This book is dedicated to Ying Lu

Considerate la vostra semenza;
Fatti non foste a viver come bruti,
Ma per seguir virtute e conoscenza.
Consider the seed from which you were made;
You were not made to live like brutes,
But to pursue virtue and knowledge.
Dante’s Inferno,
CantoXXVI, lines118–120, Ulysses
The photograph is of 3 phase, 290 kW, 6.6 kV, 60 Hz, 6-pole. 1188 rev/min squirrel
cage induction motors, manufactured by ATB Laurence Scott Ltd at Norwich in the
UK, driving pumps on the offshore Buzzard platform in the North Sea.
Contents
Preface xiii
Acknowledgments xvii
Nomenclature xix
1 Introduction to condition monitoring 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Theneedfor monitoring 4
1.3 What andwhentomonitor 7
1.4 Scopeof thetext 9
1.5 References 10
2 Construction, operation and failure modes of electrical machines 13
2.1 Introduction 13
2.2 Materialsandtemperature 14
2.3 Constructionof electrical machines 16
2.3.1 General 16
2.3.2 Stator coreandframe 18
2.3.3 Rotors 18
2.3.4 Windings 18
2.3.5 Enclosures 20
2.3.6 Connections 26
2.3.7 Summary 26
2.4 Structureof electrical machinesandtheir types 26
2.5 Machinespecificationandfailuremodes 33
2.6 Insulationageingmechanisms 35
2.6.1 General 35
2.6.2 Thermal ageing 36
2.6.3 Electrical ageing 36
2.6.4 Mechanical ageing 37
2.6.5 Environmental ageing 38
2.6.6 Synergismbetweenageingstresses 39
2.7 Insulationfailuremodes 39
2.7.1 General 39
2.7.2 Stator windinginsulation 40
2.7.3 Stator windingfaults 45
viii Condition monitoring of rotating electrical machines
2.7.4 Rotor windingfaults 50
2.8 Other failuremodes 54
2.8.1 Stator corefaults 54
2.8.2 Connectionfaults(high-voltagemotorsand
generators) 54
2.8.3 Water coolant faults(all machines) 56
2.8.4 Bearingfaults 56
2.8.5 Shaft voltages 56
2.9 Conclusion 59
2.10 References 59
3 Reliability of machines and typical failure rates 61
3.1 Introduction 61
3.2 Definitionof terms 61
3.3 Failuresequenceandeffect onmonitoring 63
3.4 Typical root causesandfailuremodes 65
3.4.1 General 65
3.4.2 Root causes 65
3.4.3 Failuremodes 66
3.5 Reliabilityanalysis 66
3.6 Machinerystructure 69
3.7 Typical failureratesandMTBFs 71
3.8 Conclusion 75
3.9 References 76
4 Instrumentation requirements 79
4.1 Introduction 79
4.2 Temperaturemeasurement 81
4.3 Vibrationmeasurement 88
4.3.1 General 88
4.3.2 Displacement transducers 89
4.3.3 Velocitytransducers 91
4.3.4 Accelerometers 92
4.4 Forceandtorquemeasurement 94
4.5 Electrical andmagneticmeasurement 97
4.6 Wear anddebrismeasurement 100
4.7 Signal conditioning 102
4.8 Dataacquisition 104
4.9 Conclusion 106
4.10 References 106
5 Signal processing requirements 109
5.1 Introduction 109
5.2 Spectral analysis 110
5.3 High-order spectral analysis 115
List of contents ix
5.4 Correlationanalysis 116
5.5 Signal processingfor vibration 118
5.5.1 General 118
5.5.2 Cepstrumanalysis 118
5.5.3 Timeaveragingandtrendanalysis 120
5.6 Wavelet analysis 121
5.7 Conclusion 125
5.8 References 125
6 Temperature monitoring 127
6.1 Introduction 127
6.2 Local temperaturemeasurement 127
6.3 Hot-spot measurement andthermal images 132
6.4 Bulkmeasurement 132
6.5 Conclusion 134
6.6 References 134
7 Chemical monitoring 137
7.1 Introduction 137
7.2 Insulationdegradation 137
7.3 Factorsthat affect detection 138
7.4 Insulationdegradationdetection 142
7.4.1 Particulatedetection: coremonitors 142
7.4.2 Particulatedetection: chemical analysis 146
7.4.3 Gasanalysisoff-line 148
7.4.4 Gasanalysison-line 149
7.5 Lubricationoil andbearingdegradation 152
7.6 Oil degradationdetection 153
7.7 Wear debrisdetection 153
7.7.1 General 153
7.7.2 Ferromagnetictechniques 154
7.7.3 Other wear debrisdetectiontechniques 155
7.8 Conclusion 157
7.9 References 157
8 Vibration monitoring 159
8.1 Introduction 159
8.2 Stator coreresponse 159
8.2.1 General 159
8.2.2 Calculationof natural modes 161
8.2.3 Stator electromagneticforcewave 164
8.3 Stator end-windingresponse 167
8.4 Rotor response 168
8.4.1 Transverseresponse 168
8.4.2 Torsional response 171
x Condition monitoring of rotating electrical machines
8.5 Bearingresponse 173
8.5.1 General 173
8.5.2 Rollingelement bearings 173
8.5.3 Sleevebearings 175
8.6 Monitoringtechniques 176
8.6.1 Overall level monitoring 177
8.6.2 Frequencyspectrummonitoring 179
8.6.3 Faultsdetectablefromthestator forcewave 182
8.6.4 Torsional oscillationmonitoring 183
8.6.5 Shockpulsemonitoring 187
8.7 Conclusion 189
8.8 References 189
9 Electrical techniques: current, flux and power monitoring 193
9.1 Introduction 193
9.2 Generator andmotor stator faults 193
9.2.1 Generator stator windingfault detection 193
9.2.2 Stator current monitoringfor stator faults 193
9.2.3 Brushgear fault detection 194
9.2.4 Rotor-mountedsearchcoils 194
9.3 Generator rotor faults 194
9.3.1 General 194
9.3.2 Earthleakagefaultson-line 195
9.3.3 Turn-to-turnfaultson-line 196
9.3.4 Turn-to-turnandearthleakagefaultsoff-line 204
9.4 Motor rotor faults 207
9.4.1 General 207
9.4.2 Airgapsearchcoils 207
9.4.3 Stator current monitoringfor rotor faults 207
9.4.4 Rotor current monitoring 210
9.5 Generator andmotor comprehensivemethods 212
9.5.1 General 212
9.5.2 Shaft flux 213
9.5.3 Stator current 217
9.5.4 Power 217
9.5.5 Shaft voltageor current 219
9.5.6 Mechanical andelectrical interaction 221
9.6 Effectsof variablespeedoperation 221
9.7 Conclusion 224
9.8 References 224
10 Electrical techniques: discharge monitoring 229
10.1 Introduction 229
10.2 Backgroundtodischargedetection 229
10.3 Earlydischargedetectionmethods 231
List of contents xi
10.3.1 RF couplingmethod 231
10.3.2 Earthlooptransient method 233
10.3.3 Capacitivecouplingmethod 235
10.3.4 WidebandRF method 236
10.3.5 Insulationremanent life 236
10.4 Detectionproblems 238
10.5 Moderndischargedetectionmethods 239
10.6 Conclusion 241
10.7 References 241
11 Application of artificial intelligence techniques 245
11.1 Introduction 245
11.2 Expert systems 246
11.3 Fuzzylogic 250
11.4 Artificial neural networks 253
11.4.1 General 253
11.4.2 Supervisedlearning 254
11.4.3 Unsupervisedlearning 256
11.5 Conclusion 260
11.6 References 261
12 Condition-based maintenance and asset management 263
12.1 Introduction 263
12.2 Condition-basedmaintenance 263
12.3 Life-cyclecosting 265
12.4 Asset management 265
12.5 Conclusion 267
12.6 References 268
Appendix Failure modes and root causes in rotating electrical
machines 269
Index 277
Preface
Condition monitoring of engineering plant has increased in importance as more
engineeringprocesses becomeautomatedandthemanpower neededtooperateand
supervise plant is reduced. However, electrical machinery has traditionally been
thought of as reliable and requiring little attention, except at infrequent intervals
whentheplant isshut downfor inspection. Indeedthetraditional applicationof fast-
actingprotectiverelays to electrical machines has rather reducedtheattentionthat
operatorspaytotheequipment.
Rotatingelectrical machines, however, areat theheart of most engineeringpro-
cesses and as they are designed to tighter margins there is a growing need, for
reliability’s sake, to monitor their behaviour and performance on-line. This book
is aguideto thetechniques available. Thesubject of conditionmonitoringof elec-
trical machinesasawholecoversaverywidefieldincludingrotatingmachinesand
transformers. To restrict thefieldtheauthors deal withrotatingmachines only and
withtechniquesthatcanbeappliedwhenthosemachinesareinoperation, neglecting
themanyoff-lineinspectiontechniques.
Thefirst editionof thisbook, Condition Monitoring of Electrical Machines, was
writtenbyPeter Tavner andJ imPenmanandpublishedin1987byResearchStudies
Press, withtheintentionof bringingtogetheranumberof strandsof workactiveatthat
timefrombothindustryandacademia. Inacademiatherewasagrowingconfidencein
themathematical analysisof electrical machines, incomputer modellingof complex
equivalent circuits andintheapplicationof finite-element methods to predict their
magneticfields. Inindustrytherewasgrowinginterestinprovidingbettermonitoring
for larger electrical machines as risingmaintenancecosts competedwiththeheavy
financial impact of largemachinefailures.
The original book was primarily aimed at larger machines involved in energy
production, suchasturbinegeneratorsandhydrogenerators, boiler feedpumps, gas
compressors and reactor gas circulators. This was becauseat that timethosewere
theonlyplant itemscostlyenoughtowarrant condition-monitoringattention. It also
reflectedthefactthatoneof theauthorsworkedinthenationalisedgeneratingutility,
colouringhisapproachtothesubject.
The original book showed that, in respect of condition monitoring, electrical
machines areunusual when compared with most other energy conversion rotating
plant. Theall-embracingnatureof theelectromagneticfieldintheenergyconversion
process, whichistheraison d’être of theelectrical machine, enablesoperatorstoinfer
far moreabout their operationfromtheir terminal conditionsthanisusuallythecase
withnon-electrical rotatingmachinery. Inthisearlier worktheauthorswereinspired
xiv Condition monitoring of rotating electrical machines
by amuch earlier book by Professor Miles Walker, The Diagnosing of Trouble in
Electrical Machines, first publishedin1921.
Our bookcoveredtheelemental aspectsof electrical machineconditionmonitor-
ingbutexposedanumberof importantfacetsof understandingthathavesubsequently
leadtoagreat deal of further work, namely
• theelectromagneticbehaviour of electrical machines,
• thedynamic behaviour of electrical machines, particularly associated with the
control nowavailablewithmodernpower electronics,
• thebehaviour of electrical machineinsulationsystems.
Each of these facets have now matured and are a rich source of fundamental
knowledge that has been related to the behaviour of machines in their operating
state, especially under fault conditions. Two examples of this further work are
Professor Peter Vas’, Parameter Estimation, Condition Monitoring and Diagnosis
of Electrical Machines, publishedin1996; andGregC. Stone’s, Electrical Insulation
for Rotating Machines, Design, Evaluation, Ageing, Testing and Repair, published
in2004.
Theeconomicsof industryhasalsochanged, particularlyasresult of theprivati-
sationandderegulationof theenergyindustryinmanycountries, placingfar greater
emphasisontheimportanceof reliableoperationof plantandmachinery, throughout
thewholelifecycle, regardlessof itsfirst capital cost.
Finally theavailability of advancedelectronicsandsoftwareinpowerful instru-
mentation, computersanddigital signal processorshassimplifiedandextendedour
ability toinstrument andanalysemachinery, not least intheimportant areaof visu-
alisingtheresults of complex condition-monitoringanalysis. As aresult, condition
monitoring is now being applied to a wider range of systems, fromfault-tolerant
drivesof afewhundredwattsintheaerospaceindustry, tomachineryof several hun-
dredmegawattsinmajor capital plant. Thevalueof thefundamental contributionto
theseadvancesbymanyanalystsover thelast20yearscannotbeunderestimatedand
theywill playamajor part inthefuture.
In this new book, Condition Monitoring of Rotating Electrical Machines, the
original authors havebeenjoinedby their colleagueDr Li Ran, anexpert inpower
electronics and control, and Dr Howard Sedding, an expert in the monitoring of
electrical insulation systems. Together we have decided to build upon the earlier
book, retainingthesamelimitswesetoutatthestartof thispreface, mergingourown
experiencewith that of theimportant machineanalysts through theyears to bring
thereader athoroughly up-to-datebut practicableset of techniques that reflect the
workof thelast 20years. Thebookisaimedat professional engineersintheenergy,
process engineering and manufacturing industries, research workers and students.
Wehaveplacedanadditional limit onthebook andthat is toconsider themachine
itself rather thanitscontrol systems. Whilerecognisingtheenormousgrowthof the
applicationof electronicvariablespeeddrivesinindustry, wedonot deal withtheir
specificproblemsexceptinpassing. Weacknowledgethatthisisimportantfor future
growthbut leavethisareaof investigationtoafutureauthor.
Preface xv
The examples of faults have concentrated on conventional machines rather
than theemerging brushless, reluctance, permanent magnet and unusual topology
machines. This is because the industry is still dominated by these conventional
machines. The‘failuremode’ information for newer designs has not yet emerged
butwill bebasedonearlier machineexperience. Inthiseditionwehaveomittedcase
studiesbecausetherangeof applicationof condition-monitoringtechniquesonelec-
trical machines is nowsowideandcomplex that it is difficult toselect appropriate
applicationsfromwhichgeneral conclusionscanbedrawn.
Wehaveintroduceda‘Nomenclature’ sectionandextendedthereferencestocover
major recent journal papers andbooks that haveilluminatedthesubject, including
someof theolder seminal works, whichstill deservescrutiny. Theauthorshavealso
takentheopportunity to correct errors intheprevious book, rearrangethematerial
presentedandaddimportantinformationaboutfailuremechanisms, reliability, instru-
mentation, signal processingandthemanagementof rotatingmachineassetsasthese
factors critically affect theway inwhichconditionmonitoringneeds tobeapplied.
Finally, the diagrams and photographs representing the machines, the monitoring
systemsandthesignal processingusedhavebeenupdatedwhereappropriate.
Peter Tavner
Durham University, 2006
Acknowledgments
Peter Tavner and Li Ran acknowledgetheassistancethey havehad fromDurham
University in preparing this book, particularly fromBarbara Gilderoy and Denise
Normanforassistingintransferringthematerial fromourpreviouseditiontothisnew
oneandtoChrisOrtonandJ ulieMorgan-Doddsfor carefully drawingmany of the
diagrams. Theyalsoacknowledgethehelpof studentsandresearchassistants, includ-
ingXiangJ ianping, Michael Wilkinson, FabioSpinatoandMark Knowles, for their
contributiontothebookthroughproofreading, discussionsandtheirunderstandingof
theproblemsof machinereliabilityandmonitoring. Peter Tavner acknowledgesthe
helpof Dr J imBumbyatDurhamUniversityfor providingadviceonthefrequencies
of vibration, current, fluxandpower associatedwithfaults.
The authors acknowledge the assistance of companies who have contributed
photographs and diagrams, in particular Brush Turbogenerators (Loughborough,
UK; Plzeˇ n, Czech Republic; and Ridderkirk, Netherlands), Marelli Motori S.p.A
(Arzignano, Italy), Dong Feng Electrical Machinery Ltd (Deyang, China) and
Laurence, Scott & ElectromotorsLtd(Norwich, UK).
The photograph on the front cover is of 3290 kW, 6.6 kV, 60 Hz, six-pole,
1188 rev/min induction motors, manufactured by Laurence, Scott & Electromo-
tors Ltdat NorwichintheUK, drivingpumps ontheoffshoreBuzzardplatformin
theNorthSea.
Nomenclature
Symbol Explanation
A effectivecross-sectional areaof acoil, m
2
A availability, A = MTBF/(MTBF +MTTR)
A(t) availabilityfunctionof apopulationof componentsasafunction
of time
a scalingfactor of timeinamother wavelet transform
α scaleparameter inapower lawexpression
α
n
andb
n
straincoefficientsfor thestrainenergyof thestator core
α
t
cross-sectional areaof atooth, m
2
α scaleparameter inaWeibull function
α
r
resistancetemperaturecoefficient, degree/ohm
α
s
skewangleof astator, degree
B(f
1
, f
2
) bispectrum
B radial fluxdensityinanairgap, Tesla
b
1
or b
2
stator or rotor sideinstantaneousradial fluxdensity, Tesla
b time-shiftingparameter inamother wavelet transform
β shapeparameter inaWeibull function
β half-anglesubtendedbyashortedturn, degrees
C volumetricconcentrationof adegradationproduct inamachine
C Carter factor toaccount for airgapslotting
C(y, v) inversewavelet transform
C(t) cepstrumfunction
c dampingconstant of asupport system, N/m/s
D dampingfactor for rotor vibrations
d rollingelement diameter, m
E Young’smodulusof amaterial
E
e
storedenergyinanelectrical system, J oules
e specificunbalancee = mr/M, m
e(t) instantaneousinducedEMF, V
straininamaterial
θ MTBF of acomponent, θ = 1/λ hours
θ
1
spacepositioninthestator field, degrees
θ
2
spacepositionintherotor field, degrees
F parameter fromshockpulsemeasurement of arollingelement bearing
xx Condition Monitoring of Rotating Electrical Machines
F
m
(θ, t) forcingfunctiononarotor or stator expressedincircumferential
angleθ andtimet, N
F(t) failuremodeprobabilitydensity, aWeibull function
F or F
−1
forwardor backwardFourier transform
f
0
first critical or natural frequencyof arotor system, Hz
f
1
or f
2
(t) stator or rotor sideinstantaneousmagnetomotiveforce(MMF), N
1
I
1
or N
2
I
2
, ampere-turns
f
se
electrical supplysidefrequency = 1/T, Hz
f
sw
PWM switchingfrequency, Hz
f
m
higher m
th
natural frequenciesof thestator core, Hz
f
sm
mechanical vibrationfrequencyonthestator side, Hz
f
n
then
th
component of anunbalancedforcingfunction
f
rm
mechanical rotational frequency = N/60, Hz
G straingaugefactor
G degreeof residual unbalanceasdenotedbythequantityG = eω
G(f
k
) generalisedpower spectral functionof frequency, f
k
, thek
th
harmonic
G

(f
k
) complexconjugateof G(f
k
)
G(m) stiffnessfunctionof anm
th
natural frequenciesof thestator core
G(t
n
) generalisedperiodicfunctionof time, t
n
g accelerationduetogravity, m/s
2
g airgaplength, mm
g
n
(z) natural frequencyfunctionann
th
solutionof thebalanceequation
h heat transfer coefficient fromaninsulationsurface, W/m
2
K
h
t
toothdepth, m
I
1
or I
2
stator or rotor sidermscurrent, A
i
1
or i
2
(t) stator or rotor sideinstantaneouscurrent, A
J polar moment of inertiaof thecorecylinder, joules
2
k integer constant, indicatesthestator MMF space
harmonics, 1, 3, 5, 7…
k heat transfer coefficient throughaninsulatingmaterial, W/mK
k stiffnessconstant of asupport system, N/m
k
r
reflectioncoefficient intherecurrent surgeoscillography(RSO) test
k
c
integer number of commutator segmentsinaDC machine
k/nq Hall effect constant of anelectronicmaterial
k
e
integer constant, indicateseccentricityorder number, whichiszero
for staticeccentricityandalowinteger valuefor dynamiceccentricity
k
c
integer constant, indicatesthecircumferential modesinavibrating
stator core
k
l
integer constant, indicatesthelengthwisemodesinavibrating
stator core
k
wn
stator windingfactor for then
th
harmonic
L activelengthof acore, m
Nomenclature xxi
L inductanceof acoil, H
integer number of stator timeharmonicsor rotor winding
fault harmonics
magneticpermeance
λ instantaneousfailurerateor hazardfunctionof acomponent or machine,
failures/component/year
λ(t) failurerateof acomponent or machinevaryingwithtime,
failures/component/year
M massof arotatingsystem, kg
M
s
massof asupport system, kg
m integer constant
m equivalent unbalancemassonashaft, kg
µ permeabilityinamagneticfield
N
1
or N
2
integer number of stator or rotor sideturnsof acoil
N speedof amachinerotor, rev/min
N
r
integer number of rotor slots
N
s
integer number of stator slots
n number of chargecarriersper unit volumeinasemiconductor
n integer constant, 1, 2, 3, 4…
n
b
integer number of rollingelementsinarollingelement bearing
P
1
stator sidepower, watt
p
1
(t) instantaneousstator sidepower, watt
p integer number of polepairs
Q heat flow, watt/m
2
Q
m
maximumpartial dischargerecordedinpartial dischargetests
usingacalibratedcoupler, mv
q electroniccharge, coulomb
q integer phasenumber
R changeinresistance
R resistance, ohms
R shockpulsemeter reading
R(t) reliabilityor survivor functionof apopulationof components
asafunctionof time, failures/machine/year
R
ff
(t) auto-correlationfunctiononatimefunctionf (t) witha
delayof gt
R
fh
(t) cross-correlationfunctionbetweentimefunctionsf (t) andh(t)
withadelayof gt
R
0
resistanceof adevicemadeof themetal at 0˚C, ohm
R
T
resistance, ohm
r effectiveradiusof anequivalent unbalancedmass, m
r
mean
meanradiusof acore, m
r
airgap
radiusof airgap, m
S constant relatedtothestiffnessof awinding, insulationand
toothcomponents
xxii Condition Monitoring of Rotating Electrical Machines
s slipof aninductionmachine, between0and1
T torque, Nm
T temperature, ˚C
T periodof awave, sec
T

volumetricvibrationkineticenergy, joules/m
3
T(f
1
, f
2
, f
3
) trispectrum
τ
0
radial thicknessof astator coreannulus, m
ρ densityof amaterial, kg/m
3
σ electrical conductivityof aregion, ohm.m
σ
r
andσ
q
radial andtangential Maxwell stressintheairgap, N/m
2
τ
w
timedurationof anoverheatingincident, s
τ
r
residencetimeof anoverheatingproduct inamachine, or
leakagefactor, s
τ timedelayinacorrelationfunction, s
u lateral displacement of amachinerotor, µm
u
r
andu
θ
radial andperipheral displacementsinastrainedstator core, µm
V rmsvoltage, volts
V machinevolume, m
3
V

volumetricstrainpotential energy, joules/m
3
v velocityof therotor, relativetothetravellingfluxwaveproduced
bythestator, m/s
˙ ν volumetricrateof productionof adetectablesubstance, m
3
/s
˙ ν
b
backgroundrateof productionof thesubstance, m
3
/s
ν Poisson’sratioof amaterial
φ flux, Webers
φ contact anglewithracesof arollingelement bearing, degree
φ electrical phaseangleof astator MMF waveF
s
, degree
ψ angular frequencyof anelectrical supply, rad/s
ψ
0
first critical or natural angular frequencyof arotor system, rad/s
ψ
se
electrical supplysideangular frequency, rad/s
ψ
sm
mechanical angular vibrationfrequencyonthestator side, rad/s
ψ
rm
mechanical rotational angular frequency =2pN/60, rad/s
ψ
ecc
angular velocityof aneccentricity, rad/s
ψ(t) mother wavelet functionof time
W workfunctionfor strainenergyinstator core
W(a, b) wavelet transform
w weight per unit lengthper unit circumferential angleof astator core
cylinder, N/m
w
y
, w
t
, w
i
andw
w
weightsof acoreyoke, teeth, insulationandwindings,
respectively, kg
X
m2
secondharmonicmagnetisingreactance, ohm
X
12
secondharmonicleakagereactance, ohm
z longitudinal distancefromthecentreof amachine, m
Z
0
surgeimpedanceof awinding, ohm
Chapter 1
I ntr oduction to condition monitor ing
1.1 I ntr oduction
Rotatingelectrical machinespermeateall areasof modernlifeat boththedomestic
andindustrial level. Theaveragemodernhomeinthedevelopedworldcontains20–30
electricmotorsintherange0–1kWfor clocks, toys, domesticappliances, air condi-
tioningorheatingsystems. Moderncarsuseelectricmotorsforwindows, windscreen
wipers, startingandnowevenfor propulsioninhybridvehicles. A modernS-series
Mercedes-Benz car is reported to incorporate more than 120 separate electrical
machines.
Themajorityof smallerapplicationsof electrical machinesdonotrequiremonitor-
ing, thecomponentsaresufficientlyreliablethattheycanoutlivethelifeof theparent
product. However, modernsocietydepends, directlyor indirectly, uponmachinesof
greater ratingandcomplexityinorder tosupport anincreasedstandardof living.
Theelectricityweusesofreelyisgeneratedinpower plantsbymachineswhose
ratingcanexceed1000MWandwhichhaveevolvedtoastateof greatsophistication.
Thesepower plants aresupported by fossil fuel and nuclear energy industries that
involve the transport of raw materials using pumps, compressors and conveyors
insophisticatedengineeringprocessesincorporatingrotatingelectrical machinesof
powers ranging from100 kW to 100 MW. These have been joined by a growing
renewableenergyindustryusingmanyof theseandnewtechniquestoextractenergy
fromrenewablesourcesoftenincombinationwithtraditional sources.
Thesteel usedincarswill havebeenrolledusinglargeelectrical machinesandatan
earlierstagethefurnaceswill havebeenchargedusingmoreelectrical machines. Our
water andwastesystemsarealsodrivenbyelectrical machines, asaretheprocesses
that produce the raw materials for the agricultural, chemical and pharmaceutical
industries. Without all theseour society, as it exists at themoment, wouldceaseto
function.
Theoverall pictureisthatelectrical machinescomeinmanysizesandfulfil their
function either independently or as part of a highly complex process in which all
elements must function smoothly so that production can be maintained. It is the
usageof electrical machineryinthelatter rolethathasrisendramaticallytowardsthe
endof thetwentiethcentury, andthereisnoreasontosuspect that thistrendwill do
anythingother thanaccelerateinthetwenty-first century. However, historically the
functionof anindividual electrical machinewas seenas separablefromtherest of
theelectromechanical system. It must berememberedthat thepower-to-weight ratio
2 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
of electrical machineshasbeenmuchlower thansteam, diesel andgasenginesand
consequentlytheir reliabilityhasbeenmuchhigher.
It is against this background that the basic principles of protective relaying
evolved. Protectionisdesignedtointercept faultsastheyoccur andtoinitiateaction
that ensures that theminimumof further damageoccurs beforefailure. Inits basic
formthefunctionof theprotectiverelayisoutlinedinFigure1.1.
Current of
voltage signal
Flag
Initiate
executive action
Fi gure 1.1 The basi c functi on of an el ectr i cal protecti ve rel ay
Thesignal providedbythetransducer will beintheformof acurrent or voltage
andwill beinterpretedbytherelayasanacceptableor unacceptablelevel, according
toapre-setvaluedeterminedbytherelaydesignerorthemaintenancestaff. If thepre-
setvalueisexceededthentherelaywill initiatefurther electromechanical actionthat
will oftenresultindisconnectionof theelectrical machine, anditwill flagthefactthat
afault, or evenfailure, hasbeenidentified. Thisisasimplisticviewof theprotective
relay, whichwasconfiguredusingelectromechanical devicessuchasrelaystocarry
out their function, as thenameimplies. However, nowadays most protectiverelays
usedigital processorstodeployawiderangeof functions, andareprogrammableto
allowmoresophisticatedcriteriafor initiatinginterruptprocedurestobeapplied; for
example, toblock therestart of amotor until it hascooledtoanacceptabledegree.
Figure1.2showsatypical modernprogrammablerelayfor fulfillingsuchafunction.
Fromwhat has been said earlier it is apparent that protective relaying can be
regardedas aformof monitoring, andindeedit is widely usedwithgreat success.
Moderndigital relayshavealsostartedtofulfil amonitoringfunctionsincetheycan
recordthevoltagesandcurrentstheymeasureforaperiodbeforeandafteranyfault. In
factmanyfailureinvestigationsonelectrical machines, involvingrootcauseanalysis,
start withthedownloadandanalysis of thedigital protectiverelay data, whichcan
usuallybedisplayedclearlyinanExcel spreadsheet. Virtuallyall electrical machine
protectionsystemsembodysomeformof protectiondevice, andontypical machines
theyareusedinsomeor all of thefollowingschemes
• earthfault protection,
• overcurrent protection,
• differential current protection,
• under- andovervoltageprotection,
I ntroducti on to condi ti on moni tor i ng 3
Fi gure 1.2 A typi cal moder n di gi tal motor rel ay. [ Source: GE Power Systems, USA]
• negativephasesequenceprotection,
• fieldfailureprotection,
• reversepower protection,
• overspeedprotection,
• excessivevibrationprotection,
• thermal overloadprotection.
Thislist isrepresentativerather thanexhaustive.
It is important to stress thefact that protectionis basically designedto act only
once a fault has occurred and it will normally initiate some executive action. In
thewords of Electricity TrainingAssociation’s Power Systems Protecti on [1], ‘the
functionof protectiveequipment isnot thepreventiveoneitsnamewouldimply, in
thatittakesactiononlyafter afaulthasoccurred; itistheambulanceatthefootof the
cliff rather thanthefenceatthetop’. Conditionmonitoringneedstoestablishitself as
the‘fenceatthecliff top’. Theexecutiveactionmayverywell bethedisconnectionof
thepieceof machineryfromthesupply. Suchactionisacceptableif theitemof plant
isreadilydissociatedfromtheprocessit isinvolvedwith, or if it existssubstantially
inisolation. If, however, thepieceof plant isvital totheoperationof aprocessthen
anunscheduledshutdownof thecompleteprocess may occur. Thelosses involved
maythenbesignificantlygreater thanthoseresultingsimplyfromthelossof output
4 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
duringascheduledshutdown. It must alsobeborneinmindthat thecapital cost of
anindividual machineismoreoftenthannot small comparedwiththecapital costs
involvedinaplant shutdown. Maintenanceis most effectivewhenit is plannedto
servicemanyitemsinthecourseof asingleoutage. Insummary, conditionmonitoring
of anelectrical machineisnot necessarily aimedsolely at themachineitself, but at
thewider healthof theprocessof whichit ispart.
1.2 T he need for monitor ing
Thenotionof thescheduledshutdownor outageintroduces us logically tothecase
tobemadeonbehalf of monitoring. Byconditionmonitoringwemeanthecontinu-
ous evaluationof thehealthof plant andequipment throughout its serviceablelife.
Conditionmonitoringandprotectionareclosely relatedfunctions. Theapproachto
the implementation of each is, however, quite different. Also the advantages that
accrueduetomonitoringareentirely different tothosetobeexpectedfromprotec-
tion. This is principally becausemonitoringshouldbedesignedto pre-empt faults,
whereas protection is essentially retroactive. Condition monitoring can, in many
cases, beextendedto provideprimary protection, but its real functionmust always
betoattempttorecognisethedevelopmentof faultsatanearlystage. Suchadvanced
warning is desirablesinceit allows maintenancestaff greater freedomto schedule
outages in the most convenient manner, resulting in lower down time and lower
capitalisedlosses.
Wehavesaidthat advancedwarnings of malfunction, as providedby monitor-
ing, aredesirable. Arethey? Wemust justify this becausetheimplementationof a
monitoringsystemcaninvolvetheoperator inconsiderableexpense. Thereareother
questionstobeansweredtoo, for example:
• Once one has chosen to embark upon a programme of monitoring what form
shouldit take?
• Should the monitoring be intermittent, regular at fixed time intervals, or
continuous?
• If oneemploysafixedtimeinterval maintenanceprogrammethenisitnecessary
tomonitor at all?
• Monitoringcangeneratelargequantitiesof data; howcanthisinformationbebest
usedtominimisefutureexpenditure?
• Finally, andperhapsmostimportantly, howmuchneedstobespentonmonitoring
inorder tomakeit trulyeffective?
Thesequestionsdonot havesimpleanswersbut wecanget someindicationsby
considering themagnitudeof themaintenanceand replacement burden that indus-
try is continually facing, andtheimplications for thecosts of various maintenance
strategies. Wecouldconsider threedifferent coursesof action
• breakdownmaintenance,
• fixed-timeinterval or plannedmaintenance,
• condition-basedmaintenance.
I ntroducti on to condi ti on moni tor i ng 5
Tabl e 1.1 Expendi ture on pl ant per empl oyee of sel ected
i ndustr i es adapted from Neal e Repor t, 1979 [ 2]
Industry Annual investment/employee
inplant andmachinery, £
NorthSeaoil andgas 160000
Oil refining 14000
Electricitysupply 8000
Chemical industry 2400
Ironandsteel 1800
Water supply 800
Textilemanufacture 600
Instrumentationmanufacture 400
Electrical engineeringmanufacture 400
Method(1) demands no morethana‘runit until it breaks thenreplaceit’ strategy,
whilemethod(2) mayormaynotincludeadegreeof monitoringtoaidintheplanning
of machineryoutages. Thefinal scenariomethod(3) requiresadefinitecommitment
tomonitoring.
Thescaleof investmentcanbeseenfromfiguresprovidedbytheNealeReport[2],
publishedin1979. Thisinformationis30yearsoldandcomesfromaperiodbeforea
longperiodof privatisationbutisstill invaluable. Table1.1showstheannual invest-
mentperemployeeinplantandmachinery. Wehavemodifiedthesevaluesinorderto
reflect morerealisticallytoday’scostsandhaveselectedthoseindustriesthat would
haveahighproportionof expenditureinelectrical machineryandancillaryplant.
Thesamereport showsthat theaverageannual expenditureonmaintenancewas
80per cent of theamount annuallyinvestedinplant andmachinery. Thefiguresfor
someselectedindustriesandindustrial groupingsareshowninTable1.2, whichshows
theannual maintenanceexpenditureas apercentageof theannual plant investment
expenditure. This is ahighfigureinreal terms andanythingthat helps to reduceit
must bewelcome. TheHewl ett-Packard Jour nal hasquotedthestaggeringfigureof
$200 billion as theannual maintenancebill for US business, and agrowth rateof
12per cent. Nowonly afractionof thissumwill bespent onmaintainingelectrical
machinery, but evenif it amountstoafractionof oneper cent of thetotal it isstill an
enormousamount of money.
Therearegreatincentivestomaintainplantmoreefficiently, particularlywhenit
isestimatedthat approximately 70per cent of themaintenancework carriedout by
companiesthatusenoplanningatall maybeclassifiedasemergencyworkandmust
bedoneat premiumcosts. It isapparent that careful thought shouldbegiventothe
most appropriateformof maintenanceplanning. Breakdownmaintenancecanonly
beeffectivewhenthereis asubstantial amount of redundant capacity or spares are
available, andasinglebreakdowndoes not causethefailureof acompletesystem.
6 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Tabl e 1.2 Annual mai ntenance expendi ture as a percentage
of annual capi tal i nvestment i n pl ant, for sel ected
i ndustr i es. Adapted from the Neal e Repor t, 1979 [ 2]
Industry Maintenanceexpenditure/plant
expenditure, %
Printing 160
Instrumentationmanufacture 150
Mechanical engineering 100
Textilemanufacture 82
Water supply 80
Gassupply 80
Electricitysupply 80
Electrical machinerymanufacture 80
Chemical manufacture 78
Marineengineering 50
Ironandsteel manufacture 42
Coal production 26
The question to be answered in such circumstances is why is there a significant
redundancy? Andshouldit beallowedtocontinue?
Many sectors of industry, andparticularly theelectricity, water andgas utilities
andtherailways, haveadoptedmaintenanceplanningbasedonreplacementandover-
haul at fixedtimeperiods, sothat outageworkcanbescheduled, anddiversionsand
loadscanbeplanned. Suchschedulingisusuallyplannedonthebasisof plant mon-
itoring, whichistypically doneonadiscontinuousbasis. Therearemany estimates
of thesavings that accrueby adoptingsuch an approach andan averagereduction
figureof 60per cent of thetotal maintenanceburdenmaybeconsideredreasonable.
This is good news, but it must be treated cautiously because such a maintenance
policymakesheavydemandsuponscarce, skilledmanpower. Itisalsoestimatedthat
only10per cent of componentsreplacedduringfixed-interval maintenanceoutages
actuallyneedtobereplacedat that time. Theobviousimplicationisthat 90per cent
of what isreplacedneednot be.
Suchconsiderations, andtherealisationthat modernelectrical machinesandthe
processes they operate in are growing in complexity, leads one to the conclusion
that continuous condition monitoring of certain critical items of plant can lead to
significant benefits. Thesebenefitsaccruein
• greater plant efficiency,
• reducedcapitalisedlossesduetobreakdown,
• reducedreplacement costs.
Theplant operator canalsobeupdatedwithinformationontheperformanceof his
machinery. This will help himto improve the day-to-day operational availability
I ntroducti on to condi ti on moni tor i ng 7
andefficiency of theplant. Conditionmonitoringshouldgiveinformationrelevant
toboththeoperational andmaintenancefunctions. Thereis anaddedbonus inthat
better maintenancegivesbetter safety.
In the longer term, condition monitoring also allows the operator to build up
a database that can be used for trend analysis, so that further improvements can
bemadein thescheduling of maintenance. Such information should also beused
advantageously by plant manufacturers and designers in order to further improve
product reliability. Thisstepeffectivelyclosestheloop.
In viewof this, howmuch needs to bespent on monitoring? This depends on
thevalueof theprocess inwhichthemachineworks, andestimates vary, but they
arenever less than 1per cent of thecapital valueof theplant beingmonitored. A
moretypical (andprobablymorerealistic) figurewouldbe5per cent for thegeneral
runof industrial processes, whilespecial requirementsfor highvalueprocesses, such
as thosefound in theoffshoreoil and gas industry, may push arealistic figureto
greater than10per cent.
1.3 W hat and when to monitor
Nowthatwehaveexaminedsomeof theadvantagestobegainedfromacommitment
toconditionmonitoringwecanbrieflyaddressthequestions, whatshouldwemonitor,
andwhen? Thequestionof what tomonitor hastwoimplications.
• What machines?
• What parameters?
Thefirst part is moreeasily answered. Inviewof thecapital costs involvedinpro-
vidingmonitoring, whether ittakestheformof apermanentinstallationwithitsown
local intelligence, or a handheld deviceused periodically by a skilled operator, it
is unlikely that electrical machines withratings of less than20kW wouldbenefit.
Thereare, of course, exceptionstothiswhereasmaller machinehasavital function
intheperformanceof alarger system. It will paydividendstocarefullyconsider the
implicationsof losingtheoutput of anindividual pieceof machinery inthecontext
of acompletesystem.
Larger electrical drives, which support generating, process or production plant
if a high margin of spare capacity exists, will benefit frommonitoring, although
perhaps not continuous monitoring. Onecouldincludeinducedandforced-draught
boiler fan drives, boiler water feed pump drives, and cooling water pump drives
in power stations in this category. It must be borne in mind, however, that suc-
cessful monitoring can allow a big reduction in the requirement for on-site spare
capacity.
Machines that have a high penalty in lost output costs need to be monitored
continually. Largegenerators naturally fall into this category sincelost output can
exceed£600000per day for alargemachineinahigh-efficiency power station. A
similar approach would apply to large propulsion motors and large process drive
motors.
8 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Theconclusionisthattherearemachinestowhichmonitoringisreadilyapplica-
ble, but there are other circumstances where careful assessment is needed before
deciding. One must always be mindful of the scale of the maintenance burden,
however, andnot bedrivento falseeconomies onthebasis that ‘nothinghas gone
wrong so far’. On the other hand one must bear in mind the complexities of the
monitoringsystemitself anditsownmaintenanceburden. Nothingcanbeworsethan
investingincomplexmonitoringequipment, whichbecauseof poor designor main-
tenancegivesrisetolargenumbersof falsealarmsandleadstotheequipment being
ignored.
The parameters to be monitored are essentially those that will provide the
operator andmaintainer withsufficient detailstomakeinformeddecisionsonoper-
ation and maintenance scheduling, but which ensure security of plant operation.
Automatic on-line monitoring has only recently begun to make an impact in the
areaof electrical machines. Traditionally quantities, suchas linecurrents andvolt-
ages, coolant temperatures, and bearing vibration levels, havebeen measured and
will continue to be used. Other quantities, involving the sensing of pyrolysed
products in cooling gases and oils, have recently been introduced, as have tech-
niques for measuring contamination levels in bearing lubricants. Other specialist
methods, involving the accurate measurement of rotational speed, or the sens-
ing of leakage fluxes, are being developed in order to monitor a variety of fault
conditions.
As the ready availability of sophisticated electronic and microprocessor-based
systems is increasingly translated into monitoring hardware, themorevariables it
is possible to consider, and the more comprehensive the monitoring can be. This
trendwill befurther acceleratedasthecostsof computingpower fall still further, and
thecomplexity of microprocessorsincreases. Suchdevelopmentsareessential both
becauseof thecomplexity of theplant being monitored and thecomplexity of the
monitoringsignalsthemselves.
Thequestionof whento monitor is moreeasily answered. Oneshouldmonitor
whenitiscost-effectivetodoso, or whenthereareover-ridingsafetyconsiderations
to be observed. The assessment of cost-effectiveness can be a relatively complex
matter, butingeneral termsmonitoringisworthwhilewhenthenetannual savingsare
increasedbyitsuse. Thenetannual savingisthedifferencebetweenthegrossannual
savingandtheannual costs. Thecostsof monitoringincludetheinitial investigation,
purchase, andinstallationcharges, thestaff trainingcosts, andthecosts associated
withthedataacquisition. Thisexpenditurecanbewrittenoff over thelifetimeof the
monitoringsystemandset against thesavingsaccrued. Wehavealreadyconsidered
thesesavings insomedetail earlier inthis chapter, andit is sufficient to say that it
is not uncommonfor thecapital costs of awisely chosenmonitoringsystemto be
retrievedinthefirst year of itsoperational life.
Finally it is tempting to think that, with such a degree of monitoring power
becomingavailable, theprotectiveandmonitoringfunctionscouldbemerged. With
thedevelopment of morepowerful digital protectionandimprovedsupervisorycon-
trol anddataacquisition(SCADA) systemsthisishappeningbut caremust betaken
andoperational experiencemust beestablishedbeforethesefunctionsmerge.
I ntroducti on to condi ti on moni tor i ng 9
1.4 Scope of the text
Sometimeagotheauthorsrecognisedtheneedtodrawtogether intoasinglesource
anaccount of thetechniques availableto anyonewishingto involvethemselves in
themonitoringof electrical machines.
The list of books on the subject of electrical machine condition monitoring is
short, thefirst historic referenceof seminal interest beingWalker [3], followedby
thepresent authors’ first edition[4] andthenbyVas[5]. Themost up-to-datebook,
byStoneet al ., isaimedat windingandinsulationproblems[6].
Thejournal literatureonconditionmonitoringof electrical machinesisgrowing
rapidly. In fact, one author has said that it has picked up at a fervent pace and
anotherhascalleditanexplosion, althoughthegrowthisnotnecessarilyindirections
most useful to industry. Thereareanumber of general survey papers of condition-
monitoringtechniquesfor machinesof whichthemostrelevantareFinleyandBurke
[7], SinghandAl Kazzaz [8], HanandSong[9] andNandi et al . [10].
Raohasgivenanoverviewof conditionmonitoringinhishandbook[11], includ-
ingachapter onelectrical machines, whileBarron[12] givesasuccinct mechanical
engineer’sviewof conditionmonitoringwhichisuseful asanoverview. It isimpor-
tantinelectrical machinesmonitoringfor abridgetobedevelopedbetweenelectrical
andmechanical engineers.
Condition monitoring is an areaof technology that is extremely wide-ranging,
requiringknowledgeof
• theconstructionandperformanceof themachinestobemonitored,
• thewaytheyfail inservice,
• theanalysisof electrical, magnetic, vibrationandchemical signals,
• thedesignof microprocessor-basedinstrumentation,
• theprocessingof thesesignalsandtheir presentationinacomprehensibleway.
Inabook of thislengthit isnot possibletoenter intoadetailedstudy of eacharea.
Theartof conditionmonitoringisminimalist, toextractthecorrectinformationfrom
themachinethat enablesus, withaminimumof analysis, togiveaclear detectionof
anincipient failuremode.
Wehaveinsteadset ourselvestheobjectiveof coveringthecompletemonitoring
fieldas it relates to electrical machinery, inamanner that will beuseful to anyone
wishingtobecomefamiliar withthesubject for thefirst time, andwill assist people
activelyengagedinconditionmonitoringtogainaperspectiveof newdevelopments.
Torestrict thefieldtheauthorsdeal withrotatingmachinesonly andwithtech-
niques that can be applied when those machines are in operation, neglecting the
many off-lineinspectiontechniques. Wehaveaddedtwofurther restrictions. While
recognisingtheenormousgrowthinrecentyearsof theapplicationof electronicvari-
ablespeeddrives to industry, this editiondoes not deal withthespecific problems
of condition-monitoring electrical machines driven at variablespeed. In imposing
this limit weacknowledgethat variablespeeddrives will bean important areafor
futuregrowth in condition monitoring, but this technology will befounded firmly
10 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
uponthebehaviour of machinesat constant speed, whichthisbookwill address. We
havealsoconcentratedonconventional machinesrather thantheemergingbrushless,
reluctance, permanent magnet andunusual topology machines. This is becausethe
industryisstill dominatedbytheseconventional machinesandthefailuremodesfor
emerging designs are not yet clear, but will be based upon conventional machine
experience.
Thetext is divisibleinto four sections. Thefirst section, Chapters 2 and 3, is
essentially‘adescriptionof thepatient, thethingsthat cangowrongwithhim, anda
general guidetothediagnosis’. Chapter 2givesabroadguidetoelectrical machine
constructionwithdescriptionsof thematerialsandspecificationlimitsuponthem. It
alsodetails examples of faults that canoccur andthroughanumber of tables starts
toclassify theprincipal failuremodesandroot causes. Chapter 3thendescribesthe
general principlesof reliabilitytheoryanditsapplicabilitytoelectrical machines. In
particularithighlightstheimportanceof failuremodesinpredictingfailureprobability
andintroducestheideaof conditionmonitoringaddressingtheroot causesof failure
modesthat haveaslowfailuresequence.
Thesecondsection, Chapters4and5, givesadetailedaccount of specificinstru-
mentationandsignal processingtechniques. Wetreatinstrumentationatthefunctional
level andassumeacertainbasicknowledgeof thetechniquesof spectral analysisof
signals.
Thethirdsection, Chapters6–10, givesadetailedaccountof specificmonitoring
techniques, startingwiththermal andthenchemical degradationmethods, progressing
ontomechanical andfinallyelectrical methods, consideringfirst terminal conditions
andfinallydischargemonitoringof electrical machineinsulationsystems. Thereare
areasof overlapbetweeneachof themonitoringmethods. Asfar aspossiblewehave
subdividedthetechniques withineachchapter intothetypes andparts of machines
onwhichthey areused. Inthesesections wedescribecurrent practiceanddiscuss
someof thenewdevelopmentsnowbeingintroduced.
Thefourthandfinal section, Chapters11and12, considersfirst theapplication
of artificial intelligencetotheconditionmonitoringof machinesandthentheuseof
conditionmonitoringonthemaintenanceplanningandasset management of plant.
Wehavetriedto bemindful of thefact that, whendescribingdevelopments in
arelativelynewsubject area, acomprehensivebibliographyisof theutmost impor-
tance. We have in general quoted the major recent journal papers and books that
haveilluminatedthesubject. Wehaveonlyquotedconferencepaperswheretheyare
essential toidentifyaparticularlyrelevantmodernpoint. Wehavealsoincludedsome
of theolder seminal works, whichstill deservescrutiny. Itisinevitablethattherewill
beomissionsbut hopefullyit will providetheinterestedreader withauseful source
of additional material.
1.5 Refer ences
1. Electrical TrainingAssociation. Power System Protecti on, Vol . 1: Pr i nci pl es and
Components. Stevenage: Peter Peregrinus; 1981.
I ntroducti on to condi ti on moni tor i ng 11
2. NealeN. andAssociates. A Gui de to the Condi ti on Moni tor i ng of Machi ner y.
London: Her Majesty’sStationaryOffice; 1979.
3. Walker M. The Di agnosi ng of Troubl e i n El ectr i cal Machi nes. London: Library
Press; 1924.
4. Tavner P.J . and Penman J . Condi ti on Moni tor i ng of El ectr i cal Machi nes.
Letchworth: ResearchStudiesPressandJ ohnWiley& Sons; 1987.
5. VasP. Par ameter Esti mati on, Condi ti on Moni tor i ng and Di agnosi s of El ectr i cal
Machi nes. Oxford: ClarendonPress; 1996.
6. StoneG.C., Boulter E.A., Culbert I. and Dhirani H. El ectr i cal I nsul ati on for
Rotati ng Machi nes, Desi gn, Eval uati on, Agi ng, Testi ng, and Repai r . NewYork:
Wiley–IEEE Press; 2004.
7. Finley W.R. andBurkeR.R. Troubleshootingmotor problems. I EEE Tr ansac-
ti ons on I ndustr y Appl i cati ons 1994, 30(5): 1383–97.
8. SinghG.K. andAl KazzazS.A.S. Inductionmachinedriveconditionmonitoring
anddiagnosticresearch–asurvey.El ectr i c Power SystemsResearch 2003, 64(2):
145–58.
9. HanY. andSongY.H. Conditionmonitoringtechniquesforelectrical equipment
– aliteraturesurvey. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on Power Del i ver y 200318(1): 4–13.
10. Nandi S., Toliyat H.A. andLi X. Conditionmonitoringandfault diagnosisof
electrical motors – areview. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on Energy Conver si on 2005,
20(4): 719–29.
11. RaoB.K.N. Handbook of Condi ti on Moni tor i ng. Oxford: Elsevier; 1996.
12. BarronR. Engi neer i ng Condi ti on Moni tor i ng: Pr acti ce, Methods and Appl i ca-
ti ons. Harlow: Longman; 1996.
Chapter 2
Constr uction, oper ation and failur e modes of
electr ical machines
2.1 I ntr oduction
This chapter could also be subtitled ‘the way rotating electrical machines fail in
service’. Rotating electrical machines convert electrical to mechanical energy, or
viceversa, andthey achievethisby magnetically couplingelectrical circuitsacross
anairgapthatpermitsrotational freedomof oneof thesecircuits. Mechanical energyis
transmittedintoor outof themachineviaadrivetrainthatismechanicallyconnected
tooneof theelectriccircuits.
Anexampleof oneof thelargest electromagneticenergyconversionunitsinthe
world, at 1111megavolt-amperes(MVA), isshowninFigure2.1. Theconstruction
Fi gure 2.1 Vi ew of a 1 111 MVA, 24 kV, 50 Hz steam tur bi ne-dr i ven, hydrogen-
cool ed, two-pol e tur bi ne gener ator i nstal l ed i n a nucl ear power stati on
i n the Czech Republ i c. The gener ator exci ter i s on the l eft, the tur bi ne
gener ator i s i n the centre of the pi cture and the l ow pressure tur bi ne to
the r i ght. [ Source: Br ush Tur bogener ator s]
14 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
of electrical machinesissimilar, whether largeor small, asshownlater inthechapter
andtheir operational weaknessesaredominatedbythesameprinciples. Thepurpose
of this chapter is to explain their constructional principles and themain causes of
failure. Thechapter isillustratedwithalargenumber of photographstodemonstrate
tothereader thesalient featuresof electrical machines.
2.2 M ater ials and temper atur e
The magnetic and electric circuits essential to machines require materials of high
permeabilityandlowresistivity, respectively, andthesearegenerallymetals. Metals
withgoodmagneticandelectrical propertiesdonotnecessarilyhavehighmechanical
strength. Indeedtheatomicstructureof agoodconductor issuchthatitwill naturally
havealowyieldstrengthandhighductility. Yet themagnetic andelectric circuits
of themachinemust bear themechanical loads imposeduponthemby thetransfer
of energy across theairgap. Furthermore, themagnetic andelectrical circuits must
beseparated by insulating materials, such as films, fibres and resins, which have
evenweaker mechanical properties. Table2.1setsout theelasticmoduli andtensile
strengthof materialsusedinelectrical machinesandhighlightstherelativeweakness
of electrical steel, conductor and insulating materials. Right fromtheoutset then,
thereisaconflict betweentheelectrical andmechanical requirementsof thevarious
partsof anelectrical machine, whichthedesigner must attempt toresolve.
Tabl e 2.1 Mechani cal proper ti es of mater i al s used i n el ectr i cal machi nes
Material Elasticmodulus, GPa Tensilestrength, MPa
Hightensilesteel 210 1800
Structural steel 210 290–830
Electrical steel 220 450
Copper 120 210
Aluminium 70 310
Epoxy-mica-glasscomposite 60 275
Mouldedorganic/inorganicresin 5 48
Phenol-formaldehyderesins 3 35
However, there is a further complication. The transfer of energy inevitably
involves thedissipationof heat, by ohmic losses intheelectric circuit andby eddy
current andhysteresislossesinthemagneticcircuit. Theperformanceof theinsulat-
ingmaterialsthatkeepthesecircuitsapartishighlydependentupontemperature, and
deteriorates rapidly at higher temperatures. Materials that can sustain thesehigher
temperaturesbecomeprogressivelymoreexpensiveandtheir mechanical anddielec-
tricpropertiesareoftenworsethanlower temperaturematerials. Table2.2classifies
Constr ucti on, oper ati on and fai l ure modes of el ectr i cal machi nes 15
Tabl e 2.2 Temper ature capabi l i ti es of i nsul ati ng mater i al s
Class Material Temperatureratingto
giveanacceptablelife
under prescribed
industrial conditions,

