes

No

20.

Do you promote and support efforts to reach an ongoing integrated reporting

of financial, social, economic and environmental?

Yes

How would you designate the activity described above?

Corporate Communication

Issues Management

Publicity

Investor Relations

Financial Communication

Lobbying

Public Affairs

No

Media Relations

Community Relations

Crises Management

New Business

Digital Communication

Internal Communication

Communication for the Public Interest

Do you consider that this is a sub-discipline of Public Relations?

Yes

No

21. Do you seek the creation of an internal listening culture, an open system that

allows the organization to anticipate, adapt and respond?

Yes

How would you designate the activity described above?

Corporate Communication

Issues Management

Publicity

Investor Relations

Financial Communication

Lobbying

Public Affairs

No

Media Relations

Community Relations

Crises Management

New Business

Digital Communication

Internal Communication

Communication for the Public Interest

Do you consider that this is a sub-discipline of Public Relations?

Yes

No

22. Do you seek constant feedback for a mutual understanding of how the organization’s reputation depends largely on the actions taken by internal stakeholders?

Yes

How would you designate the activity described above?

Corporate Communication

Issues Management

Publicity

Investor Relations

Financial Communication

Lobbying

Public Affairs

No

Media Relations

Community Relations

Crises Management

New Business

Digital Communication

Internal Communication

Communication for the Public Interest

Do you consider that this is a sub-discipline of Public Relations?

Yes

No

23. Do you contribute to the development and promotion of products, services or processes that strengthen brand loyalty and equity?

Yes

How would you designate the activity described above?

Corporate Communication

Issues Management

Publicity

Investor Relations

Financial Communication

Lobbying

Public Affairs

No

Media Relations

Community Relations

Crises Management

New Business

Digital Communication

Internal Communication

Communication for the Public Interest

Do you consider that this is a sub-discipline of Public Relations?

Yes

No

24.

Do

you

manage

and

apply

research

to

implement

evaluation

and

measurement programs for continued improvement?

Yes

How would you designate the activity described above?

Corporate Communication

Issues Management

Publicity

Investor Relations

Financial Communication

Lobbying

Public Affairs

No

Media Relations

Community Relations

Crises Management

New Business

Digital Communication

Internal Communication

Communication for the Public Interest

Do you consider that this is a sub-discipline of Public Relations?

Yes

No