C
Oor Y obsolete Oleo-resinousnatural fibre
materials, cotton, silk, paper, wood
without impregnation.
90
A Natural fibrematerials, cotton, silk,
paper andwoodimpregnated,
coatedor immersedindielectric
liquid, suchasoil.
105
E Synthetic-resinimpregnatedor
enamelledwirenot containing
fibrousmaterialssuchascotton, silk
or paper but includingphenolics,
alkydsandleatheroid.
120
B Combinationsof mica, glassand
paper withnatural organicbonding,
impregnatingor coatingsubstances
includingshellac, bitumenand
polyester resins.
130
F Combinationsof mica, glass, film
andpaper withsyntheticinorganic
bonding, impregnatingor coating
substancesincludingepoxyand
polyester resins.
155
H Combinationsmica, paper, glassor
asbestoswithsyntheticbonding,
impregnatingor coatingsubstances
includingepoxy, polymideand
siliconeresins.
180
C Combinationsof asbestos, mica,
glass, porcelain, quartz or other
silicateswithor without ahigh
temperaturesyntheticbonding,
impregnatingor coatingsubstance
includingsilicone. Thesecan
includehigh-temperaturearamid
calendaredpaperslikeNomex.
220
thecommoninsulatingmaterialsusedinelectrical machinesandshowstherelatively
lowtemperaturesat whichtheyarepermittedtooperate.
Uncertaintiesabout thetemperatureswithinamachinemeanthat thedesigner is
forcedtorestrict themaximummeasurableoperatingtemperaturetoanevenlower
16 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
valuethanthat giveninTable2.2, takenfromtheIEC standard[1], for theappro-
priateinsulation, inorder toprovideasafety factor duringoperation. It isclear that
theheat dissipated within amachinemust beremoved effectively if design limits
areto bemet. For example, in the1111 MVA turbinegenerator shown in Figure
2.1withlosses of theorder of 12MW, if coolingstoppedtheaveragetemperature
of thegenerator body wouldexceedany of themaximumpermittedinsulationtem-
peratureswithin12seconds. Theproblemisexacerbatedbecausethelossesarenot
evenly distributedandinpracticeat somelocations theriseintemperaturewill be
evenfaster thanthis. Socoolinganditsdistributionbecomeavital part of machine
design.
The health of an electrical machine, its failure modes and root causes, are
ultimately related to the materials of which it is made, the mechanical and elec-
trical stresses those materials are subjected to and the temperatures they attain in
service.
InChapter1weexplainedhowelectrical machinesareprotectedbyrelays, which
senseserious disruptions of thecurrent flowinginthewindings andoperateto trip
or disconnect themachine. However, whenfault currents areflowingthemachine
has already failed as an electrical device. Electrical or mechanical failure modes
arealwaysprecededbydeteriorationof oneof themechanical, electrical, magnetic,
insulationor coolingcomponents of themachine. This is thecaseregardless of the
type of electrical machine. If this deterioration takes a significant period of time
andcanbedetectedbymeasurement, thenthat root causedetectionwill beameans
of monitoringthemachinebeforeafailuremodedevelops. Theheart of condition
monitoringistoderivemethodstomeasure, asdirectly aspossible, parametersthat
indicaterootcausedeteriorationactivityandprovidesufficientwarningof impending
failureinorder thatthemachinemaybetakenoff for repair or maybetrippedbefore
seriousdamageoccurs.
A degree of protection could be achieved by making the protective relays
especially sensitive and providing an alarm indication before tripping occurs.
Experience has shown that this is a precarious mode of condition monitoring
leading to false alarms and a lack of confidence in the monitoring process. The
following sections show how the construction, specification, operation and types
of fault can lead to the identification of generic failure mode root causes in the
machine.
2.3 Constr uction of electr ical machines
2.3.1 Gener al
Thebasicconstructional featuresof theelectrical machineareshowninFigure2.2(a).
Therotor, whichusually hasarelatively highinertia, isnormally supportedontwo
bearings, whichmaybemountedonseparatepedestalsorincorporatedintotheenclo-
sureof themachine, asshowninFigure2.2(a). Somelarger, slower-speedmachines
incorporateasinglenon-driveend bearing and rely on theprimemover or driven
plant andits bearings for theremainingsupport. Rollingelement bearings areused
Constr ucti on, oper ati on and fai l ure modes of el ectr i cal machi nes 17
(a)
(b)
Fi gure 2.2 (a) Medi um-si zed synchronous gener ator. Secti on through a 125 MVA,
15 kV, 60 Hz, two-pol e, ai r -cool ed, br ushl ess exci tati on tur bi ne gen-
er ator showi ng the fabr i cated mai n fr ame of the machi ne, stator core,
wi ndi ng, rotor and on ther i ght themai n exci ter of themachi ne. (b) Large
synchronousgener ator. Constr ucti on of thestator coreof a 500 MW, two-
pol e, hydrogen-cool ed tur bi ne gener ator showi ng the fabr i cated i nner
fr ame of the machi ne and the segmented l ami nati ons bei ng i nser ted i nto
that fr ame. [ Source: Br ush Tur bogener ator s]
onsmaller-sizemachineswhereshaft peripheral velocitiesarelow, andsleevebear-
ings withhydrodynamic oil films areusedfor larger machines. Vertically mounted
machines will incorporateathrust bearingusually at thelowendof theenclosure.
This may bearelatively modest angular contact ball bearingfor asmall, vertically
18 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
mountedpumpmotor butcouldbealargehydrodynamicoil filmthrustpadMichell-
typebearing for ahydro-typegenerator wheretherotor may weigh 100 tonnes or
more(seeFigure2.6(b)).
2.3.2 Stator core and fr ame
Thestators of all AC machines areconstructed fromlightly insulated laminations
of electrical steel. As Table2.1 shows, electrical steels arestrong but thesilicon,
incorporated into thealloy, to raisetheresistanceand impart magnetic properties,
weakensthematerial comparedtostructural steel, makingit brittle. Furthermore, if
thelaminatedstructureistohavethecohesionnecessarytotransmit theloadtorque,
andhavelowlevelsof vibrationwhencarryingthemagnetic flux, it must befirmly
clampedbetweencastor fabricatedend-platesthataresecuredtoacylindrical frame
intowhichthecoreiskeyed. Thecoreisconstructedwithintheframeandcompressed
beforetheclampingplatesareapplied. Theframestructureanditsclampingareclearly
visibleinFigures2.2(b), 2.3(a) and2.5(b). Onlarger machinestheclampingplates
aretightenedbylargebolts(seeFigure2.3(a)), butonsmaller machinesinterlocking
keysor evenweldsareusedtosecuretheclampingplates, or thecoreitself may be
weldedor cleated.
InaDCmachinethelaminatedstator fieldpolesareboltedtoarolled-steel yoke
that hasmuchgreater inherent strengththanalaminatedcore(Figure2.7(a)).
2.3.3 Rotor s
Thedesignof therotor will dependontheparticular typeof machine. AC induction
andDCmotorshavelaminatedrotorswherethelaminationsareclampedtogetherand
shrunkontothesteel shaft(Figure2.7(a)). Turbine-typegeneratorshavelarge, solid,
forged-steel rotorsthatarelongandthin(Figure2.3(b)), whilehydro-typegenerators
havelarge, short, fatrotorswithlaminatedpoleshoesboltedontoafabricatedspider
(Figure2.6(b)). Whereair or gascoolingisnecessary anaxial or radial fanmay be
fittedat either or bothendsof therotor shaft. However, smaller machinesrelysolely
onair circulationasaresultof thewindageof therotor itself, whichisusuallyslotted
toaccept therotor windings(Figure2.9).
Therotor windings of generators areconstructedof hard-drawncopper andare
insulated with rigid epoxy or formaldehyde resin and impregnated into a woven
material. Onsquirrel cageinductionmotorsthewindingmayconsist of lightlyinsu-
latedcopperbarsdrivenintotheslotsinthelaminatedrotororof aluminiumbarscast
directlyintotherotor. Therotor windingsof aDCmachineor woundrotor induction
motor arerather similar toaconventional AC stator windingthat isdescribedlater.
Typical inductionmotor andgenerator rotorsareshowninFigures2.3and2.10.
2.3.4 Wi ndi ngs
Thestator windingsof all high-voltageACmachinescompriseconductor barsmade
up of hard-drawn, higher strength copper subconductors that may beconnected in
Constr ucti on, oper ati on and fai l ure modes of el ectr i cal machi nes 19
(a)
(b)
Fi gure 2.3 (a) Large synchronous gener ator. Stator s for 2 500 MW, two-pol e,
hydrogen-cool ed tur bi ne gener ator s. The stator nearest the camer a
i s wound. The stator fur thest from the camer a i s awai ti ng wi ndi ng.
(b) Large synchronous gener ator. Rotor for a 500 MW, two-pol e,
hydrogen-cool ed tur bi ne gener ator showi ng rotor forgi ng and rotor
wi ndi ng before the fi tti ng of end bel l s. [ Source: Br ush Tur bogener ator s]
20 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Wedge
Conductors
Main wall
insulation
Wedge
Conductors
Main wall
insulation
Wedge or top stick
(a) (b) (c)
Ground insulation or slot cell
Coil separator
Insulated magnet wire
Fi gure 2.4 Secti onal vi ew of the sl ot secti on three stator wi ndi ngs, not to the same
scal e. (a) A 400 V round wi re wi ndi ng for a 1 kW motor. (b) An 11 kV,
1.5 MW motor wi ndi ng. (c) A 23 kV conductor bar for the stator wi ndi ng
of a l arge tur bi ne gener ator
seriesor parallel. Individual subconductorsarecoveredwithapaper or glass-based
tapeandtheassembledbar isovertapedwithasimilar material impregnatedonolder
designswithbitumenbutnowadayswithepoxyresins(seeFigure2.4). Intheportion
of theconductorbarembeddedinthestatorslottheinsulationsystemiscompactedby
beingheatedandpressedoritmaybeimpregnatedundervacuumandpressure. Inthe
end-windingportion, whereonecoil is connectedto another, theinsulationsystem
is not compacted and may beslightly altered, containing less impregnant, so that
it is moreflexibleand thereforebetter ableto withstand thelargeelectromagnetic
forces that part of thewinding experiences. An important part of theconstruction
is themanner of thebracing of theseend windings. They areusually pulled back
onto rigidinsulatedbrackets madeof impregnatedlaminateor steel usingnylonor
Terylenelacingcord. Onthelargest machines(Figure2.5(a)) bracingringsof glass-
reinforced plastic are used with insulating bolts. The exact nature of the bracing
depends upon the machine rating and the relative length of the end winding, as
determined by thenumber of polepairs. Theyoke(or stator core) is fitted into a
frameandenclosure. Onsmaller machines andthoseof standarddesign, thestator
coreissecureddirectlyintoasimplifieddesignof amachinemainframe(Figure2.10),
but onlarger machinesthecorehasitsowninner frame, whichisseparatefromthe
outer frameso that theclampedcorecanberemovedfromtheenclosurefor repair
(Figure2.5(b)).
2.3.5 Encl osures
Themachineenclosurecantakeawidevariety of forms, dependingonthemanner
in which themachineis cooled, and theprotection it needs fromtheenvironment
inwhichit will work. Whereapressurisedgassystemof coolingisusedtheenclo-
surewill beathick-walledpressurevessel butfor simpleair-coolingwithanopen-air
circuittheenclosurewill consistof thin-walledducting. Typical enclosuresareshown
Constr ucti on, oper ati on and fai l ure modes of el ectr i cal machi nes 21
(a)
(b)
Fi gure 2.5 (a) Large synchronous gener ator. End regi on of a 600 MW, two-pol e,
hydrogen-cool ed tur bi ne gener ator wi th water -cool ed stator wi ndi ngs
showi ng the end wi ndi ng br aci ng str ucture and the hoses car r yi ng water
to the wi ndi ng. (b) Large synchronous gener ator. Stator of a 600 MW,
two-pol e, hydrogen-cool ed tur bi negener ator showi ng stator core, fr ame
and wi ndi ngs bei ng i nser ted i nto i ts stator pressure housi ng prepar ator y
to factor y testi ng. [ Source: Dongfang El ectr i cal Machi ner y, Chi na]
22 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
(a)
(b)
Fi gure 2.6 (a) Large synchronous gener ator s. Gener ator Hal l i n the Gr and
Coul ee Hydroel ectr i c Dam showi ng a number of hydro gener ator uni ts,
120 MVA, 88-pol e, 60 Hz, 81.8 rev/mi n. [ Source: Gr and Coul ee Dam,
USA] (b) Large synchronous gener ator. I nstal l ati on of the stator of a
75 MVA, 44-pol e, 50 Hz, 136.4 rev/mi n hydro gener ator i n I cel and show-
i ng stator core, fr ame and wi ndi ngs bei ng l owered over the 44-pol e rotor
suppor ted on i ts thr ust bear i ng. [ Source: Br ush Tur bogener ator s]
Constr ucti on, oper ati on and fai l ure modes of el ectr i cal machi nes 23
(a)
(b)
Fi gure 2.7 (a) Smal l DC motor. Secti on through a 500 W, wound-fi el d DC motor
showi ng stator fr ame and bear i ng housi ngs, ar mature and commutator
on the l eft. [ Source: SEM Motor s, UK] (b) Large AC i nducti on motor.
7 MW, 11 kV, 50 Hz, four -pol e, 1486 rev/mi n desi gned to dr i ve a hi gh-
speed fl ash gas compressor for offshore oi l and gas. Note the dr i ve shaft
on l eft and the water -cool ed heat exchanger on top of machi ne. [ Source:
Laurence, Scott & El ectromotor s Ltd.]
inFigures2.1, 2.2(a), 2.5(b), 2.7, 2.8and2.9. Thereisanincreasingdemandnowa-
days to reduce the noise level fromelectrical machines and apart fromaffecting
the basic design of the stator and rotor cores, this will require specially designed
noise-proof enclosures.
24 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
(a)
(b)
Fi gure 2.8 (a) Large AC i nducti on motor. Vi ew of a 20 MW advanced i nduc-
ti on motor for shi p propul si on showi ng l ow speed dr i ve shaft and heat
exchanger s on the machi ne fl anks. Thi s i s a l arge mul ti -phase, mul ti -
pol e, var i abl e speed motor fed by a cur rent-fed i nver ter. Source: Al stom,
Fr ance. (b) Smal l AC motor. Vi ew of a combi ned 4 kW motor and i nver ter
used i n a smal l Ni ssan ful l -el ectr i c-vehi cl e, the Hyper -Mi ni . [ Source:
Hi tachi , Japan]
Constr ucti on, oper ati on and fai l ure modes of el ectr i cal machi nes 25
(a)
(b)
Fi gure 2.9 (a) Medi um synchronous gener ator. 400 V l i ne, 40 kVA, four -pol e
gener ator for di esel genset, pi l ot exci ter on the r i ght. (b) Smal l
AC motor. I nducti on motor, 400 V l i ne, 40 kW. [ Source: Marel l i
Motor i S.p.A.]
26 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
2.3.6 Connecti ons
Electrical connections aremadeto thewindings viacopper busbars or cables that
leavethemachineenclosurethroughbushings into aterminal box. Themainthree
phasebusbarsof the1111MVA generator arevisiblerisingfromthestator framein
thecentreof Figure2.1. Thebusbarsmaybelightlyinsulatedtoprotectthemagainst
theenvironment. Thebushingsusuallyconsistof thebusbar embeddedintoanepoxy
resincasting, althoughwoundpaper bushingsmay beusedonolder machines. The
electrical connectionsarewell bracedtowithstandthelargeelectromagnetic forces
thataredevelopedwhenfaultcurrentsflow. Theterminal enclosureallowstheproper
terminationof thesupply cables or busbars, andmust bespecially designedto suit
theenvironment inwhichthemachineworks. For example, special enclosures are
requiredfor motors that operateininflammableareas andtheseincorporatebaffles
andsealstoensurethat anyflashover intheenclosuredoesnot ignitegasor vapour
outsidetheterminal box.
Manymachinesincorporatebrushgear for connectiontotherotor windingseither
through steel or copper sliprings or through a copper commutator (Figure 2.7(a).
Thecommutator isavery carefully designedcomponent inwhichcopper segments
interlock with therotor so that they can withstand thebursting forces acting upon
them. Also, eachsegment must bewell insulatedfromits neighbours, andmicais
normallyusedfor thispurpose. Slipringsareusuallyshrunkontoaninsulatingsleeve
mountedonabossontherotor shaft, andelectrical connectionstotheslipringsare
insulatedandcarefullybracedtowithstandthecentrifugal forcesuponthem. Brushes
arespringloadedandmountedinbrassbrushboxesaroundtheperipheryof therings
or commutator.
Heatexchangersfor thecoolingsystemof themachinearemountedontheenclo-
sureor may beapart of it, as showninFigure2.7(b). They may beas simpleas a
finnedcasingtothemachinetopromoteconvectiveheat transfer tothesurrounding
air or they may beamorecomplex water-cooledsystemthroughwhichthecooling
gasor air isducted.
2.3.7 Summar y
Thesedescriptionsshowtheverywiderangeof materialsthatareusedinanelectrical
machineandTable2.3givesasummaryof thesebasedonthestructureof themachine.
Inparticular it shouldbenotedhowimportant insulatingmaterialsare, bothinterms
of volumeandcost intheoverall structureof anelectrical machine. Inthefollowing
sectionthisstructureof themachinewill bediscussedinmoredetail.
2.4 Str uctur e of electr ical machines and their types
Theprevioussectionsprovidedabrief descriptionof themajor constructional com-
ponents of an electrical machine and the materials of which they are made. The
differencebetweenthestructurefor assemblyandfor reliabilitywill bedescribedin
Chapter 3.
Constr ucti on, oper ati on and fai l ure modes of el ectr i cal machi nes 27
Tabl e 2.3 Mater i al s used i n the constr ucti on of a typi cal el ectr i cal machi ne
Subassembly Component Materials
Enclosure Enclosure
Heat exchanger electrical
connections
Bushingsbearings
Fabricatedstructural steel
Steel, copper or brasstube
Copper or aluminiumbusbar or cable
Cast epoxyresin
Steel babbitt, hightensilesteel rolling
elementsor soft bearingalloyon
bearingshells
Stator body Frame
Core
Coreclamp
Structural steel
Electrical steel laminationsor rolled
steel yoke
Structural steel or non-magnetic,
low-conductivityalloy
Stator winding ConductorsinsulationEnd
windingsupport
Harddrawncopper or copper wire
Mica-paper or glassor film
impregnatedwithresin
Glassfibrestructural materialsand
impregnatedinsulationfelts, ropesand
boards
Rotor winding Conductors
Insulation
Endwindingsupport
Harddrawncopper or copper wire
Mica-paper or glassor film
impregnatedwithresin
Impregnatedglassfibrerope
Rotor body Shaft
Core
Coreclampsliprings
Brushgear
Structural steel or forging
Electrical steel laminationsor steel
forgingintegral withshaft
Structural steel or non-magnetic, low
conductivityalloysteel, brassor copper
Carbonor copper brushesinbrass
brushholders
In this section the detailed structure for assembly of the electrical machine is
discussedandtheeffectof differenttypesof machineuponit. Thisstructureisexem-
plifiedby Figure2.10. Notethesimilarity betweenthis 4kW inductionmotor and
the125MVA synchronousgenerator showninFigure2.2(a).
Thisstructureisalsopresentedintabular forminTable2.3andthiswill formthe
basisfor consideringthefaultsinmachineslater inthechapter. Notethat generators
requirean exciter to providethefield current for their rotor. They generally have
their exciters mountedontheshaft of themainmachineandalargegenerator can
haveapilotexciter andmainexciter. Themainexciter isclearlyvisibleontheleftin
28 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Drive end
Stator
Rotor
Fan
Cooling
air flow
Non-drive end
Fi gure 2.10 Str ucture of an el ectr i cal machi ne showi ng stator core and wi ndi ngs,
stator fr ame rotor and bear i ngs of a 4 kW i nducti on motor. [ Source:
GE Power Systems, USA]
Figures2.1and2.2(a), andthepilot exciter isalsovisibleinFigure2.2(a) between
themainexciter andthemaingenerator. Thereforeagenerator mayconsistof twoor
eventhreeelectrical machinesonthesameshaft. Thisisimportantwhencarryingout
afailuremodesandeffectsanalysis, inconsideringthenumber of subassembliesin
themachine(seeChapter 3), whenthenumber of componentsaffectsthepredicted
failurerateof themachine.
Deterioration of performanceor failurein servicecan occur dueto damageof
any of thesecomponents, andthedescriptions of failures at theendof this chapter
showhowwide-rangingtheseroot causes canbe. However, experienceshows that
particular components areunder specific electrical, mechanical or thermal stresses
andtoalargeextent thesecomponentsdependonthesizeandtypeof themachine.
Table2.4gives arangeof typical sizes for somelarger electrical machines and
showssomeimportantmechanical, electrical andthermal parametersinthedesignof
electrical machines, whichdeterminetheir abilitytomeettheconditionsdescribedin
theprevioussections, namely
• magneticloading, T,
• electricloading, A/mm,
• current density, A/mm
2
,
• mechanical loading, peripheral velocity, mm/s.
Thevaluesof theseparametersinTable2.4giveanideaof thelimitstotheseparame-
tersinall electrical machines. Table2.5setsoutthemajortypesof electrical machine,
Tabl e 2.4 Si zes and proper ti es of some typi cal l arge el ectr i cal machi nes. Taken from
Tavner and Ander son [ 2]
Typeof
machine
Air-cooled
induction
motor
Air-cooled
turbine
generator
H
2
-cooled
turbine
generator
Air-cooled
hydro
generator
H
2
Oand
H
2
-cooled
turbine
generator
Stator winding
cooling
Air indirect Air indirect H
2
indirect Air indirect H
2
Odirect
Stator core
cooling
Air direct Air direct H
2
direct Air direct H
2
direct
Rotor cooling Air direct Air direct H
2
direct Air direct H
2
direct
S(MVA) 7.11 125 108.6 100 1111
P (MW) 6.14 100 92.3 90 1000
Poles 4 2 2 88 2
Rev/min 1790 3000 3000 68.2 3000
Corelength,
mm
628 4450 2800 1280 7200
Rotor
diameter, mm
742 890 924 12968 1200
Typical
weight, tonnes
18 90 120 400 350
Mechanical
loading, rotor
peripheral
velocity(m/s)
69.5 139.8 145.1 46.3 188.5
U (kV) 6.8 15 13.8 15.75 24
Magnetic
loading, air
gapflux
density(Trms)
0.9 0.94 0.83 1.05 1
I (A) 604 6560 4543 3666 26729
Electric
loading
(A/mm)
93.0 116.3 146.8 62.5 255.3
Current
density,
(A/mm
2
)
3.9 2.8 3.8 3.7 11.1
T
a
b
l
e
2
.
5
T
y
p
e
s
o
f
r
o
t
a
t
i
n
g
e
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
a
l
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
M
a
i
n
t
y
p
e
o
f
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
S
u
b
t
y
p
e
s
S
i
z
e
r
a
n
g
e
M
a
i
n
c
o
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
i
o
n
a
l
f
e
a
t
u
r
e
s
R
o
o
t
c
a
u
s
e
s
S
y
n
c
h
r
o
n
o
u
s
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
s
S
t
e
a
m
a
n
d
g
a
s
-
t
u
r
b
i
n
e
d
r
i
v
e
n
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
o
r
c
.
2
5

1
5
0
0
M
V
A
L
e
n
g
t
h

d
i
a
m
e
t
e
r
H
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l
l
y
m
o
u
n
t
e
d
H
i
g
h
r
o
t
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
s
p
e
e
d
,
1
5
0
0

3
6
0
0
r
e
v
/
m
i
n
C
l
o
s
e
c
i
r
c
u
i
t
a
i
r
o
r
g
a
s
-
c
o
o
l
i
n
g
W
a
t
e
r
c
o
o
l
e
d
s
t
a
t
o
r
w
i
n
d
i
n
g
s
i
n
l
a
r
g
e
r
s
i
z
e
s
F
o
s
s
i
l
f
u
e
l
a
n
d
n
u
c
l
e
a
r
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
E
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
a
l
f
a
u
l
t
s
i
n
c
u
r
c
o
n
s
e
q
u
e
n
t
i
a
l
d
a
m
a
g
e
H
i
g
h
-
s
p
e
e
d
b
a
l
a
n
c
e
p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s
E
x
c
i
t
a
t
i
o
n
f
a
u
l
t
s
e
x
a
c
e
r
b
a
t
e
b
a
l
a
n
c
e
p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s
S
t
a
t
o
r
e
n
d
w
i
n
d
i
n
g
b
r
a
c
i
n
g
p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s
R
o
t
o
r
e
n
d
b
e
l
l
i
n
t
e
g
r
i
t
y
p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s
G
a
s
-
c
o
o
l
i
n
g
c
i
r
c
u
i
t
s
e
a
l
i
n
g
p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s
W
a
t
e
r
-
c
o
o
l
i
n
g
c
i
r
c
u
i
t
s
e
a
l
i
n
g
p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s
H
i
g
h
p
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e
o
i
l
f
i
l
m
b
e
a
r
i
n
g
s
E
n
c
l
o
s
e
d
c
a
s
i
n
g
m
e
a
n
s
d
i
f
f
i
c
u
l
t
t
o
i
n
s
p
e
c
t
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
t
l
y
W
a
t
e
r
t
u
r
b
i
n
e
-
d
r
i
v
e
n
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
o
r
c
.
1
0

8
0
0
M
V
A
D
i
a
m
e
t
e
r

l
e
n
g
t
h
V
e
r
t
i
c
a
l
l
y
o
r
h
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l
l
y
m
o
u
n
t
e
d
L
o
w
r
o
t
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
s
p
e
e
d
,
8
0

3
0
0
r
e
v
/
m
i
n
A
i
r
-
c
o
o
l
e
d
W
a
t
e
r
-
c
o
o
l
e
d
s
t
a
t
o
r
w
i
n
d
i
n
g
s
i
n
l
a
r
g
e
r
s
i
z
e
s
H
y
d
r
o
e
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
E
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
a
l
f
a
u
l
t
s
i
n
c
u
r
c
o
n
s
e
q
u
e
n
t
i
a
l
d
a
m
a
g
e
A
i
r
-
c
o
o
l
i
n
g
a
n
d
h
i
g
h
s
t
r
e
s
s
e
s
l
e
a
d
t
o
d
i
s
c
h
a
r
g
e
e
r
o
s
i
o
n
o
n
h
i
g
h
-
v
o
l
t
a
g
e
w
i
n
d
i
n
g
s
R
o
t
o
r
p
o
l
e
i
n
t
e
g
r
i
t
y
p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s
H
i
g
h
-
p
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e
o
i
l
f
i
l
m
t
h
r
u
s
t
b
e
a
r
i
n
g
E
n
c
l
o
s
e
d
c
a
s
i
n
g
m
e
a
n
s
d
i
f
f
i
c
u
l
t
t
o
i
n
s
p
e
c
t
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
t
l
y
E
n
g
i
n
e
-
d
r
i
v
e
n
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
o
r
c
.
1
0
k
V
A

6
0
M
V
A
L
e
n
g
t
h

d
i
a
m
e
t
e
r
H
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l
l
y
m
o
u
n
t
e
d
M
e
d
i
u
m
r
o
t
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
s
p
e
e
d
5
0
0

1
8
0
0
r
e
v
/
m
i
n
S
t
a
n
d
b
y
,
C
H
P
,
i
s
l
a
n
d
a
n
d
m
a
r
i
n
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
E
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
a
l
f
a
u
l
t
s
i
n
c
u
r
c
o
n
s
e
q
u
e
n
t
i
a
l
d
a
m
a
g
e
R
e
c
i
p
r
o
c
a
t
i
n
g
e
n
g
i
n
e
s
g
i
v
e
t
o
r
s
i
o
n
a
l
a
n
d
s
e
i
s
m
i
c
v
i
b
r
a
t
i
o
n
p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s
A
r
d
u
o
u
s
e
n
v
i
r
o
n
m
e
n
t
c
a
n
c
a
u
s
e
p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s
S
y
n
c
h
r
o
n
o
u
s
m
o
t
o
r
1

3
0
M
W
L
e
n
g
t
h

d
i
a
m
e
t
e
r
H
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l
l
y
m
o
u
n
t
e
d
W
i
d
e
r
a
n
g
e
o
f
p
o
s
s
i
b
l
e
r
o
t
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
s
p
e
e
d
s
5
0
0

6
0
0
0
r
e
v
/
m
i
n
N
o
r
t
h
A
m
e
r
i
c
a
n
t
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
R
e
c
i
p
r
o
c
a
t
i
n
g
a
n
d
t
u
r
b
o
-
c
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
o
r
d
r
i
v
e
s
H
i
g
h
-
s
p
e
e
d
c
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
o
r
s
g
i
v
e
h
i
g
h
s
p
e
e
d
b
a
l
a
n
c
e
p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s
R
e
c
i
p
r
o
c
a
t
i
n
g
c
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
o
r
s
g
i
v
e
t
o
r
s
i
o
n
a
l
a
n
d
s
e
i
s
m
i
c
v
i
b
r
a
t
i
o
n
p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s
S
t
a
t
o
r
e
n
d
w
i
n
d
i
n
g
b
r
a
c
i
n
g
p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s
P
e
r
m
a
n
e
n
t
m
a
g
n
e
t
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
s
S
y
n
c
h
r
o
n
o
u
s
m
o
t
o
r
0
.
5

5
0
0
k
W
L
e
n
g
t
h

d
i
a
m
e
t
e
r
H
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l
l
y
m
o
u
n
t
e
d
H
i
g
h
r
o
t
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
s
p
e
e
d
,
5
0
0

5
0
0
0
r
e
v
/
m
i
n
V
a
r
i
a
b
l
e
s
p
e
e
d
d
r
i
v
e
a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
s
E
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
a
l
f
a
u
l
t
s
i
n
c
u
r
c
o
n
s
e
q
u
e
n
t
i
a
l
d
a
m
a
g
e
H
i
g
h
s
p
e
e
d
b
a
l
a
n
c
e
p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s
S
y
n
c
h
r
o
n
o
u
s
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
o
r
5

5
M
W
D
i
a
m
e
t
e
r

l
e
n
g
t
h
V
e
r
t
i
c
a
l
l
y
o
r
h
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l
l
y
m
o
u
n
t
e
d
L
o
w
r
o
t
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
s
p
e
e
d
,
8
0

3
0
0
r
e
v
/
m
i
n
R
e
n
e
w
a
b
l
e
a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
s
E
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
a
l
f
a
u
l
t
s
i
n
c
u
r
c
o
n
s
e
q
u
e
n
t
i
a
l
d
a
m
a
g
e
I
n
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
s
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
o
r
s
1
0
0
k
V
A

1
0
M
V
A
H
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l
l
y
m
o
u
n
t
e
d
M
e
d
i
u
m
r
o
t
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
s
p
e
e
d
s
5
0
0

3
6
0
0
r
e
v
/
m
i
n
B
e
c
o
m
i
n
g
c
o
m
m
o
n
i
n
w
i
n
d
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
S
h
o
r
t
a
i
r
g
a
p
d
i
v
e
s
a
i
r
g
a
p
s
t
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s
l
i
m
i
t
i
n
g
p
e
r
m
i
s
s
i
b
l
e
b
e
a
r
i
n
g
w
e
a
r
p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r
i
n
h
i
g
h
p
o
l
e
a
g
e
l
o
w
s
p
e
e
d
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
s
S
l
i
p
r
i
n
g
a
n
d
b
r
u
s
h
g
e
a
r
p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s
o
n
d
o
u
b
l
y
f
e
d
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
s
M
o
t
o
r
s
0
.
1
k
W

2
0
M
W
L
e
n
g
t
h

d
i
a
m
e
t
e
r
H
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l
l
y
m
o
u
n
t
e
d
W
i
t
h
v
a
r
i
a
b
l
e
s
p
e
e
d
d
r
i
v
e
s
w
i
d
e
r
a
n
g
e
o
f
p
o
s
s
i
b
l
e
r
o
t
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
s
p
e
e
d
s
5
0
0

6
0
0
0
r
e
v
/
m
i
n
U
b
i
q
u
i
t
o
u
s
i
n
d
u
s
t
r
i
a
l
w
o
r
k
h
o
r
s
e
H
i
g
h
s
t
a
r
t
i
n
g
c
u
r
r
e
n
t
l
i
m
i
t
s
t
h
e
r
m
a
l
a
n
d
f
a
t
i
g
u
e
l
i
f
e
S
h
o
r
t
a
i
r
-
g
a
p
d
i
v
e
s
a
i
r
-
g
a
p
s
t
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s
l
i
m
i
t
i
n
g
p
e
r
m
i
s
s
i
b
l
e
b
e
a
r
i
n
g
w
e
a
r
p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r
i
n
h
i
g
h
p
o
l
e
a
g
e
l
o
w
s
p
e
e
d
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
s
R
o
t
o
r
c
a
g
e
i
n
t
e
g
r
i
t
y
a
f
t
e
r
m
a
n
y
r
e
s
t
a
r
t
s
S
l
i
p
r
i
n
g
a
n
d
b
r
u
s
h
g
e
a
r
p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s
o
n
d
o
u
b
l
y
f
e
d
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
s
C
o
n
t
i
n
u
e
d
T
a
b
l
e
2
.
5
C
o
n
t
i
n
u
e
d
M
a
i
n
t
y
p
e
o
f
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
S
u
b
t
y
p
e
s
S
i
z
e
r
a
n
g
e
M
a
i
n
c
o
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
i
o
n
a
l
f
e
a
t
u
r
e
s
R
o
o
t
c
a
u
s
e
s
D
C
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
s
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
o
r
s
2
0
k
W

5
M
W
L
e
n
g
t
h

d
i
a
m
e
t
e
r
H
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l
l
y
m
o
u
n
t
e
d
M
e
d
i
u
m
r
o
t
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
s
p
e
e
d
5
0
0

1
8
0
0
r
e
v
/
m
i
n
D
e
c
l
i
n
i
n
g
a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
g
e
n
e
r
a
l
l
y
f
o
r
t
r
a
c
t
i
o
n
a
n
d
s
p
e
c
i
a
l
a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
s
C
o
m
m
u
t
a
t
o
r
f
a
u
l
t
s
B
r
u
s
h
g
e
a
r
f
a
u
l
t
s
C
a
r
b
o
n
d
u
s
t
c
o
n
t
a
m
i
n
a
t
i
o
n
p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s
A
s
s
o
c
i
a
t
e
d
c
o
n
t
r
o
l
g
e
a
r
p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s
M
o
t
o
r
s
1
k
W

2
M
W
L
e
n
g
t
h

d
i
a
m
e
t
e
r
H
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l
l
y
m
o
u
n
t
e
d
M
e
d
i
u
m
r
o
t
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
s
p
e
e
d
5
0
0

1
8
0
0
r
e
v
/
m
i
n
D
e
c
l
i
n
i
n
g
a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
t
o
s
p
e
c
i
a
l
i
s
e
d
v
a
r
i
a
b
l
e
s
p
e
e
d
a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
s
p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r
l
y
t
r
a
c
t
i
o
n
I
n
t
e
r
m
i
t
t
e
n
t
d
u
t
y
t
h
e
r
m
a
l
p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s
H
i
g
h
s
h
o
c
k
l
o
a
d
i
n
g
p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s
C
o
m
m
u
t
a
t
o
r
f
a
u
l
t
s
B
r
u
s
h
g
e
a
r
f
a
u
l
t
s
C
a
r
b
o
n
d
u
s
t
c
o
n
t
a
m
i
n
a
t
i
o
n
p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s
A
s
s
o
c
i
a
t
e
d
c
o
n
t
r
o
l
g
e
a
r
p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s
A
C
r
e
l
u
c
t
a
n
c
e
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
s
M
o
t
o
r
s
1

5
0
k
W
L
e
n
g
t
h

d
i
a
m
e
t
e
r
H
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l
l
y
m
o
u
n
t
e
d
M
e
d
i
u
m
r
o
t
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
s
p
e
e
d
5
0
0

1
8
0
0
r
e
v
/
m
i
n
I
n
c
r
e
a
s
i
n
g
a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
t
o
s
p
e
c
i
a
l
i
s
e
d
v
a
r
i
a
b
l
e
s
p
e
e
d
h
i
g
h
t
o
r
q
u
e
a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
s
V
i
b
r
a
t
i
o
n
S
t
a
t
o
r
w
i
n
d
i
n
g
d
a
m
a
g
e
V
a
r
i
a
b
l
e
s
p
e
e
d
d
r
i
v
e
p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s
A
C
c
o
m
m
u
t
a
t
o
r
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
s
M
o
t
o
r
s
2
0
k
W

5
M
W
N
o
w
a
l
m
o
s
t
o
b
s
o
l
e
t
e
i
n
t
h
e
f
a
c
e
o
f
p
o
w
e
r
e
l
e
c
t
r
o
n
i
c
v
a
r
i
a
b
l
e
s
p
e
e
d
d
r
i
v
e
s
a
p
p
l
i
e
d
t
o
i
n
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
a
n
d
D
C
m
o
t
o
r
s
C
o
m
m
u
t
a
t
o
r
f
a
u
l
t
s
B
r
u
s
h
g
e
a
r
f
a
u
l
t
s
C
a
r
b
o
n
d
u
s
t
c
o
n
t
a
m
i
n
a
t
i
o
n
p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s
A
s
s
o
c
i
a
t
e
d
c
o
n
t
r
o
l
g
e
a
r
p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s
Constr ucti on, oper ati on and fai l ure modes of el ectr i cal machi nes 33
whichshowsthemainconstructional featuresof eachtypeandthefactorsmostlikely
toleadtofaults.
2.5 M achine specification and failur e modes
Many faultsoccur becausemachinesareincorrectly specifiedfor theapplicationto
whichtheyarebeingapplied. For example, amachinemaybeunderpoweredor have
aninadequateenclosure. Thespecificationof amachinemust ensurethat it isof an
appropriatedesignfor theusetowhichit isbeingput. It isawasteof timeapplying
sophisticatedmonitoringtechniquestoamachinethatisunfitfor itspurpose. Itisfar
better toremovethemonitoringandchangethemachinefor onethat ismoresuited
totheapplication. By thesametokenmany operational problemscouldbeavoided
by using an over-designed machine. For example, in ahot environment it may be
better touseanover-ratedmachine, whichhasasubstantial designmargin, thanpush
anadequately designedmachineto its limit. Ontheother hand, it is sometimes an
operational factof life, especiallywithanexpensivemachine, thatitmustcontinueto
operateeventhoughitsuffersfromshortcomingsintheoriginal specification. Insuch
caseseffectivemonitoringcanhelptoeasetheburdenplaceduponthemaintenance
engineer.
Thespecificationof amachinemust reflect themechanical, electrical andenvi-
ronmental conditions in which the machine will work. These matters will have a
bearingonthemechanismsby whichthemachinemay fail inservice. Theneedfor
monitoringandtheselectionof theparameterstobemonitoredmust beaffectedby
theseoperational conditions. Table2.6 sets out theoperational conditions that are
covered by a specification and that are relevant to monitoring. These operational
conditionsaredescribedbyBoneandSchwarz [3].
Mechanically, machines canbeexposedto periods of intermittent running, fre-
quent startingandtoarduousduty cycles, wheretheloadvariesfrequently between
no-loadandfull-loadwithoccasional overloads. Thesecanleadtoinsulationdegra-
dation, bearingwear, vibrationandslackeningof windings, commutatororbrushgear.
Similarlyamachinedrivingapulsatingload, suchasacompressor, isgoingtoexpe-
rience heavy bearing wear, vibration and slackening of windings, commutator or
brushgear.
Froman electrical supply point of view a machine, by virtue of its location
in a supply systemor its task in a manufacturing process, may be subjected to a
variety of transients at its supply terminals. Thesemay beslowfluctuations inthe
supplyvoltageorevenunbalancebetweenthethreephasesthatcancauseoperational
problems, for example, if themachinedoes not havethethermal capacity to deal
withtheoverheatingthat unbalancecanleadto. Morerapidtransientsinthesupply
voltage, however, canoverstressthewindinginsulationbecausetheelectricstressis
notuniformlydistributedthroughoutthewindinglength. Moderninterruptersproduce
veryrapidvoltagesurgesthatwereknowntobreakdownclassB(seeTable2.2) inter-
turninsulationonthelineendcoilsof motorsbutwithmodernclassF systemsthisis
nowrare. Themost severeelectrical transientsamachinecanreceive, however, are
Tabl e 2.6 Oper ati onal condi ti ons, defi ned by speci fi cati on, whi ch affect fai l ure
mechani sms
Operational
condition
Natureof
condition
Detailed
condition
Root causesandfailure
modes
Mechanical Characteristics
of theloador
primemover
Dutycycle
Pulsatingload
repeated:
starting
loador drive
vibration
Successiveoverloadsmay
causeoverheatingor bearing
damage.
Maycausebearingandlow
cyclefatiguedamage
Repeatedapplicationof high
startingtorquesmaycause
excessiveoverheatingand
damagetorotor andstator
endwindings
Maycausehighcyclefatigue
damage
Electrical Characteristics
of theelectrical
systemandthe
machine
connectedtoit
Slowvoltage
fluctuation
Fast voltage
fluctuation
System
unbalance
Maycauselossof power and
motor stall or generator
pole-slip
Maydisrupt generator
excitationor causeinsulation
failureinwinding
Maycausestator winding
heating
Environmental Characteristics
of the
environment in
whichthe
machineis
beingused
Temperature
Humidity
Cleanliness
Highambient temperature
will causefaster insulation
degradationandbearing
deterioration. Lowambient
temperaturemaycause
frostingandicing
Highhumiditymayleadto
condensationandtracking
damagetoinsulator surfaces
andcorrosionof metal parts
leadingtosusceptibilityto
corrosionfatiguefailure
Dirt fromtheenvironment
mayenter themachine,
contaminatinginsulation
surfaces, enhancingthe
propensitytotracking,
foulingheat exchangersand
contaminatingbrushgear
Constr ucti on, oper ati on and fai l ure modes of el ectr i cal machi nes 35
duringstartingor reswitchingof thesupply, andpartof thedutyof manymachinesin
industrial processesistoberepeatedlystartedandrunforshortperiods. Thiswill cause
overheating, slackeningof windingsystems, movementof electrical connectionsand
overstressingof terminal boxes.
Environmentally, therearethermal and contamination problems. Themachine
mayrunexceptionallyhot, becauseof coolingproblems, ambient conditionsor sim-
ply that themachineis being operated to its rating limit. Thesecan deteriorateits
insulating materials. Themachinemay beoperating in adirty environment either
becauseof theindustrial process in which it is working, such as atextileor paper
works, or becauseit has brushgear that produces carbon dust. If dirt can enter the
maincoolant circuit it may contaminatewindings, bushings andelectrical connec-
tionscausingadeteriorationininsulationintegrity. Alternatively, itmayfoul coolers,
seals, or bearingscausingoverheatingandmechanical damage. Thecoolinggasmay
alsobecomedampbecauseof ambient conditions, for instanceinatropical country,
or dueto cooler leakage. Either of thesecan lead to thecondensation of moisture
on theelectrical insulation andconnections givingareducedinsulation resistance.
A machineneedstobedesignedtomeet theenvironmental, mechanical andelectri-
cal disturbances it is likely to encounter duringits lifebut any monitoringscheme
that is installedshouldbedirectedtowards detectingtheuntowardeffects of these
disturbances.
2.6 I nsulation ageing mechanisms
2.6.1 Gener al
Electrical insulation faults are a significant contributor to the failure of rotating
machines. Industry studies described in the next chapter indicate that up to one-
thirdof rotatingmachinefailures canbeattributedto loss of functionof thestator
windingelectrical insulation. Thereforetheydeservespecial considerationbeforewe
consider failuremodesingeneral. However, itshouldbeborneinmindthatalthough
thefinal failuremodemay beelectrical breakdown of adielectric component, the
underlyingmechanismdrivingthebreakdownmay bethermal, mechanical or envi-
ronmental stressaswell aselectrical factors. Thissectionwill coverthebasicstresses
thataffecttheperformanceof statorwinding, statorcoreandrotorwindinginsulation
systemsonoperatingmachinesaswell asdiscussingtherolesthat design, operation
andmaintenancehaveonthelifeof theequipment.
Insulationinserviceisexposedtohightemperature, highvoltage, vibrationand
other mechanical forces, as well as someadverseenvironmental conditions. These
stresses canact together or individually todegradeinsulationmaterials or systems.
Thermal ageingof insulatingmaterial duetohightemperatureshasbeenstudiedthe
mostandisperhapsbestunderstood. Themechanismmaybetreatedasachemical rate
phenomenon, describedbytheArrheniusrelationship, andincludeslossof volatiles,
oxidation, depolymerisation, shrinkageandembrittlement. Inactual service, lossof
insulationsystemintegrity is aggravatedby cyclic andtransient mechanical forces,
whichcauserelativemovement andabrasionof insulation. Furthermore, insulation
36 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
subjectedto highvoltagecandegradedueto partial dischargeactivity. Eventually,
the stresses will so weaken the insulation that puncture results and the conduc-
tor is connected to earth. Thus, although the final result is electrical failure, the
root cause may be the result of non-electrical stress. In general, the higher the
electrical stress, themorerapidly theinsulation will age. In thediscussion to fol-
low, eachof thesestresses, thermal, electrical, mechanical andambient conditions
will be described in generic terms. The exact details of which mechanisms are
the most critical are very much dependent on the type of equipment and service
conditions.
2.6.2 Ther mal agei ng
Thermal ageing occurs when the temperature of the insulation is high enough to
causetheelectrical andmechanical propertiesof theinsulationtodegrade. Cycling
of thetemperaturecanalso inducemechanical stresses causingdeterioration, even
if the temperature alone is insufficient to cause damage; for example, the loss of
thecopper/insulationbondinthestator windingsof rotatingmachinesasaresult of
successiveheatingandcoolingof aconductor.
Theoperating temperatures of inorganic insulating materials (seeTable2.2) –
for example, porcelainsandglasses– arelimitedbysoftening, byreversiblechanges
of conduction, dielectriclossorstrength, orbythedangerof fractureduetodifferential
thermal stresses. Organicmaterialssuffer irreversiblechangesat hightemperatures.
Generally, thetemperaturelimit that will restrict deteriorationtowhat isacceptable
overthedesignlifeof theequipmentislowerthanthatimposedbyimmediatechanges
suchas softening, except whenthetemperatureriseinserviceis of short duration.
Typical obvioussymptomsareshrinkage, hardening, spontaneouscrackingor craz-
ing, lossof strength, embrittlement, discolouration, distortionand, inextremecases,
charring. Theseeffectsaregenerallydueto, or accompaniedby
• lossof weight resultingfromevaporationof volatilecomponents,
• oxidationorpyrolysistoformvolatilesubstancesorgasessuchasCO, CO
2
, water
andlow-molecular-weight hydrocarbons,
• excessivecross-linking.
2.6.3 El ectr i cal agei ng
2.6.3.1 Gener al
Electrical ageing occurs when the electric stress applied to insulation causes
deterioration. Although electric stress dueto DC and transient voltages can cause
ageing, ACvoltageisnormallythemostsevere. Itshouldbenotedthattheinsulating
materials usedinpractical equipment operatewell belowtheir inherent breakdown
strength. Consequently, electrical ageing of insulation usually occurs as theresult
of thepresenceof faultsinthematerial; for example, gasvoidsarisingfromimper-
fect impregnation, resultinginpartial discharge. Thefollowingareelectrical ageing
mechanismsthat canbeinducedbytheprincipal power frequencyvoltageor bythe
transient surgevoltagefrompower systemdisturbances.
Constr ucti on, oper ati on and fai l ure modes of el ectr i cal machi nes 37
2.6.3.2 Par tial dischar ges
Ingeneral, deteriorationfrompartial dischargeswill occurininsulationthathasvoids
createdduringmanufactureor bythermal or mechanical ageinginservice. Thedirect
impingement of discharges on insulation surfaces will causedecomposition of the
solidinsulation.
2.6.3.3 Sur face tr acking and moistur e absor ption
Electrical tracking; that is, the formation of conductive or carbonised paths over
aninsulationsurface, iscausedby AC electrical stress. Whenaninsulatingsurface
collects dust and moisture it can become conducting. The conduction current can
becomelargeenoughtoswamptheeffectsof capacitancecurrentssothatthevoltage
distribution is no longer determined by capacitances, as for a clean surface, but
dependsonhowtheconductancevariesover thesurface. Thepollutionfilmisnever
uniform, andconductionthroughthefilmcausesdryingout that ismost rapidinthe
regionsof highestresistivity. Thedryingoutcausesafurther increaseinresistivityin
theseregions, sotheeffect iscumulativeandeventuallyadrybandisformedacross
theinsulation. Mostof thevoltageacrossthesurfaceappearsacrossthisdrybandand
flashover canoccur over thedry band, constitutingapartial breakdown. Anarc is
formedintheairadjacenttothedryband, whichcandooneof threethings: extinguish
rapidly, stabiliseandcontinuetoburn, orextendinlengthuntil itbridgestheinsulation
causingcompletebreakdown. Inthefinal stagesthearcmaygrowslowlybythermal
drying, whichisareversibleprocess, or maypropagaterapidlyandirreversiblydue
tothestressconcentrationat thearcroot. Arcsonpollutedinsulationcanpropagate
andcausefailureat workingstressesof 0.02–0.04kV/mm. Thesestressesshouldbe
comparedwithaveragebreakdownstressof 3kV/mmforuniformfieldsand5kV/mm
for point-planegapsinair.
2.6.3.4 Tr ansient voltages
Transient or surge voltages can result froma number of causes such as lightning
strikes, switching operations, faults or fromthe power electronic devices feeding
the machine in the case of adjustable speed drives. Normally, insulation systems
are designed and qualified to withstand lightning and switching surges; however,
faster transients, such as those associated with drives or gas insulated switchgear
operations, havebeenknowntocausefailuresduetothenon-uniformvoltagedistri-
butionresultingfromsteep-frontedsurges. Consequently, part of thedesignprocess
requiresknowledgeof theelectrical environmentandthesurgeenvironmentinwhich
the equipment will be operating. Transient events can also cause failure in older
equipmentthathasbeensubjecttoseveral yearsof thermal, electrical, mechanical or
ambient ageing.
2.6.4 Mechani cal agei ng
Mechanical stressisamajor direct or indirect contributor tomanyinsulationsystem
ageingmechanisms. Mechanical ageingis principally producedby relativemotion
of insulatingcomponents andresults frommechanical andelectromagnetic forces,
38 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
resonances, inadequatewedging and bracing, flexing, abrasion and environmental
factorsthat affect themechanical propertiesof theinsulation.
2.6.5 Envi ronmental agei ng
Thecontaminationof insulationsystemsbywater, oilsor chemicalscancauseinsu-
latingmaterials to degrademechanically andelectrically. Thermal ageingwill also
proceedat afaster rateinair thaninrelatively inert atmospheressuchashydrogen.
Theeffectsof moistureor water absorptionarewell known. Themost commonage-
ingeffect istheworseningof theelectrical propertiesof theinsulationmaterial and
ageneral tendency to poorer mechanical performance. In practice, theseverity of
problems, causedby thepresenceof moistureintheinsulation, isdependent onthe
typeof insulationsystem. Older insulationsystems containingorganic binders and
bondingvarnishesaremoresusceptibletomechanical degradationfromwaterabsorp-
tionthanmodernsystemscontaininginorganic bindersandsynthetic resinssuchas
epoxy. However, polyester-basedmaterials canlosetheir electrical andmechanical
propertiesinwetenvironments. Hydrolysisisamechanismbywhichmoisturecauses
ruptureof thechemical bondsof theinsulation. Thistendstocausedelaminationand
swellingof theinsulationexposingit totherisk of failureduetothermal, electrical
or mechanical factors. Oils, acids, alkalisandsolventscanalsoattackcertaininsulat-
ingmaterialsandbondingagents. Again, organicmaterialsaremorelikelytosuffer
significant deterioration. Contaminationof insulatingmaterialswithdust canresult
inelectrical failureduetosurfacetracking.
Thereareanumber of high-voltageapplications, suchasprimary heat transport
pump motors, within the reactor containment area of nuclear generating stations,
whereradiationlevelscanbehigh. If acceptableinsulationlifeistobeachieved, the
insulation systems used must contain materials with ahigh radiation resistanceto
prevent rapidmechanical deteriorationof mechanical properties. Materials suchas
ceramics, micaandglassareknowntobeonlyslightlyaffectedbytheradiationlevels
encounteredintheseareas. Organicmaterials, ontheotherhand, arestronglyaffected
by ionisingradiationwhilepolymers witharomatic rings, suchas polyamides, will
toleratehigher doseswithout deterioration. Becauseof thesusceptibility of organic
materialstoradiationdamage, greatcareisrequiredinselectingandqualifyinginsu-
lationmaterialsandsystemsforuseintheseenvironments. Theprinciplesourceswith
whichthedesigner isconcernedareγ -raysandneutronsthatinteractwithinsulating
materialstoproduceelectronsthat canbedamaging.
Thetwomolecular changesthatmaybeproducedbyradiationinanorganicinsu-
lationarecross-linkingof molecular chainsandbondscissionor cuttingof polymer
chains. Cross-linking builds up themolecular structure, initially increasing tensile
strength, but then reduces elongation and eventually results in the loss of impact
strength. This changes rubbery or plastic material into hard, brittlesolids. Scission
breaks downmolecular size, reduces tensilestrengthandusually adversely affects
other properties. Inoutdoor applications, attentionshouldbepaidtotheresistanceof
insulationtodegradationbyultraviolet light that canalsoresult intheembrittlement
of thematerial.
Constr ucti on, oper ati on and fai l ure modes of el ectr i cal machi nes 39
2.6.6 Synergi sm between agei ng stresses
Typically, theoperatingenvironmentof mostrotatingmachinesresultsintwoormore
of theseageingmechanismsbeingpresent. Interactionsbetweenthestressesmaybe
complexandresultinunexpectedconsequences. Thecomplexityintroducedbyacom-
binationof stressesisoneof thereasonsthat most insulationmaterials, systemsand
sometimescomponentsaresubjectedtosequential applicationof individual stresses.
Multifactor ageing of insulation materials, which tries to represent the operating
conditionsof aninsulationsystem, isperformedonsampleinsulationcomponentsin
somecases; however, theresultsrequiresignificantanalysis. Anunderstandingof the
synergisticeffectsbetweenageingstressesiscentral tothedesignof anycondition-
monitoring programme since it will affect the selection of the hardware and the
interpretationof thedataderivedfromthesesensorsandmeasuringinstruments.
2.7 I nsulation failur e modes
2.7.1 Gener al
Fromtheprecedingsectionsitcanbeseenthatthemeansbywhichelectrical machines
fail dependsnotonlyonfailuremodes, whichwill bediscussedinChapter 3, butalso
onthetypeof machineandtheenvironment inwhichit is working. However, it is
possibletoidentify certainbasic failuremechanismsthat apply toall machines. We
mustthenidentifytheearlyrootcausesof thesefaultsbecauseitisbydetectingthese
root causesthat monitoringbecomespossibleandbeneficial.
Any fault involvesafailuremechanism, progressingfromtheinitial fault tothe
failureitself. Thetimetakenfor suchaprogressionwill vary, dependingonawide
rangeof circumstances. What isimportant, however, isthat all faultswill haveearly
indicatorsof their presenceandit isherethat monitoringmust seek tolook andact.
Also, anyfault islikelytohaveanumber of possiblecausesandislikelytogiverise
toanumber of earlyindications. A typical routetofailureisshowninFigure3.1.
Inthisandthefollowingsectionwewill giveadescriptionof theailmentswith
whichelectrical machinesareafflicted. A detailedscheduleof failuremechanismsfor
electrical machinesisgivenintheAppendixwherethefailuremodesandrootcauses
forelectrical machinesareelaborated. BystudyingtheAppendixthereadercaniden-
tifywhat parametersshouldbeworthmonitoringinorder togiveanearlyindication
of aparticular fault. However, thegeneral overviewintheAppendixmayfail togive
thereader aclear imageof thefaultstheymayencounter ontheir machines. Wewill
thereforedescribeinthesesectionsanumber of specificmachinefailuremodesthat
drawout many of thefactors that needto beconsideredinany monitoringsystem.
Most of theseincidents havebeentakenfromtheauthors’ experiences, so detailed
referencesdonotexist. However, variouselectrical machineusershavetriedtorecord
theirownfailurestatisticsandtypical resultsaresummarisedinReferences4–9. Insu-
lationfaultspresentsomeof themostchallengingproblemsforelectrical machines, so
thissectionwill beginwiththemajor insulationfailuremodesof electrical machines
andthenfollowwithother failuremodes.
40 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
2.7.2 Stator wi ndi ng i nsul ati on
2.7.2.1 Gener al
Stator windinginsulationisaffectedby all of theaforementionedstresses: thermal,
electrical, environmental andmechanical; however, theextenttowhichthesestresses
innormal operationwill causeproblemsintheshort- orlong-termwill dependonfac-
torssuchastheoperatingmodeandtypeof ambientcoolingconditions. Forexample,
air-cooledmachines tendto besubject to higher rates of thermal ageingcompared
to generators with direct liquid cooling of the stator winding. Further, generators
withthistypeof coolingusuallyoperateinacompressedhydrogenatmospherethus
eliminatingoxidation.
2.7.2.2 Delamination and voids
Stator winding insulation is a laminated systemconsisting of numerous layers of
mica-paper tapeonafibreglassbackingmaterial impregnatedandconsolidatedwith
asynthetic resin, usually epoxy or polyester-based. Thestator windings of rotating
machines built prior to 1970 are likely to contain a bitumenous resin instead of
epoxyor polyester. Further, theseolder insulationsystemstendtoemploylarge-flake
micarather thanmica-paper. Consequently, theresultsderivedfromany condition-
monitoringtool that is focusedonstator windinginsulationmust beviewedinthe
context of thedifferences in thesematerials. Whiletheolder thermoplastic resins
flowatrelativelylowtemperatures, around70

C, causingresinmigrationleadingto
voidformationandembrittlement of themaingroundwall insulation, thehighmica
content providessignificant resistancetopartial dischargedeterioration. Further, the
propensityof bitumen-basedinsulationtosoftenatelevatedtemperaturespermitsthe
groundwall toconformtothewallsof thestator coreslot. Thelackof thispropertyin
modernthermosetinsulationsystemsbasedonsyntheticresinsresultedinthetypeof
problemsdiscussednext. Consequently, theuseof ageasareliableindexof machine
healthisnot supported.
Voidsor delaminationsinthegroundwall insulationof stator windingsmayresult
fromthemanufacturingprocessand/or operatingstresses. Thepresenceof voidsin
newstatorwindings, althoughnotdesirableandshouldbeminimised, doesnotneces-
sarilyimplythatthewindingberejectedorthatitisnotfitforthedesignlifeintended.
Applicationof variousdiagnostictests, suchaspartial dischargeanddielectricloss,
as well as potentially destructiveovervoltagetests, aid in theproduction of stator
windings with minimal void content. During the life of the machine, these initial
delaminations (or those initiated by thermal, mechanical or electrical stress) may
result inthegrowthof voidsthat arepronetopartial discharge. Theprobabilitythat
avoidwill besubject topartial dischargeisgovernedbyanumber of factorssuchas
voiddimensions, electrical stress, pressure, temperatureandthepresenceof initial
electronstocausedischargeinception.
A partial dischargeis so-calledbecauseit represents agas breakdownbetween
twodielectricsurfacesor betweenaconductor andadielectricsurface. Detailsof the
physicsof theprocesscanbefoundinPedersenet al . [10]. Partial discharge, similar
toanygasbreakdown, resultsintheemissionof heat, light andsoundaswell asthe
Constr ucti on, oper ati on and fai l ure modes of el ectr i cal machi nes 41
productionof electronsandionicspecies. Dependingontheenergyof thedischarge,
erosionof thevoidwalls will result causinggrowthof thedelaminationandpoten-
tially failureinthelongterm. However, fromapractical perspectivestator winding
failurecausedbyinternal voiddischargeisveryuncommonandisnotconsideredby
manufacturersandusersof rotatingmachinestobeasignificant problem. Thereare
twoprinciplereasonsthat voiddischargedoesnot leadtorotatingmachinefailure.
1. Thepresenceof mica, amaterial thatisextremelyresistanttoelectrical discharge
attack, resultsinthepartial dischargeerosionoccurringonlyintheorganicbind-
ingresincomponent. Consequently, theelectrical breakdownpathmust follow
avery circuitous routefromtheinitiationsiteto thegroundedcoreironbefore
failurecanresult. Typically, theinitiationpointislocatedattheedgeof thecopper
conductor stack. Thus, thetime-to-failurefor suchaprocessisverylong, inthe
order of decades.
2. Thewidespreadapplicationof on-linepartial dischargemonitoringequipmentas
well as advances intheinterpretationof thedataproducedby thesetools. Use
of partial dischargemonitoringequipment has enabledmachineusers to better
determinetheconditionof statorwindinginsulationinoperatingmachinesandto
takecorrectiveactionat earlystages. Althoughthereislittlemaintenanceavail-
abletoremediatethepresenceof voidsinthegroundwall insulation, actionssuch
asmaintainingtheintegrityof theslot support systemor reducingtheoperating
stressesonthemachinemayarrest theprocess.
Thus, althoughvoiddischargehasbeenandcontinuestobeasubjectof intensestudy
byacademicandotherresearchorganisations, failureof statorwindinginsulationfrom
thismechanismisof lowprobability. Theuseof partial dischargemeasurementsisof
value, however, becausepartial dischargeisasymptomof manyother stator winding
deteriorationmechanismsthatcancausefailure. Thesemechanismswill bediscussed
below.
2.7.2.3 Slot dischar ge
Slot discharge or high-energy discharge is a very damaging deterioration mecha-
nismfoundgenerally, but not exclusively, inair-cooledmachines. Left undetected
or uncorrected, failurefromthis typeof mechanismcanresult inarelatively short
periodof time, twotothreeyears. Slot dischargeisthetermusedtodescribeadis-
chargeoccurringbetweenthesurfaceof thestator coil or bar andthegroundedcore
iron. Generally, thismechanismresultsfromalossof goodelectrical contactbetween
theinsulatedbar or coil surfaceandthestator core. Rotatingmachines ratedabove
3.3kV employaresistivecoatingappliedtotheslotportionof thestator coil or bar to
promotegoodelectrical contactwiththecore. Deteriorationof thiscoatingor lossof
contact betweenbar surfaceandcoreironcanleadtoconditionsfavourablefor slot
discharge.
Thekeytopreventingslotdischargeistominimisedifferential movementbetween
statorwindingandcore. Consequently, significanteffortisexpendedbymachineman-
ufacturersanduserstomaintaintheintegrity of theslot support system; that is, the
42 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
tightnessof thestator wedgesthat restrainthewindingintheslot. Duringthetransi-
tionfromthermoplastictothermosetinsulationsystems, asignificantincreaseinslot
dischargeproblemsonlargeair-cooledmachineswasobservedbyLyleset al . [11,12].
Thefailuremodesof largehydrogenerators, of thetypeshowninFigure2.6, were
describedbyEvans[13]. Inthesecases, thenewhardinsulationsystemsdidnotcon-
formwell tothestator slot unliketheolder thermoplasticinsulations. Consequently,
significantvibrationof thestatorwindingwasencounteredthatled, duringoperation,
tocyclical isolationof thestator bar or coil surfacefromthecoreiron. Theresultant
lossof electrical contactwiththegroundedcoreatoneormorepointsalongthecoil or
barsurfacecausedthesurfacepotential onthebartorisetoline-to-groundpotential. If
thispotential wassufficienttobreakdownthegasgapbetweenbarandcoreironthen
ahighenergy dischargewouldresult. Over aperiodof timethesedischargeswould
erodetheresistivesurfacecoatingleavingisolatednon-conductingareasthat further
exacerbatedtheproblemsincetheselocations wouldbecomecapacitively charged,
resultinginfurther dischargeanderosionof thegroundwall insulationitself.
A further mechanismleadingtoslot dischargeinmachineswithapparentlygood
bar-coreironcontactresultedfromabrasionof theresistivecoatingandthecreationof
isolatedinsulatingpatchesonthebar or coil surface[14,15]. Wilsonet al . identified
thecritical conditions leadingto slot dischargefor this caseandalso demonstrated
analytically that the problemcould also occur throughout the winding and not be
limitedtothehighvoltagecoilsor bars. Thisfindingwasborneout byexperiencein
thefieldthatfoundvisual evidenceof slotdischargedamageat, orcloseto, theneutral
pointof thewindingsof largehydraulicgeneratorsasdescribedbyLyleset al . [11,12].
Slot dischargecan beidentified using on-linepartial dischargemeasurements.
Thepartial dischargebehaviour of slot dischargetendstobecharacterisedby
• largemagnitudepulses withapredominanceof onepolarity dependingonhow
themeasurement isaccomplished,
• thepositionof theoccurrenceof thepartial dischargepulses, whichmayvaryover
thepowerfrequencycyclesincethedischargeisoccurringbetweenacapacitively
chargedsurfaceandthecoreironandthesesurfacesare, duetovibration, not at
well-definedpositionswithrespect tooneanother,
• rapid increasein partial dischargemagnitudes over arelatively short period of
time, suchasdoublingof pulsemagnitudesover sixmonths.
Theproductionof ozoneinopen-ventilatedair-cooledmachinesisbothasymp-
tomof slot dischargeandultimately alife-limitingfault initself. Ozoneis astrong
oxidisingagent andwill haveanegativeeffect oninsulatingandconductingmate-
rials. However, very often thosemachines that areproducing excessiveozoneare
removedfromserviceandrewoundbecausetheconcentrationsof ozoneexceedthe
limitsprescribedbyhealthandsafetylegislationfor workers.
2.7.2.4 Stator end windings
Fromtheperspectiveof electrical insulation, theendwindingsof rotatingmachines
arepronetoenvironmental andmechanical rather thanelectrical ageing. Assuming
Constr ucti on, oper ati on and fai l ure modes of el ectr i cal machi nes 43
that factory and/or acceptance overvoltage tests have demonstrated that the end-
windingclearanceshavebeenproperlydesignedandmanufactured, thekeyproblem
areasfor endwindingsareasfollows.
• Sur face contami nati on. Thedesignandtestingof theclearancesinendwindings
areperformedfromthecontext of cleananddry insulatingsurfaces. However,
air-cooled machines, especially motors, often operate in ambient conditions
containing high levels of conducting contaminants such as salt, cement dust,
lubricating oil and brake dust. Over time, and in the presence of moisture,
theseconductivelayersdistort theelectrical fieldintheendwindingandleadto
surfacetracking. Thisdeteriorationmechanismif not correctedmayleadtoseri-
ousproblemsincludingphase-to-phasefailureof themachine. Partial discharge
measurementscanbeusedtodetect thepresenceof contaminatedendwindings.
• I nter nal voi ds. Until relatively recently, theend-winding portion of stator bars
andespeciallystator coilstendedtobetapedmanuallyrather thanbymachine, as
isthecaseintheslotcell. Consequently, theinsulationof theend-windingregion
ispronetocontainvoidsor delaminations. Thepresenceof suchfaultsisnot as
critical asfor theslot cell of thewindingbecausetheelectrical stressinthisarea
isrelativelylow.
• Mechani cal aspects. Theend-windingstructureof arotatingmachine, especially
for largeturbinegenerators, represents several challenges for designers. Apart
fromelectrical clearance, themajor issues areminimisingvibrationanddiffer-
ential movement. Modern synthetic insulation systems arequiterigid and thus
proneto crackingeither dueto long-termcyclic fatigueinnormal operationor
transient events causing end-winding distortion such as a close-in transformer
fault. Unfortunately, whilethebehaviour of insulatingmaterialsinthisregionof
themachineis consideredof significant interest, relatively littlework has been
donetodevelopasimilar understandingof thecreepandfatiguepropertiesthat
exist for metals.
2.7.2.5 End-winding str ess gr ading
End-windingstressgradingsystemstendtobefoundonmachinesrated6.6kV and
above. Their role is to reduce the electric field at the surface of the stator bar or
coil whereit exits thecoreslot. Without application of such amaterial, thereis a
highprobabilityof surfacedischargeor evenflashover fromthecapacitivelycharged
insulatingsurfacebacktothecoreiron. Thefunctionalityof thestressgradingsystem
may becompromisedby surfacecontaminationor improper designandprocessing
of theinterfacebetweentheend-windinggradingandslot stresscontrol systems. In
thelatter case, acombinationof electrical andthermal effects cancauseerosionof
thejunctionbetweenthetwosystems, potentiallyresultinginanincreaseinsurface
dischargeactivity. Whilethisfaultcanappear seriousthedischargestendtobetrans-
versetothesurfaceresultinginalowprobability of failureduetothis mechanism.
Empirical evidenceindicates that whenthejunctionbetweenend-windingandslot
stresscontrol systemshasbeencompletelydisrupted, andtheelectrical contact lost,
thesurfacedischargescease.
44 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
2.7.2.6 Stator winding inter-tur n faults
Acommonfailuremechanismonmachinesemployingmulti-turnstatorcoilsisbreak-
downof theturninsulation. Theresultantshortcircuitbetweenthecopperturnscauses
asignificant circulatingcurrent toflowinthecoil leadingtorapiddeteriorationand
failure. Turnfailurestendtobevery destructive, andinvolveburningof theinsula-
tionandlocalisedmeltingof thecopper conductors. Often, failures resultingfrom
breakdownof theinter-turninsulationareinferredfromthelocationof thepuncture,
typicallyat or near thecoreexit, andtheelectrical positioninthewinding, typically
thefirst or secondcoil fromthelineend.
During the 1980s, an Electric Power Research Institute study investigated the
reasonsfor anapparent increaseinthenumber of turnfailuresexperiencedbyNorth
Americanutilities. Initially, theincreaseinbreakdownswasattributedtotheincrease
intheuseof vacuumcircuit breakersasreplacementsfor conventional magneticair
circuitbreakers. Thesteep-fronted, high-magnitudetransientsgeneratedduringoper-
ationof thevacuumcircuit breaker was consideredto exceedthecapability of the
turninsulation. However, theElectricPower ResearchInstitutestudyconcludedthat
theprincipal reasonfor theperceivedincreaseinturninsulationfailures was inad-
equateturn insulation. Thosemachines that incorporated dedicated turn insulation
consistingof either mica-paper tapeor doubleDaglas werefoundto havesuperior
capabilityof withstandingthesteep-frontedsurgesimposedbyvacuumcircuitbreak-
ersaswell asbeingabletowithstandtherigoursof steady-stateoperationat power
frequency. Theuseof dedicatedturninsulationprovides abrasionresistanceinthe
event of differential movement betweenturns dueto thermal or thermomechanical
ageing.
Earlydetectionof theonsetof conditionslikelytoleadtobreakdownof inter-turn
insulationmaybepossibleusingpartial dischargemethodsand/or techniquesbased
onaxial leakagefluxdetection, investigatedbyPenmanet al . [16,17]. Withregardto
partial discharge-basedmethods, asignificant practical problemisthat althoughthe
deteriorationof theinter-turninsulationcan, inprinciple, bedetected, attributingthe
detectedsignalstothisdeteriorationmechanisminthepresenceof partial discharge
pulsesoriginatingfromother faultsispracticallyimpossible.
2.7.2.7 Repetitive tr ansients
Variablespeeddrivesbasedonelectronicinvertersarewidelyappliedonlow-voltage
(600 V and below) motors. Insulation problems have been experienced on these
largely randomwoundmachines resultinginfailures. Thebulk of thefailures have
beenattributedto electrical discharges intheendwindings of thesemachines. The
steep-frontedsurgesgeneratedbytheinsulatedgatebipolartransistor(IGBT) devices
employedinthesedrivesmaycausevoltagedoublingresultingintransient voltages
that exceedtheelectric fieldrequiredtocausebreakdownintheair aroundtheend
windings. Theinsulation systems employedin randomwoundmachines, typically
polyester-based enamels and Daglas, have poor discharge resistance and are thus
proneto failurein thepresenceof such discharges. Steps to mitigatethis problem
include: better design of the winding, to minimise areas of high electrical stress;
consideration of thelength of cables used to connect to themotors, to reducethe
Constr ucti on, oper ati on and fai l ure modes of el ectr i cal machi nes 45
probabilityof voltagedoubling; theuseof multi-converter topologies; andtheuseof
metal-oxideloadedenamelstogradethewindingelectricstress. High-voltagemotors,
employingformwoundstatorwindings, arelesspronetothedeteriorationmechanism
describedonp. 42althoughsomeconsiderationis beinggivento thebehaviour of
theresistiveslot stresscontrol material under repetitivetransient conditions.
2.7.3 Stator wi ndi ng faul ts
2.7.3.1 Stator winding faults (all machines)
It is clear that theinsulation systemis potentially oneof theintrinsically weakest
components of anelectrical machine, bothmechanically andelectrically andinthe
earliest daysof machineconstructioninsulationfaultswereexcessivelyfrequent, as
describedbyWalker [18].
However, asdescribedonp.20, moderntechniquesof windingmanufacture, using
thermosettingresinor vacuumpressureimpregnatedinsulation, providesystemsthat
are mechanically tough and electrically sound. Nonetheless, modern machine use
drives insulation systems to their thermal, mechanical and electrical limits. How-
ever, therearevery fewincidencesof failuresonmachinesduesimply toageingof
insulation. A very thorough reviewof root causes of failures andfailuremodes in
insulationsystemsandconductingcomponentsisgiveninStoneet al . [19]. Anexam-
pleof agenerator windingfailureisshowninFigure2.11andthefinal punctureof
theinsulationsystemwastheresultof acceleratedageingduetoanover-temperature
Fi gure 2.11 Stator faul t i n a 15 kV gener ator wi ndi ng. Vi ew shows the mai n-wal l
i nsul ati on punctured i n the top r i ght as a resul t of core over heati ng.
46 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
in theadjacent generator core. An exception to this may beon air-cooled, highly
ratedhydro-generatorswhereepoxymicainsulationhasfailedduetoerosionof the
insulation in theslot portion as aresult of dischargeactivity, primarily becauseof
therigidityof epoxymicasystems, thelargeforcesonsuchlargeconductor bars, the
highdielectricstressonthewindingsandthefactthatthesemachinesareair-cooled.
However, failures dueto isolated insulation faults do occur, dueto manufacturing
faultssuchasvoidsor foreignbodiesembeddedinthemainwall insulation, or pen-
etrationof theinsulationby foreignmaterial suchasoil or metal fromelsewherein
themachine.
Whether insulationfailureoccursduetoageingor theactionof anisolatedfault,
theindications aresimilar in that therewill bean increasein dischargeactivity in
themachineculminating in an insulation puncturelikethat shown in Figure2.11.
Faultscanalsooccur inlowvoltagewindings, whicharegenerallydippedinvarnish
and do not experiencehigh-voltagedischarge. Figure2.12 shows atypical failure
inaroundwirewindingthat isvarnishimpregnatedshowingtheeffect of moisture
contaminationandtrackingthathaseatenawaypartof thewindingslotliner causing
afault toearth.
Fi gure 2.12 Stator faul t on a 200 V exci ter wi ndi ng. Vi ew shows the effect of
moi sture contami nati on and tr acki ng.
2.7.3.2 W inding conductor faults (gener ator s)
Thesefaultsareagaingenerallyconfinedtolargegeneratorswherethecurrentdensi-
tiesaresuchthatthestator windingiselectrically, thermallyandmechanicallyhighly
stressed. Itisnormal tosubdividetheconductorintoalargenumberof subconductors
andtoinsulateandtransposethemtominimisewindinglosses. Inthemost modern
machines thetransposition is distributed throughout theconductor length employ-
ingtheRoebel technique. This gives auniformcurrent distributionandminimises
Constr ucti on, oper ati on and fai l ure modes of el ectr i cal machi nes 47
thevoltages betweensubconductors. Older machines, however, havethetransposi-
tions madein theend winding at theknucklejoint and quitelargevoltages, up to
50V rootmeansquare(rms), canexistbetweensubconductors. If severemechanical
movement of the winding occurs during operation and the subconductor insula-
tionfails thensubconductors canshort together causingarcing. A number of older
machineshavefailedintheUK andUSduetothisarcing, whichintheworstcaseshas
erodedandmeltedother subconductors, pyrolysingthemainwall insulationof the
conductor bar. If thishappensintheslot portionor near toother earthedmetalwork,
thenanearthfaultcanoccurbutif not, itispossibleforthedebrisejectedfromtheburnt
areatoproduceaconductingpathbetweenelectrical phasesof thewindingleadingto
themoreseriousphase-to-phasefault, asshowninFigure2.13. Subconductor arcing
hasalsobeeninitiatedby fatiguefailureof subconductors, wheretheconductor bar
emergesfromthecoreor entersawater box, duetoexcessiveandwindingvibration.
Theconsequencesof suchafailureareverysimilar tothoseof asubconductor short.
Whenthisarcingtakesplaceinamachinewithhollowwater-cooledsubconductors,
perforationof asubconductoroccursand, sincetheyareusuallyarrangedsothatthere
isanexcessof coolinggaspressureover thewater, thisleadstoaleakageof gasinto
thewater-coolingsystem. Theearlyindicatorsof suchfaultsarearcingactivitywithin
Fi gure 2.13 Exampl e of the effects of a stator subconductor faul t i n a 588 MVA,
23 kV, 50 Hz tur bi ne gener ator wi ndi ng. Vi ew shows stator conductor
bar s ej ected i nto the gener ator ai r -gap and ser i ousl y di sr upti ng the
end wi ndi ng. [ Taken from Tavner et al . [ 7] ]
48 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
thewindingandthepyrolysingof insulation. Thefact that burningtakesplacedeep
withinaconductor bar usually meansthat, initially at least, only small quantitiesof
particulateandgaseousmatter producedbytheburningarereleasedintothecooling
gascircuit. Wherewater-cooledsubconductorsarepresentthefaultcausesaleakage
of gasintothewindingcoolingsystem.
2.7.3.3 Stator end-winding faults (all machines)
A considerableamount of effort over thewholerangeof machineshasgoneintothe
designof end-windingstructures. Thefirst objectiveis to restraintheendwinding
againstthelargeforcesonthewindingduringtransientloadingorfaultsandthesecond
istocushiontheconductor barsagainst thesmaller forcesduringsteady, continuous
running. End-windingmovementsarelarger ontheolder, lessrigid, bituminousmica
insulationsystembutthenthatsystem, becauseof itssoftness, wasmoreabletowith-
standthesteadyfrettingactionof normal runningthanthehardepoxy-micasystems.
Ineither caseend-windingmovementsinnormal operationarequitesignificant and
canbeasmuchasafewmillimetresonalargeturbinegenerator.
Faultsoccur intheendwindingwhenthebracingstructureslackens, duetotor-
sional andlateral vibration, either as aresult of asuccession of unusual overloads
or becauseof anextendedperiodof continuousrunning. Insomecasesend-winding
insulationbecomescracked, frettedor wornaway. Inthelimit afull linetolinefault
canleadtoacatastrophicfailureof theendwindingasshowninFigure2.13. Onthe
largest machinesfatiguefailureof conductorscanoccur whenthewindingbecomes
slack enoughtopermit asignificant amount of conductor movement duringnormal
operation or during themuch larger forces of starting or reswitching. In addition,
seismicexcitationof therelativelyweakend-windingstructurecanoccur inapplica-
tionswithinherent vibrationwherethemachineismountedonaflexiblefoundation
andthishasbeenamajor causeof end-windingfailuresintheoffshoreindustry.
Foreign bodies insideamachinesuch as steel washers, nuts or small portions
of insulation, get thrown around by therotor. Damageis caused by theseobjects,
usuallyinthestator end-windingregion, wheretheinsulationisdamagedbyimpact
or erodedbydebriswormingintotheinsulationunder theactionof electromagnetic
forces. Theearly indications of problems areanincreaseinend-windingvibration
andthepossibilityof electrical dischargeactivitytonearbyearthplanes.
2.7.3.4 Stator winding coolant system faults
Manylargemachinesemploydirectorindirectliquidcoolingof thestatorwindingsto
permit operationat higher energydensities. Inthevast majorityof cases, thecoolant
mediumiswater; however, asmall number of designsuseoil. Consequently, thereis
ariskthatthecoolantpathwill deteriorateresultinginthereleaseof water, of varying
levelsof purity, ontoinsulatingor highvoltagecomponentsresultingindeterioration
andpotentiallyfailureof themachine.
Largesteamturbinegenerators employ direct liquidcoolingof thestator wind-
ingsinthat demineralisedwater flowsthroughhollowsubconductors. Most designs,
whether single- or two-pass, useamanifoldat oneor bothendsof thewindingthat
Constr ucti on, oper ati on and fai l ure modes of el ectr i cal machi nes 49
connectstotheindividual statorbarsusinginsulated(Teflon)hoses(seeFigure2.5(a)).
Catastrophicfailureof thehoseor theconnectionof thehosetothebar or manifold
will result in water impinging on the stator winding. Depending on the condition
of thewater, suchanevent may not causeanimmediatestator earthgroundalarm
or fault; however, thecoolant looppressureandstator windingtemperaturewill be
affected. Smaller leaks wouldlikely result ingas-in-coolant alarms andpotentially
gas-locking.
Sometypesof turbinegeneratorsemployaplenumthatconnectsagroupof stator
bars directly to thewater circuit without theuseof hoses. Theplenumconsists of
castinsulatingepoxycomponents, mechanical failureof whichwill causelossof the
coolantcircuitandwater impingementonthestator winding. Other sourcesof poten-
tial water leaksontothestator windingincludefaultsinthehydrogencoolers. Inthis
case, thewater islikelytohavearelativelyhighconductivityandwouldhaveahigh
probabilityof causingastator groundfault alarmandultimatelyfault.
Water leaks into thebulk of thestator winding insulation can also occur. This
wateringresshasbeenobservedonliquid-cooledstatorwindingsusingtheclipdesign
wheretheconnectionof thestator bar tothecoolantsystemisaffected. Pinholeleaks
appear after afewyears of serviceandmoisturepropagates alongthebrazedjoint
until contactwiththestrandinsulation. Themoisturefurtherwicksintotheinsulation
degrading thedielectric properties. Two principleroot causes for moistureingress
intostator windinginsulationare
• crevicecorrosion, resulting fromchemical reaction between thecoolant water
andthebrazematerial,
• deficiency in thequantity of brazing material. Theinitial brazed joint is tight,
but over timevibrationandthermal stressescausevoidsinthebrazetoconnect
creatingachannel for thewater.
Inprinciple, thepresenceof aleakagechannel inthebrazedregionshouldresult
inagas-in-coolantalarm. However, theinsulationcoveringthewaterboxisverytight
andhydrogendoesnotmigrateeasilythroughit. Therefore, water boxleaksdetected
inthiswayarerare.
Wateringressintheinsulationwetsthematerial touptotentimestheinitial mois-
turelevel. Anotherconsequenceof wateringressinthegroundwall insulationisadrop
ininsulationresistance. Thisresistancedecaycanbequiteslow. Itisconsideredthatit
takesaboutfiveyearsforwatertomigrateandcauseasignificantinsulationdrop. This
isthemainmechanismforstatorwindingfailureduetowaterboxleaks. Several stator
earthfault failuresareduetowater ingressandthustowater boxleaks. Sofar, water
boxleakdetectionmethodshavebeenbasedondetectingoneof theconsequencesof
thewater ingress. However, noreliableon-linemethodhasbeendeveloped.
Inadditiontoproblems causedby coolant leaks, serious damagecanbecaused
by blockingof thecoolant flowinstator windings. Dependingonthelocationand
number of pluggedsubconductorscatastrophic failureduetooverheatingcanoccur
rapidly. Otherthanblockagescausedbyforeignmaterial enteringthecoolantloopand
gaslocking, flowrestrictionscanresultfromthedepositionof copper oxidedeposits.
Thesedepositsmayresult frompoor control of stator water chemistry.
50 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Pluggingor flowrestrictionof thecoolant mediuminthehollowsubconductors
of liquid-cooled stator windings can have serious if not catastrophic implications
for thereliableoperationof largesteamturbinegenerators. Significant effortshave
been and continueto beexpended on understanding thefundamental mechanisms
resultingincoolantflowrestriction. Apartfromloosedebrisinthecoolantcircuit, the
predominantcauseof blockageiscorrosionof thecopper conductorsresultinginthe
depositionof copperoxidesthattendtoclogthesmall-aperturehollowsubconductors.
Consequently, much of thework in this field has focused on thechemistry of the
coolant water.
Unfortunately, for some utilities plugged subconductors are already a reality,
resultinginthederatingof unitsand/or theimplementationof complexflushingand
cleaning procedures. Again, many organisations are pursuing work to understand
andoptimisetheseremedial actions. Consequently, significant workisunderway, or
has already beenperformed, to understandthepluggingmechanismandthemeans
to prevent or remedy it. Theseefforts arenecessary to enableutilities to maximise
reliability and availability of their generators. However, there is a third aspect to
this problem; namely, for those utilities experiencing overheating due to plugged
subconductors, how best to manage the situation so as to minimise revenue loss
whileensuringthat thestator windingsuffersnounduelossof life.
Earlydetectionof stator bar overheatingduetopluggingiscomplicatedbecause
of, in many cases, thedearth of sufficient temperatureand flowdata. Even where
significant quantitiesof temperaturedataexist, suchasonhose-typemachineswith
thermocouplesontheoutlets, thelocationof thetemperaturesensor withrespect to
the hot spot increases the difficulty of successful early plugging detection. Some
organisations have recognised this problemand have attempted to address it by
detailed thermohydraulic modelling of the stator winding and/or the implementa-
tionof post-processingof thetemperature. Notwithstandingtheseefforts, operators
of large steam turbine generators presently lack tools to objectively assess the
risks associated with operating machines with known or possible subconductor
plugging.
2.7.4 Rotor wi ndi ng faul ts
2.7.4.1 Gener al
The rotor windings of generators are insulated with epoxy-glass laminates or
polyester-based materials (Nomex). Squirrel cage induction motor rotor windings
consistof lightlyinsulatedcopper barsdrivenintotheslotsinthecaseof alaminated
rotor or aluminiumbarscast directlyintotherotor. Theprincipal stressesof concern
onrotor windingsarethermal andmechanical.
2.7.4.2 I nduction motor r otor faults
Faultsontherotorwindingsof inductionmotorshavenotbeeneasytodetectbecause
there is not necessarily an electrical connection to the winding and it is difficult
to measurethelow-frequency currents inducedintherotor winding. Althoughthe
rotor windingof asquirrel cageinductionmotor is exceptionally rugged, faults do
Constr ucti on, oper ati on and fai l ure modes of el ectr i cal machi nes 51
occur particularlyonthelarger machineswhentheyaresubjectedtoarduousthermal
andstartingduty, whichcauses hightemperatures intherotor andhighcentrifugal
loadingsontheendringsof thecage(seeFigure2.14).
Broken bars – note: bars have lifted from slots
Ventilating ducts
End ring
Rotor core Rotor shaft spider assembly
Fi gure 2.14 Rotor cage faul t i n a 1.5 MW squi r rel cage i nducti on motor [ Taken
from Thomson and Fenger [ 20] . © I EEE (2001)]
Faultsmayoccur duringmanufacture, throughdefectivecastinginthecaseof die
cast rotors, or poor jointinginthecaseof brazedor weldedendrings. Suchafault
resultsinahighresistance, whichwill causeoverheating, andat hightemperatures
thestrengthof thecagewill beimpaired. Crackingmaythenoccurintherotorbarand
indeedusually takes placeat thecageendrings wherethebars areunsupportedby
therotor core. Similar faultscanoccur becauseof differential movement of thecage
intherotor slots, becauseof asuccessionof periodsof hightemperaturerunningand
shutdowns. Thiscanleadtodistortionandultimately crackingof theendringsand
theassociatedbars. It shouldberememberedthat thebarsmust providethebraking
andacceleratingforcesontheendringwhenthemotor changesspeed. If themotor
speedfluctuates, becauseof changingloador aspart of thenormal duty cycle, then
high-cyclefatiguefailurescanoccur atthejointsbetweenbarsandring. If themotor
isrepeatedlystartedthentheexceptional startingforcesmayleadtolow-cyclefatigue
failureof thewindingcomponent. Theearlyindicationsof thesefaultsarepulsations
inthespeed, supplycurrent andstrayleakagefluxof themachine.
Therotorwindingsof woundrotorinductionmotorsareof rathersimilardesignto
thestatorwindingof themotorexceptthattheendwindingsmustberestrainedagainst
centrifugal forces by steel wireor wovenglass fibrebandingrings. Damageto the
windingsusuallyoccursintheendregionduetocentrifugal forcesonthecrossovers
andconnectionsof thewindingcausingshortsbetweenturns. Thesefaultsaresimilar
52 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
totheproblemsexperiencedontherotor windingsof high-speedturbine-typegener-
ators. Anadditional difficulty encounteredwiththewoundrotor machineis that of
ensuringbalancebetweenthephasesof theexternal resistorsconnectedtothewinding
viathesliprings. Theseresistorsareusuallywater-basedandcanbecomeunbalanced
withtime, causingthecurrentsflowingintherotor windingstobecomeunbalanced
and overheating to occur. This can lead to therapid degradation of rotor winding
insulationandultimately failuresuchas that showninFigure2.15. Theproblemis
difficult todetect becausetherotor currentsareat averylowslipfrequencyandone
must beabletodetect relativelysmall changesinthesecurrents.
Fi gure 2.15 Rotor wi ndi ng faul t i n a 3 MW sl i p r i ng i nducti on motor. Vi ew shows
arci ng damage between the phases i n the wi ndi ng end regi on. [ Taken
from Tavner et al . [ 7] ]
2.7.4.3 Tur bine gener ator r otor winding faults
The rotor winding insulation and bracing system in turbine generators must be
designedtowithstandtheextremelyhighcentrifugal forcespresentduringoperation.
Aninter-turnshort-circuit canoccur betweenrotor turns dueto punctureor crack-
ingof theturninsulation. Thecurrent that subsequentlyflowsbetweenturnscreates
localised heating and the probability of further shorted turns. This disturbance of
thecurrent flowwill causeanasymmetry intheflux inthemachine, whichcauses
unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP) leading to vibration of therotor and this can be
compounded when the asymmetric heating leads to thermal bending of the rotor.
Constr ucti on, oper ati on and fai l ure modes of el ectr i cal machi nes 53
Two- andfour-poletotally enclosedmachines areparticularly proneto theseprob-
lemsespeciallyif theyhaveashort airgapthat will haveareducedcoolant gasflow
andthereforerotor temperaturescanbehigher. Differential movementbetweenturns
and fretting action in therotor winding can producecopper dust, which may also
increasetheprobabilityof turnshorts. Thisphenomenonoccursbecauseof thecyclic
movement that alargewindingexperiences relativeto therotor. Themovement is
partly caused by self-weight bending of therotor and thermal cycling. This prob-
lemcanalsobeexacerbatedby longperiodsof barringor turninggear. Duringthis
type of very low speed operation, there are little or no centrifugal forces that act
to lock thekey internal rotor components inplaceandhenceminimisedifferential
movement.
If aninsulationfault occurs betweenthewindingandrotor body thenaground
fault current flows that canbedetectedby anearthleakagerelay. Thegroundfault
current islimitedsuchthat asinglegroundfault isnot seriousbut asecondground
faultcanresultinverylargecirculatingcurrents. A secondgroundfaultcancausean
arctobestruckatthefaultlocationnotonlycausingwindingdamagebutalsosevere
damagetotherotor forging. Theearlyindicationsof thesefaultsaredistortionof the
airgapfluxandassociatedstrayleakagefluxaroundthemachine, andanincreasein
bearingvibration. Thereforetheearlyindicationsof thesefaultsareusuallyexcessive
transversebearingvibrations, althoughattentionhasalsofocussedonmeasuringthe
torsional oscillationsof theshaft itself.
Fi gure 2.16 Fai l ure of a DC ar mature wi ndi ng cl ose to the commutator
54 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
2.7.4.4 Rotor winding faults (DC machines)
DCmachinesencounterparticulardifficultiesintheirarmature, wheretheACwinding
is directly connected to thecommutator and electrical action between brushes and
commutator segments can lead to high temperatures and theproduction of carbon
dust. A commonproblemwithDC armaturewindingsisfailurebetweenconductors
closetothecommutator connection(Figure2.16showsjust suchafailure) possibly
aggravatedby theaccumulationof carbondust under thebandingthat provides the
centripetal forcetoretainthewindinginplaceclosetothecommutator connections.
2.8 Other failur e modes
2.8.1 Stator core faul ts
A corefault is arareevent, whichusually only occurs inthelargest turbine-driven
generatorswherethelaminatedsteel coresaresufficientlymassive, andcarryasuffi-
cientlyhighmagneticandelectricloading(seeTable2.4). Theycanoccur anywhere
inthelaminatedsteel coreof largerotatingelectrical machinesbutaremorecommon
in the stator core [2]. A core fault initiates when core plates are electrically con-
nectedtogether, either becauseof aninsulationfailurebetweenthem, or as aresult
of physically imposedshort circuitsduetovariouscausesincludingforeignbodies.
Theseconnections circulateadditional currents inthecore, couplingthemainflux,
leadingtoadditional lossesandheating, further weakeningcoreplateinsulationand
expandingthefault. Thefaultisthenatazoneinthecorethatisoverheated, buckled
and electrically interconnected. This can expand, melting material, leading to the
catastrophic runaway of thefault andcreatingacavity inthecore, continuinguntil
themain conductor insulation is damaged and themachineis disconnected for an
earthfault. Corefaultsgenerallyoccur somedistancefromthemainconductorsand
final disconnectionfrequently occursafter irreparabledamagehasbeendonetothe
coreandconductors. A number of largegeneratorsworldwidehaveexperiencedthis
problem(seeFigure2.17) mainlyasaresultof damagetothetheirstatorcoresduring
manufactureor rotor insertion, whenlaminations becameshortedtogether, andthe
applicationtothecoreof transient highfluxconditions.
2.8.2 Connecti on faul ts (hi gh-vol tage motor s and gener ator s)
Faultsintheconnectionsof electrical machinesareveryunusual inthelowervoltages
(<1000 V rms) but becomemorecommon at higher voltages wherethedielectric
stressonthebushingsandforcesontheconductorsincrease.
Insulationfailuresalsooccurfromtimetotimeonthebushingsthatcarrytheelec-
trical connections throughthemachineenclosure. Onaturbine-typemachinethese
aremountedinthepressure-tight casingandthereforehavetowithstandtheoperat-
ingpressureof themachine. Failureof abushingcanoccur either duetomechanical
stressesorvibrationontheconductorpassingthroughthebushing, causingittocrack,
or dueto debris beingdepositedontheexposedsurfaces allowingit to track elec-
trically, as describedinSection2.6.3.3. Againtheearly indicationis anincreasein
dischargeactivity.
Constr ucti on, oper ati on and fai l ure modes of el ectr i cal machi nes 55
Fi gure 2.17 Core faul t i n the stator core of a 660 MW tur bi ne gener ator [ Taken
from Tavner and Ander son [ 2] ]
Fi gure 2.18 Tr acki ng damage on a cast resi n bushi ng si mi l ar to that used for the
connecti ons of hi gh-vol tage motor s and gener ator s
Figure2.18showsdamagetoahigh-voltageswitchgear bushing, similar tothat
used in high-voltagemachines, wheremoistureand contamination haveallowed a
conductivefilmto formon thesurfaceof thebushing and severesurfacetracking
56 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
hastakenplace. Thehighdielectricstressonthesurfaceof thebushinghasallowed
trackingtotakeplaceover anextendedperiodof time, probably many months and
possiblyevenmorethanayear. Thiskindof damagetendstooccurwherebushingsare
exposedtotheenvironment outsidethemachine. It israreinsidethemachineunless
thereis acooling-liquidleak combinedwithsolidcontaminationcirculatinginthe
inner coolingcircuit. Thiskindof damagecanbediagnosedbyphysical inspection,
partial dischargemeasurementsor thermography.
2.8.3 Water cool ant faul ts (al l machi nes)
In machines with water-cooled heat exchangers it is possiblefor coolant blockage
or failureto occur, either in thepipework leading to theheat exchanger or in the
heat exchanger itself. This can be the result of pipework debris being circulated
in thewater system(although this should beremoved by filters fitted closeto the
inlet of themachine) or dueto negligencewhen cooling systems or machines are
maintained. Thenormal vibrationof amachineinservicecanexciteresonancesinan
improperly designedcoolingpipework systemandthis cancausefatiguefailureof
apipeandlossof coolant. Theearlyindicationsof thesekindsof fault areindicated
byhighconductor or coolingwater temperatures, leakagefromthewater systemand
pyrolysinginsulationeventually leadingtodamagingdischargeactivity that will be
electricallydetectableat themachineterminals.
2.8.4 Bear i ng faul ts
Rollingelement, sleeveandpadbearingsareusedinrotatingmachinesasguideand
thrustbearingsandfail whentheloaduponthebearingisexcessiveor itslubrication
fails. Thechoiceof bearingandthelubricationuseddependsupontheloadborneand
theshaft speed. Table2.6givesasummaryof theconditionsinvolvedinthechoice.
Thesecanbehelpful whenconsideringfaultconditions. A goodsummaryof bearing
selectionisgiveninNeale[21] andshowninFigure2.19.
Bearingfailureisusually progressivebut ultimately itseffect uponthemachine
iscatastrophic. Failureisaccompaniedbyarisingtemperatureatthebearingsurface,
in the lubricant and in the bearing housing, which are detectable by temperature
sensors. Animportant consequenceof bearingdeteriorationfor electrical machines
is the rotor becomes eccentric in the stator bore causing a degree of static and/or
dynamic eccentricity, disrupting the fine balance between the magnetic forces of
adjacent poles, causingUMP andplacingmoreloadonthebearing. Thisalsocauses
anincreaseinvibrationastheshaft dynamicsareaffectedby thealteredairgapand
bearing stiffness. Bearings can also be damaged by the flow of shaft currents as
describedinthefollowingsection.
2.8.5 Shaft vol tages
Electrical machinescangeneratevoltagesintheir shaftsduetoanunbalanceinthe
magneticcircuit of themachine[22]. Theshaft voltagecancirculatecurrent through
Constr ucti on, oper ati on and fai l ure modes of el ectr i cal machi nes 57
Rubbing plain bearings in which the surfaces rub together.
The bearing is usually non-metallic.
0.01 0.1
Externally pressurised bearings
can be used over the whole
range of loads and speeds
10000000
1000000
100000
10000
T
y
p
i
c
a
l

m
a
x
i
m
u
m

l
o
a
d
.

n
e
w
t
o
n
s
1000
100
10
1000000
100000
A
p
p
r
o
x
.

m
a
x
.

s
p
e
e
d

c
o
m
m
e
r
c
i
a
l

r
o
l
l
i
n
g

b
e
a
r
i
n
g
s
A
p
p
r
o
x
.

s
o
l
i
d

s
t
e
e
l

s
h
a
f
t

b
u
r
s
t

l
i
m
i
t
10000
T
y
p
i
c
a
l

m
a
x
i
m
u
m

l
o
a
d
.

W
.

l
b
f
1000
100
10
1 10 100
n, rev/s
n, rev/min
d = 500 mm
d = 250 mm
d = 100 m
m
d = 50 m
m
d

=

5
0

m
m
d
=
2
5
m
m
d
=
2
5
m
m
d
=
1
0
m
m
d
=
1
0
m
m
d
=
5
m
m
d

=

5
0

m
m
d

=

2
5

m
m
d

=

5

m
m
d

=

5

m
m
d

=

1
0

m
m
d
=
2
5
m
m
d
=
5
0
m
m
d
=
1
0
0
m
m
d
=
2
5
0
m
m
d
=
5
0
0
m
m
1000 10000 100000
1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000
Plain bearings of porous metal impregnated with a lubricant.
Rolling bearings. The materials are hard, and rolling elements
separate the two moving components.
Fluid film plain bearings. A hydrodynamic pressure is gener-
ated by the relative movement dragging a viscous fluid into a
taper film.
w
d
n
d = 50 mm
d = 25 mm
d = 10 mm
d = 5 mm
A
p
p
r
o
x
.
m
a
x
.
s
p
e
e
d
g
a
s
t
u
r
b
i
n
e
s
p
e
c
i
a
l
b
a
l
l
b
e
a
r
i
n
g
s
Fi gure 2.19 A summar y of bear i ng sel ecti on cr i ter i a for al l machi ner y [ Taken from
Neal e [ 21] ]
the bearings of the machine and this leads to bearing damage. Voltages on small
machinessuchasthoseshowninFigure2.9canbeof theorder of 500mV rms, but
inlarger machinessuchasthoseinFigures2.1and2.2theycanbe5–10V rms.
There is a considerable literature about shaft voltages and manufacturers
designmachinestominimisetheireffectsbyinsulatingonebearingof themachineand
providingashaftgroundtoallowtheshaftvoltagetobemonitored. Thedamagethat
occurs to bearings depends upon thetypeof bearing. In general arolling element
58 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
(a)
(b)
Electropitting
Fi gure 2.20 (a) El ectroerosi on damage i n the r ace of a rol l i ng el ement bear i ng due
to the fl ow of shaft cur rents i n a gener ator. (b) El ectropi tti ng damage
to a bear i ng sl eeve due to the fl ow of shaft cur rents i n a gener ator.
bearing is more susceptible to the effects of shaft voltages, exhibiting electro-
erosion (see Figure 2.20(a)). Sleeve bearings have a higher impedance but also
can be damaged by the pitting action consequent upon the flow of shaft current
(seeFigure2.20(b)).
Constr ucti on, oper ati on and fai l ure modes of el ectr i cal machi nes 59
2.9 Conclusion
Thischapter hasshownthecommonstructurepresent inelectrical machinesregard-
lessof their size. Theconstructionof electrical machineshasalsobeendemonstrated
withanindicationof theeffect of operational serviceonfailuremodes. Theimpor-
tanceof theinsulationsystemof themachinehasalsobeenconsideredanddiscussed.
Finally, typical failures in servicehavebeen shown to identify themost common
failuremodes that anengineer will encounter, startingwiththoseoriginatinginthe
insulationsystembut thenexpandingto consider other sources. Thefailuremodes
demonstratehowfaultsmaybedetectedintheir earlystagesbymonitoringappropri-
ateparameters. Inthenext chapter wewill describereliability analysis, whichwill
connect root causes to failuremodes and shows howcondition monitoring can be
directedtoaddressparticular componentsintheelectrical machine.
2.10 Refer ences
1. IEC 60085. Method for determining the thermal classification of electrical
insulation. BS2757:1986. BritishStandardsInstitute, London, 1984.
2. Tavner P.J . andAndersonA.F. Corefaultsinlargegenerators. I EE Proceedi ngs
El ectr i c Power Appl i cati ons 2005; 152: 1427–39.
3. BoneJ .C.H. andSchwarz K.K. LargeAC motors. I EE Proceedi ngs 1973; 120:
1111–32.
4. DickinsonW.H. IEEE ReliabilityWorkingGroup. Report onreliabilityof elec-
tricplant, partsI, II andIII. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on I ndustr y Appl i cati ons 1974;
I A-10: 201–52.
5. Barker B. andHodgeJ .M. A Decade of Exper i ence wi th Gener ator and Large
Motor Rel i abi l i ty. Paris: CIGRE; 1982.
6. O’Donnell P. IEEE Reliability WorkingGroup. Report of largemotor reliabil-
ity survey of industrial and commercial installations, parts I, II and III. I EEE
Tr ansacti ons on I ndustr y Appl i cati ons 1985; I A-21: 853–72.
7. Tavner P.J ., Gaydon B.G. and Ward D.M. Monitoring generators and large
motors. I EE Proceedi ngs, Par t B, El ectr i c Power Appl i cati ons 1986; 133:
169–80.
8. Thorsen O.V. and Dalva M. A survey of faults on induction motors in off-
shoreoil industry, petrochemical industry, gasterminals, andoil refineries. I EEE
Tr ansacti ons on I ndustr y Appl i cati ons 1995; I A-31: 1186–96.
9. Albrecht P.F., Appiarus J .C., McCoy R.M., Owen E.L. and Sharma D.K.
Assessment of thereliability of motors inutility applications – updated. I EEE
Tr ansacti ons on Energy Conver si on 1986; EC-1: 39–46.
10. PedersenA., CrichtonG.C. andMcAllister I.W. Thetheory andmeasurement
of partial dischargetransients. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on El ectr i cal I nsul ati on 1991;
EI -26: 487–97.
11. Lyles J .F., GoodeveT.E. and Sedding H. Parameters required to maximizea
thermoset hydro-generator stator winding life. Part I – design, manufacture,
installation. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on Energy Conver si on 1994; EC-9: 620–27.
60 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
12. Lyles J .F., GoodeveT.E. and Sedding H. Parameters required to maximizea
thermosethydro-generatorstatorwindinglife.PartII –monitoring, maintenance.
I EEE Tr ansacti ons on Energy Conver si on 1994; EC-9: 628–35.
13. EvansD.L. IEEE ReliabilityWorkingGroup. Report onproblemswithhydro-
generator thermoset stator windings, Part I, II and III. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on
Power Appar atus and Systems 1981; PAS-100: 3284–303.
14. J ackson R.J . and Wilson A. Slot-discharge activity in air-cooled motors and
generators. I EE Proceedi ngs, Par t B, El ectr i c Power Appl i cati ons 1982; 129:
159–67.
15. WilsonA.Slotdischargedamageinaircooledstatorwindings.I EE Proceedi ngs,
Par t A, Sci ence Measurement and Technol ogy 1991; 138: 153–60.
16. Penman J ., Sedding H.G., Lloyd B.A. and Fink W.T. Detection and location
of interturn short circuits in the stator windings of operating motors. I EEE
Tr ansacti ons on Energy Conver si on 1994; EC-9: 652–58.
17. PenmanJ ., Hadwick G. andStronachA.F. Protectionstrategyagainst faultsin
electrical machines. PresentedattheInternational ConferenceonDevelopments
inPower SystemProtection, London, 1980.
18. Walker M. TheDiagnosingof TroubleinElectrical Machines. London: Library
Press; 1924.
19. StoneG.C., Boulter E.A., Culbert I. and Dhirani H. Electrical Insulation for
RotatingMachines, Design, Evaluation, Aging, Testing, andRepair. NewYork:
Wiley–IEEE Press; 2004.
20. Thomson W.T. and Fenger M. Current signatureanalysis to detect induction
motor faults. I EEE I ndustr y Appl i cati ons Magazi ne 2001; 7: 26–34.
21. NealeM.J . Tr i bol ogy Handbook. London: Butterworth; 1973.
22. Tavner P.J . Permeabilitatsschwankungenauf GrundvonWalzeffekteninKern-
platten ohne Valenzrichtung. El ektrotechni k und Maschi nenbau 1980; 97:
383–86.
Chapter 3
Reliability of machines and typical failur e r ates
3.1 I ntr oduction
Chapter 2 described theconstruction and operation of electrical machines and the
way they fail in service. Wenow need to movetowards identifying thecondition
monitoringthat needstobeappliedtodetect thosefaults.
Condition monitoring has been seen primarily as the province of those who
analysefault signalsandinterpret results. However, interpretationmust beinformed
by causality and the authors’ view is that one of the important changes to occur
in condition monitoringover thelast 30years is ensuringthat it is firmly directed
towardstheroot causesof machinefailure. Insodoing, successful conditionmoni-
toringdirectlyaddressesmachineunreliabilityor, moreimportantlyfor theoperator,
lackof availability. Thischapter setsout theissuesconcernedwiththiscausality.
3.2 Definition of ter ms
In considering the progression to failure of machinery it is necessary to define a
number of useful terms.
• Fai l ure is when the electrical machine fails to performits energy conversion
function. Failureiscompleteanddoesnot implypartial functionality.
• Fai l ure mode isthemanner inwhichfinal failureoccurred. For example
• insulationfailuretoground,
• structural failureof ashaft.
• Root cause is themanner inwhichthefailuremodewas initiated. For example
for thetwocasesabove
• overheating of theinsulation could betheroot causeleading to thefailure
modeof insulationfailuretoground,
or
• excessive shock torque being applied to the shaft could be the root cause
leadingtothefailuremodeof structural failureof theshaft.
• Fai l ure mechani sm isthephysical manner inwhichafailureprocessprogresses
fromtheroot causetothefailuremode. For exampleinthetwocasesabove
• overheatingcausesdegradationof theinsulationmaterial leadingtoreduced
voltagewithstandcapability,
or
62 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
• excessiveshock torqueon theshaft causing yield and an increasein stress
in the remaining parts of the shaft leading to a progressive and ultimately
catastrophicyieldof thecomponent.
• Root cause anal ysi s (RCA) istheanalysisfollowingafailureof thefailuremodes
andunderlyingroot causes.
• Dur ati on of the fai l ure sequence isconsideredinthisbooktobethetimefromroot
causetofailuremode. This may beaperiodof seconds, minutes, days, months
or weeksandcandependon
• thefailuremodeitself,
• theoperatingconditionsof themachine,
• theambient conditions.
• Rel i abi l i ty (R) is theprobability that amachinecanoperatewithout failurefor
atimet andinthis book is generally quotedas afailurerate. A highreliability
machinehas fewfailures, ahighmeantimebetweenfailure, ahighpercentage
reliability andalowfailurerate. Thereliability as afunctionR(t ) is sometimes
knownasthesurvivorfunctionbecauseitindicateswhatproportionof thestarting
populationsurvivesataparticulartimet . A worddefinitionof reliabilitywouldbe
‘theprobability that asystemwill operatetoanagreedlevel of performancefor
aspecifiedperiod, subject tospecifiedenvironmental conditions’.
• Avai l abi l i ty (A) istheprobability that amachinewill beavailabletooperatefor
atimet andinthisbook isgenerallyquotedasapercentage. A highavailability
machinehasonlyshort periodsof timeshut downduetofailureor maintenance.
• Fai l urer ate(λ(t )) istherateatwhichfailuresoccurinamachineandinthisbookis
generallyquotedasfailures/machine/year. Failurerateissometimesconsideredto
beconstantthroughoutmachinelifebutinfactitvariesaccordingtotheoperating
conditionandageof amachine. Thefailurerateasafunctionof timeissometimes
calledthehazard functi on. It istheobjectiveof themaintenanceengineer of the
machinetokeepthefailureratelow, constant andpredictable.
• Ti me to fai l ure (TTF) isthetimemeasuredfromtheinstant of installationof the
machinetotheinstantof failure. Themean ti me to fai l ure (MTTF) istheexpected
valueof that andsuccessiveTTFs. MTTF doesnot includethetimetorepair as
aresult of afailure. TheMTTF isusuallygiveninhours.
• Ti me to repai r (TTR) isthetimemeasuredfromtheinstant of first failuretothe
instantwhenthemachineisavailableforoperationagain. Themean ti me to repai r
(MTTR) istheaverageof that andsuccessiveTTRsandcanbeaveragedover a
number of machinesinapopulation. TheMTTR isusuallygiveninhours.
• Under thehypothesis of minimal repair, that is repair that brings theunit back
totheconditionbeforefailure, ti me between fai l ure (TBF) isthetimemeasured
fromtheinstant of installationof themachinetotheinstant after thefirst failure
whenthemachineisavailableforoperationagain. Themean ti me between fai l ure
(MTBF) istheaverageof that andsuccessiveTBFsandcanbeaveragedover a
number of machinesinapopulation. MTBF isthesumof theMTTF andMTTR.
TheMTBF or θ isusuallygiveninhours.
• Fai l ure mode and effects anal ysi s (FMEA) isasubjectiveanalysistool, defined
by US standards[1] that usesaqualitativeapproachtoidentify potential failure
Rel i abi l i ty of machi nes and typi cal fai l ure r ates 63
modes, their root causes andtheassociatedrisks inthedesign, manufactureor
operationof amachine.
3.3 Failur e sequence and effect on monitor ing
Thefailuresequencefromoperationtofailurefor aspecificfailuremodeinatypical
subassemblyor component, inthiscasethemainshaft of themachine, canbedrawn
verticallyasshowninFigure3.1andcontainsthesequencerootcause–failuremode–
failure.
Thedurationof thefailuresequencedependsonthefailuremode, theoperating
conditionof themachineandtheambient conditioninwhichit isoperating.
Main shaft
failure
Fracture Deformation
Failure mode
Why?
Root cause
analysis
How?
Condition
monitoring
and diagnosis
High cycle
fatigue
Corrosion
Low cycle
fatigue or
overload
Misalignment
Root causes
Fi gure 3.1 Cause-and-effect di agr am showi ng the rel ati onshi p between the fai l ure
sequence and root cause anal ysi s for an exampl e fai l ure, the fr acture of
a mai n shaft i ni ti ated by stress cor rosi on cr acki ng
Figure3.2 demonstrates this process for afailuremodedescribed by anormal
distribution. Figure3.2(a) showstheprogressionfromreliabletonon-reliableopera-
tionrapidlyatthe50per centlifepointfor afastfault. Theprobabilityof failurerises
sharply closetothispoint, theareaunder thecurvebeingequal to1becauseinthe
lifeof themachinethereis100per cent probabilityof failure. Figure3.2(b) repeats
thesequencefor amediumspeedfault. FinallyFigure3.2(c) repeatsthesequencefor
aslowspeedfault.
Thisprocessisat theheart of conditionmonitoring. If afailuresequenceisvery
rapid; for example, afewseconds likethefast fault inFigure3.2(a), theneffective
condition monitoring is impossible. This is thesituation for most electrical failure
modeswhichactuatetheelectrical protection, wheretheperiodof actionof thefinal
failuremodemay beonly afew seconds or even only afew cycles of themains.
However, if thefailuresequenceis days, weeks or months, liketheslow fault in
Figure3.2(c), thenconditionmonitoringhas thepotential toprovideearly warning
64 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 20 40 60 80 100
Life of component, %
R
e
l
i
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

o
f

p
l
a
n
t
,

%
0
1
1
2
2
3
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

p
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

o
f

f
a
i
l
u
r
e
Slow fault
Slow fault
failure
probability
Medium fault
Medium fault
failure
probability
Fast fault
Fast fault
failure
probability
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 20 40 60 80 100
Life of component, %
R
e
l
i
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

o
f

p
l
a
n
t
,

%
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

p
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

o
f

f
a
i
l
u
r
e
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 20 40 60 80 100
Life of component, %
R
e
l
i
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

o
f

p
l
a
n
t
,

%
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

p
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

o
f

f
a
i
l
u
r
e
Fi gure 3.2 The fai l ure sequence showi ng oper abi l i ty fal l i ng wi th ti me as a faul t
progresses. (a) Fast speed faul t. (b) Medi um speed faul t. (c) Sl ow speed
faul t.
Rel i abi l i ty of machi nes and typi cal fai l ure r ates 65
of impendingfailureandtheabilitytocontinueoperatingthemachinebeforefailure
and maintain it to avoid failure. Thereforecondition monitoring must concentrate
onthoseroot causesandfailuremodesthat exhibit afailuresequenceof substantial
durationandour ability to detect its initiationandprogress is crucial to successful
conditionmonitoring.
3.4 Typical r oot causes and failur e modes
3.4.1 Gener al
Itisimportanttodistinguishbetweenrootcauses, whichinitiatethefailuresequence
andcanbedetectedbyconditionmonitoring, andfailuremodes, whichterminateit.
After afailure, operatorsareusedtotracingthesequencebackfromthefailuremode
totheroot cause, inorder todeterminethetruecauseof failure. Thisistheprocess
of root causeanalysis (RCA) or askingwhy afailureoccurred. On theother hand
thedesigner of acondition-monitoringsystemmust keepinmindtheneedtopredict
thereverseof that process, tracinghowafailuredevelops, as showninFigure3.1.
Onthisbasistheauthorsproposethefollowingasthemost commonroot causesand
failuremodesinrotatingelectrical machines, basedonthedescriptionsinChapter 2
andtheAppendix. They aresimilar to theroot causes andfailuremodes identified
by theIEEE survey [2] and by Thorsen and Dalva[3] and could berelated to the
moredetailed analysis of failuremodes developed by Bonnett and Soukup [4] for
inductionmotors. It is surprisinghowfewroot causes andfailuremodes thereare
andthereader shouldnotethat thesefailuremodesandroot causesaregeneric and
couldbeappliedtomanydifferent subassembliesandcomponentsof themachine.
3.4.2 Root causes
Theseareoutlinedasfollows
• defectivedesignor manufacture,
• defectivematerial or component,
• defectiveinstallation,
• defectivemaintenanceor operation,
• ambient conditions,
• overspeed,
• overload,
• lowcyclefatigueor shockload,
• highcyclefatigueor excessivevibration,
• component failure,
• excessivetemperature
• windingovertemperature,
• bearingovertemperature.
• excessivedielectricstress, steadyor transient,
• debrisor dirt,
• corrosion.
66 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
3.4.3 Fai l ure modes
Theseareoutlinedasfollows
• electrical:
• coreinsulationfailure;
• stator windinginsulationfailure;
• rotor windinginsulationfailure;
• brushgear failure;
• slipringfailure;
• commutator failure;
• electrical trip.
• mechanical:
• bearingfailure;
• rotor mechanical integrityfailure;
• stator mechanical integrityfailure.
3.5 Reliability analysis
Component failuremodesandthefailuresequencedescribedinSection3.4arecon-
trolledby statistical processesinthecomponents, suchasinsulationdegradationor
degradationof metal componentsduetofatigue. Theseprocessesgovernthetransi-
tionfromoperationtofailureexemplifiedby Figure3.2. Thisprocessisthesubject
of detailedtexts onreliability suchas BillintonandAllen[5] andCaplen[6]. Each
component failuremodewill haveits ownprobability density functionthat derives
fromits ownphysical processes. For example, theshapeof theprobability density
function for winding insulation deterioration depends upon ambient and operating
temperatures, deterioratingslowlyastheinsulationdegradeswithtime. Whereasthe
probability density function for shaft fatiguewould showarapidly rising trend as
fatiguecyclesareaccumulated.
Themathematical functionf (t ) for acomponentfailuremodeprobabilitydensity
functionshouldhavetheflexibilitytorepresentawiderangeof major failuremodes,
suchas arepresent inmost machinery. A flexiblefunctionthat is availablefor this
workistheWeibull function:
f (t ) =
β
θ

t
θ

β−1
e
−(t /θ)
β
(3.1)
Theinstantaneousfailurerate, λ(t ), orhazardfunctionof acomponentinapopulation
of componentscanbeobtainedfromf (t ) because
λ(t ) =
f (t )
R(t )
(3.2)
whereR(t ) isthereliabilityorsurvivorfunctionof apopulationof components, which
for aWeibull distributionwouldbegivenby
R(t ) = e
−(t /θ)
β
(3.3)
Rel i abi l i ty of machi nes and typi cal fai l ure r ates 67
Therefore
λ(t ) =
β
θ

t
θ

β−1
(3.4)
whichcanbesimplifiedto
λ(t ) = αβt
β−1
(3.5)
whereβ s ashapeparameter andα is ascaleparameter equal to 1/θ
β
andreduces
to 1/θ when β = 1 where θ is the MTTF of the component and ≈ MTBF. This
expression is a very powerful mathematical tool to understanding the behaviour
of components, subassemblies and complete machines from a reliability point
of view.
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0
Life
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

o
f

f
a
i
l
u
r
e
,

%
b = 0.5
b = 1
b = 5
Fi gure 3.3 Var i ati on i n probabi l i ty densi ty functi on of fai l ures to a component
showi ng the effect of di fferent degr adati on processes at wor k
Figure 3.3 shows the effect on the probability of failure of a component for
different values of β, using(3.1) inthis caselifeis expressedinarbitrary units. So
for examplethecurvewithβ = 0.5coulddescribethebehaviour of apopulationof
rolling element bearings whoseprobability of failuredecreases progressively with
timeasthebearingandgreaserunsin.
Ontheother handthecurvewithβ = 2or 5coulddescribethebehaviour of an
insulationcomponent subjectedtoincreaseddegradationwithtimeandtemperature.
Figure3.4showsthehazardfunctionor failurerateusing(3.5) for suchcomponents
against life. The bearing component shows a failure rate decreasing steadily with
time, whereastheinsulationcomponent showsanacceleratingfailurerate.
68 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0
Life
F
a
i
l
u
r
e

r
a
t
e
b = 0.5
b = 1
b = 2
b = 5
Fi gure 3.4 Var i ati on i n hazard functi on of a popul ati on of components for di fferent
under l yi ng probabi l i ty densi ty functi ons showi ng the effect of di fferent
degr adati on processes on the deter i or ati on of fai l ure r ate and therefore
on the rel i abi l i ty
Thecompletefailurerateof apopulationof componentsvariesovertimeasshown
inFigure3.5. Eachphaseof thesegregatedfailureratecurvecanberepresentedby
(3.5), for different values of shapeparameter β. When components areassembled
into subassemblies and thenceinto acomplex pieceof machinery, theaggregated
component failuremodesequencesresultsinacompositefailureratecurve, suchas
that inFigure3.5, derivedfrom(3.5).
Figure3.5isacombinationof threecurvesthatrepresentthreestagesof operation
of thepopulationunder consideration:
• Ear l y l i fe (β < 1): thisstageisalsoknownasinfant mortalityor burn-in, where
thefailureratefallsasthecomponentspronetoearlyfailureareeliminated.
• Useful l i fe (β = 1): this stagerepresents normal operationof thesystem, when
thefailurerateissensiblyconstant over anextendedperiodof time.
• Wear -out (β > 1): this stage represents increasing failure rate of the system,
occurringtowardstheendof itsuseful life, duetodeteriorationof theindividual
componentsthat start tofail inincreasingnumbers.
However, pieces of machinery do not always follow thetypical bathtub form.
Theauthors havenoted howcomplex electronic equipment does not often exhibit
infant mortality symptoms. This is because such subassemblies are subjected to
Rel i abi l i ty of machi nes and typi cal fai l ure r ates 69
Early life
(Falling failure rate,
infant mortality)
Useful life
(Constant failure
rate)
Wearout period
(Rising failure rate)
Operating life, t
F
a
i
l
u
r
e

r
a
t
e
,

l
(
t
)
b < 1 b > 1
b = 1
Fi gure 3.5 Aggregatehazard functi on or fai l urer atefor a popul ati on of components
or subassembl i es for mi ng a compl ete pi ece of machi ner y, known as the
bathtub cur ve showi ng the effect of the shape functi on β at the begi nni ng
and end of machi ner y l i fe
automaticandacceleratedlifetestingoncompletionof manufacture, beforedelivery,
specificallydesignedtominimisethenumber of early-lifefailures.
Inanother way, electrical insulationsystemsdonot tendtoshowalow, constant,
mid-lifefailureratebutarather gradual worseninginfailurerateover thewholelife,
as theinsulationmaterial steadily deteriorates withageing, as showninFigure3.4
withβ = 2. However, thehazardfunctionof thebathtubcurveisinstructiveforthose
engagedinconditionmonitoringbecausethey demonstratethecharacter of failure
modes, whichwewant theconditionmonitoringtodetect, andthedifferent phases
of machinerylife.
Thelow, constant, mid-lifefailurerateat thebottomof thebathtubis achieved
partlybygooddesignandmanufactureof machinerycomponentsbut itsbasevalue
can bereduced and duration extended by maintenanceand in turn by monitoring.
So theshapeof thebathtubfor acomplex engineeringplant is dependent uponthe
maintenanceandmonitoringregimethat isadoptedasset out inChapter 1.
3.6 M achiner y str uctur e
Thestructureof amachineisanimportantfactor inthecause-and-effectdiagramand
intheaggregationof failuremodeprobability density functions, asdescribedinthe
previous section. Wemay consider that structureto besimply theassembly struc-
tureof individual componentsintosubassembliesandthentheaggregationof those
subassembliesintoacompletemachine. Thiscouldbeexemplifiedbytheexploded
diagramof themachineandwasdiscussedinChapter2(seeFigure2.10forexample).
70 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
BillintonandAllen[5] makeclear that therelevant structureisnot assemblybut
thatduetothereliabilitydependenceof components, wherethefailureof onecompo-
nentinthestructuremaynotincurthefailureof themachine, forexampleduetoredun-
dancy. Thisaffectsthemakeupof thecause-and-effectdiagram, whichisthestructure
relevant toconditionmonitoring, andisgovernedbycausalityrather thanassembly.
Thestructureforasubassemblycanbebuiltupfromthecause-and-effectdiagrams
of individual componentstogiveacause-and-effect diagramfor thesubassemblyas
showninFigure3.6. Theassemblystructurefor atypical electrical machineisshown
inFigure3.7andmaybeadequateinsomecasesbutisnotnecessarilycorrectfor the
assessment of failuremodes. CompareFigure3.7tothediagraminFigure2.10.
Corrosion
Corrosion
Vibration fatigue
Vibration fatigue
Inner bearing
material failure
Presence of
debris
Presence of
debris
Corrosion (end
effect 1)
Corrosion (end
effect 2)
Corrosion (end
effect 1)
Corrosion (end
effect 2)
Presence of
debris
Presence of
debris
Mechanical
failure
Bearing casing
fracture
Inner bearing
material failure
Mechanical
failure
Bearing casing
fracture
Bearing on
gearbox side
Bearings
Main shaft
Material failure
Fracture
Bearing on rotor
side
Wind turbine main
shaft assembly
Fi gure 3.6 Exampl e of a cause-and-effect di agr am for a si mpl e subassembl y, the
mai n shaft of a wi nd tur bi ne
A simpleexampleof thetwoaspectsof thisissuecouldbethelubricationpumps
of alargeturbogenerator. It iscustomarytointroduceredundancyintothisplant by
providingtwooff, 100percent-rated, mainandstandby, ACmotor-drivenlubrication
pumpswithathird100per cent-rated, DCmotor-drivenpumptoprovideemergency
power fromabattery whenAC power fails. Inthis caseit is not legitimatesimply
toaddthecause-and-effect diagramsinseriesor toaddthefailuremodeprobability
Rel i abi l i ty of machi nes and typi cal fai l ure r ates 71
Induction motor
system
Enclosure
subsystem
Bearing
assembly
Heat
exchanger
Stator
core
Stator
winding
Wedging
and bracing
Rotor
winding
Rotor core Sensors
Terminal
box
Fans
Frame
Shaft
Ventilation
subsystem
Stator
subsystem
Rotor
subsystem
Instrumentation
subsystem
Fi gure 3.7 Exampl e of a typi cal el ectr i cal machi ne str ucture di agr am (see
Fi gure 2.10)
functionsof thethreepumps, sincealargeturbogenerator canoperatewithanyone
outof threepumpsfunctioning. Thecorrectapproachistoconsider thethreesystems
inparallel andtakeaccount of theprobabilitydensityfunctionsinthesameway.
3.7 Typical failur e r ates and M T BFs
Theapproachof this chapter canbeput into context by consideringtheMTBFs of
typical electrical machines. Suchdatacanbenotoriously difficult to findbut some
information, particularly about MTBF, is availablefromreliability surveys, mostly
conductedintheUSunder theauspicesof theIEEE [2]. Informationaboutthelifeof
electrical machines has also cometo light fromexperienceinthedefenceindustry,
wherereliabilitypredictionsareacontractual requirementof equipmentpurchase[7].
Finallyinformationisavailablefromthewindindustryaboutgeneratorsbeingfittedto
thewindturbinesbeinginstalledinincreasingnumbers, wherefault dataisrecorded
sufficiently frequently to deducethelifecurves of typical electrical machines and
their reliability[8].
TheMTBF canbeadeceptivequantity. Itisintendedtorepresenttheprospective
lifeof themachine, assumingit hasaconstant failurerate, asshownintheconstant
failurerateregionof Figure3.5. Thenonecouldconsider that therewouldbea50
per centprobabilityof failurebeforetheMTBF and50per centprobabilityof failure
afterwards. However, machinescanhaveafailureratethat improveswithtimeand
thenit ispossiblethat ahigher proportionof failurescouldoccur beforetheMTBF.
However, awell-maintainedmachinecanexpecttobeoperatingintheconstantfailure
rateregion, inwhichcaseMTBF givesagoodindicationof prospectivelife, which
engineerscanappreciatewithoutbeingoverwhelmedbyanystatistical interpretation.
Table3.1extractsdatafromanumber of surveysof electrical machinesandgives
thefailureratesandMTBFsforarangeof machines, showingaremarkabledegreeof
T
a
b
l
e
3
.
1
A
l
i
s
t
o
f
t
y
p
i
c
a
l
m
e
a
s
u
r
e
d
f
a
i
l
u
r
e
r
a
t
e
s
a
n
d
m
e
a
n
t
i
m
e
b
e
t
w
e
e
n
f
a
i
l
u
r
e
s
(
M
T
B
F
s
)
f
o
r
e
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
a
l
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
s
o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d
f
r
o
m
t
h
e
l
i
t
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
M
a
c
h
i
n
e
t
y
p
e
N
o
.
o
f
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
s
M
a
c
h
i
n
e
y
e
a
r
s
N
o
.
o
f
f
a
i
l
u
r
e
s
F
a
i
l
u
r
e
r
a
t
e
,
M
T
B
F
,
h
o
u
r
s
S
o
u
r
c
e
o
f
d
a
t
a
i
n
s
u
r
v
e
y
i
n
s
u
r
v
e
y
i
n
s
u
r
v
e
y
f
a
i
l
u
r
e
s
/
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
/
y
e
a
r
L
a
r
g
e
s
t
e
a
m
t
u
r
b
i
n
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
o
r
s
N
o
t
k
n
o
w
n
7
6
2
2
4
0
.
0
3
1
5
2
7
3
7
5
0
[
2
,
9
]
I
n
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
m
o
t
o
r
s
6
0
1

1
5
0
0
0
V
N
o
t
k
n
o
w
n
4
2
2
9
1
7
1
0
.
0
4
0
4
2
1
6
8
3
1
[
2
,
9
]
M
o
t
o
r
s
g
r
e
a
t
e
r
t
h
a
n
2
0
0
h
p
,
g
e
n
e
r
a
l
l
y
M
V
a
n
d
H
V
i
n
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
m
o
t
o
r
s
1
1
4
1
5
0
8
5
3
6
0
0
.
0
7
0
7
1
2
3
7
3
5
[
2
,
1
0
]
M
o
t
o
r
s
g
r
e
a
t
e
r
t
h
a
n
1
0
0
h
p
,
g
e
n
e
r
a
l
l
y
M
V
a
n
d
H
V
i
n
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
m
o
t
o
r
s
6
3
1
2
4
1
6
1
4
1
4
7
4
0
.
0
3
5
4
2
4
7
3
1
2
[
1
1
]
M
o
t
o
r
s
g
r
e
a
t
e
r
t
h
a
n
1
1
k
W
g
e
n
e
r
a
l
l
y
M
V
a
n
d
H
V
i
n
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
m
o
t
o
r
s
2
5
9
6
2
5
6
2
2
1
6
3
7
0
.
0
6
3
9
1
3
7
1
0
9
[
1
2
]
W
i
n
d
t
u
r
b
i
n
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
o
r
s
<
2
M
W
6
4
3
5
1
7
3
7
1
0
0
.
0
4
0
0
2
1
9
0
0
0
[
8
]
Rel i abi l i ty of machi nes and typi cal fai l ure r ates 73
consistencywithMTBFsrangingfrom18to33years, if ayear isassumedtocontain
8766hoursoperation. Thetablealsogivesanideaof thesignificanceof eachsurvey
by notingthenumber of machinessurveyedandthenumber of failuresrecorded. It
shouldbenotedthat thelargesurveysaredominatedbyinductionmotorsbecauseof
their ubiquity.
The distribution of failures within the structure of the machine is also impor-
tant becauseit shouldguidethedirectioninwhichconditionmonitoringisapplied.
Table3.2 gives an analysis of failures based on theliteratureand threeimportant
areasof themachineareidentified: statorrelated, primarilythewinding; rotorrelated,
including slip rings and commutators; and bearings. Theremainder of failures are
groupedasother. Thedatacomesfromdifferent surveysandwhilethesesurveysare
not necessarilycomplementarytheyaresubstantial anddoshowaconsistent aspect
of failureareasindescendingorder of importance
• bearings,
• stator related,
• rotor related.
Therelativeimportanceof failures is affected by thesize, voltageand typeof
machineunder consideration. In particular therelativeweighting of stator to rotor
windingfailuresdoesdependuponthetypeandsizeof machineunder consideration.
For examplesmall, low-voltageinductionmachinefailures, exemplifiedbythefirst
twocolumnsof Table3.2, aredominatedbybearings, aslow-voltagewindingsexpe-
rience very few faults. Smaller machine bearings are usually rolling element and
their reliabilitydependsheavilyonthestandardof maintenance. Inductionmachines
show a much lower number of rotor winding or squirrel cage faults compared to
stator winding faults, because of the ruggedness of cage construction. But larger,
high-voltagemachines, exemplifiedbythenext threecolumnsof Table3.2, receive
ahigher proportionof failuremodes onthestator winding, dueto dielectric stress
and vibration root causes, and this can riseto beof asimilar significanceto bear-
ingfaults. Largemachinebearings arealsousually of sleeveconstructionandwith
constant lubricationaregenerally morereliablethanbearings insmaller machines.
Table3.2also shows that other component failuremodes, for exampleinthecool-
ing system, connections and terminal boxes, become more significant on larger
machines.
Aninterestingaspectof thisanalysisistheattentionthatisbeingpaidtodifferent
machinefailuremechanisms inthepublishedliterature. Theauthors haveusedthe
searchengineIEEEXploretoconsiderIEEEandIEEjournal papersonlyintheperiod
1980todateandsearchedthemetadataunder thefollowingheadings:
• brokenbarsininductionmotor rotor cages: 35papers;
• dischargeactivity in medium- and high-voltagestator windings in motors and
generators: 9papers;
• stator winding faults excluding discharge activity in motors and generators:
19papers;
• bearing; faultsinelectrical machines: 17papers.
T
a
b
l
e
3
.
2
T
h
e
d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n
o
f
f
a
i
l
e
d
s
u
b
a
s
s
e
m
b
l
i
e
s
i
n
e
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
a
l
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
s
o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d
f
r
o
m
t
h
e
l
i
t
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
S
u
b
a
s
s
e
m
b
l
i
e
s
P
r
e
d
i
c
t
e
d
b
y
a
n
O
E
M
t
h
r
o
u
g
h
f
a
i
l
u
r
e
m
o
d
e
s
a
n
d
e
f
f
e
c
t
s
a
n
a
l
y
s
i
s
t
e
c
h
n
i
q
u
e
s
,
1
9
9
5

1
9
9
7

M
O
D
s
u
r
v
e
y
;
[
7
]
I
E
E
E
l
a
r
g
e
m
o
t
o
r
s
u
r
v
e
y
,
1
9
8
5
;
[
1
0
]
M
o
t
o
r
s
i
n
u
t
i
l
i
t
y
a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
s
;
[
1
1
]
M
o
t
o
r
s
u
r
v
e
y
o
f
f
s
h
o
r
e
a
n
d
p
e
t
r
o
c
h
e
m
;
[
1
2
]
P
r
o
p
o
r
t
i
o
n
o
f
8
0
j
o
u
r
n
a
l
p
a
p
e
r
s
p
u
b
l
i
s
h
e
d
i
n
I
E
E
E
a
n
d
I
E
E
o
n
t
h
e
s
e
s
u
b
j
e
c
t
a
r
e
a
s
o
v
e
r
t
h
e
p
a
s
t
2
6
y
e
a
r
s
T
y
p
e
s
o
f
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
s
S
m
a
l
l
t
o
m
e
d
i
u
m
l
o
w
-
v
o
l
t
a
g
e
m
o
t
o
r
s
a
n
d
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
o
r
s
<
1
5
0
k
W
,
g
e
n
e
r
a
l
l
y
s
q
u
i
r
r
e
l
c
a
g
e
i
n
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
m
o
t
o
r
s
S
m
a
l
l
l
o
w
-
v
o
l
t
a
g
e
m
o
t
o
r
s
a
n
d
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
o
r
s
<
7
5
0
k
W
,
g
e
n
e
r
a
l
l
y
s
q
u
i
r
r
e
l
c
a
g
e
i
n
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
m
o
t
o
r
s
M
o
t
o
r
s
g
r
e
a
t
e
r
t
h
a
n
2
0
0
h
p
g
e
n
e
r
a
l
l
y
m
e
d
i
u
m
-
a
n
d
h
i
g
h
-
v
o
l
t
a
g
e
i
n
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
m
o
t
o
r
s
M
o
t
o
r
s
g
r
e
a
t
e
r
t
h
a
n
1
0
0
h
p
g
e
n
e
r
a
l
l
y
m
e
d
i
u
m
-
a
n
d
h
i
g
h
-
v
o
l
t
a
g
e
i
n
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
m
o
t
o
r
s
M
o
t
o
r
s
g
r
e
a
t
e
r
t
h
a
n
1
1
k
W
g
e
n
e
r
a
l
l
y
m
e
d
i
u
m
-
a
n
d
h
i
g
h
-
v
o
l
t
a
g
e
i
n
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
m
o
t
o
r
s
A
l
l
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
s
B
e
a
r
i
n
g
s
7
5
%
9
5
%
4
1
%
4
1
%
4
2
%
2
1
%
S
t
a
t
o
r
-
r
e
l
a
t
e
d
9
%
2
%
3
7
%
3
6
%
1
3
%
3
5
%
R
o
t
o
r
-
r
e
l
a
t
e
d
6
%
1
%
1
0
%
9
%
8
%
4
4
%
O
t
h
e
r
1
0
%
2
%
1
2
%
1
4
%
3
8
%


P
r
i
v
a
t
e
c
o
m
m
u
n
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
f
r
o
m
L
a
u
r
e
n
c
e
,
S
c
o
t
t
&
E
l
e
c
t
r
o
m
o
t
o
r
s
L
t
d
Rel i abi l i ty of machi nes and typi cal fai l ure r ates 75
Thespreadof this collectionof 80publications is showndistributedalongsidethe
relevant failureareasinTable3.2. It showsthat morepublishingeffort hasgoneinto
thestudyof thelessprevalentrotor faultsthanintothemoreprevalentbearingfaults.
Induction motor rotor cagefaults can bedetected through perturbations of the
airgap magnetic field (see Chapter 9). The distribution of journal papers towards
thosefaultsisprobablyduetothefactthattheairgapfieldisscientificallyinteresting,
analyticallytractableandcageinductionmotorsareverynumerous.
Bearingfaults, ontheotherhand, involveamorecomplexinterplayof mechanical
andelectrical physical effects. However, bearingfaultsleadtoairgapeccentricityand
theeffect on theresultant magnetic field is also tractable, although morecomplex
thantheeffect of rotor cagefaults. Someof thelessonslearnt fromrotor cagefault
detection, combinedwiththestudyof theeffectof eccentricityontheairgapmagnetic
field, canbeappliedto thedetectionof bearingfaults andthis topic is returnedto
inChapters 8and9. It is interestingthat thestudy of theeffects of eccentricity in
inductionmotors, themostnumerousof electrical machines, canalsobeelicitedfrom
theliteraturesurveygivenearlier andthat36papershaveaddressedthesubjectsince
1980. Someof thesepapersaddressissuesof noiseandspeedcontrol butthenumber
demonstratestheattentionthat isbeginningtobefocusedonthisimportant issue.
3.8 Conclusion
This chapter has shownthat causality must betheguidingprinciplewhenapplying
condition monitoring to electrical machines. First, the operator must be aware of
thefailuremodes and root causes for themachinebeing considered for condition
monitoring. Second, causalitymust betracedthroughprospectivefailuresequences,
possible by the use of cause-and-effect diagrams. The probability of failure of a
component of amachinecanbedescribedby aprobability density functionfor that
component. Theresultanthazardfunctioncurvesfor eachcomponentinasubassem-
bly can be aggregated to give a prospective life curve for that subassembly and
can then be aggregated to give the life curve of the machine. The aggregation of
cause-and-effect diagrams andhazardfunctions needs to bedonewithcare, taking
account of theassembly structureof themachineandthereliability dependenceof
components. Fromtheaggregatehazardfunctionamodel for thecompletemachine
couldbederived. Third, conditionmonitoringneedstoaddresstheroot causesthat
haveaslowfailuresequencetothefailuremodeandthisinformationcanbederived
fromknowledgeof thefailuremodesinoperationinanelectrical machine.
InChapter 1weproposedthreedifferent coursesof maintenanceaction:
1. breakdownmaintenance, implyinguncertaintyandahighsparesholding;
2. fixed-time interval or planned maintenance, implying extended shut-down or
outageperiodsandlower availability;
3. condition-basedmaintenance, implyinglowsparesholdingandhighavailability.
Real engineeringplantdemandsaflexiblecombinationof maintenanceregimesbased
ontheabove. Thischapterhasshownthatbyaddressingfailuremodesthatareslowto
mature, conditionmonitoringcouldsignificantlyaffect thedetectionof faultsbefore
76 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
theyoccur. Conditionmonitoringcanthenformpart of planningfixed-timeinterval
maintenance(2) andwill beat theheart of maintenancefor method(3).
Prior to determiningthetypeof equipment andfrequency of monitoring, some
considerationshouldalsobegiventowhetherthecostof implementingsuchaprogram
isjustified. Factorsinvolvedinthisdecisionmayinclude
• replacement or repair cost of theequipment tobemonitored,
• criticalityof theplant tosafeandreliableoperation,
• long-termfutureof thefacilityinwhichtheequipment isinstalled.
Assumingthat considerationof thesepointsindicatesthat theexpenditureisjus-
tified, the following points will aid in determining how the condition-monitoring
programmeshouldbeimplemented
• design,
• manufacture,
• installation,
• operation,
• maintenance.
In the majority of cases, the end users of rotating machines are dealing with
existingplantandwill havetoconsiderall fiveof thesepoints. Thistaskiscomplicated
becauseoftenthereisverylittledesigninformation, themanufacturer maynolonger
exist and installation, operation and maintenancerecords may beincomplete. The
paucity of information can lead to the assumption that the age of the equipment
indicatestheneedfor morerigorousmonitoring. However, thisisnotalwaysthecase
sincetherefinement of designtools andtheconstant pressureonmanufacturers to
reducecostshas, insomecases, ledtodecreaseddesignmargins.
Thepracticability of theseapproachesfor electrical machinesdependsuponthe
applicationof themachineandtheengineeringplantitserves. Thatisthebasisof this
book. Inthenexttwochapterswedescribetheinstrumentationandsignal processing
needsfor conditionmonitoring.
3.9 Refer ences
1. US Department of Defense. MIL-STD-712C Military StandardProceduresfor
PerformingaFailureMode, Effects andCriticality Analysis. WashingtonDC:
USGovernment; 1980.
2. IEEE GoldBook. RecommendedPracticeFor Designof ReliableIndustrial and
Commercial Power Systems. Piscataway: IEEE Press; 1990.
3. ThorsenO.V. andDalvaM. Failureidentificationandanalysisfor high-voltage
inductionmotorsinthepetrochemical industry. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on I ndustr y
Appl i cati ons 1999; I A-35: 810–18.
4. Bonnett A.H. andSoukupG.C. Causeandanalysis of stator androtor failures
inthree-phasesquirrel-cageinductionmotors. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on I ndustr y
Appl i cati ons 1992; I A-28: 921–37.
Rel i abi l i ty of machi nes and typi cal fai l ure r ates 77
5. Billinton R. and Allan R.N. Rel i abi l i ty Eval uati on of Engi neer i ng Systems –
Concepts and Systems. 2ndedn. NewYork: Plenum; 1992.
6. Caplen R.H. A Pr acti cal Approach to Rel i abi l i ty. London: Business Books;
1972.
7. Tavner P.J . and Hasson J .P. Predicting the design life of high integrity rotat-
ingelectrical machines. Presentedat the9th IEE International Conferenceon
Electrical MachinesandDrives(EMD), Canterbury, 1999.
8. TavnerP.J ., vanBussel G.J .W.andSpinato, F.Machineandconverterreliabilities
inwindturbines. Presentedat the3rdIET International ConferenceonPower
ElectronicsMachines& Drives(PEMD), Dublin, 2006.
9. DickinsonW.H. IEEE ReliabilityWorkingGroup. Report onreliabilityof elec-
tric plant, part I, II andIII. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on I ndustr y Appl i cati ons 1974;
I A-10: 201–52.
10. O’Donnell P. IEEE Reliability Working Group. Report of large motor relia-
bility survey of industrial and commercial installations, part I, II & III. I EEE
Tr ansacti ons on I ndustr y Appl i cati ons 1985; I A-21: 853–72.
11. Albrecht P.F., Appiarius J .C. and Sharma D.K. Assessment of the reliabil-
ity of motors in utility applications – updated. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on Energy
Conver si on 1986; EC-1: 39–46.
12. Thorsen, O.V. and Dalva M. A survey of faults on induction motors in off-
shoreoil industry, petrochemical industry, gasterminals, andoil refineries. I EEE
Tr ansacti ons on I ndustr y Appl i cati ons 1995; I A-31: 1186–96.
Chapter 4
I nstr umentation r equir ements
4.1 I ntr oduction
The development of a condition-monitoring systeminvolves the measurement of
operatingvariablesof theplant beingmonitored, andinterpretationaswell asman-
agement of theacquired data. In many plants, measurements arealready used for
control andprotectionobjectives. Fromacostpointof view, itwouldbeideal if such
measurements could also be used for condition monitoring. However, knowledge
of thelimitationsof theexistingmeasurementsandunderstandingof thedifference
betweentheobjectivesof control, protectionandconditionmonitoringisimportant,
aswill beseenlater inthebook.
Onefeatureof conditionmonitoring, describedinChapter3, istodetectimpeding
faultsat anearly stage, capturingweak signaturesinmeasurementsthat areusually
mixedwithnoise. Furthermore, someimpedingfaults may manifest themselves in
non-electrical variables that arenot normally usedincontrol or protection. Before
gettingintothedetailsof theinstrumentationelements, weneedtoviewacondition-
monitoringsystemfromahigherlevel wherethefunctionalityof differentpartsof the
systemcanbemoreclearlydescribed. Bydoingthis, itshouldbepossibletoidentify
thecommonelementsof acondition-monitoringscheme, irrespectiveof thesystem
detail. Inessencewearesayingthatanengineerexaminingoccasional meterreadings,
withaviewto producinganoperational andmaintenancestrategy, is involvedina
procedurethat isanalogoustoasophisticatedcondition-monitoringsystem.
Inviewof thisanalogy, webelievethatthefollowingtasksareessential elements
inacondition-monitoringsystem(Figure4.1).
1. Themeasurement or transductiontask(sensingof primaryvariables).
2. The data acquisition task (conversion of sensed variables into digital data in
condition-monitoringsystem).
3. Thedataprocessingtask(identifyingof informationburiedindata).
4. Thediagnostictask(actingonprocesseddata).
Tasks(1) and(2) areusuallycarriedoutwhiletheplantbeingmonitoredisoperating.
Tasks (3) and (4) can beperformed off-lineand theresults of thesetasks may not
befedback immediately totheplant operators. This is anon-intrusiveapproachof
conditionmonitoring. Incontrast, itispossibletouseanintrusiveapproachinwhich
asignal isinjectedintotheplant beingmonitoredandtheresponseisusedtocontrol
the plant status. This is particularly attractive in plant involving power electronic
80 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Transduction
Data
acquisition
Processing Diagnostics
Plant
Operational
strategy
Fi gure 4.1 The moni tor i ng tasks
converters that generate monitoring signals and are very fast acting. For the time
being, wewill confineour descriptiontothenon-intrusiveapproach.
In each of thesefour tasks human intervention is possibleand often desirable.
Indeedinsomecasessomeof thesetasksmaybeentirelycarriedoutbytheoperator.
Let us returntotheanalogy of theengineer collectingtheir meter readings, andtry
to identify thetasks. Themeter deflections or thenumbers displayedonthepanels
will naturally be in response to measurements made elsewhere in the plant under
monitoring, and may be picked up by current transformers, voltage transformers,
thermocouples or accelerometers, for example. This is thetransductiontask, andis
normally performedautomatically as it is difficult for thehumanoperator to act in
anythingbut aqualitativewayinfulfilment of thistask. That is, theymaybeableto
tell if onepieceof plantishotter thananother butlittleelse. Havingthatsaid, itoften
reliesonahumanoperator toensurethattheresultof thetransductiontaskisreliable.
Thedataacquisitiontaskcouldbesimplifiedtotheactionof theengineerinwriting
downtheseriesof readingsfromeachmeter, together withinformationregardingthe
time, location, loadingandambientconditionsperhaps, of theplantundermonitoring.
Inour examplethisiswhollyunder humancontrol. Thefrequencyof suchreadings,
and how long the observations are made, will depend on the characteristic of the
plant.
Theprocessingtaskcorrespondstotheanalysisof thereadingsinthesameway.
It maybeconsideredappropriatetoaverageseveral of thereadingsfor example, and
to present themin away that allows easy comparison with other data. This phase
can vary greatly in complexity, and it is this task that demands theapplication of
significant computingpower inautomatic systems. Weshall returnto many of the
morecommonprocessingtechniques later merely notingat themoment theuseof
methodssuchasspectral analysis, timeaveraging, andauto- andcross-correlation.
The diagnostic task operates on the results of the processing task in order to
recommendactionsthat will hopefullyresult inimprovedoperational readinessand
performance, andimprovedmaintenancescheduling. Again, returningtoour simple
analogy, onthebasisof examiningtheaveragemeter readingsandcomparingthem
withthemanufacturer’soperational limits, say, theengineerdecidesforthenextplant
shutdownwhichitems of machinery must beoverhauledor replaced. Theengineer
arrives at this judgement on thebasis of their experienceandthedataavailableto
I nstr umentati on requi rements 81
themasaresult of collectingandprocessingthemeter readings, andhavingaccess
to the manufacturer’s data on operational limits. For the manufacturer to set the
operational limits, arelationshipbetweentheplantconditionandthesignatureduring
operationshouldhavealreadybeenestablished. Understandingof themechanismof
fault development is particularly useful in determining such threshold values. The
diagnostic task isstill most oftencarriedout withsignificant input fromthehuman
operator, butwiththedevelopmentof knowledge-basedexpertsystemsorotherforms
of artificial intelligence. Full automationof thisphaseisbeingrealised.
Recent development of communicationtechnology; for example, infibre-optics
and semiconductor sensing devices, allows the data acquired to be sent to a cen-
tral point or to themanufacturer wherethey areprocessed and analysed. With the
current trendof restructuringinmany industrial sectors, theresponsibility of plant
conditionmonitoringhasalsostartedtochange; operators, asset ownersandmanu-
facturersmayall havepartstoplaywiththemanufacturerstakingmoreresponsibility
thanthey traditionally have. Dependingonits application, aplant canbeequipped
withcondition-monitoringfunctionalities as asellingpoint. As manufacturers can-
not scheduleplant shutdowns, thecentral position of theoperator could hardly be
replaced. Herewearemainly interestedinthetechnical aspects of conditionmon-
itoring. Thetrendtowards thoroughlifecostingof plant means that manufacturers
aremorecloselyinvolvedwiththeoperator inmanagingplant beyondthewarranty
periodandthisopensupanincreasedmarketforservicework, whichcanbesustained
by condition-monitoringactivity. InFigure4.1, wesummarise, inschematic form,
thefour tasksassociatedwithcondition-monitoringactivity, andindicatetheobvious
stepof closingtheloopasanaidtoimprovetheoperational performance.
We must now examine the first two of the four condition-monitoring tasks in
some detail, both in a general way and as they apply to electrical machines. The
dataprocessingtask will beexaminedinChapter 5whilethediagnostictask will be
delayed to later in thebook. At all times wemust bemindful that themonitoring
activityisaimedat reapingthebenefitstobegainedbyclosingtheloopidentifiedin
Figure4.1.
4.2 Temper atur e measur ement
Temperatureiswidelymonitoredinelectrical drivesandgenerators. For example, it
is commonto findtemperaturesensingusedto monitor specific areas of thestator
coreandthecoolingfluids of largeelectrical machines suchas turbinegenerators.
Suchmeasurements canonly giveindications of gross changes takingplacewithin
the machine but they are extremely effective if mounted and monitored in care-
fully selectedsites. Whentemperaturemeasurement is combinedwithinformation
about theloadingandambient conditionsof themachine, it providesvaluablemon-
itoringinformation. Bearingtemperatures arecommonly monitoredondrivetrains
and, togetherwithvibrationsensing, temperaturemeasurementprovidesthestandard
approach to the assessment of the condition of these elements. The typical tech-
niquesandsitesfor temperaturemeasurement inanelectrical machinearedescribed
82 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
inChapter 8. Herewedescribethethreeprincipal methodsof measuringtemperature
electronically
• resistancetemperaturedetection,
• thermistors,
• thermocouples.
Eachtypehasacceptableareasof application, whichwewill nowbrieflyinvestigate.
Theresistancetemperaturedetector(RTD) isalsocalledtheresistancethermome-
ter, which uses the resistance change of a metal to indicate temperature change.
Platinumand nickel are usually used because they are retardant to corrosion and
becausethey havesensitiveresistanceversus temperaturecharacteristics, as shown
inFigure4.2whereR
0
istheresistanceof thedevicemadeof themetal at 0

C [1].
An RTD can bemadeby either winding insulated metal wirearound athin cylin-
drical former or by evaporatingathincoatingof themetal onaninsulating, usually
ceramic, substrate. Figure4.3showsacommercial sensor enclosedinathinstainless
R
T
/
R
0
°C
200 400 600 800 1000
2
1
3
4
5
6
7
Nickel
Copper
Platinum
Tungsten
Fi gure 4.2 Typi cal temper ature-resi stance char acter i sti cs of metal s
Fi gure 4.3 A resi stance temper ature detector devi ce [ Source: Labfaci l i ty Ltd.]
I nstr umentati on requi rements 83
steel tubefor protection. Suchdevices arewidely usedfor gas andliquidtempera-
turemeasurement applicationsupto1000

C andaretheusual choicefor electrical
machinemanufacturersfor insertionbetweenwindingconductorsinmachineslots.
RTDdevicesareconstructedgenerallytoabaseresistanceof 100 at 0

C and
havetheadvantageof beinglinear over awideoperatingrange. Theyhaveverygood
accuracyandprecisionbuthavearelativelylowsensitivity. Theyaregenerallyusedin
afour-wireconfigurationof Wheatstonebridge, buttwo-wireor three-wireoperation
isalsopossible. Thecircuitconvertsthechangeof resistanceintothechangeof output
voltage.
Figure 4.4 shows a Wheatstone bridge circuit for an RTD device made of
platinum. The RTD device has the following temperature–resistance relationship:
R
T
= R
0
(1+αT ) whereR
T
istheresistanceinohms() andT isthetemperature
indegrees celsius; α
r
= 0.00385/

C, R
0
= 100 andthepower supply tothecir-
cuits is V
s
= +15V . Ignoringthezero adjustment resistance, Table4.1shows the
output voltagecalculatedfor tworesistancevalues: R = 5530 andR = 48. The
overall sensitivity andlinearity between0–100

C arethenderived. Thesensitivity
isdefinedastheratioof changeof output tothechangeof input whilethelinearity
is definedas thedeviationfromthestraight linebetweenthetwo endpoints of the
wholerange, that isfrom0–100

C. It isclear that increasingthevalueof R causes
thesensitivity tobereducedbut thelinearity tobeimproved. Theself-heatingerror
isreducedasthevalueof R isincreased. TheWheatstonebridgearrangementallows
theleadresistancetobeeasilycompensatedasshowninthefigure.
V
s
0 V
R R
R
0
R
T
(RTD)
Lead compensation
+

V
o
Zero adjustment
Fi gure 4.4 Wheatstone br i dge ci rcui t for a resi stance temper ature detector
Temperaturemeasurementusingthermocouplesisbasedonthewell-knownSee-
beckeffectwherebyacurrentcirculatesaroundacircuitformedusingtwodissimilar
metals, whenthemetal junctionsareheldatdifferenttemperatures. If abreakismade
84 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Tabl e 4.1 Response of a Wheatstone br i dge resi stance
temper ature detector ci rcui t
T (

C) R
T
() V
0
(V @R = 5530) V
0
(V @R = 48)
0 100 0 0
20 107.79 0.0204 0.24
40 115.54 0.0406 0.46
60 123.24 0.0606 0.66
80 130.89 0.0804 0.84
100 138.5 0.1 1.0
Sensitivity 0.001V/

C 0.01V/

C
Linearity 0.6

C error 6

C error
Tabl e 4.2 Ranges, outputs and sensi ti vi ty of ther mocoupl e j uncti on
mater i al s
Type J unctionmaterials Range(

C) Output at Sensitivityat
100

C (mV) 30

C (mV/

C)
E chromel/constantan −279/1000 6.317 0.0609
J iron/constantan −210/1200 5.268 0.0517
K chromel/alumel −270/1370 4.095 0.0405
N nicrosil/nisil −270/1300 2.774 0.0268
T copper/constantan −240/400 4.277 0.0407
inoneof thewiresthenavoltageisgeneratedacrossthebreak, whichincreaseswith
thetemperaturedifferencebetweenthejunctions. Onejunctionisheldatatemperature
that canbeeasily measuredtoallowtheso-calledreferencejunctioncompensation.
By doing this theneed for acarefully controlled referencejunction temperatureis
avoidedandadevicewitheffectively only asinglejunctionresults [2]. Sometypi-
cal junctionmaterialsandtheir associatedoperatingrangesandoutputsaregivenin
Table4.2, derivedfromstandardthermocoupletables. Multiplethermocouples can
becombinedtoformathermopileof higher sensitivity.
Figure4.5showsthermocouplesbeingbondedonthecoilsof anair-coredaxial
flux permanent magnet motor in an electric vehiclefor condition monitoring. It is
essential to usethecorrect leads when extending thewires to thepoint wherethe
output voltageis measured. As thethermocoupleoutput is already in theformof
a voltage, there is no need to use additional circuit such as a Wheatstone bridge
for signal conversion. However downstreamdevices arestill generally requiredfor
amplification and reference junction compensation. Figure 4.6 shows a reference
junctiontemperaturecompensationcircuit usinganLM35integratedcircuit whose
I nstr umentati on requi rements 85
Fi gure 4.5 Ther mocoupl esto moni tor coi l temper aturei n a per manent magnet dr i ve
motor
1
2
3
LM35
Measurement
junction
Copper
Constantan
Copper
Copper
Compensated
output voltage
+5 V
R
1
: 100 K
10 mV/ C
R
2
: 424
Fi gure 4.6 Reference j uncti on compensati on for a ther mocoupl e
outputvoltageis0V at0

Candincreasesatarateof 10mV/

C. A voltagedivider is
includedtocauseanapproximately40µV/

CvoltagegradientacrossresistorR
2
that
formspartof themeasuredoutputvoltage. ThevoltageacrossR
2
will thencompensate
thevoltagedevelopedacrossthecoldjunctionmarkedas‘3’ inFigure4.6, assuming
that thecoldjunctionis at roomtemperature, around18–23

C. Whenappropriate,
thesparkingweldingtechniquecanbeusedtocauseathermocouplejunctiondirectly
onametallicsurface.
The working life of thermocouples depends on the working temperature and
the physical dimensions of the junction materials, but copper/constantan and
chromel/alumel, whicharemost widely usedinelectrical machineconditionmoni-
toring, canbeexpectedtosurvivefor many years. Dependingonthequality of the
86 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
signal conversioncircuit, theperformanceof RTD temperaturetransductioncanbe
verygood. Itis, however, relativelyexpensive. Thermocouplesusuallyoffer slightly
reduced performance at much more modest cost. We noticed that the changes of
output involvedinbothtypesof temperaturetransducer weresmall.
Another type of temperature transducer we wish to briefly mention is the
thermistor, which provides a coarse but very sensitive response. Thermistors are
manufacturedfromblendsof metal oxidesof cobalt, iron, titaniumandnickel, which
arefired likeclays into small discs or beads that may beencapsulated in resin or
enclosed in protectivebrass tubes. They arealso availablein theformof washers
for easy mounting. Figure4.7shows arangeof commercial thermistors. Thermis-
torsexhibit alargechangeinresistanceasafunctionof temperature. Inadditionto
sensitivity, they also havetheadvantages of high stability, fast responseand very
small physical size. Typically aglass-beaddevicewill haveadiameter intheorder
of 0.25mm, whileflakethermistors areproducedinthickness downto 0.025mm
withcross-sectionsof 0.5×0.5mm. Thesizeadvantagemeansthatthetimeconstant
of thermistorsoperatedinsheathsissmall. But thesizereductionalsodecreasesthe
heatdissipationcapabilityandsomakestheself-heatingeffectof greaterimportance.
Thermistorsaregenerallylimitedto300

C, abovewhichlevel thestabilityreduces.
They do not providealinear output and this must betaken into account. For this
reason, it isalsodifficult tocontrol theconsistencybetweensamplesof thermistors,
implyingthat theprecisionachievableisrelativelylow. A thermistor isusuallyused
asalogic-switchingdevicetooperateanalarmwhenthetemperatureexceedsapreset
limit. Thermistorsareinexpensive.
Surface
mount
devices
Tube sheath
Disk in sleeve
Screw
Disk
Bead
Washer
Fi gure 4.7 Commerci al ther mi stor s [ Source: EPCOS I nc. and Tyco El ectroni cs
Cor p.]
Figure 4.8 shows four typical temperature-resistance characteristics of
thermistors. The nominal values of resistance 10 k, 20 k, 30 k or 100 k
are defined for a roomtemperature of 25

C. We note that the vertical axis is in
logarithmic scaleimplyingthat thechangeof resistancewithtemperatureisindeed
I nstr umentati on requi rements 87
R
,

(
k

)
10
4
10
3
10
2
10
1
10
−1
10
−2
−50 50 150 250 350
T, °C
30 kΩ
20 kΩ
10 kΩ
100 kΩ
Fi gure 4.8 Ther mi stor char acter i sti cs
significant. Since the accuracy of the device is hardly high and the characteristic
mayalsoslightlydrift after long-timethermal cycling, thesignal conversionscheme
adoptedforathermistorisusuallyquitesimple; inmostapplications, avoltagedivider
will bemoresensiblethanaWheatstonebridgecircuit, helpingto keeptheoverall
cost down.
Inrecent years, semiconductor temperaturetransducersintheformof integrated
circuits have found more applications [1]. Their design results fromthe fact that
semiconductor diodes (p–n junctions) have temperature sensitive voltage-current
characteristics. Withexternal power supplyandinternal feedbackmechanisms, tran-
sistorsintheintegratedcircuit canbemadetoproduceanoutput current or voltage
thatisproportional totheabsolutetemperature. A voltageisdevelopedasthecurrent
flows through afixed resistor. Theuseof integrated circuit temperaturesensors is
limitedto applications wherethetemperatureis withina−55

C to 150

C range.
Their errorsaretypically ±3per cent, quitelowindeed. Theyareveryinexpensive
andthereforehavebeenusedinlargequantitiestomonitor thetemperaturedistribu-
tionof equipmentwithlargedimensionssuchaspipesandcables. Wehavedescribed
referencejunctioncompensationforathermocouple. Suchintegratedcircuitscanalso
beusedfor that purpose.
Other techniques such as quartz thermometers, fibre-optic temperaturesensing
andinfraredthermographycanbeusedtoachievehighaccuracy, fastresponseorpro-
videnon-contactandspark-freesolutions. Theyaregenerallymoreexpensivethanthe
techniquesdescribedearlierandhavenotbeenwidelyusedinconditionmonitoringof
electrical machines. However, incaseswherethevalueof themonitoredequipment
greatly exceeds the cost of the transducers, such techniques are now increasingly
beingused. For instance, fibre-optictemperaturesensinghasbeenappliedtoidentify
hotspotsinswitchgear, transformersandmorerecentlysynchronousgenerators[3,4].
88 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Laser light
source
Back
scattering
Optic fibre
sensor
Computer
Coupler
Detector
Data
acquisition
Fi gure 4.9 Pr i nci pl e of fi bre-opti c temper ature sensi ng
For thisreason, wenowoutlinetheprincipleandcharacteristicsof suchatechnique,
indicatingitsadvantagesandlimitations.
Figure4.9shows thebasic concept of fibre-optic temperaturesensing. Whena
laser pulseisinjectedintotheoptic fibre, it issubject toscatteringasit travelsand
thebackscatteredpulseisreturnedasshownintheprincipleof optical timedomain
reflectometry [4,5]. The back-scattered light consists of a Rayleigh component, a
BrillouincomponentandaRamancomponent, whichdifferinwavelength. Thermally
influencedmolecularvibrationcausestheRaman-scatteredcomponenttochangeand
thereforeit issensitivetotemperature. Accordingtothetimewhenthesignaturesin
the back-scattered light are received, the temperature along the optical fibre can
bedetected. Thereforefibre-optictemperaturesensingcanbeanaturallydistributed
method. Spatial resolutionistypicallyinthe1mrangeintermsof thefibrelength. By
windingtheopticfibrearoundthebodywhosesurfacetemperatureistobemeasured,
better spatial resolutioninterms of physical body dimensions canbeachieved[6].
Using a technique called fibre Bragg grating, distributed temperature sensing can
bemultiplexedwithstrainanddisplacement measurements inthesamefibre-optic
system, astobedescribedlaterinthischapter. Thetemperatureresolutionistypically
lessthan0.1

C intherangeof zerotoafewhundreddegreescelsius. Theresponse
timeof fibre-optictemperaturesensingisaround2s.
4.3 Vibr ation measur ement
4.3.1 Gener al
InChapter8wewill discussatlengththetechniquesavailableandtheapplicabilityof
vibrationmonitoring. Thisisparticularlyuseful for monitoringtheconditionof com-
ponentsinthemechanical drivetrainof electrical machines, suchasgearboxes, shaft
couplings, bearingsandrotor unbalance. Morerecent work hasextendedthat tothe
extractionof conditioninformationfromelectrical variablessuchascurrent, vibration
sensing(includingacousticnoise) remainsamostimportantmonitoringtechniquefor
theoperatorsof electromechanical plant [7]. Itsuseisextremelywidespreadandhas
I nstr umentati on requi rements 89
reachedahighdegreeof sophistication. It revolvesaroundthemeasurement of three
quantitiesthat arerelatedbynumerical integrationor differentiation
• displacement,
• velocity,
• acceleration.
Whichquantityoneshouldmeasuredependsonthesizeof theplantbeingmonitored,
andthefrequency rangeinwhichoneis interested. Generally, machines of similar
typeandsizehaveamoreor lessconstant vibrational velocity. Alsoasthevibration
frequencyincreasesitislikelythatdisplacementlevelswill fall butaccelerationlevels
will rise. Thissuggeststhat withincreasingfrequencyit isbetter toprogressfroma
displacement devicetoavelocitytransducer, andultimatelytoanaccelerometer. As
aguide, theapproximatefrequencyrangesof applicationareasshowninFigure4.10.
It is useful to appreciate that the process of numerical integration attenuates
measurement noiseswhilenumerical differentiationamplifiesthem.
10 0.1 1 100 1000 10000 100000
Frequency, Hz
Displacement
Velocity
Acceleration
Fi gure 4.10 Nor mal frequency r anges of appl i cabi l i ty for vi br ati on measurements
Caremustbeexercised, however, whenmonitoringsystemsthathavesmall mov-
ingmasses, for insuchcircumstancestransmittedforcesmaybesmall andthemass
of theaccelerometer maybesignificant comparedtothebodymass. Here, displace-
ment will usuallyprovidethebest indicationof condition. Wecannowcharacterise
vibrationtransducersaccordingtothequantitytheymeasure.
4.3.2 Di spl acement tr ansducer s
Hereweshall confineourintereststonon-contactingdisplacementprobesorproxime-
ters. Thisexcludessomecapacitiveandlow-frequencyinductivedevicessuchasthe
LVDT (linear variabledifferential transformer). Onetypeof non-contact devicethat
is usedinconditionmonitoringoperates by usingahigh-frequency current/voltage
sourcetogenerateanelectromagneticfieldat theprobetip. Thesystemenergy, due
toeddy currentsinthetarget, isdependent uponthelocal geometry of theareasur-
roundingtheprobetip. If thesystemenergy changes (for example, whenthetarget
surface, whichis ferromagnetic andelectrically conductive, moves withrespect to
90 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
the probe) then the systemenergy also changes. This change is readily measured
as thechangeof voltage/current in thehigh-frequency excitation circuit is related
tothedisplacement of thetarget surfacefromtheprobetip. It shouldbenotedthat
suchsystems measuretherelativemotionbetweentheprobeandthetarget, hence
thevibrationof thehousinginwhichtheprobeis mountedis not readily measured
bythistechnique. Figure4.11showstheoperationof aproximityprobe.
Shaft
Housing
Housing
Driver/detector
DC output
proportional to g
Air gap
g
Fi gure 4.11 Oper ati on of a proxi meter probe
Sensitivitiesintheorder of 10mV/µmdisplacement areeasily achievablewith
displacement probes, andtheyfindwideapplicationinsituationswhereheavyhous-
ings ensuresmall external movements. Themeasurements of shaft eccentricity and
differential movements dueto expansion arethereforemost easily achieved using
displacement transducers. The same principle has been used to develop devices
that effectively measure rotational displacement or speed by sensing the passage
of keywaysontheshafts. Thesearesometimescalledkeyphasors.
Asmentionedpreviously, displacementismosteffectivelymeasuredatthelower
frequencies even though the frequency range of eddy current systems can extend
above 10 kHz. They are relatively robust transducers and the driving and detec-
tioncircuitsarestraightforward. Essentiallythehigh-frequencysignal appliedtothe
probeismodulatedbythepassageof thetarget, andthedemodulatedsignal usedas
themeasurement quantity. Considerationof Figure4.11, whichillustrates thebasic
displacement measurement principle, shows us that the output of the systemwill
dependnot only onthedisplacement betweentheprobeandthetarget, but also on
thematerial fromwhichthetarget is made. This is becausetheeddy current reac-
tionof thetarget, andhencethesystemenergy, is dependent upontheconductivity
and/or permeability of thematerial. Proximity probes must thereforebecalibrated
for eachtarget material. Caremust alsobetakenwhenmountingtheprobetoensure
I nstr umentati on requi rements 91
that electricallyconductingandmagneticsurfacesaroundtheprobetipdonot cause
unnecessarydisturbanceof theappliedhigh-frequencyfieldandthatthetargetsurface
issmoothwithnosurfaceor magneticdisturbances.
Another non-contact deviceusesafibreoptic, whichdetectsthelight reflection
andcomparesit withtheinjectedlight todeterminethedistancebetweenthereflec-
tionsurfaceandtheoptic-fibreend. This is illustratedinFigure4.12. Theresult is
convertedintoavoltagesignal usingaphotodiodeinthereceiver. Thecontact-free
measurement rangeisupto0.3mmwithatypical resolutionof 0.01mm. Thereare
other fibre-optic displacement sensorsbasedonfibreBragggratingthat canhavea
largermeasurementrange. Howevertheyusuallyrequirecontacttothetargetsurface;
temperaturecompensationmayalsobenecessaryasthedisplacementistranslatedinto
strainfor measurement [8]. Ingeneral, fibre-optic devices areintrinsically immune
toelectromagneticnoiseproblems.
Laser light
source
Receiver
Housing
Shaft
g
Fi gure 4.12 Pr i nci pl e of fi bre-opti c proxi metr y
4.3.3 Vel oci ty tr ansducer s
Rotational speedinelectrical machinesystems is usually measuredfor thepurpose
of control. Optical encoders are now used as common practice. They effectively
derivespeedinformationbycountingthepositionrotatedper unit time. Theoptical
encoder, which when in useis attached to therotating shaft, carries a disk cut in
slits. A light source and a receiving device are aligned on both sides of the disk.
Light pulses arecaused on thereceiver, which areconverted into electrical pulses
by a photo-sensitive transistor. Such an encoder is very suitable to interface with
adigital control system. Theangular resolutionis typically 0.18

correspondingto
2000pulses per revolution. Linear encoders arecommercially available. However,
applicationof suchoptical encoders for vibrationmeasurement has beenlimitedto
thevery-low-frequency rangebecausepositionvariationishardly enoughwhenthe
vibration frequency is high. High-precision electromagnetic resolvers can also be
usedtoobtainrotational informationfromadriveshaft.
For vibration measurement, velocity is most usefully sensed in the frequency
range from10 Hz to 1 kHz. This is usually achieved in an analogue manner by
designingaspringmasssystemwithanatural frequencylessthan10Hz, andletting
92 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Spring
Coil
Mass in the form
of a magnet
Probe tip
Fi gure 4.13 Pr i nci pl e of an el ectromagneti c vel oci ty probe
themass taketheformof a permanent magnet, as illustrated in Figure4.13. The
deviceis responsiveregardless of therangeof displacement involvedinvibration.
The magnet is then surrounded by a coil that is securely attached to the housing.
Whenever thehousingisplacedincontact withavibratingsurfacethehousingand
coil movewithrespect tothemagnet andcauseanEMF tobeinducedinthecoil, in
accordancewiththeexpression
e = Bv (4.1)
wheree istheinducedEMF, theeffectivelengthof theconductor inthecoil, B the
radially directedflux density, whichis ideally constant, andv is thevelocity inthe
axial direction.
Thistransducerisrelativelydelicatebuthastheadvantageof producinganoutput
signal that is relatively large, and therefore requires little or no signal condition-
ing. Modernelectromagneticvelocitytransducersaredesignedusingcomputer-aided
design softwareincluding finite-element analysis to ensurethequality of dynamic
responseinthetarget frequencyrange.
4.3.4 Accel erometer s
Nowadays, however, velocity and displacement are commonly measured using
accelerometers, therequiredparameters beingderivedby integration. Accelerome-
tersarerigidlyfastenedtothebodyundergoingacceleration. For eachaccelerometer
thereisasensingaxisalignedwiththedirectionof theaccelerationthatisintendedto
bemeasured. Accelerometersproduceanelectrical outputthatisdirectlyproportional
totheaccelerationinthesensingaxis. Theoutputshouldbelowif theaccelerationis
appliedat 90

tothesensingaxis; thenon-zerooutput isduetocross-sensitivity.
Thepiezoelectricdevicehasbecomealmostuniversallyacceptedasthetransducer
tousefor all but themost specialisedof vibrationmeasurements. Thepiezoelectric
crystalsact asboththespringanddamper intheaccelerometer that isconsequently
very small andlight inweight. Thepiezoelectric accelerometer is physically much
I nstr umentati on requi rements 93
morerobustthanthevelocitytransducer andhasafar superior frequencyrange. This
has becomemoreimportant as condition-monitoringtechniques involvingfrequen-
cieswell above1kHzhavebeenadopted. Theconstructionof atypical piezoelectric
accelerometer isillustratedinFigure4.14.
Piezoelectric element
in shear
Preloading
ring
Delta shear type
Base
Output
Seismic mass
Triangular
centre post
Preloading spring
Piezoelectric element
in compression
Output
Compression type
Fi gure 4.14 A pi ezoel ectr i c accel erometer [ Source: Br uel & Kj aer ]
When it is subject to vibration, the seismic mass, which is held against the
piezoelectric crystal element, exerts a force upon it. This force is proportional to
theacceleration. Under suchconditionsthepiezoelectric crystal, whichisusually a
polarisedceramic material, generatesaproportional electric chargeacrossitsfaces.
Theoutput canthenbeconditionedusingachargeamplifier andeither incremental
velocity or displacement signalsrecoveredby integration. Thedevicehastheobvi-
ous advantageof generating its output without an external electrical sourcebeing
required. As the electrical impedance of a piezoelectric crystal is itself high, the
output must bemeasured with avery high-impedanceinstrument to avoid loading
effects. Integratedcircuit piezoelectric devices havebecomeavailablewithahigh-
impedancechargeamplifier resident in theaccelerometer encapsulation. In recent
years, integratedaccelerometer circuits, whichincludemorethanonesensingaxis,
havebeendevelopedtopermit 2Dand3Dmeasurements.
When using piezoelectric accelerometers it is important to realise that, unlike
proximityprobes, thenatural frequencyof thedeviceisdesignedtobeabovetheusual
operatingrange. A typical frequencyresponseisshowninFigure4.15. Thislimitsthe
Operating range
|
A
|
25
Accelerometer
resonance peak
Frequency, kHz
Fi gure 4.15 Accel erometer response
94 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
useful operatingrangetoaround30per cent of thenatural frequency. Also, because
theoutputislowatlowfrequenciesthenormal rangeof applicationof accelerometers
isapproximately1–8kHz, althoughsmall devicesmayhaverangesextendingbeyond
200kHz andintegratedamplifier allowsmeasurement at nearlyDC [9].
Thereisanextremelywiderangeof piezoelectricaccelerometersavailabletoday,
fromvery small devices that will measure shocks of high acceleration (in excess
of 10
6
ms
−2
) tolargedeviceswithsensitivitiesgreater than1000pC/ms
−2
. Highly
sensitivedevices, ontheotherhand, havetobephysicallylargesoastoaccommodate
theincreasedseismicmassrequiredtogeneratethehighoutput. Inall cases, however,
caremustbetakenwhenmountingaccelerometerssincetheycanbeeasilydestroyed
throughover-tightening. Table4.3providesashortsummaryof theareaof application
of eachof thevibrationtransducer typesdiscussed.
Tabl e 4.3 Appl i cati on of vi br ati on moni tor i ng techni ques
Application Transducer type
Motor/pumpdrives Velocityor acceleration
Motor/fandrives Displacement or velocity
Motorsconnectedtogear boxes
(rollingelement bearings)
Acceleration
Motor withoil filmbearings Displacement
Generatorssteamturbines Displacement
Overall vibrationlevelsonall of
theabove
Velocity
4.4 For ce and tor que measur ement
Oneof thecommonest ways of measuring forceis to useastrain gauge, asimple
devicethat comprises along length of resistancewireformed into azigzag shape
andsecurely bondedtoasurfacethat will alter shapeelastically under theactionof
theforce. Whenthegaugeisstressedunder theactionof theforce, thecross-section
andlengthof thewirechangessothat itsresistancealters. Inrecent years, wire-type
gaugeshavelargelybeenreplacedbymetal foil or semiconductor types. Figure4.16
showsametal-foil-typestraingauge; thematerial usedistypicallythe‘advancealloy’
madeof copper, nickel andmanganese. Cuttingafoil intotherequiredshapeismuch
easierthanformingapieceof wireintotherequiredshape, andthismakesthedevices
cheaper tomanufacture.
Theinput–output relationshipof astraingaugeisexpressedbythegaugefactor,
G, whichisdefinedastherelativechangeinresistance, R, for agivenvalueof strain,
ε; that is,
G =
R/R
nominal
ε
(4.2)
I nstr umentati on requi rements 95
Fi gure 4.16 A metal foi l -type str ai n gauge
Straingaugesaremanufacturedtovariousnominal valuesof resistance, of which
120, 350and1000 arethemost common. Thetypical maximumchangeof resis-
tancein a120 devicewould be5 at maximumdeflection. Theresistanceof
thegaugeis usually measuredby abridgecircuit, andthestrain(andhenceforce)
is inferredfromthebridgeoutput measured. Themaximumcurrent that is allowed
to flowin astrain gaugeis in theregion of 5–50 mA, generally small to limit the
self-heatingeffect.
In order to measure forces, strain gauges need to be applied in a particular
arrangement, examplesof whichareshowninFigure4.17. Withinthesamestressed
F
F
F
Gauge
elements
Load cell
Beam element
Proving ring
Fi gure 4.17 Ar r angement of str ai n gauges to measure force
96 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
−V
s
V
out
R+∆R
+

+V
s
R−∆R
R+∆R R−∆R
Fi gure 4.18 Wi r i ng of str ai n gauges i n a Wheatstone br i dge
structure,usuallytwostraingaugesaresubjecttotensionwhileothertwoaresubjectto
compression. Consequentlytheresistanceof somestraingaugesincreaseswhilethat
of othersdecreases. Figure4.18showsacommonway of wiringfour straingauges
into a Wheatstone bridge where the increased and decreased resistance alternates
to maximisetheoutput sensitivity. Notethat thevoltagesupply to theWheatstone
bridge circuit is ±V rather than between 0 and 2V
s
. This is to avoid common
modevoltageintheoutput that cancausecommonmodeerrorsinthedownstream
circuits[10].
Forcetransducersof thistypeareroutinelyusedtomeasureforcesrangingfrom
afewnewtonstomanytonnesforce. Caremust betakentoeither operatethemat a
constanttemperatureorproperlycompensatefortheeffectsduetoexpansion. Modern
straingaugebridgesystems, tomeasureR, may beself-balancingwithautomatic
read-out.
It is immediately apparent that such devices can be used to measure torques
applied to shafts but if theshaft is in motion theadditional problemof extracting
thesignal must befaced. This may bedoneusinginstrumentationgradesliprings
attachedto theshaft, or by suitablenoise-freetelemetry. Telemetry systems in the
electricallynoisyenvironment aroundelectromechanical machinerycanbedifficult
to implement. Alternatively, contact-freeinductive(magneto-elastic) or fibre-optic
(fibreBragggrating) torquetransducerscanbeusedthat work onthechangeof the
material permeabilityorthereflectionof polarisedlight. Table4.4outlinesafewsuch
strainmeasurement methods that, althoughstill relatively expensive, arebecoming
increasingly popular owingto thecomputingpower availablefor compensationof
temperatureand/or non-linearityeffects. For instance, Sihler andMiri [11] described
acaseof using an inductivetorquetransducer in asynchronous generator system
tomonitor theoccurrenceof subsynchronousresonanceandthisenablesthecontrol
systemto providedampingusingactivecompensation, this subject is dealt within
moredetail inChapter 7.
I nstr umentati on requi rements 97
Tabl e 4.4 Other str ai n measurement methods
Method Principleof operation Remarks
Fluidicloadcells Forceappliedtoadiaphragm
causespressure
Pressuresignal must thenbe
convertedtoanelectrical
output
Optical encoders Twistingtorquecauses
displacement acrossthetwoends
of ashaft
Highresolutionneeded.
Usuallyappliedonlongshaft
suchasinturbine-generators
Fibre-optic Somefibre-opticsexhibit the
propertytorotatethetransmitted
light inproportiontothestress
appliedtothefibre
Careful phasemeasurement
needed. Expensivebut highly
accurate
Magneto-elastic Themagneticpropertiesof some
ferromagneticmaterialsdepend
onthemechanical stressthe
material issubject to
Expensivebut accurate.
Special precautionneededto
screendevices
Inthissection, wehavesimplyoutlinedthecommonestmeansof measuringforce,
andit isanareathat isextremelywell establishedandhighlydeveloped. Theuseof
specific techniques for particular applications can befound by searching thelarge
literatureassociated with forcemeasurement. Somehelpful references areBeihoff
[12] andGaoet al . [13].
4.5 Electr ical and magnetic measur ement
The basic electrical quantities associated with electromechanical plant are readily
measuredbytappingintotheexistingvoltageandcurrenttransformersthatarealways
installedaspart of theprotectionsystem. Thesearestandardandthereforeneednot
be considered further here. There can be a requirement, however, to measure the
magneticfluxdensityinoraroundelectrical machines. Thisisnotnormallymeasured
for control or protection. For thepurposeof conditionmonitoring, thiscanbedone
inoneof twoways: either asimplesearchcoil isused, or aHall-effect devicemay
bemoreappropriate. Thesetwooptionsaredifferent innaturesincethesearchcoil
isapassivedevicewhereastheHall-effect deviceisnot. Ontheother hand, onlythe
searchcoil has thecapacity for significant energy storageandtherisk of sparking;
therefore, inareasthatmaypresentanexplosionhazard, suchasonoffshoreoil rigsor
inrefineries, their usemust conformtocurrent safetystandards. Thesestandardsare
well setout[14]. Withthesearchcoil theinducedEMF, e, isgivenbytheexpression
e = ωBAN (4.3)
98 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
whereω isthefrequencyof thenormal componentof fluxdensity, BA istheeffective
cross-sectionof thecoil andN thenumber of turnsinthecoil. Suchdevicescannot
detect DC fields and at very high frequencies their output may belimited by self-
screeningeffectsduetotheparasiticcapacitancebetweenturns.
Coilscanbeproducedbyevaporatingcopper directlyontosurfacesintheappro-
priate position, or by evaporating themon to insulating materials such as Mylar,
whichcanthenbebondedtotheappropriatesurface. Thesetechniquesareextremely
useful if thecoil istobeusedinsideanelectrical machine, wherethecoil must not
beallowedtomoveintotheairgapwherethereisarisk of damagetoother areasof
themachine.
As previously mentioned, if the coil is to be placed in a hazardous area
then it is not the output of the coil that is important, it is the possibility of an
unwantedinput that must beconsidered. Theenergy storedinacoil isgivenby the
expression
E
e
= (1/2)LI
2
(4.4)
where L is the inductance of the coil, and I the current flowing in it. The stored
energy E
e
can be reduced by ensuring that either L is low or I is limited. For a
high signal output, L, which is a function of the number of turns, N, should be
reasonablyhigh. Thereforeonemust limit I , usuallybyalargeresistanceof thecoil.
It is then important that theinput impedanceof thedownstreamcircuit is high. If
thisisthecase, thevoltagemeasuredacrosstheterminalsof thesearchcoil indicates
theEMF and hencetheflux density, without much effect of thecoil resistanceor
inductance. A searchcoil isoftenmadeof thinwiresothecoil resistanceishigh; the
input impedanceof thedownstreamcircuit shouldbesignificantly higher. Suitable
bufferingtothesignal conditioningamplifier issufficient toallowoperationinmost
areas.
TheHall-effect devicedoes not suffer fromsuch disadvantages so long as the
requiredpower supplytothedeviceissuitablyisolated, but it isbynatureonlyable
toprovideameasurement of fluxdensityover averysmall area. Figure4.19shows
thebasic principleof operationof theHall-effect element. Whenacurrent I flows
through theHall deviceperpendicular to an applied magnetic field strengthB, the
electronsarecrowdedtothefront surfaceduetoLorentz forcecausingatransverse
voltageacrossthedevice. Theoutput voltage, V , isrelatedtotheappliedcurrent, I ,
B
I
V
Bulk semiconductor
material
Fi gure 4.19 The Hal l -effect pr i nci pl e
I nstr umentati on requi rements 99
andthefield, B, by
V =
kI B
nq
(4.5)
whereq istheelectronic charge, n isthenumber of chargecarriersper unit volume
inthesemiconductor, k is aconstant, andk/nq is theHall constant of material. In
measuringmagneticfieldthecurrent isestablishedandregulatedbyapower supply.
Hall-effectdeviceshavetheadvantageof beingabletomeasuredowntoDC, and
canbemadeinextremelysmall sizes. SinceHall effectcanbeestablishedinlessthan
ananosecond, theresponsebandwidthof aHall-effect transducer caneasilybeover
100MHz.
We said at the beginning that current and voltage measurements are usually
obtainedfromcurrent transformersandvoltagetransformers. Thisisoftentheonly
option wehavefor largegenerators in power plants. For small- and medium-size
electric machines, for example motors in most variable speed drives, it is often
more common to measure both current and voltage using Hall-effect transducers.
Figure 4.20 shows a board with three Hall-effect current transducer channels and
aboardwiththreeHall-effect voltagetransducer channels. Theoperatingprinciple
of thetransducer is still that showninFigure4.19. Commercial Hall-effect current
transducersrequirevoltagesupplytoestablishthecurrentwhilethemagneticfieldis
setupbythecurrenttobemeasured. Thisallowscontact-freearrangementasthecon-
ductor carryingthecurrentpassesthroughtheHall transducer thatisshapedinaring.
Fi gure 4.20 Hal l -effect cur rent and vol tage tr ansducer s
100 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Hall-effect transducers arealso availablefor measuringvoltage, wherethevoltage
is turned into weak current through alargeohmic resistor, say 100 k. Both cur-
rentandvoltagemeasurementusingHall-effecttransducersrequireson-boardsignal
conditioningtoset theratio.
Anothercurrenttransductiontechniqueusedforconditionmonitoringof electrical
machinesistheRogowski coil whoseoperatingprincipleissimilar tothatof asearch
coil. However, aRogowski coil isspecifically arrangedtoprovidefeaturesthat are
desirableinsomeapplications. AsshowninFigure4.21, aRogowski coil isanair-
coredtoroidal coil that canbeplacedaroundaconductor that maycarrycurrent. An
EMFisinducedbythealternatingmagneticfield. Sincethereisnosaturablemagnetic
componentinthecoil, thetotal magneticfieldisstrictlyproportional tothecurrentthat
excitesit andthenet effect of anycurrent external tothetoroidal coil isalwayszero.
TocompletetheRogowski coil currenttransducer, theinducedEMF iselectronically
integrated so that the output fromthe integrator, properly initialised, is a voltage
that accurately reproduces thecurrent waveform. Rogowski coils areoftenusedto
capturethehigh-frequencyspikesintheneutral current that maybeusedtointerpret
internal faults or partial dischargeinanelectrical machine[15]. Conventional CTs
arenot suitablefor this purposedueto morelimited bandwidth and possiblecore
saturation.
Current
v
o
(EMF)
Fi gure 4.21 I l l ustr ati on of a Rogowski coi l measur i ng cur rent i n a busbar
4.6 Wear and debr is measur ement
Inmanyelectrical machines, wecanderivecrucial conditioninformationfromfluid
lubricant and coolant. For example, bearing damage accounts for at least 50 per
cent of rotatingelectrical machinefailures(seeChapter 3andReference16). Asthe
bearingwears, wewouldnaturallyexpect todetect debrisinthelubricant. Similarly,
wheninternal faultssuchaspartial dischargesoccurinthemachine, wewouldexpect
that thecoolant wouldbecontaminated. Chemical methodsof monitoringthewear
andcontaminationwill bediscussedmorefully inChapter 6. For completeness, we
will herebrieflydescribethephysical techniquesof debrismeasurement inlinewith
thetransduction task in monitoring. Themost common method of doing this is to
I nstr umentati on requi rements 101
useaso-calleddebrissensitivedetector. Suchadetector dependsonthelubricating
fluidbeingcontinually passedthroughadevicethat is sensitiveto thepresenceof
particular material. Thisiscommonly achievedusingeither anelectrical transducer
tomeasureelectrical changesininductance, capacitance, orconductivity, oroptically
bymeasuringchangesinturbidityof thelubricant.
Theprincipleof operationof theelectrical techniquesisessentiallythesame. The
lubricant anddebris pass throughasmall chamber that canalternatively bepart of
aconductivecircuit, thedielectric in acapacitor, or part of amagnetic circuit, in
order to measurechanges in conductivity, capacitanceor inductance, respectively.
AC power supply is usually needed when detecting the change of capacitance or
inductance. All of thesedevicescangivegoodindicationsof general levelsof wear,
anddramaticindicationsof theoccasional largepiecesof debris. Suchtransducersare
bothcomplex andexpensive, andrequirecareful andregular attention. Figure4.22
showsaschemeof measuringthechangeof inductance, whichismost widely used
inpractice. Aninductivecoil is placedaroundthetubecarryingthefluidthat may
containmetallicdebris. Theinductanceof thecoil isdetectedusingahigh-frequency
oscillatingcircuit. Ferromagnetic debrisintheoil increasesthecoil inductanceand
hencedecreases theresonant oscillatingfrequency of anLC circuit. If themetallic
debrisisnon-ferromagnetic, thehigh-frequencyinductanceof thecoil tendstoreduce
duetoeddycurrent inducedinthedebris[17].
Shield case
Coil
Circuit
Inlet tube
Power supply and
signal output
Fi gure 4.22 Str ucture of an i nducti ve debr i s detector
Optical monitorsgenerallyoperatebysensingeitheralossof transmissionof light
throughatest cell, or bydetectinglight scatter fromtheparticular matter (knownas
theTyndall effect), asshowninFigure4.23.
Maintenanceof optical systemsisminimal, andtheymaybeusedonawidevariety
of fluids. They are subject to spurious output, however, if the lubricant becomes
aeratedtoany significant degree. Beingmoresuitablefor detectingfineparticlesin
thefluid, theyarehowever unabletodifferentiatebetweenharmful andnon-harmful
particulatematters. Optical andelectrical detectorsareoftenusedincombinationin
condition-monitoringapplications.
102 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
To signal conditioning
Lubricant
Test cell for
transmission
measurement
Light sensor
Fi gure 4.23 Ar r angement for an opti cal debr i s sensor
4.7 Signal conditioning
Signalsfromsensingdeviceswill oftenrequiresometypeof modificationbeforethey
aretransferredfor dataacquisition. This requires local signal conditioningcircuits
thatusuallyemployanaloguedevices. Themodificationmaybeamplificationoraver-
aging, forexample. Innoisyenvironments, itisoftennecessarytofiltertheoutputsof
thetransducers. Figure4.24showstwotypical signal conditioningcircuitsusingoper-
ational amplifiersandtheir input–output relationshipsunder ideal conditions. Their
operation is explained thoroughly in many textbooks. Figure 4.25 shows a buffer
amplifier circuit that canavoidtheeffect of theresistanceof theleads. Thisallows
transmissionof analoguesignalsover distancesupto100musingscreenedcables.
R
F
R
v
in
v
out
= v
in
(R
F
/R+1)

+
R
F
v
3
v
out
=
−R
F
/R (v
1
+v
2
+v
3
v
1
v
2
R
R
R

+
Fi gure 4.24 Two commonl y used ampl i fi er ci rcui ts
Wesawinprevioussectionsthat many transducersoutput adifferential voltage
signal byusingaWheatstonebridgewhoseloadingcapabilityisverysmall; thatis, the
current drawnfromthebridgeshouldideally bezero. Furthermore, weoftenwould
liketo turnthedifferential voltageinto avoltagesignal referencedto thecommon
groundwiththeresttothedownstreamcircuit. Thiscanbeachievedbyaninstrumen-
tationamplifier, as showninFigure4.26, for anRTD temperaturetransducer. The
entireinstrumentationamplifier circuitisusuallymadeinasinglechipandvalueR
G
canbetunedexternallytoadjust theoverall gainof amplification[10].
I nstr umentati on requi rements 103

+
Load
R
L
R
V
in
V
out
V
out
= V
in
(R
L
/R)
Cable resistance has little effect.
Fi gure 4.25 Buffer ampl i fi er ci rcui t for si gnal tr ansmi ssi on

+
R
+


+
R
R
0
R
T
R
G
V
s
−V
s
V
o
0 V
Instrumentation
amplifier
Fi gure 4.26 I nstr umentati on ampl i fi er
Moregenerally, greatcaremustbetakenwithregardtothecablingandtermination
of transducersandequipmenttoreducenoiseproblems[18]. Cablesshouldbeof high
quality and routed through unexposed areas wherever possible, so as to avoid the
possibilityof accidental damage. If manychannelscoexist inthesametransmission
corridor, caremustbetakentoavoidcommonimpedancecouplingbetweenchannels
bysegregatingpowerfromsignal cablesandensuringthatcablescrossatrightangles
whereElectromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) isolation is important. In most cases
twin-screenedtwistedpairsshouldbeusedtocoupleatransducer totheprimarydata
acquisition unit to avoid induction fromlow frequency fields <500 Hz. Screened
coaxial cablesaresuitabletoscreenfromhighfrequency fields >100kHz. Optical
fibrecablingis nowrobust andthereforeafrequently usedalternative, particularly
whenhighnoiseimmunity isessential. Theseissuesareparticularly important with
condition-monitoring electrical machines supplied fromharmonic rich converters.
Communicationsbetweentheprimarydataacquisitionunitandtheprocessingsystem
shouldalsobeestablishedviaahigh-integritylow-noiselinktoavoidanychanceof
datacorruptionor interruption.
104 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
4.8 Data acquisition
Theprecisenatureof thedataacquisitiontechniquesusedisusuallydeterminedbythe
subsequent algebraicmanipulationsthat will beperformedonthedatasetsproduced
bythetransductionprocess. It isnot reallypossible, therefore, toseparatethesetwo
tasksfullyinmostcases. Whatisof paramountimportance, however, irrespectiveof
thecomplexity of themonitoringsystem, isthefidelity of theinformationreceived
by theprocessingunit. Transmittedor recordeddatamust besufficiently noise-free
tocomplywiththedemandsof themonitoringsystemandmustbewhollyconsistent.
If thisisnot thecasethenthewholedataset, perhapsspanningseveral months, may
beeffectively corruptedandthereforeuseless. Incomplex systems handlingmany
inputs, either continuously or onasampledbasis, it is usual tohavetheprocessing
systemremotefromtheplant. In such cases somedegreeof local dataconversion
may beadvisable. For examplethesignalstakenfromagroupof machinesinadja-
cent locationsmayberoutedtoanearbycollectionpoint that digitisestheincoming
signals andidentifies themfor onwardtransmissionto thecentral system. Innoisy
environmentsit mayevenbedesirabletodigitisesignalsat thecollectionpoint, and
thenforwardthemtoagatheringpoint.
Figure 4.27 illustrates a preferred structure for a fully automatic system. The
basic dataacquisitionsystemshownearlier isbrokendownintothreeconcatenated
functions: (1) multiplexing; (2) sampling and holding; and (3) analogue-to-digital
conversion. An analogue multiplexer directs different signal channels for down-
streamprocessing and allows the channel identity to be passed through. The use
of amultiplexer is essential if alargenumber of channels aretobemonitored, and
canbeappropriateevenfor small numbersof channelsbecauseit allowstheuseof
asinglehigh-quality analogue-to-digital conversion, rather than recourseto many
Plant
1
Plant
2
Plant
N
Signal
cond.
Local Short distance Long distance
Diagnostics
Processing
Processing
and
diagnostics
Signal
cond.
Analog.
multi-
plexer
Sample and
hold
ADC
Transductions Data acquisition
Signal
cond.
Fi gure 4.27 Gener al ar r angement of data acqui si ti on
I nstr umentati on requi rements 105
lower-gradedevices. Commercial multiplexers cannowaccommodatemany chan-
nels. Ananalogue-to-digital converter turnsananaloguevoltagesignal intoadigital
number that can be recognised by the computer according a defined comparison
schemeor scalingfactor. Duringconversiontime, theinput analoguesignal issam-
pledandthesampleisheldconstant. Resolutionof theanalogue-to-digital converter,
which affects the sensitivity of the condition-monitoring system, depends on the
number of bits. Since condition monitoring aims to capture weak signals at early
stages of impedingfaults, highsensitivity is desirable. A 12-bit analogue-to-digital
converter has aresolutionof 1in4096andtypically completes conversioninless
than0.01µs. Theswitchingrateof themultiplexer canthereforebeintherangeof
10MHz, adequatelyhightoavoidanysignificant timelagbetweenthemultiplexed
channels.
General-purposedataacquisitionunits, designedinlinewiththegenericstructure
describedearlier, arenowcommercially availableandhavenaturally beenusedfor
condition-monitoringpurposes. For exampleFigure4.28showsan8-channel, 14-bit
dataacquisitionboardthat caninterfacewithastandardPCandoperateinaspecific
softwareenvironment. Thisisasuitablechoiceprovidedthattheuseof adedicatedPC
canbearranged. Other optionssuchasLabVIEWarealsoavailable, whichnormally
provideoutput channelstoimplement somesimplecontrol actions.
Fi gure 4.28 A commerci al data acqui si ti on devi ce to i nter face to a PC [ Source:
Adept]
Indataacquisition, it isimportant todeterminehowoftenthesignal issampled
andhowmanysamplesarekeptforfurtherprocessing. Thisisanareawheremistakes
canbeeasilymadeandwewill examinethisissueinthenextchapteraftersomesignal
processingtechniqueshavebeenexplained. Herewejust mentionthat theShannon
samplingtheoremmustbeobserved. Thetheoremstatesthatthesampleddatacanbe
usedtofaithfullyreproduceatime-varyingsignal providedthatthesamplingrateisat
106 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
leasttwicethehighestfrequencypresentinthesignal. Thisminimumsamplingrateis
calledNyquistfrequency. Givenasamplingrate, thetotal numberof sampleskeptfor
signal processingimpliesthedurationduringthatthesignal issampled. Thisduration
determinesthefrequency resolutionthat aspectrumanalysisperformedonthedata
cangive. For example, if asignal issampledfor 1s, thefrequencyresolutionis1Hz.
4.9 Conclusion
Thischapter hasshownthewiderangeof instrumentationanddataacquisitiontech-
niquesnowavailabletomonitorelectrical machines. Moderntechniquesandmethods
havebeenshownandinthefollowingchapter weshowhowthesignalsfromthese
sensorscanbeprocessedtoprovidecondition-monitoringinformation.
4.10 Refer ences
1. MorrisA.S. Measurement & I nstr umentati on Pr i nci pl es. Oxford: Butterworth-
Heinemann; 2001.
2. Horowitz P. and Hill W. The Ar t of El ectroni cs. Cambridge: Cambridge
UniversityPress; 1989.
3. Boiarski A.A., Pilate, G., FinkT. andNilssonN. Temperaturemeasurementsin
power plantequipmentusingdistributedfiber-opticsensing. I EEE Tr ansacti ons
on Power Del i ver y 1995; PD-10: 1771–78.
4. Miyazaki A., Takinami N., Kobayashi S., Nishima H. and Nakura Y. Long-
distance 275 kV GIL monitoring systemusing fiber-optic technology. I EEE
Tr ansacti ons on Power Del i ver y 2003; PD-18: 1545–53.
5. Rogers A.J . Distributed optical-fibre sensors. Jour nal of Physi cs D: Appl i ed
Physi cs 1986; 19: 2237–66.
6. Kher S., Gurram S., Saxena M.K.and Nathan T.P.S. Development of dis-
tributed fibre optic sensor with sub-metre resolution. Cur rent Sci ence 2004;
86: 1202–204.
7. Nandi S., ToliyatH.A.andXiaodongL.Conditionmonitoringandfaultdiagnosis
of electrical motors– areview. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on Energy Conver si on 2005;
EC-20: 719–29.
8. Iwaki, H., YamakawaH. andMitaA. FBG-baseddisplacement andstrainsen-
sorsfor healthmonitoringof smartstructures. Presentedatthe5thInternational
ConferenceonMotionandVibrationControl, Sydney, Australia; 2000.
9. Bruel & Kjaer. Machi ne Heal th Vi br ati on. Naerum: Bruel & Kjaer; 1984.
10. Bogart J r T.F., Beasley J .S. andRicoG. El ectroni c Devi ces and Ci rcui ts. New
J ersey: PearsonEducational; 2004.
11. Sihler C. and Miri A.M. A stabilizer for oscillating torques in synchronous
machines. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on I ndustr y Appl i cati ons 2005; 41: 748–55.
12. Beihoff B. A survey of torquetransductionmethodologiesfor industrial appli-
cations. Presentedat theIEEE PulpandPaper Industry Technical Conference,
Birmingham, AL; 1999.
I nstr umentati on requi rements 107
13. GaoG., Steinhauser M., KavanaughR. andChenW. Usingfiber-opticsensors
tomeasurestraininmotorstatorendwindingsduringoperation. Presentedatthe
Electrical InsulationConferenceandElectrical Manufacturing& Coil Winding
Conference, Cincinnati; 1999.
14. Garside R. I ntr i nsi cal l y Safe I nstr umentati on Safety Technol ogy. London:
Feltham; 1982.
15. Xiao C., Zhao L., AsadaT., Odendaal W.G. and van Wyk J .D. An overview
of integratablecurrent sensor technologies. Proceedi ngs of the 38th I EEE I AS
Annual Meeti ng; Salt LakeCity, 12–16Oct 2003; 2: pp. 1251–8.
16. Durocher D.B. andFeldmeier G.R. Predictiveversus preventivemaintenance.
I EEE I ndustr y Appl i cati ons Magazi ne 2004; September/October: 12–21.
17. WhittingtonH.W., FlynnB.W. andMills G.H. (1992). Anon-linewear debris
monitor. Measurement Sci ence Technol ogy 1992; 3: 656–61.
18. WilliamsT. EMC for Product Desi gner s. Oxford: Newnes; 1996.
Chapter 5
Signal pr ocessing r equir ements
5.1 I ntr oduction
Broadly speaking, theprocessingtask is that part of themonitoringactivity where
data, which has been collected and suitably formatted, is operated upon or other-
wisetransformedsothat adiagnosisof plant conditioncanreadily bemade. Aswe
havementionedinthepreviouschapter, it isherethat themost significant scopefor
automationexists. Indeed, toperformmanyof thedataprocessingfunctionsnowcom-
monly usedinconditionmonitoring, considerablecomputational power isrequired.
Processingmay bedoneon- or off-lineandthis choicewill predominantly depend
upon whether themonitoring systemis onethat operates on acontinuous basis or
not. Italsodependsontheunderstandingregardinghowquicklythemonitoredfaults
candevelop. Usually, conditionmonitoringinacontinuouslyoperatingplantorthose
wherefaultsthatcandevelopquickly, shouldallowtheobtaineddatatobeprocessed
on-line. However thedistinctioncannot beclearly drawn. Moderndataacquisition
unitsnowpermitdatatobeobtainedfromarunningplantandanalysedatadifferent
locationwithout anysignificant timedelay.
Inthepast, dedicatedsignal analysers wereappliedtoanaloguevoltagesignals
fromthetransductionprocesstoobtainthespectrathatcouldindicatetheoccurrence
andlevel of signal components at particular frequencies. Their usehas nowalmost
beencompletelyreplacedbygeneral computer algorithmsactingondataacquiredin
adigital format.
Althoughcommercial computer softwarepackages areavailablefor digital sig-
nal processing applications and can beused for condition monitoring of electrical
machines, it isimportant tofullyappreciatethecharacteristicsof thedifferent algo-
rithmsinordertoavoidunreliableresultsbeingobtained, leadingtomisinterpretation
of theplantcondition. Requirementsof suchalgorithmsandtheir limitationsmustbe
clearly understood. For suchareason, this chapter describes ingreater detail some
of themoreimportant numerical techniquesusedfor signal processingincondition
monitoring.
Perhapsthesimplest formof signal processingisoneinwhichthemagnitudeof
therawincomingsignal isexaminedonaregular basis, asafunctionof time. Infact
thisisessentiallythebasisof all visual inspectiontechniquesortrendanalysis, which
involves activecollection of databy personnel. Theprocessing in such cases may
consist of acomparisonof thecurrent recordwiththeprevious valueor withsome
preset or predetermined threshold. This process is simpleto automate, even when
110 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
many hundreds of inputs arebeingmonitored. Theprocessor is simply requiredto
associatetheincomingreadingwithaparticular itemof plant. If theincomingdata
is to be trended, to examine the lead up to an atypical event, then a data storage
mediumis essential. Magnetic disk or optical storage is the commonest method.
Semiconductor memory may also beappropriateprovided that it can beprotected
against instrument power failurewiththeuseof abatteryback-upsystem. It iseasy,
whenmonitoringmanyinputs, toaccumulateexceedinglylargevolumesof data, so
it isdesirabletoautomaticallyrefreshthedatastoragesothat after agivenperiodof
timethedatastorageelementseither transfer their contentstoabulk storagemedia,
orareoverwrittenbytheincomingdatastream. Whenaplantmalfunctionisdetected,
acommon practiceis to annunciatetheevent anddiscontinuedatastorageon that
channel. Inthis way thediary of events leadingupto themalfunctionis preserved
for subsequent examinationif required.
Theearlierexampleof magnitudedetectionimpliesthattheplantconditioninfor-
mationisseededinthechangeof signalsobtainedfromtheplant. Indeed, thevariation
of signals usually tells us thechangeof condition. Variationof asignal inthetime
domain can be more saliently expressed as components in the frequency domain.
Therefore spectral analysis is naturally a very common technique of signal pro-
cessing used in condition monitoring. Spectral analysis is effective when applied
tosteady-stateperiodic signals, whichis usually thecasewithmonitoringmachine
faultsthatgraduallydevelop. Inrecentyears, higher-order spectral analysishasbeen
usedtomakeuseof phaseinformationandimprovethesignal-to-noiseratio. Wewill
describefirst- andhigher-orderspectral analysistechniquesinthischapter. Sometimes
acondition-monitoringtechniquemayalsobeappliedtotransientandnon-stationary
signals. Wavelet transformtechniques that havemorerecently beendevelopedwill
then bedescribed for this objective. Furthermore, correlation analysis, which is a
powerful tool inrevealingtheburiedrelationshipsbetweensignalsandhenceiden-
tifying thecauses and consequences of fault, will also bedescribed, together with
someother basic signal processingtechniques that arefrequently usedincondition
monitoring.
5.2 Spectr al analysis
Spectral analysisisthenamegiventodescribemethodsthat transformtimesignals
intothefrequency domain. Thespectral representationof atimesignal is therefore
acollectionof componentsinthefrequencydomain, eachwithaspecificfrequency,
amplitudeandphaseangle. Thetransformationis achievedusingthetechniques of
Fourier analysiswherebyanyperiodicsignal, g, of periodT , has
g(t ) = g(t + T ) (5.1)
ThiscanberepresentedbyequallyspacedfrequencycomponentsG(f ):
G(f
k
) =
1
T

T /2
−T /2
g(t )e
−j 2πf
k
t
dt , k = 0, ±1, ±2 (5.2)
Si gnal processi ng requi rements 111
wheresubscriptk indicatesthek
th
harmonicof thefundamental frequencyf = 1/T .
Theharmonicrepresentsasinewaveattheharmonicfrequencywhoseamplitudeand
phaseanglecanbedeterminedfrom(5.2). Theoriginal timedomainsignal canbe
reconstructedbysummingall theharmoniccomponentsasshownin(5.3).
g(t ) =

k=−∞
G(f
k
)e
j 2πf
k
t
(5.3)
Weseethat acontinuousperiodic timefunctioncanthereforeberepresentedas
adiscreteseriesinthefrequencydomain. Theadvantagesareimmediatelyapparent;
our continuousinputcanbeapproximatelyrepresentedtotherequiredaccuracybya
finiteandoftensmall setof numbers. Aswewill illustrateinlaterchapters, manyfaults
giverisetoharmonic componentsthat arenormally non-existent or of insignificant
amplitude. Spectral analysiscompactsthedatasignificantlyatthecostof computation
time, andallowstrendsof changetobemoreeasilyrecognised.
Becauseit isoftennecessary todigitisethetransducer signalsfor onwardtrans-
mission to the processing unit in a monitoring system, the incoming data is also
sampled in time. That is, it is represented as aseries of discretevalues at equally
spacedinstantsintime, inasimilar fashiontothefrequency domainrepresentation
of acontinuoustimesignal. Under theseconditionstheequivalent statement of (5.2)
becomes
G(f
k
) =
1
N
N−1

n=0
g(t
n
)e
−j 2πnk/N
(5.4)
andthecorrespondinginversetransformis
g(t
n
) =
N−1

k=0
G(f
k
)e
j 2πnk/N
(5.5)
Intheseexpressionsweseethatthefrequencyiseffectivelysampledatthediscrete
frequenciesf
k
whilethetimesignal issampledatinstantt
n
. Wethereforehaveameans
of representingadiscretetimefunctionby aset of discretevalues inthefrequency
domain. ThistransformationisknownasthediscreteFourier transform. Inpractice
thistransformationiscarriedoutusingthefastFourier transformtechnique, whichis
anextremelyefficient wayof achievingadiscreteFourier transform.
Whensamplingacontinuous signal, thetotal samplinglength(theobservation
interval) must betakenintoconsideration. Theentiresampleddataisautomatically
treatedas oneperiodinspectral analysis. If thesignal is not strictly periodic or the
sampleddatadoesnot preciselyrepresent anactual period, thenharmonicdistortion
mayoccur becausetheperiodicwaveformcreatedbythesamplingprocessmayhave
sharpdiscontinuitiesat theboundaries. Thiseffect maybeminimisedbywindowing
thedataso that theends of thedatablock aresmoothly tapered. Commonwindow
functionsincludeBartlett, Hanning, HammingandBlackmanwindows[1]. Theorig-
inal sampleddataismultipliedwiththewindowfunctionbeforefastFouriertransform
isappliedtogeneratethefrequencydomainspectrum, asshowninFigure5.1. What
112 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
0 200 400 600 800 1000
0
2
4
6
W
i
n
d
o
w
e
d

s
i
g
n
a
l
Sample (n)
0 200 400 600 800 1000
0
2
4
6
S
i
g
n
a
l
0 200 400 600 800 1000
0
0.5
1
H
a
m
m
i
n
g

w
i
n
d
o
w
Sample (n)
Fi gure 5.1 I l l ustr ati on of wi ndow functi on
weobtainisnot atruespectral representationof theoriginal timedomainsignal, but
theeffect of boundary discontinuities is attenuated. A way to viewthewindowing
technique is that the finite sampling process itself has already windowed the true
waveformwith arectangular window. Applying an additional windowwill givea
moredesirableresult that minimisesfrequencydomaindistortion.
Another way oftenusedinpracticeistoincreasethelengthof thesampleddata
block, byincreasingtheobservationinterval. Thislowersthefundamental frequency
assumedinthespectral analysis. For agivensamplingrate, theobservationinterval
is proportional tothenumber of samples takenfor thefast Fourier transform. With
increased observation interval, the harmonic distortion due to the discontinuity at
boundariestendstoconcentrateinthelow-frequencyrange; their contributioninthe
high-frequency rangeis reduced. It must beunderstood that thefiniteobservation
interval always results inafundamental limit onthefrequency resolution. Length-
ening the observation interval increases the frequency resolution in the resultant
spectrum.
Sincefast Fourier transformonlyprovidescomponentsat discreteharmonicfre-
quencies, whichareinteger multiplesof thefundamental frequency, thereisalways
the risk that the target component for condition monitoring is at a frequency that
is between two integer harmonic frequencies. This means that not all frequencies
canbeseenby thefast Fourier transform, duetotheso-called‘picket fence’ effect,
disregardingthelengthof theobservationinterval. Insuchacase, theenergyof the
componentsunseenby thefast Fourier transformslipsthroughthepicket fenceand
leaks into theharmonics that areseen by thefast Fourier transform. Several algo-
rithms, includingpolynomial estimations, havebeendevelopedto detect thetarget
component fromtheharmonics that havebeenidentifiedby fast Fourier transform.
For exampleFigure5.2shows howtheenergy of harmonics of unity amplitudeof
amachinecurrent signal at 59.83, 59.85or 59.87Hz could leak to components at
59.6, 59.7, 59.8, 59.9, 60and60.1Hz that areat thefast Fourier transformoutput
frequencies, andthisdependsonthesamplingschemeused. Detailsof thealgorithms
toestimatethecomponentsat intermediatefrequencies, asareverseprocessof what
Si gnal processi ng requi rements 113
59.6 59.7 59.8 59.9 60 60.1
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
11
Frequency, Hz
C
o
n
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n

t
o

F
F
T

c
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
s
,

p
.
u
.
59.80
59.83
59.85
59.87
59.90
Fi gure 5.2 I l l ustr ati on of pi cket fence l eakage
isshownhere, canbefoundinReference2. Inconditionmonitoringof rotatingelec-
trical machines, thetarget frequency component inasignal isusually dependent on
thespeedof themachinethatmayvarycontinuouslydependingontheloadcondition.
Asaresult, thetargetfrequencyisunlikelytobeamultipleintegerof thefundamental
frequencydeterminedbythelengthof theobservationinterval.
A final point that we would like to highlight here is the risk of aliasing that
canoccur inthespectral analysis. Moreandmoreelectrical machinesnowadaysare
connectedtopowerelectronicconverters, whichgenerateharmonics. High-frequency
harmonics exist inbothmachinecurrent andvibrationsignals that may beusedfor
conditionmonitoring. Figure5.3illustratesthecauseof aliasing. Supposetheoriginal
continuoustimesignal hasaspectrumshowninFigure5.3(a). Thesampleddiscrete
timedatathenwill haveaspectrumshowninFigure5.3(b)wheretheoriginal spectrum
is duplicated according to integer multiples of the sampling frequency [3]. If the
f f
|G(f )|
|G(f )|
aliased
aliased
−f
sampling
0
0
(a) (b)
f
sampling
Fi gure 5.3 Occur rence of al i asi ng. (a) Tr ue spectr um. (b) Al i ased spectr um.
114 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
samplingfrequency islower thantheNyquist frequency that istwiceof thehighest
frequency in thesignal, as shown in Figure5.3, then aliasing occurs. In this case,
some harmonic components in the spectrumobtained by performing fast Fourier
transformonthesampledsignal aredueto aliasingor samplingeffects rather than
real componentsof theoriginal continuoustimesignal.
Consider anexample. Figure5.4(a) showsthestator currentof aninductor motor
fedbyaPWM (pulse-widthmodulation) voltagesourceinverter withasymmetrical
PWM switchingfrequency of f
sw
= 2.5kHz. Thecurrent is thensampled, also at
arateof 2.5kHz, andtheresult is showninFigure5.4(b). Thesamplingratemay
beconsiderednatural becauseit coincides with theinternal clock of thecontroller
that generates thePWM pulses. Supposethat theoutput fundamental frequency of
theinverter isf
o
=10Hz. Theactual currentthencontainsafundamental component
and harmonics at f
sw
± 2kf
o
wherek = 1, 2, 3. . ., giving harmonics at 2480 Hz,
and 2520 Hz, dueto themodulation process in theinverter [4]. A section of the
0.92 0.94 0.96 0.98 1
−40
−30
−20
−10
0
10
20
30
40
Time, s
M
o
t
o
r

c
u
r
r
e
n
t
,

A
0.9 0.92 0.94 0.96 0.98 1
−40
−30
−20
−10
0
10
20
30
40
Time, s
M
o
t
o
r

c
u
r
r
e
n
t
,

A
(a) (b)
Fi gure 5.4 I nver ter fed motor cur rent. (a) I nver ter fed motor cur rent. (b) Sampl ed
motor cur rent.
(a) (b)
0 10 20 30 40 50
−60
−50
−40
−30
−20
−10
0 0
10
20
30
40
M
o
t
o
r

c
u
r
r
e
n
t
,

d
B
/
A
Frequency, Hz
0 10 20 30 40 50
Frequency, Hz
−60
−50
−40
−30
−20
−10
10
20
30
40
M
o
t
o
r

c
u
r
r
e
n
t
,

d
B
/
A
Fi gure 5.5 Effect of sampl i ng on i nver ter fed motor cur rent spectr um. (a) Tr ue
spectr um of motor cur rent. (b) Spectr um of sampl ed motor cur rent.
Si gnal processi ng requi rements 115
truespectrumisshowninFigure5.5(a). Thecorrespondingspectrumof thesampled
current inFigure5.4(b) isshowninFigure5.5(b). The2480Hz and2520Hz com-
ponents in theoriginal spectrum, after being shifted downwards by 2.5 kHz, have
contributedtothe20Hzcomponentinthealiasedspectrumthatmaybemisinterpreted
inconditionmonitoringandthereforeshouldbetakencareof. The40Hzcomponent
iscausedbythesamemechanism. Theeffectof samplingalsodependsontheinstant
of asampleistakeninaPWM switchingcycle[5].
If thesampling ratecannot befurther increased, then acommon practiceis to
physically filter thesignal and limit its frequency bandwidth beforeit is sampled.
This anti-aliasingfilter canprevent unrealistic components beingintroducedto the
resultant spectrum. Ingeneral, thefilter bandwidthandthesamplingrateafterwards
shouldbedeterminedafter knowingthetargetfrequenciesthataretobeextractedfor
thepurposeof conditionmonitoring.
5.3 High-or der spectr al analysis
High-order spectral analysis is arelatively newtechniqueusedfor conditionmoni-
toring. Thefirst-order spectral analysis as describedintheprevious sectionmakes
littleuseof thephaseinformationof theFourier harmoniccomponents. Thiscanbe
takenintoaccount inhigher-order spectral analysisandthesignal-to-noiseratiocan
beconsequentlyimproved[6].
For first-order harmonic components defined by (5.1), a second-order power
spectral densityat frequencyf
k
canbedefinedas
P(f
k
) = G(f
k
)G

(f
k
) (5.6)
whereG

(f
k
) is thecomplex conjugateof G(f
k
). Extendingthis definitiontothird-
and fourth-order measures gives birth to the bispectrumB(f
1
, f
2
) and trispectrum
T (f
1
, f
2
, f
3
) asshownbelow.
B(f
1
, f
2
) = G(f
1
)G(f
2
)G

(f
1
+ f
2
) (5.7)
T (f
1
, f
2
, f
3
) = G(f
1
)G(f
2
)G(f
3
)G

(f
1
+ f
2
+ f
3
) (5.8)
From(5.7) and(5.8), wemay seethat, unlikethepower spectral density P(f
k
),
thebispectrumandtrispectrumarefunctionsof morethanonefrequencyindexand,
further, wemay alsoseethat they arecomplex quantities; that is, they containboth
magnitudeandphaseinformationabouttheoriginal sampledtimesignal. Incontrast,
P(f
k
) containsonlyreal values.
We can appreciate the value or potential of such high-order spectral analysis
by lookingintowhat happensduringsometypical faultsthat causeelectromagnetic
disturbances inthemachine. For example, abrokenrotor bar fault inaninduction
motor will usually giveriseto harmonics at two frequencies f
1
andf
2
intheairgap
fluxdensity, withphaseanglesφ
f 1
andφ
f 2
. A vibrationsignal islikelytoberelated
tothefluxaccordingtoaquadraticfunction[7]. Asaresult, thevibrationsignal that
can beacquired through an accelerometer contains harmonics at frequencies f
1
, f
2
andf
1
+f
2
duetothequadraticallynon-linear relationship. Their phaseangleswill be
116 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
φ
f 1
, φ
f 2
andφ
f 1
+
f 2
= φ
f 1
+ φ
f 2
, showingaquadraticphasecouplingthat canbe
easilyindicatedbyapeakinthebispectrumof thevibrationsignal atthebifrequency,
B(f
1
, f
2
), wheretheassociatedbiphaseφ(f
1
, f
2
) tends to zero. Faults of other types
thatcausefluxcomponentsatdifferentfrequenciescanbesimilarlydetectedprovided
that the target frequencies are known. Higher-order spectral analysis can be used
when multiple faults exist in the machine so that more signature frequencies can
beidentified with ahigh signal-to-noiseratio, by exploiting theproperty of phase
coupling. Examplesof usinghigh-order spectral analysisfor conditionmonitoringof
inductionmachinesareshowninReference6.
5.4 Cor r elation analysis
Thisisatimedomaintechnique. Correlationbetweentwosignals, inthetimedomain,
isaprocessmathematicallyverysimilar tothat of convolution. Theauto-correlation
functionprovidesameasureof thesimilaritybetweenawaveformandatime-shifted
version of itself, while the cross correlation function refers to two different time
functions.
Theauto-correlationfunctionof atimesignal f (t ) canbewrittenas
R
ff
(τ) =


−∞
f (t − τ)f (t )dt (5.9)
The function f (t − τ) is delayed version of f (t ), by a time τ. Essentially
the process may be thought of as one signal searching through another to find
similarities.
If R
ff
(τ) isplottedagainstτ, thentheresultisacorrelogram. If thesignal tendsto
repeat, thecorrelogramplotwill giveapeakindicationwhenτ isaroundthetimethat
it takesthesignal toshowsomerepetition. Thereforeauto-correlationisapowerful
tool toidentifytherepeatingfeaturesthatcanbehiddeninasignal mixedwithnoises
anddisturbances. Figure5.6illustratestheprinciple. Thetimesignalsareshownin
Figure5.6(a) and5.6(b), andtheresultingcorrelogramin5.6(c). It is apparent that
signalsexhibitingaperiodicity, whichmaybedifficult toextract fromabackground
of noise, canbeidentifiedusingthistechnique.
The cross-correlation function of two different signals f (t ) and h(t ) may be
writtenas
R
fh
(τ) =


−∞
f (t − τ)h(t )dt (5.10)
Thesimilaritybetweencorrelationandconvolutionisnowclearlyseen. For example
theconvolutionof thetwotimefunctionsf (t ) andh(t ) wouldbeexpressedas
g(t ) =


−∞
f (t − τ)h(τ)dτ (5.11)
Theonlydifferenceisthat oneof thetimefunctionsiseffectivelyreversed.
Si gnal processi ng requi rements 117
h(t )
f (t–t)
(a)
(b)
(c)
t
t
t
R
fg(t)
t
Fi gure 5.6 The use of cor rel ati on functi ons
Liketheauto-correlationfunction, thecross-correlationfunctioncanalsobeused
torecover boththeamplitudeandphaseof signalslost inanoisybackground. If two
signals areinherently relatedbut arephaseshifteddueto transmissiondelay inthe
systemor modulatedbyphysical processesinthesystem, cross-correlationfunction
canreveal thesimilarity betweenthesesignals, whicharethenconfirmedtobedue
tothesamecause. Becauseof suchaproperty, correlationfunctionsareparticularly
suitableto monitor faults likebearingdegradationandpartial dischargeactivity on
worn transformers, including their on-load tap changers, which have intermittent
effectsduringoperation[8,9]. Correlationfunctionsprovideameansof relatingthe
condition-monitoring signatures to the causes of faults. Correlation functions can
also beused to excludetheeffects of factors that may not havedirect implication
ontheplant condition, for exampleknownvariationsof loador changesof ambient
temperature.
If weredefine(5.9) and (5.10) in aslightly different way, that is let thecross-
correlationfunctionbetweentwosignalsf (t ) andh(t ) be
R
fh
(τ) = lim
T →∞
1
T

T
0
f (t − τ)h(t )dt (5.12)
itiseasytoseehowthecorrelationprocesscanberealisedinanumerical algorithm.
Figure5.7illustratestheactivityschematically; thetimeaveragingoperationrequired
will bedescribedinthenext section.
118 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
f (t )
h(t )
f (t–t)
Time delay t
Multiplier
Time
averaging
Correlogram
R
fh
(t)
Fi gure 5.7 I mpl ementi ng the measurement of cor rel ogr ams
5.5 Signal pr ocessing for vibr ation
5.5.1 Gener al
Vibrationmonitoringrequires anumber of specialisedtechniques andtwo shall be
brieflymentionedhere. Althoughtheyarebeginningtoestablishthemselvesaspow-
erful diagnostictools, their acceptance(andsubsequentlytheir application) isat the
moment limitedprimarilytothediagnosisof faultsingearboxes.
5.5.2 Cepstr um anal ysi s
Mathematically thecepstrum, C(τ), of atimefunction is described as theinverse
Fourier transformof thelogarithmof thepower spectrumof thefunction; that is, if
wedefinethepower spectrum, P
g
(f ), of atimefunctiong(t ) as
P
g
(f ) = F {g(t )}
2
(5.13)
thenthecorrespondingcepstrumis:
C(τ) = F
−1
{log
e
P
g
(f )} (5.14)
whereF andF
−1
represent theforwardandinverseFourier transformsdescribedin
Section5.2. ThereforeP
g
(f ) is thepower spectrumof thetimesignal g(t ), which
is also defined in (5.6). Thedimension of theparameter τ in (5.14) is timeand is
introduced by theinverseFourier transform; hencewecan display themagnitude
of thecepstrumwithrespect to timeintervals inthesameway as thespectrumcan
beillustratedwithrespect tofrequency. Thelogarithmis employedsothat thehar-
monic components inP
g
(f ) that haverelatively lowamplitudes arealso takeninto
account; their existenceishighlighted. TheinverseFourier transformin(5.14) tries
toreconstructthetimesignal butonlyhighlightsthetimeinstantswhenconsiderable
activities areoccurring. Fromthis, therepetitionof theactivities canbeidentified,
whichisdemonstratednext [10].
Theuseof thecepstrumhasfoundfavourinexaminingthebehaviourof gearboxes
becausesuchitemsof equipmenttendtoproducemanyfamiliesof sidebandsintheir
Si gnal processi ng requi rements 119
vibrationspectra, duetothevarietyof meshingfrequenciesandshaftspeedsthatmay
bepresent. Figure5.8(a) shows thepower spectrumof agearbox vibrationsignal,
containing harmonic side bands that are spaced according to a pattern. We hope
to identify suchapatterninorder to deriveinformationabout theconditionof the
gearboxandthecauseof fault, if present. Figure5.8(b) showsthecepstrumcalculated
fromthepower spectrumusing(5.14). Thehorizontal axis hereis practically time
andthespikescorrespondtotheinstantswhensignificantactivitiesarepresentinthe
original timesignal. It is clear that theactivities repeat predominantly accordingto
twotimeperiods, markedasA andBrespectivelyinFigure5.8(b). Bymeasuringthe
periods(8.083msand19.6ms), weknowthatthefundamental repetitionfrequencies
are 123.75 Hz and 51 Hz. We can then further infer that the power spectrumof
100m
50m
10m
5m
1m
500u
100u
50u
10u
5.0
B
B
B
B
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A A A
4.5
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0
0 20m 40m 60m 80m 100m 120m
0 0.5k 1.0k 1.5k 2.0k
Frequency, Hz
Time, s
(a)
(b)
2.5k 3.0k
B
Fi gure 5.8 Vi br ati on spectr a and associ ated cepstr a. (a) Power spectr um of a
vi br ati on si gnal . (b) Cepstr um of the gear box vi br ati on si gnal .
120 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
0 0.5k 1.0k 1.5k 2.0k 2.5k 3.0k
100m
10m
1m
100,
10,
100m
10m
1m
100,
10,
0 0.5k 1.0k 1.5k 2.0k
Frequency, Hz
(c)
2.5k 3.0k
Fi gure 5.8 Conti nued (c) Power spectr um of a vi br ati on si gnal .
Figure5.8(a)containstwosetsof harmonicsidebandsthatareseparatedby123.75Hz
and51Hz respectively, asillustratedinFigure5.8(c).
So thecepstrumessentially highlights multipleperiodicity in complicated sig-
nals, andhenceidentifies clearly various families of sidebands. Theidentification
of various sidebands in arich signal may bepractically impossibleusingspectral
analysis, but asFigure5.8showsthecepstrumeasilypicksthemout.
We note in passing that although the horizontal scales of the cepstrumare in
seconds it is usual practice to refer to the horizontal quantity as ‘frequency’, the
peaks in the cepstrumas the ‘harmonics’ and the process is known as ‘filtering’.
Thisisdonetofirmlyidentifythemethodologywiththat of spectral analysis. If this
techniquecanidentifysidebandswithease, thenitmayholdsignificantpossibilities
for theidentificationof faultsininductionmachines, particularly whenthey arefed
fromharmonicrichinverters. Tothebest of theauthors’ knowledgenoworkonthis
applicationhasyetbeenreportedbutitmayyetprovetobeafruitful pathtofollow. Its
disadvantagesliewiththecomplexityof thetechnique. It isapost-spectral analysis
tool, in much thesameway as spectral analysis is generally employed onceone’s
suspicionsarearousedbyanomaliesintimedomainsignalstakenusingoverall level
monitoring.
5.5.3 Ti me aver agi ng and trend anal ysi s
InFigure5.7, theneedfor signal averagingisnotedduringthepractical computation
of correlationfunctions. Theaveragingtechniquehas foundconsiderablefavour in
its ownright for thedetectionof faults ingearboxes androllingelement bearings.
It achieves this by simply averagingalargenumber of samples, takensuccessively
Si gnal processi ng requi rements 121
fromthesametransducer or anupper streamnumerical process, witheachsample
carefully timedto thesameperiod. Withrotatingplant therotational periodof the
element under inspectionis usually chosen. Inthis way noisegeneratedelsewhere
inthesystemiseffectivelysmoothedout, andthesignalsduetofaultsthat exhibit a
cyclicpatternover thechosenperiod, enhanced.
Averaging can beimplemented using oneof themany transient signal capture
techniques. For exampleif it is necessary totaketheaverageof 1000records, say,
theneachrecordmustbecapturedandthenstoredforasimpleaveragetobeobtained
on apoint-by-point basis. This is an inefficient techniquesinceit requires alarge
amount of digital storage. It is possibleto reducethis requirement significantly by
approximationanddefiningtheaverageof asampledquantity, x
n
, as
¯ x
n
= ¯ x
n−1
+
x
n
− ¯ x
n−1
n
(5.15)
wheren is therecord number, x
n
is thevaluefor then
th
record, and ¯ x
n
and ¯ x
n−1
aretheaveragevalues up to then
th
and (n − 1)
th
records respectively. Using this
techniqueit canbeseenthat only two records needto bestoredat any giventime,
yet thetruly movingaverageisstill calculable. Thecorrespondingsavingof digital
memory is obvious, but it has been gained at theexpenseof requiring morerapid
processinghardware, particularlyif theperiodof eachrecordisshort. Thisproblem
is not always significant, particularly as fast processors arebecoming moreeasily
availablein embedded systems. Timeaveraging is seldomapplied to asignal that
changesveryquicklywithtime. For example, it shouldnot beusedfor timedomain
voltageandcurrentsignals. Timeaveragingisusuallyappliedtoasignal thatindicates
thelevel of asignatureinthefrequency domain, for exampletherms valueof the
voltageor current. Timeaveraginghelps toavoidtheeffect of randombackground
noiseinthesignal. It isnearly alwayspossibletochooserecordswithsuitablegaps
betweenthem. It ishowever of paramount importancetoensurethat eachrecordis
properlysynchronised. Inadditiontotimeaveragingthatfiltersouttherandomnoise
inthemeasurement, it isoftennecessary toperformsometrendanalysistocapture
thechangeof acondition-monitoringsignatureinarelatively longperiodof time.
Auto-regressionmodelsintimeseriesanalysis[11,12] canbeappliedfor thepurpose
onmonitoringdevelopingfault.
Theusefulnessfor timeaveragingtechniquesinmonitoringelectrical machines
issomewhatlimitedalthoughitiseffectivelythetechniquedescribedbyTavneret al .
[13] for detectingrotor cagefaultsby speedvariation. It may alsoprovehelpful for
drivesystemswheretheeffect of agearbox, excludingtheinput shaft andbearings,
canberemovedusingthistechnique.
5.6 Wavelet analysis
Wedonotattempttopresentevenanoverviewof therichsubjectof wavelettransform;
interested readers arereferred to Flordin [14] for example. But thereis increasing
interest in developing condition-monitoring techniques based on signal processing
122 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
methods using wavelet transform. This is primarily because of the limitations of
conventional spectral analysisbasedonFourierseries. Forexample, spectral analysis
assumesthatasignal isperiodicandtheharmoniccomponentsareobtainedasaverage
over theentireobservationinterval; thereisnoinformationabout local variationof
asignal at certain frequency during aparticular short period of time. Faults of an
intermittentnature, suchasmechanical faultsonthedrivetrainof anelectricmachine
system, causeintermittent, non-stationary, oscillatorysignals(e.g. seeReference15).
If theoscillatorysignaturelastsforonlyarelativelyshortperiodeachtimeitoccurs, it
maybeeasilymaskedif spectral analysisisappliedover alongobservationinterval.
Also, capturingsuchasignaturemay requireahighsamplingratethat may not be
acceptabletosamplethesignal for alongperiodof time; aflexiblesamplingscheme
isdesirable. For thereasonstobeshownnext, wavelet transformismoresuitablein
suchacase. Itcanemployalongwindowandlowsamplingratefor alow-frequency
component in thesignal, and at thesametimeashort windowand high sampling
ratefor ahigh-frequencycomponent. Furthermore, wavelet transformexhibitstime-
frequencylocalisation, whichgivesamoreprecisedescriptionof thesignal, providing
moreinformativedatafor conditionmonitoring.
Itistruethatconditionmonitoringisusuallyappliedtosteady-statesignals, even
if thesignaturecarriedbythesignalsisof anintermittentnature. However, ithasbeen
realisedthat sometimesthetarget signaturecanbetoodifficult toseparatefromthe
dominant fundamental signal. For example, abrokenrotor bar fault inaninduction
machinecauses sidebandcurrent components whosefrequencies areonly slightly
differentfromthefundamental frequency, thedifferencedependingontheslip, which
isnormallyverysmall inthesteadystate. It hasrecentlybeensuggestedthat amore
effectivemethod is to detect thecurrent signatures during start-up of themachine
when slip is large[16,17]. However, thetransient current during start up is not a
stationaryandperiodicsignal. Conventional spectral analysiswouldgiveerroneous
resultsinthiscase. Again, wavelet transform, duetoitstime–frequencylocalisation
property, can be a more suitable technique for extracting the signatures fromthe
transient current.
Fourier analysisusessinewavesof different amplitudes, frequenciesandphase
angles to synthesiseaperiodic signal. Wavelet transformexpands this concept by
consideringthat atimedomainsignal, not necessarilyperiodic, canbereconstructed
using a series of small waveforms that can be transitioned in time and scaled in
amplitude. Such small waveforms, which are called wavelets, no longer need to
beperiodic, likesinewaves. As an example, for atimesignal f (t ), and achosen
basic mother wavelet functionψ(t ), thecorrespondingwavelet transform, W(a, b),
isdefinedas:
W(a, b) =
1

a


−∞
f (t )ψ

t − b
a

dt , a > 0, −∞ < b < ∞ (5.16)
wherea is thescalingfactor of time, b is thetime-shiftingparameter inthemother
wavelet function and ψ is defined below. Themother wavelet function is usually
chosenasanoscillatory waveformthat decaysinbothdirectionsfromthecentreof
thewavelet, asshowninFigure5.9. Soparametersa andb in(5.16)thereforescalethe
Si gnal processi ng requi rements 123
−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4
−1
−0.8
−0.6
−0.4
−0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Time, s
Fi gure 5.9 A mother wavel et functi on
motherwaveletfrequencyandshiftthecentreof themotherwaveletrespectively. For
agiveninstant t = b, if thesignal f (t ) containssignificant oscillationat afrequency
coincidingwith1/a, thentheintegrationshownin(5.16) will result inasignificant
output. Becausethemother wavelet decaysinbothdirectionsaway fromthecentre
t = b, what happenstothesignal f (t ) alongtimebeforet = b or after t = b does
not matter. Thereforewavelet transformprovidesthelocal frequencyinformationin
signal f (t ) aroundt = b. As parameter b is varied, thef (t ) is scannedthroughin
terms of time. As parameter a is changed, signatures at different frequencies inthe
signal arerevealed.
The decaying rate of the mother wavelet is usually selected to depend on the
scaling factor a. If a is small, so that the corresponding frequency is high, then
thedecayingratecanbefast. If a islarge, correspondingtoalowfrequency, thenthe
decayingrateisslow. Inthisway, wavelettransformexhibitsthepropertyof multiple
resolutions. Thelow-frequency information, which is present for arelatively long
period of timein thesignal, and thehigh-frequency information, which exists for
ashort period of time, can beobtained simultaneously. Themost commonly used
motherwaveletfunction, whosewaveformispartially(real part) showninFigure5.9,
istheGaussianfunction:
ψ(t ) = e
−t
2
/2
[cos(2πt ) + j sin(2πt )] (5.17)
Itisobviousthatwavelettransformasdefinedin(5.16) canbecalculatednumerically
inawaysimilar tothat showninFigure5.7, further takingintoaccount thecomplex
number natureof themother wavelet function. It is, however, important tonotethat
wavelet transformmay involve different sampling rates and different observation
lengths. Itisthereforeimportanttokeepsynchronisationinthesamplingscheme. As
124 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
ψ(t ) iscomplex, fromtheoutput of wavelet transformW(a, b) bothamplitudeand
phaseinformationcanberetrieved.
For the sake of completion, (5.18) gives the inverse wavelet transformwhere
C(ψ, v) =


0


(v)ψ(v)/v]dv:
f (t ) =
1
C


0


−∞
1
a
2

a
W(a, b)ψ(
t − b
a
)db · da (5.18)
Figure5.10(a) shows ameasured starting current signal of an induction motor
takenfromReferences[18] and[19]. It wasfoundthat transient torsional vibration
wasexcitedduringthedirect on-linestartingof themotor. Thenatural frequencyof
themechanical shaft was known to be22 Hz. Research showed that thetorsional
(a)
(b)
Fi gure 5.10 Moni tor i ng the onset of tor si onal vi br ati on dur i ng the star t up of
a downhol e motor pump set [ Taken from Yacami ni , Smi th and Ran
[ 18,19] ]
Si gnal processi ng requi rements 125
vibrationcouldbeindicatedinthemotor stator current as sidebandcomponents at
28Hz and72Hz assumingasupplyfrequencyof 50Hz. Asthestartingcurrent was
transient andnon-stationary, wavelet transformwasappliedtothecurrent signal and
theresult is showninFigure5.10(b). Thedevelopment of the28Hz component is
clearlyobservedwhilethe72Hz component isshadowedbythefundamental [18].
5.7 Conclusion
Thischapterhasdescribedthesignal processingmethodsnowavailableforcomputer
monitoringelectrical machines. Thefollowingfivechapterswill describethemajor
temperature, chemical, mechanical andelectrical techniquesavailableformonitoring.
5.8 Refer ences
1. Madisetti V.K. andWilliams D.B. (eds.) The Di gi tal Si gnal Processi ng Hand-
book. BocaRaton: CRC Press; 1998. pp. 1-21–1-23.
2. Durocher D.B. andFeldmeier G.R. (2004). Predictiveversuspreventivemain-
tenance. I EEE I ndustr y Appl i cati ons Magazi ne 2004; (September/October):
12–21.
3. FlankinG.F., Powell J .D. andWorkmanM. Di gi tal Control of Dynami c Systems.
MenloPark: Addison-WesleyLongman; 1998. pp. 160–66.
4. MohanN., UndelandT.M. andRobbinsW.P. Power El ectroni cs – Conver ter s,
Appl i cati ons and Desi gn. NewYork: J ohnWiley& Sons; 2003. pp. 225–30.
5. J intakosonwit P., FijitaH. and Akagi H. Control and performanceof afully-
digital-controlled shunt active filter for installation on a power distribution
system. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on Power El ectroni cs 2002; PE-17: 132–40.
6. Arthur N. andPenmanJ . Inductionmachineconditionmonitoringwithhigher
order spectra. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on I ndustr i al El ectroni cs 2000; I E-47:
1031–41.
7. OnaderaS. andYamasawaK. Electromagneticvibrationanalysisof asquirrel-
cageinductionmotor. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on Magneti sm 1993; M -29; 2410–12.
8. Yazici B. Statistical patternanalysisof partial dischargemeasurementsfor qual-
ityassessment of insulationsystemsinhigh-voltageelectrical machinery. I EEE
Tr ansacti ons on I ndustr y Appl i cati ons 2004; I A-40: 1579–94.
9. Kang P. and Birtwhistle D. Condition monitoring of power transformer on-
load tap-changers, part 1: automatic condition diagnostics. I EE Proceedi ngs
Gener ati on Tr ansmi ssi on Di str i buti on 2001; 148, 301–306.
10. Wismer N.J . Gear box Anal ysi s usi ng Cepstr um Anal ysi s and Comb Li fter i ng.
Bruel & Kjaer ApplicationNote. Naerum: Bruel & Kjaer; 2002.
11. Morris, A.S. Measurement & I nstr umentati on Pr i nci pl es. Oxford: Butterworth-
Heinemann; 2001.
12. Stack J .R., Habetler T.G. and Harley R.G. Bearing fault detection via auto-
regressivestator currentmodeling. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on I ndustr y Appl i cati ons
2004; I A-40: 740–47.
126 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
13. Tavner P.J ., Gaydon B.G. and Ward D.M. Monitoring generators and large
motors. I EE Proceedi ngs, Par t B, El ectr i c Power Appl i cati ons 1986; 133:
169–80.
14. Flordin P. Ti me-Frequency Ti me Scal e Anal ysi s. New York: Academic Press;
1999.
15. Lin J . and Zuo M.J . Gearbox fault diagnosis using adaptive wavelet filter.
Mechani cal Systems and Si gnal Processi ng 2003; 17: 1259–69.
16. ZhangZ., RenZ. andHuangW. A novel detectionmethodof motorbrokenrotor
bars basedonwavelet ridge. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on Energy Conver si on 2003;
EC-18: 417–23.
17. Douglas H., Pillay P. and Ziarani A.K. A new algorithmfor transient motor
current signature analysis using wavelets. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on I ndustr y
Appl i cati ons 2004; I A-40: 1361–8.
18. Yacamini R., Smith K.S. and Ran L. Monitoring torsional vibrations of elec-
tromechanical systemsusingstator currents. Jour nal of Vi br ati on and Acousti cs
1998; 120; 72–9.
19. Ran, L., Yacamini R. andSmithK.S. Torsional vibrationsinelectrical induction
motor drives during start up. Jour nal of Vi br ati on and Acousti cs 1996; 118:
242–51.
Chapter 6
Temper atur e monitor ing
6.1 I ntr oduction
As has been described in Chapter 2, thelimits to rating of electrical machines are
generallyset bythemaximumpermissibletemperaturethat theinsulationcanwith-
stand. Indeedtheperformancetestingof machines, beforetheyleaveamanufacturer’s
works, isdominatedbythemeasurement of windingor embeddedtemperaturesand
theneedtoachievetemperatureriseswithintheappropriatestandards. Themeasure-
ment of temperaturethereforehasanimportant placeinthemonitoringof electrical
machinesandthefollowingdescribeshowthiscanbedoneusingthemeasurement
techniquesdescribedinChapter 4.
Therearethreebasicapproachestotemperaturemonitoring.
1. To measure local temperatures at points in the machine using embedded
temperaturedetectors.
2. Touseathermal image, fedwithsuitablevariables, tomonitor thetemperature
of what isperceivedtobethehottest spot inthemachine.
3. Tomeasuredistributedtemperaturesinthemachineor thebulk temperaturesof
coolant fluids.
These approaches demonstrate the fundamental difficulty of thermal monitoring,
which is resolving the conflict between point temperature measurements that are
easy tomake, but giveonly local information, andbulk temperaturemeasurements
that aremoredifficult andruntheriskof overlookinglocal hot-spots.
The following three sections show how these approaches can be applied
practically.
6.2 L ocal temper atur e measur ement
Thiscanbedoneusingthermocouples, resistancetemperaturedetectorsorembedded
temperaturedetectors, whosecharacteristicsaredescribedinChapter 4. Tomonitor
theactivepart of themachinethey areusually embeddedinthestator windingand
inthestator core. Theycanalsobelocatedinthebearingstodetect hot running. The
choiceof locationrequirescareful considerationduringthespecificationstageof the
machine. For exampletemperaturedetectorsembeddedinthestator windingneedto
belocatedclosetoitshottest part, whichmay beintheslot portionor end-winding
128 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
portion, dependingonthethermal designof themachine. Alternatively, foramachine
withanasymmetrical coolingarrangement theyshouldbelocatedat thehottest end
of themachine. Someguidanceastowhereembeddedtemperaturedetectorsshould
belocatedisgivenbyChalmers[1] andthisissummarisedinFigure6.1. Itshouldbe
T4
T2 T3 T3
T5
T1
T5
Coolant in
Coolant out
Stator core
T1
T2
T3
T4
a) Embedded between conductors in the slot portion (T1)
Embedded in core pack laminations (T2)
Mounted on potentially hot components such as pressure plates (T3)
Embedded on conductors in the end winding portion (T4)
b) Water or air inlet to the heat exchanger (T1)
Water or air outlet from the heat exchanger (T2)
Re-entry air to the machine from the heat exchanger (T3)
Exhaust air from the machine to the heat exhanger (T4)
Bearing temperatures (T5)
c) Bearing temperature (T)
T
Fi gure 6.1 Locati on of temper ature detector s i n el ectr i cal machi nes
Temper ature moni tor i ng 129
notedthat whenembeddedtemperaturedetectorsarefittedinbearings, precautions
must betakentoensurethat thebearinginsulationisnot breached.
Theweaknessof thesemethodsisthatthermocouplesandresistancetemperature
detectorsaremetallicdevicesandcannotbelocatedonthehottestactivecomponent,
thewindingcopper, becausetheyneedelectrical isolation. Onawindingthedevices
haveto beembeddedintheinsulationat somedistancefromthecopper itself (see
Figure6.2(a)). Asaresult, themeasuredtemperaturewill not necessarily bethat of
thewindingitself but animageof it, as showninFigure6.2(b). Theheat flowper
unit area, Q, throughtheinsulationsystemcanbedescribedby simpleconduction
equationsasfollows:
Q = h(T
s
−T
g
) =
k
t
2
(T
s
−T
t
) =
k
t
1
(T
c
−T
t
) (6.1)
wheret is insulation thickness, T is temperature, k is theheat transfer coefficient
throughaninsulatingmaterial, andh istheheattransfercoefficientfromtheinsulation
surface.
EliminatingT
s
betweenthefirst twoexpressionsgives
T
t
= T
g
+Q

t
2
k
+
1
h

, (6.2)
therefore
T
t
= T
g
+(T
e
−T
t
)

(t
2
+(k/h))
t
1

(6.3)
and
T
1
=
T
g
+T
c

(t
2
+(k/h))
t
1

1+

(t
2
+(k/h))
t
1
(6.4)
so
T
1
≈ T
c
if T
g
T
c
and
(t
2
+(k/h))
t
1
1; that is, if t
2
+
k
h
t
1
(6.5)
So the measured temperature T
t
will approach the temperature of the hottest
activecomponent T
c
if thethickness of insulation, t
2
, appliedover theETD is suf-
ficient compared to themain insulation. This problemdoes not occur for devices
embedded in theslot portion between two conductors, as shown in Figure6.2(c),
wherethereis alowheat flux betweentheactivecopper parts. But it is animpor-
tant difficulty when monitoring end-winding temperatures, such that thethickness
of overtaped insulation, t
2
, needs to be substantial if sensible readings are to be
obtained.
It wouldbevery desirabletodevelopatemperature-monitoringdevicethat can
be affixed to a high-voltage winding and give electrical isolation. Such a device
was developed in the 1980s for power transformers, comprising a small phial of
liquidthathadahighvapour pressurethatvariedwidelywithtemperature. Thephial
130 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Embedded temperature
detector
Main
insulation
Over
insulation
T
1
T
1
T
t
T
c
T
s
Copper
conductor
Heat flux Q
t1 t2
T
c
T
t
T
s
T
g
T
e
m
p
Distance
Embedded
temperature
detector
Heat flux
Q 0
a)
b)
c)
Conductor bar
Cooling
gas
T
g
Fi gure 6.2 Effect of embeddi ng a temper ature detector away from an acti ve par t.
(a) Asymmetr i cal l y embedded temper ature dectector. (b) Temper ature
dectecti on from (a). (c) Symmetr i cal l y embedded temper ature detector.
Temper ature moni tor i ng 131
wasaffixedtothehighvoltagewindingwhosetemperaturewasrequired. Thepres-
sureinthephial wasthenmonitoredthroughanon-conductingsiliconerubber tube
andthetemperaturewasderivedelectronicallyfromthepressuremeasurement. The
devicewasapplied, onatrial basis, tooperational transformerswhereit performed
satisfactorily.
More widespread modern methods of measuring temperature in high-voltage
components have also been developed using fibre-optic techniques, as described
inChapter 4andshowninFigure6.3. A particular designusingthedependenceof
thepolarisationof lightonthetemperatureof amaterial isdescribedbyRogers[2,3].
Laser light
source
Back
scattering
Optic fibre
sensor
Computer
Coupler
Detector
Data
acquisition
Fi gure 6.3 Pr i nci pl e of fi bre-opti c temper ature sensi ng
Light fromalaser istransmittedtothedeviceandispassedthroughapolarising
prismbeforebeinglaunchedintoafibremaintainedatthetemperaturetobemeasured.
Thismaterial introducesarotationof thelightbeamthatisdependentontemperature.
Thebeamisreflectedback throughthefibreandpolariser andisrelaunchedwitha
light amplitudeproportional tothepolarisationthat hastakenplaceinthefibre. By
arranging two passes through the fibre the polarisation is rendered insensitive to
electrical or magneticfieldeffects.
Thetemperaturemeasurementsdescribedsofar haveall beenonstationaryparts
of themachineand on many machines thethermal design is stator-critical, so the
hottest spot will belocatedthere. But many machinesarerotor-critical, particularly
largerinductionmotors, becauseunderstall conditionstherotorlossesareverylarge,
andthetemperaturescanriserapidlytovaluesthat coulddamagetherotor integrity.
Onsuchmachinestheremaywell benoapparentdeteriorationafter oneor twostalls,
but shouldthis occur repeatedly therewill beaweakeningof rotor bars and/or end
rings that may result in prematuremechanical failure. In thepast therehavebeen
various crudemethods of measuringrotor temperatures for experimental purposes,
usingheat-sensitivepapersor paints, or thermocouplesconnectedthroughsliprings.
Until recently, however, therehasnot beenamethodsufficiently reliabletousefor
monitoringpurposes. Siyambalapitiyaet al . [4] havedescribedadevicefor monitor-
ingeightthermocouples, multiplexingthesignal ontherotor, thenopticallycoupling
tothestator anddecodinginadigital signal processor.
132 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
6.3 Hot-spot measur ement and ther mal images
Local temperaturemeasurementsgivethemachineoperatorsconsiderableconfidence
that theyknowstheoperatingtemperatureof keypointsinthemachine, but thereis
always thenagging suspicion that temperaturedetectors may not belocated at the
hottest point. Thisproblemhaslongbeenrecognisedinpower transformerswhereit
isextremelydifficulttoobtainevenembeddedwindingtemperatures, becauseof the
needfor extra-highvoltageisolationandthegreat thickness of electrical insulation
necessary, sothermal imagesof thehotspottemperatureareused. Thethermal image
consists of adial-typethermometer withits bulbimmersedintheregionwherethe
transformer oil is hottest. A small heating coil, connected to the secondary of a
current transformer, servestocirculatearoundthebulbacurrent proportional tothe
loadcurrent andissuchthat it increasesthebulbtemperaturebyanamount equal to
thegreatest winding-to-coil temperaturegradient. Theindicator thereforeregisters
anapproximationtothehot-spot temperature.
Thethermal imagetechniquehasnot receivedwideapplicationonrotatingelec-
trical machines, althoughit deservesto. Theavailabilityof athermal imagehot-spot
temperatureof machinecouldbeusedfor motor monitoringandprotectionpurposes,
as proposedby Zocholl [5], Milanfar andLang. [6] andMellor et al . [7], whopro-
posedatechniquefor small, totallyenclosed, forced-cooledinductionmotorswhere
a thermal model of the machine is configured in a digital signal processor that is
fedwithsignals proportional to theambient air temperatureandthestator winding
current. Themodel cancalculatethepredictedtemperaturesatavarietyof keypoints
in themachine. Stator core, stator winding slot, or stator end-winding representa-
tionmust beprogrammedsolely usingthedesigninformationfor themachine. The
instrument isdesignedtoproduceananaloguevoltagethat isproportional toseveral
temperaturesat thehottest points.
Melloret al . haveusedthedeviceontwototallyenclosedfan-cooledmachinesand
comparedthepredictionsof thethermal imagewiththeactual measuredtemperatures
inthestator endwindingthat wasfoundtobethehottest point inthisdesignof the
machine. Figure6.4shows thecomparison of results for thesetwo machines after
theyhadbeenput throughveryseveredutycyclesandit canbeseenthat theresults
areextremelygood. Thedevicehasbeendesignedtobepartof thethermal protection
of amotor but couldequally well beusedfor monitoringamachinefor operational
purposes, particularly, for example, onacrucial machinelocatedinaninaccessible
positionwherehot-spot measurementsmaybedifficult toobtain.
6.4 Bulk measur ement
Intheelectricallyactivepartof themachine, evenwhenhot-spotlocationsareknown
or hot-spottemperaturescanbesurmisedfromathermal image, thereisstill adesire
to obtainabulk indicationof thethermal stateof themachines. This canbefound
fromthemeasurementof theinternal andexternal coolanttemperaturerises, obtained
fromthermocouples located, for example, as showninFigure6.1. This is doneon
Temper ature moni tor i ng 133
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,

°
C
100
50
0
0 45 91 82 73 6
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
,

A
20
10
0 45 91 82 73 6
a)
0
Time, min
Rated current
b)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,

°
C
100
50
0
0 45 91 82 73 6
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
,

A
160
40
0 45 91 82 73 6
c)
0
Time, min
Rated current
d)
80
120
Measured
Simulated
Fi gure 6.4 Compar i son between measurements and the predi cti ons of a ther -
mal i mage of an el ectr i cal machi ne. [ Taken from Mel l or et al . [ 7] ]
(a) Compar i son for 5.5 kw i nducti on motor. (b) Duty cycl e for (a).
(c) Compar i son for 7.5 kw i nducti on motor ; Duty cycl e for (c).
134 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
mostlargermachinesbutitisnormal forcoolanttemperaturestobedisplayedandrare
for thepointvaluestobesubtractedtogivethetemperaturerisedirectly. Anincrease
intemperaturerisefromsuchadevicewouldclearlyshowwhenamachineisbeing
overloaded or if thecoolant circuits arenot performing as they should. However,
themethodis insensitiveto localisedoverheatingintheelectrically activeparts of
themachines, thereforeconsiderableeffort hasbeendevoted, asanalternativetothe
thermal image, todevisingmethodswherebysingleindicationsof hightemperature
canbeobtainedfromadevicethat isembeddedinthebulkof themachine.
Lengthsof signal cableusingheat-sensitivesemiconductingmaterial astheinsu-
lationhavebeenproposedbutmostefforthasbeendevotedtotheuseof optical fibres.
BrandtandGottlieb[8] havedescribedvariousmethods, includingsimplepointmea-
surementsonhigh-voltagecomponents, usingtheoptical fibreforisolationpurposes.
They havealso described how, using thetemperaturesensitiveproperties of fibre
optics, acontinuouslysensitivefibrecouldbeembeddedinthemachine, adjacent to
thehigh-voltagecopper, todetectlocalisedoverheatinganywhereinthewindingand
yet provideasingleindication. Themethodproposedwouldutilisetheblack body
radiation in theoptical fibre, alongsidethehot-spot, being transmitted back to the
detector andbeingusedtodeterminethehottest point alongthefibre’slength. Such
adevicewouldthereforeneedto beembeddedinthemachineduringmanufacture
andasyetapracticableinstrumentationschemehasnotbeendevised. Aninteresting
modernapproachtomonitoringtemperatureinavariablespeedinductionmotor by
Chenet al . [9] isdescribedbrieflyinalater chapter.
6.5 Conclusion
This chapter shows that temperature measurement can yield very valuable bulk
indicationsof theconditionof anelectrical machineusingsimplesensorsandnarrow-
bandwidth(<1Hz), low-data-ratesignalsand, becausetemperaturelimitstherating
of a machine, over-temperature is a valuable condition-monitoring signal. Tem-
peraturedetection has repeatedly been shown to bean effectiveglobal monitoring
techniquefor electrical machines, but hasbeenneglectedasamonitoringmethod.
Temperature measurement is usually done in traditional and rather antiquated
ways, andtherearesomesimplechangesthat couldbemadeinexistingpracticeto
makemoresenseof it. Thesechangesaregenerallyintheareaof signal processingand
inparticulartheimportanceof presentingtemperaturerisestotheoperator, ratherthan
absolutetemperature. Therearealsoadvancesintheapplicationof modernsensors,
whichwill allowtemperaturemeasurementstobemadecloser totheactivepartsof
amachine, andtheseshouldbeexploited.
6.6 Refer ences
1. ChalmersB.J . El ectr i cal Motor Handbook. 1sted. London: Butterworths; 1988.
2. Rogers A.J . Optical temperaturesensor for highvoltageapplications. Appl i ed
Opti cs 1982; 21: 882–85.
Temper ature moni tor i ng 135
3. Rogers, A.J . Distributedoptical-fibresensing. Measurement Sci ence & Technol -
ogy 1999; 10: R75–R99.
4. SiyambalapitiyaD.J .T., McLarenP.G. andTavner P.J . Transient thermal char-
acteristics of induction machine rotor cage. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on Energy
Conver si on 1988; EC-3: 849–54.
5. Zocholl S.E. Motor analysis and thermal protection. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on
Power Del i ver y 1990; PD-5: 1275–80.
6. Milanfar P. and Lang J .H. Monitoring the thermal condition of permanent-
magnet synchronous motors. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on Aerospace and El ectroni c
Systems 1996; AES-32: 1421–29.
7. Mellor P.H., RobertsD. andTurner D.R. Lumpedparameter thermal model for
electrical machines of TEFC design. I EE Proceedi ngs Par t B, El ectr i c Power
Appl i cati ons, 1991; 138: 205–218.
8. BrandtG.B.andGottliebM.Fiber-optictemperaturesensorsusingoptical fibers.
Abstr acts of Paper s – Amer i can Chemi cal Soci ety 1982; 184: 64-ANYL.
9. ChenS.E., ZhongE. andLipo T.A. A newapproachto motor conditionmon-
itoring in induction motor drives. I EE Tr ansacti ons on I ndustr y Appl i cati ons.
1A-30(4): 905–911.
Chapter 7
Chemical monitor ing
7.1 I ntr oduction
Theinsulatingmaterialsusedinelectrical machinesarecomplex organic materials,
which, when they are degraded by heat or electrical action, produce a very large
number of chemical productsinthegas, liquidandsolidstates. Lubricationoilsalso
carrynot onlytheproductsof their owndegradationbut alsothosefromthewear of
thebearingsandsealstheycool andlubricate. Techniquestoprovideearlywarningof
thedeteriorationof electrical machinesshouldincludemeasurementof thesecomplex
degradationproductswheretheycanbeaccessedinthemachine.
7.2 I nsulation degr adation
Whatarethemechanismsbywhichinsulationcanbedegraded?Well, thetableinthe
Appendixshowshowimportant excessivetemperatureandthereforethermal degra-
dationisasafailuremodeandthisislargelydeterminedbythethermal performance
of theinsulation. Theinsulationmainly consistsof organic polymers, either natural
formssuchasbitumen, ormorecommonlynowadays, syntheticepoxyresins. Chapter
2, Section2.7.2hasdescribedthemajorityof thefailuremodesassociatedwithinsu-
lationdegradation. Thethermal degradationof thesematerialsisacomplexprocess.
However, as thetemperatureof theinsulation rises aboveits maximumpermitted
operatingvalue, c. 160

C, volatiles usedas solvents intheinsulationmanufacture
start tobedrivenoff asgases. Thentheheavier compoundsmakinguptheresinmay
reach their boiling point. The gases so produced are generally the heavier hydro-
carbonssuchasethylene. Asthetemperaturerisesfurther, above180

C, chemical
decompositionof theresincomponentsstarts. A supersaturatedvapour of theheavier
hydrocarbondecompositionproductsthenformsinthecoolinggasclosetothehigh
temperatureareaof insulation. Rapidcondensationof thatvapour occursasthecool-
inggasleavesthehotareaproducingcondensationnuclei thatcontinuetogrowinsize
byfurther condensationuntil theyreachastabledropletsize. Thesedroplets, usually
called particles, areof submicron sizeand formwhat would commonly becalled
smoke. Theprecisematerials givenoff dependprimarily ontheinsulationmaterial
beingheatedbut alsoonthecoolinggasof themachine. Thebinder material of the
insulation, whetheritbewood, paper, micaorglassfibre, canusuallywithstandmuch
higher temperatures, but eventually as 400

C is reached, they start to degradeand
138 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
char, releasinggasessuchascarbonmonoxideandcarbondioxide, drawingoxygen
fromthecoolinggas, if itisair, or fromthedegradationof thecomplexhydrocarbon
intheresin. Figure7.1shows apieceof phenol-impregnatedwoodinsulationfrom
aturbinegenerator, progressively raisedtohigher temperatures inhydrogen. Upto
300

Conecanseetheeffectsof theresinmaterial beingdecomposedanddrivenoff,
butthewoodbinder still retaineditsstrength. Above400

Cthebinder hasdegraded
by charring and no longer has significant mechanical strength. Pyrolysing activity
thereforegives riseto awiderangeof liquiddroplets, solidparticulates andgases,
whichtogether makeupthesmokebeingdrivenoff fromtheinsulation.
Fi gure 7.1 Heati ng of phenol i c-i mpregnated wood i nsul ati ng mater i al
Electrical discharge activity, within or adjacent to the insulation system, can
also degradetheinsulationreleasingparticulateandgaseous chemical degradation
products. Theveryhightemperatureassociatedwithsparkingbreaksdownthehydro-
carboncompoundsintheinsulationtoformacetylene. Italsobreaksdowntheoxygen
inthecoolinggas, if itisair, togiveozone. Furthermore, continuousdischargeactiv-
ity gradually carbonisesanderodestheinsulatingmaterial toproduce, onasmaller
scale, thedegradationproductsthat result frommorewidespreadoverheating.
7.3 Factor s that affect detection
Beforeconsideringthedifferent methodsof detectingchemicalswithinanelectrical
machineitisnecessarytounderstandthefactorsthataffectthedetectability. Consider
Chemi cal moni tor i ng 139
Figure7.2(a), whichshows themachinewithinits enclosure, therateof changeof
concentrationof adetectablesubstancecanbedeterminedbythefollowingequation:
Rateof changeof concentrationof adetectablesubstanceinthecoolingcircuit
of amachine= (specificproductionrateof detectablesubstance- leakage
ratefrommachine)/machinevolume
dC
dt
=

˙ ν −
VC
τ
r
V

(7.1)
whereV isthemachinevolume, C isthevolumetric concentrationof thesubstance
concerned, τ
r
is aleakagefactor and ˙ ν is thevolumetric rateof production of the
detectablesubstance.
Whenleakageislow, τ
r
iseffectivelyaresidencetimeconstantforthesubstancein
themachineenclosure. Therateof production, ν, isrelatedtothevolumeof material
beingoverheatedanditschemical composition. Thisvariableisinfact afunctionof
timev(t ). Sotheequationcouldberewritten:
dC
dt
+
C
τ
r
=
˙ ν(t )
V
(7.2)

D +
1
τ
r

C =
˙ ν(t )
V
(7.3)
Thecomplementaryfunctionfor thisequationis
C = A exp


t
τ
r

(7.4)
Theparticular integral is
C =
(˙ ν − ˙ ν
b

r
V
(7.5)
where˙ ν(t ) = ˙ ν + ˙ ν
b
, ˙ ν isastepincreaseinthevolumetricrateof productionand ˙ ν
b
isthebackgroundrateof productionof thesubstance.
Whent = 0, C = C
b
(thebackgroundconcentration), then
C
b
=
˙ ν
b
τ
r
V
andA =
˙ ντ
r
V
(7.6)
∴ C =
˙ ντ
r
V

1−exp

t
τ
r

+
˙ ν
b
τ
r
V
(7.7)
By studying (7.7) it is possibleto determinehow thedetectableconcentration
dependsuponthedesignof themachine, thenatureof theoverheatingit issuffering
fromandtheconcentrationof material involved. Figure7.2(b) will helpto explain
this. A machine with a tightly sealed and pressurised cooling system, such as a
turbinegenerator, will havealongresidencetime(τ
r
) of manyhours, thebackground
concentrationlevel of thedetectablesubstance(C
b
) will behigh. Ontheother hand
theconcentrationlevel, whichcanbereachedafteranextendedperiodof overheating,
140 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
will alsobecorrespondingly high. But if thelengthof theoverheatingincident (τ
o
)
is short comparedto theresidencetime, say afewminutes, thentheconcentration
will not builduptoasignificant level comparedtothebackground. A machinewith
an open cooling circuit will have a short residence time(τ
r
) of perhaps merely a
fewseconds. Sothebackgroundconcentrationwill belowandtherewill needtobe
alargevolumetric production(V ) fromanoverheatingincident to producealarge
increaseinconcentration(C), buttheconcentrationlevel will respondrapidlytoany
overheating.
Detectabilityof overheatingdependsupon:
1. alargesignal-to-noiseratio; thatis, themagnitudeof theindication, (X inFigure
7.2(b)), must belargecomparedtothebackground, C
b
;
2. alongdurationof indication.
Thelarger thesignal-to-noiseratio of theindicationandthelonger its durationthe
easier it will betodetect. Thesetwoconditionscanbeconsideredmathematically:
For alargesignal-to-noiseratio, (1) above, ˙ ν ˙ ν
b
andX (˙ ν
b
τ
r
)/V . Now
X =
˙ ν
V
τ
r

1−exp

τ
0
τ
r

(7.8)
whereτ
0
isthedurationof theoverheatingincident. So

1−exp


τ
0
τ
r

˙ ν
b
˙ ν
(7.9)

1−
˙ ν
b
˙ ν

exp


τ
0
τ
r

(7.10)
That is ˙ ν must be ˙ ν
b
andτ
0
> τ
r
, or ˙ ν must be> ˙ ν
b
andτ
0
τ
r
. For along
durationof indication, (2) above, τ
0
τ
r
.
Thetimeconstant, τ
0
, dependson
• thetypeof fault causingtheoverheating,
• theextent of thefault,
• thenatureof thematerial beingoverheated,
• thenatureof thesubstancebeingreleasedanddetected.
So, for example, asmall intermittent shortedturnintherotor windingof alarge
turbinegenerator will produceheating for only afew minutes and theincreasein
concentrationof detectablesubstancesinthat timewill besmall becauseof thelong
residencetime, τ
r
, insuchamachine. Ontheother handoverheatinginaterminal
connectionor duetoexcessivestraylosseswill operatefor manyhoursandproduce
asubstantial indication.
The effect of the substance being detected can be considered as follows. An
insulation material that is heated at asteady but relatively lowtemperatureof say
190

Cwill produceaconsiderableamount of hydrocarbongasesover alongperiod
of time, upto2–3hours, until thosegasesareall drivenoff. Particulateswill alsobe
formedbutthesewill haveashortlifetimeintheenclosurebecauseof recombination
Chemi cal moni tor i ng 141
V
V (t)
V
b
T
r
V
V
b T
r
V
V
C
b
X
Concentration of
(a)
(b)
(c)
detectable chemical, C
Total cooling gas volume, V
Overheating
Volumetric rate of production
of detectable chemical, V
Time
Time
C
Fi gure 7.2 The concentr ati on of detectabl e chemi cal s i n cool ant gas of an el ectr i cal
machi ne. (a) Cross-secti on of machi ne. (b) Step change i n the r ate of
producti on of chemi cal . (c) Response of the concentr ati on of detectabl e
chemi cal to a step change i n the r ate of producti on of that chemi cal .
andcondensation, say10–15minutes. If theinsulationisraisedtohighertemperatures
theproductionof copiousquantitiesof gaseswill takeplaceoveramuchshorterperiod
of timeandwill stopbeforecharringcommences. If themachineisair-cooled, large
amountsof carbonmonoxideandcarbondioxidewill alsobeproduced, if overheating
142 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
takesplaceover alongperiodof time, becauseproductionof thosegasescontinues
evenduringcharring.
All thesefactorsneedtobetakenintoconsiderationwhendecidingwhichof the
following techniques should beapplied to aparticular machineto detect acertain
typeof fault.
7.4 I nsulation degr adation detection
It canbeconcludedfromSections7.1–7.3that insulationdegradationcanbemoni-
toredchemicallybydetectingthepresenceof particulatematter inthecoolant gasor
bydetectingsimplegaseslikecarbonmonoxideandozone, or morecomplexhydro-
carbongaseslikeethyleneandacetylene. Let usconsider theseapproachesinturn.
7.4.1 Par ti cul ate detecti on: core moni tor s
Detectingthesmokegiven off fromdegradinginsulation appears thesimplest and
most general of all techniques, sinceproprietarysmokedetectorsalreadyexist using
anionchamber todetectthesmokeparticles. AnexampleisshowninFigure7.3. As
thecoolinggasof themachineenterstheionchamber it isionisedbyaweak radio-
activesource. Thegasthenflowsthroughanelectrodesystemtowhichapolarising
voltageisapplied.
Thefreecharges in thegas arecollected on theelectrodeand flowthrough an
external electrometeramplifiercircuit, whichproducesanoutputvoltageproportional
totheioncurrent. Whenheavysmokeparticlesenterthechambertheytooareionised
Outlet to
generator
Polarising
voltage
Electrode
Collector Alpha source
Solenoid
valve
Flowmeter
Test particle
source
Flow control
valve
Particle
filter Ion chamber detector
Gain
Electrometer
Meter and/
or recorder
Alarm contacts
Input from
generator
Fi gure 7.3 Di agr am of a basi c core moni tor. [ Taken from Skal a [ 1] ]
Chemi cal moni tor i ng 143
andtheir greater mass implies alower mobility comparedto thegas molecules, so
as they enter theelectrodesystemtheion current reduces. Thesmokeis therefore
detectedby areductionintheoutput voltagefromtheelectrometer amplifier. Skala
[1] describedanionchamber specifically designedtodetect theproducts of heated
insulationandthiswasappliedtoalargeturbinegenerator byCarsonet al . [2].
Theprimaryimpetusfor thisworkwastheneedtoprovideearlywarningof core
faultsreferredtoby Tavner et al . [3,4], whichthelarger sizesof turbinegenerators
startedtoexperienceintheearly1970s. A corefaultcaninvolvesubstantial quantities
of moltenstator steel and, hitherto, thefault couldonly bedetectedwhenthemelt
burnt throughthestator windinginsulationandcausedanearthfault. It was hoped
that thecoremonitor coulddetect thedegradationof theinsulationbetweenthesteel
laminations at an earlier stage in the fault. The lifetime of pyrolised particles in
theclosed hydrogen cooling circuit of alargegenerator is 15–30 min after which
timetheparticulates aredepositedonto theexposedsurfaces of themachine. So a
singleinstanceof insulationoverheatingshouldleadtoareductionof coremonitor
ioncurrent for aperiodof timeof thisorder. Figure7.4showstypical coremonitor
responses. When acorefault is occurring theoverheating continues over alonger
periodandit hasbeenshownbyCarsonet al . [2] that thecoremonitor doesrespond
tothis andother forms of insulationoverheating. Coremonitors areavailablefrom
several manufacturers. Thesensitivity of thedevicedepends upontheionchamber
designbut experimental figuresfor themonitor describedinReference2showthat
it will producearesponserangingfrom85–95per cent of full-scaledeflectionwhen
100cm
2
of laminationinsulationispyrolised, dependingonthematerial. Anareais
quotedbecausetheproductionof particulatesisprimarilyasurfaceeffect.
Thedevice, however, doeshavesomepractical difficulties.
1. Themonitor output fluctuateswithcoolinggaspressureandtemperature.
2. The monitor responds to oil mist that may be present in the circuit of any
hydrogen-cooledmachineduetofaultyhydrogenseals[5].
3. Themonitor isnon-specific; that is, it cannot distinguishbetweenthematerials
beingoverheated.
Items(1) and(2) affectthebackgroundsignal fromthemonitor, whichanysignal due
to damaging overheating must exceed. Figure7.4(c) shows atypical coremonitor
tracefromamachineaffectedby oil mist. Item(3) affectstheattitudeof amachine
operator toanalarmfromthecoremonitor, sincetherewill belessconfidenceinthe
monitor if it isnot knownfromwhat part of themachinethedetectionoriginated.
A moreadvanced monitor, described by Ryder et al . [6], has been devised to
overcomeproblems (1) and(2) by usingadifferential technique, Fig. 7.5. Ryder’s
monitor consists of two identical ion chambers in series in thegas flow linewith
anintermediateparticulatefilter betweenthem. Themonitor displaysthedifference
betweentheioncurrentsinthetwochambersandtherebyeliminatesfluctuationsdue
topressureandtemperature.
Thesensitivityof acoremonitor tooil mist canbereducedif theionchamber is
kept at anelevatedtemperature. It hasbeenproposedthat oil mist isonly produced
by overheating, sothat itsdetectionmay beuseful. Theuseof heatedionchambers
144 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Time, hours
Test filter
checks
System
checks
Trip
Test filter
check
Trip
C
o
r
e

m
o
n
i
t
o
r

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

%

o
f

s
c
a
l
e
Time, hours
C
o
r
e

m
o
n
i
t
o
r

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

%

o
f

s
c
a
l
e
Time, hours
40
100
(a)
(b)
(c)
10
0
C
o
r
e

m
o
n
i
t
o
r

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

%

o
f

s
c
a
l
e
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
0 1 2
100
10
1 2
20
40
50
70
90
100
0
30
60
80
30
50
60
80
90
10
0
20
70
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
Fi gure 7.4 Typi cal coremoni tor responses. (a) Machi newi th over heati ng conductor
bar. (b) Machi ne wi th a core faul t. (c) Machi ne wi th no over heati ng but
heavy oi l contami nati on.
wasnot initially encouraged, however, current thinkingisthat heatedionchambers
areessential for reliabledetection. However, theamount of oil inaturbinegenerator
casingvarieswidelyandcanbeparticularlyhigh. Inthiscaseit hasbeenfoundthat
therecan befrequent falsecoremonitor alarms, so theuseof aheated ion cham-
ber gives asignificant advantage. In order to completely vaporisean oil mist it is
Chemi cal moni tor i ng 145
H
2
gas inlet
Sample rate
needle flowmeter
Sample rate
needle valve
Solenoid c/o
valves
Sample valves
H
2
gas
exhaust
Solenoid c/o
valve
µF2
Test
filter
µF1
Filter
Primary
ion chamber
Secondary
ion chamber
Electrometer Electrometer
H
2
gas outet
Differential
amplifier
Chart
recorder
Alarm
unit
Auto test and
sample control
o/p
o/p
o/p
Needle
valve
Fi gure 7.5 Di agr am of a di fferenti al core moni tor wi th heated i on chamber s, see
Tavner et al . [ 4]
necessarytoraisetheionchamber temperatureabove120

C. Themonitor described
inReference6hasheatedionchambersandtheauthors’ experience, usingtheseset
to 120

C, was that they gaveadequateprotectionagainst spurious oil mist indica-
tion. Usingaheatedionchamber alsomeansthat someof thedropletsproducedby
overheatingwill bevaporised, or at least reducedinsize, andthis must result ina
consequential lossof sensitivity. However, laboratory testscanquantify thislossof
sensitivity, which at 120

C has been shown to be20 per cent, Braun and Brown
haveshownmorerecentlybycareful tests, thedeleteriouseffectsof usingheatedion
chambersonthecoremonitor sensitivity[7].
Useof coremonitorsintheearly1970swasadvocatedintheUSasapanaceafor
theearly detectionof major coreandwindingfaults. Sincethen, however, although
there have been some notable detection successes, such as those traces shown in
Figures 7.4(a) and(b), therehavealso beenfalsealarms, many causedby oil mist
(seeFigure7.4(c)).
Theauthorsarenotawareof thecoremonitor beingusedonair-cooledmachines,
or machineswithoutaclosedcoolingcircuitatall, althoughapartfromtheshorttime
constantof theindicationfromthemonitor thereseemstobenoreasonwhyitshould
notbeusedfortheseapplications. Experiencehasshownthatthecoremonitorcannot
bereliedupon, onitsown, togiveincontrovertibleevidenceof anincipient fault. It
is avaluabledevicethat does detect pyrolisedinsulationbut its indications needto
be considered alongside those of other monitoring devices. In particular the core
monitor needs to becomplementedby an off-linetechniqueto chemically analyse
theparticulatematerial causingthedetection, asdescribedinthefollowingsection.
146 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
7.4.2 Par ti cul ate detecti on: chemi cal anal ysi s
Manyauthorshaveadvocatedtakingasampleof theparticulatematerial whenacore
monitor indicatesanalarm[2]. Inorder tocollect adetectableamount of particulate
matter withinashort time, it isnecessarytohaveaverylargegasflow-ratethrough
thefilter. Thisisachievedbyventingthepressurisedcasingof themachinethrough
the filter to the atmosphere. There is not such close agreement about the method
of analysis however. Carson et al . [2] described a method whereby the pyrolysis
productsarecollecteduponasmall chargeof silicagel andarethenreleasedintoa
gaschromatographupontheapplicationof strongheat. Thistechniqueisapplicable
onlywhensamplingiscarriedout immediatelyupondetectionof local overheating.
Thisisbecauseitisspeciallydesignedtocollecttheparticulatesandheaviestpyrolysis
products, whicharepresent for only alimitedtimeinthegas, sometimesfor only a
fewminutes. Thereis also aproblemwiththegas chromatographic analysis of the
pyrolysisproductsastheseproductscontainaverylargenumber of differentorganic
compoundsandtheresultant chromatogramisdifficult tointerpret. Figure7.6taken
fromReference8givesanexample. Themost arduoustest wouldbetodistinguish
theproductsof pyrolisedinsulationfromtheoverheatedoil that isgenerallypresent
inanyelectrical machine. FurtherworkonthisfromDearet al . [8] onthegasreleased
24 2
Time, min
0 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8 10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19 20
21
22
23
24
25
26 27
28 29
1 C
10
H
14
(aromatic)
2 C
11
H
14
3 Methyl ethyl benzene
4 Methyl ethyl benzene
5 C
10
H
20
6 C
10
H
22
7 Xylene
8 C
10
H
22
9 Xylene
10 C
9
H
18
11 C
8
H
20
12 C
8
H
16
13 Toluene
14 C
8
H
18
16 Benzene
17 C
7
H
16
18 Trichloroethane
19 Butanone (mek)
20 Ethyl acetate
21 C
6
H
12
22 C
6
H
14
23 C
5
H
8
24 Acetone
25 Propan-2-ol
26 C
5
H
10
27 Ethanol
28 C
4
H
8
29 Acetaldehyde
9
15 C
7
H
14
Fi gure 7.6 Gas chromatogr am of gener ator hydrogen i mpur i ti es descr i bed from a
Tenax GC pre-col umn. [ Taken from Dear et al . [ 8] ]
Chemi cal moni tor i ng 147
Time, min
(a) main wall insulation
Time, min
(b) epoxy coating
Time, min
(c) alkyd enamel paint
Time, min
(d) generator hydrogen
coolant gas background
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
A
B
C
D
E
F
A
B
C
D
E
A B
C
D
E
F
G
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
55.5
50.0
45.3
41.0
39.0
36.1
31.5
28.0
24.0
18.0
6.1
A
B
C
D
E
F
24.9
23.0
19.3
17.9
14.5
4.4
A
B
C
D
E
37.8
33.0
27.3
22.0
17.0
A
B
C
D
E
F
41.8
38.0
34.0
29.4
24.1
22.9
G 16.4
Fi gure 7.7 Compar i son of gas chromatogr ams taken from pre-col umn sampl es
from hydrogen-cool ed gener ator s wi th over heati ng of var i ous i nsul ati on
components. [ Taken from Dear et al . [ 8] © I EEE (1979)]
frompyrolisation is shown in Figure7.7. Somehaveused amass spectrometer in
associationwiththegas chromatographontheparticulatematter, to obtainprecise
identificationof individual compounds. Theproblemthenarisesof howtodistinguish
between thevery largenumbers of organic compounds that areobtained and how
to associateapatternof compounds withtheoverheatingof aparticular insulation
material and as yet this has not proved practicable. We shall return to this in the
analysisof thegasreleasedinpyrolisation.
An alternativeis to reducetheamount of chemical information obtained from
thepyrolysis products by usingdetectiontechniques that areless sensitiveor only
sensitivetopyrolysisproducts. Onetechniquemakesuseof thefactthatmanyorganic
materials fluorescewhen irradiated with ultra-violet (UV) light. Theresultant UV
spectrumisfarlesscomplexthanthechromatogramproducedbythesamecompounds
goingthroughagaschromatograph. Figure7.8givesanexampletakenfromRyder
et al . [6], whichshouldbecomparedwithFigure7.6. Thefilter isilluminatedby a
148 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Wavelength, nanometer
330 340 350 360 370 380
I
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y
Fi gure 7.8 Typi cal ul tr avi ol et spectr um of hydrogen i mpur i ti es due to pyrol i sed
i nsul ati on. [ Taken from Ryder et al . [ 6] . © I EEE (1979)]
UV lampof agivenwavelength, andthefluorescent light fromthecollectedorganic
particlescanbeviewedwithaUV spectrometer. Althoughit hasbeenclaimedthat
pyrolisedinsulationcanbeclearlydistinguishedfromoil bythistechnique, todatea
commercial versionisnot available.
It must be stressed that despite the various techniques described here, to the
authors’ knowledgethereisasyetnodefinitivewaytoidentifyconclusivelymaterial
collected on acoremonitor filter. A way out of this difficulty is being sought by
taggingcomponents inthemachinewithcompounds, whichwhenoverheatedgive
off material witheasilyidentifiablechemical compositions. Thistechniquehasbeen
usedintheUSbyCarsonet al . [2].
7.4.3 Gas anal ysi s off-l i ne
Analternativetodetectingandanalysingtheparticulatematteristodetectthegaseous
productsof pyrolysis, suchasthehydrocarbongasesor carbonmonoxideandcarbon
dioxideinthecoolinggas. Theremay betwo advantages indoingthis. First from
Chemi cal moni tor i ng 149
Section 7.2 it is clear that somegases aregiven off at lower temperatures, before
particulates, soanearlier warningof overheatingmaybegiven. Second, inaclosed
coolingcircuit, whereparticulateshaveashort lifetimeof only15–30min, gaseous
productswill haveamuchlonger lifetimeof manydays, dependinguponthecoolant
gas leakagefactor, 1/τ
r
, so it will not benecessary to detect simply ashort-term
change. Ontheother hand, whereastheconcentrationof particulateswill bezeroin
theabsenceof burninginsulation, therewill alwaysbeasmall andpossiblyvariable
background concentration of gases dueto impurities in themake-up, and this will
effectivelydeterminethethresholdfor thedetectionof burningbythistechnique.
Thegasanalysismethod, whichhasreceivedattentionfor largehydrogen-cooled
generators, uses agas chromatographandflameionisationdetector to measurethe
total hydrocarbon content in the hydrogen. Early work showed that most organic
compoundspresent inthecoolinggascouldnot bedetectedwithout aconcentration
technique. A number havebeenreportedbut themost widely usedis apre-column
method in which theimpurities areabsorbed on agas chromatographic stationary
phasecontainedintheshort tube.
Another off-linemethod of gas detection that has been used in modern, large,
air-cooled machines is to measuretheozoneconcentration to detect theonset and
progressof slot dischargeerosioncausedby partial dischargeactivity. Largeepoxy
insulatedwindingsinanair-cooledenvironmentexperiencethisproblem, whichcan
lead to major insulation failure (see Chapters 2 and 10). The technique has been
successfullyusedonlargehydrogenerators, whichoperateat stator voltagesashigh
as 24kV inanair-cooledenvironment, wherestator windingbars aresubjectedto
highslotforcesandpartial dischargeactivityisconsequentuponmechanical damage,
leadingto theproductionof ozonegas. Theozoneconcentrationinthecoolant air
canbemeasuredbytakingagassampleandusingaDraeger tube.
7.4.4 Gas anal ysi s on-l i ne
Theadvantageof performing gas analysis continuously on-lineis that, becauseof
thelongresidencetimes of gases dueto overheatinginthecoolingsystem, it may
bepossibletoobtainearlier warningof incipient damagetothemachine. Thedisad-
vantagesaretheinherentcomplexityof continuouschemical gasanalysisequipment
andthedifficultyof translatingtheanalysisintoasingleelectrical signal.
Bearing in mind the experience of Kelley et al . [9], shown in Figure 7.9, a
continuousmonitorwasdevisedforapplicationtohydrogen-cooledgenerators, using
aflameionisationdetector tomeasurethetotal organiccontentof thehydrogen. This
is thetypeof detector usedinchromatography for thedetectionof organic species.
Thegeneratorhydrogengasisintroducedintoahydrogen/airflame. Theflameforms
partof anelectrical circuitandnormallypresentsaveryhighresistance. Whenorganic
speciesareintroduced, organicionscontainingcarbonareformedandtheresistance
of theflamedecreaseslinearlywiththeamountof organiccompoundintroduced. The
deviceisverysensitiveandcandetect increasesassmall as0.2partsper millionby
volume(vpm). However, itsusablesensitivityisreducedbecauseof thepresenceof
backgroundlevels of organic compounds that canbe10–50vpmwithavariability
150 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

C
O
P
,

N
4
1
0
0 28
3
2
4 8 12 16 20 24
Time, days
a
b
c
e
d
d
b
a
c
e
Unit off line for inspection and maintenance
Significant increase in COP accompanied by a core monitor deflection
1N is equivalent to normal concentration of organic product (COP)
Core monitor alarm, load reduction initiated
Generator synchronized, COP back to normal
Fi gure 7.9 Pl ot of concentr ati on of organi c products dur i ng and after a gener ator
over heati ng probl em. [ Taken from Kel l ey et al . [ 9] . © I EEE (1976)]
of ±20 per cent. However, oneconsiderableadvantageof thecontinuous monitor
over thecoremonitor is that it shows thetrend of any increasein theproducts of
overheating, asshowninFigure7.9. Thetotal organiccontentismeasuredinvpmof
methane(CH
4
) equivalent. However, Figure7.10alsoshowsthevery considerable
background level against which faults need to be detected. The sensitivity of the
monitor hasbeencalculatedtheoreticallybaseduponthemethaneequivalentcontent
of typical insulationmaterials.
This shows that thepyrolysingof 24gof insulationwouldproduceabout 32l
of methane-equivalent hydrocarbons, which on alargehydrogen-cooled generator
(500MW) wouldgiveaconcentrationof about15vpmof methaneequivalentonthe
flameionisationdetector. Theamount of hydrocarbons produceddepends not only
onthetemperatureof theinsulationbut alsoonthepart beingoverheated. Themass
of insulationper unit volumeinthelaminatedcoreisrelativelysmall, whereasona
windingif overheatingtakes place, avery largeproportionof thevolumeinvolved
will beinsulationandthiswill giveacorrespondingly largeindicationontheflame
ionisation detector. Overheating would be considered to be serious if the rate of
increaseof total organicsexceeded20vpm/h.
Analternativetotheflameionisationdetector, for thedetectionof organic con-
tent in hydrogen, has been proposed using acommercial photo-ionisation detector
for flammablegases. Thedetector contains anultraviolet lampthat ionises thegas
Chemi cal moni tor i ng 151
Load perturbation
100
(a)
(b)
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
C
o
r
e

m
o
n
i
t
o
r

d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

%

f
u
l
l
s
c
a
l
e
Time, hours
700
600
100
0
T
o
t
a
l

o
r
g
a
n
i
c

c
o
n
t
e
n
t

v
p
m

C
H
4

e
q
u
i
v
a
l
e
n
t
Time, hours
0 24 48
500
400
300
200
0 24 48
Fi gure 7.10 Compar i son of the tr aces from a conti nuous gas moni tor wi th the
response of a core moni tor on a 500 MW al ter nator fol l owi ng an
over heati ng i nci dent. (a) Core moni tor response. (b) Conti nuous gas
response.
152 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
streamas it passes through. A potential is applied across electrodes in the detec-
tor andtheconductivity ismeasuredasintheflameionisationdetector. Thedevice
detectstheheavier hydrocarboncompoundsinthegasstreamandit hasbeenshown
that afault involving overheating of about 2 g of organic material would produce
a deflection of 1–2 vpmon the device fitted to a large generator. Typical back-
groundlevelsof 7–10vpmweremeasured. MorerecentworkbySoritaet al . [10–12]
usingaquadrupolemass-spectrometeronthegasesevolvedfromfaultshasidentified
methodsfor analysingandclassifyingfaultsfromturbinegenerator faults.
Onair-cooledmachinesanoverheatingincident will producealargevolumeof
carbonmonoxideandcarbondioxideaswell aslight hydrocarbongases. Aninstru-
ment has been produced to detect overheating by measuring thecarbon monoxide
concentration. The instrument contains an auxiliary pump that draws air through
tubes fromanumber of motors that arebeing sampled, to acommercial infra-red
detector. Thedetector measuresthecarbonmonoxidecontentusingtheprinciplethat
thevibrationof thecarbonmonoxidemoleculecorrespondswithaknownwavelength
intheinfra-redregion, seeTavner et al . [4].
Withinatotallysealedmotor enclosuretheair shouldrecirculatewithalongres-
idencetime, τ
r
, butbecauseof leaksinapractical enclosure, asubstantial proportion
of thetotal volumeof air is exchanged with theenvironment every minute. Thus
anycarbonmonoxideinthecoolingstreamproducedbyoverheatingwill bediluted
fairlyrapidly. Thisisincontrastwiththedetectionprobleminthesealedcoolingsys-
temof ahydrogen-cooledgenerator. However, theinfra-redanalyser wascapableof
detectingconcentrationsof carbonmonoxidedowntolessthan1vpm. Calculations
haveshownthat180gof insulationheatedto300

Cwill introducea1.5vpmrisein
theconcentrationof carbonmonoxideinthecoolingair. Thereforetheanalyser has
sufficient sensitivitytodetect localisedoverheatingonmotor windings.
7.5 L ubr ication oil and bear ing degr adation
The shafts of smaller electrical machines are supported by ball or roller bearings
lubricatedwithgrease, andfaultsinsuchbearingscouldbedetectedbyshock pulse
techniques as describedin Chapter 8. However, high-speedmachines aboveabout
300kWandlow-speedmachinesaboveabout 50kWuseoil-lubricatedrollingele-
ment bearingsandlarger sizesneedsleevebearingswithacontinuousoil supply. A
number of authors includingEvans [13] andBowenet al . [14] havesuggestedthat
thecontinuousmonitoringof thatoil supplycouldprovideearlywarningof incipient
problemseither intheoil itself or inthebearings.
Thenormal modeof failureof rollingelement bearingsisbyfatiguecrackingof
therollingelementsor their raceways, althoughother wear mechanismslikefretting,
scuffingandabrasionwill alsogeneratedebris. White-metalledsleevebearingfailures
are not usually progressive. Debris is likely to be released in short bursts when
thebearing is transiently overloaded or if an oil filmmomentarily ruptures. Quite
substantial damagecanbetoleratedwhilethebearingcontinuestobefedacopious
supply of cooled lubricating oil.Nevertheless therearemany potentially damaging
situationsthat couldbediagnosedby analysingthelubricatingoil includingfatigue
Chemi cal moni tor i ng 153
failureorcavitationatthewhitemetal surfacesandcorrosioninthelubricationsystem.
Anyincipient bearingfailureislikelytoleadtolocal heatinganddegradationof the
lubricationoil at thewear site.
A particular problemassociatedwithelectrical machinesistheflowof currents
through bearings and oil films, which pit the bearing surface, producing metallic
debrisanddegradingthelubricationoil. Thissortof activityiscausedbymagnetically
induced shaft voltages induced within the machine, whose causes and effects are
summarisedvery thoroughly by VermaandGirgis[15]. Photographsof thistypeof
damageareshowninapreviouschapter(Figure2.14). Thetwoapproachesthatcould
beusedtodetectthesevarioustypesof incipientfailureactivityinthelubricationoil
aretherefore(1) thedetectionof oil degradationproducts, and(2) thedetectionof
bearingdegradationproductsor wear debrisdetection.
7.6 Oil degr adation detection
The chemical detection of oil degradation has been used most effectively for the
conditionmonitoringof transformers [16], wheretheoil is usedfor insulatingand
cooling purposes and is sealed within thetransformer enclosure. However, in this
casethemechanismsof degradationareclearly defined, beingdistinguishedby the
differenttemperaturesreached. Thetechniqueisoff-linegas-chromatographanalysis
of thetransformer oil, doneat regular intervals duringtheplant life. Suchrigorous
analysisisnecessarytodistinguishbetweenthecomplexproductsproducedintheoil.
Themechanismsinvolvedinbearingoil degradationarenotsoclearlydefinedandthe
analysisthat wouldbenecessarywouldbemorecomplexandlesseasilyprescribed.
However, standard off-lineoil analysis procedures areavailablecommercially but
theauthorsdonotknowof anyprogrammesthathaveexperiencedparticular success
withelectrical machines. Thetypical parameterstobescreenedinbearingoil analysis
aregivenintheNealeReport [17].
7.7 Wear debr is detection
7.7.1 Gener al
Theoff-linemonitoringof wear debris inlubricatingoils has beenwidely usedfor
sometime, particularly for rolling element bearings and gears, in themilitary and
aviationfields. Thishasmadeuseof theferromagneticattractionof debrisparticles
in particular. In fact, passive magnetic plugs fitted to lubricating oil sumps have
been used for many years to collect ferromagnetic debris and regular inspection
gives anaidto indicatewhenfull maintenanceshouldbecarriedout onhelicopter
gearboxes. These techniques have now advanced so that on-line detection of the
debriscontentinoil ispossible. Workhasalsobeendonetoextendthecapabilitiesof
on-linedetectionsothatother debris, producedfor examplefromthesoftmaterial of
white-metal bearings, canbedetected. Thesetechniquesaredescribedinthefollowing
two sections. When reading these sections it should be borne in mind that oil is
suppliedtothebearingfromaclosed-looplubricationsystem, whichwill containoil
154 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
filtrationequipment. Thisequipmentwill removeaproportionof anydebrisentrained
sothat, followingawear incident, theconcentrationof debriswill increaseandthen
decay away as the filters do their work. Thus the ability to detect wear debris is
dependent uponvolumeandresidencetimefactors similar to thosethat control the
detectabilityof chemicalsincoolinggas, asdescribedinSection7.3.
7.7.2 Fer romagneti c techni ques
Thenormal modeof failureof rollingelement bearings is by fatiguecrackingand
spallingof therollingelementsor racewaysproducingfragmentsuptoamillimetre
or moreinsizeintheoil. Anon-linedevicehasbeendevelopedthat canbeinserted
into the full-flow oil line froma bearing and count the number of ferromagnetic
particlespresentintheoil flow, withacertainsizeband. Thedetector isbasedonthe
inductionunbalanceprincipleusedinmetal detectors. A pair of carefully screened
coils surroundtheoil lineandformtwoarms of anAC bridgecircuit. Magnetic or
conductingparticlesentrainedintheflowingoil causethebridgetounbalance, first
ononesideof null, as theparticleapproaches thedevice, andsecondontheother
sideof thenull astheparticlerecedes. Figure7.11showsasectionthroughthesensor
as described in Chapter 4 and by Whittington et al . [18]. Thephaseof thebridge
unbalanceenablesferromagneticparticlestobediscriminatedfromother conducting
particles. Thesensitivityof thesystemvariesaccordingtotheshapeof theparticles
but for approximatelyspherical particlesthesensitivitycanbeadjustedtoseparately
recordthepassageof particlesat twosizelevels, from200µmto2mmindiameter,
inanoil flowvelocityof 1–12m/s; thatis, anoil flowof upto20l/s. Theoutputisin
theformof acounter readingineachof thetwosizerangesandtheoutput couldbe
madeavailabletoadataacquisitionsystem. Thisrobustdevicehasbeenwidelyused
onjetengineinstallations, whereitsperformanceinahightemperature, pressureand
vibrationenvironment hasbeenproved. Thereisnorecord, however, of thisdevice
beingusedinanelectrical machine.
A devicethat canproduceagreater amount of informationabout ferromagnetic
wear debris is theinstrumentedmagnetic drainplug. Conventional magnetic plugs
usually consist of a bar magnet with a pole projecting into the lubricating oil. In
an instrumented plug it is necessary to measurethechangein field strength at the
magnet poleas debris is collected. Becauseof thedifficulties of measuring those
changesahorseshoemagnethasbeenadoptedinsteadof thebar magnet. Asparticles
areattractedtothegapbetweenthepolesof themagnettheyincreasethefieldwithin
thegap, whileat thesametimeincreasingthetotal fluxinthemagneticcircuit. Two
differentially connected matched field sensors, sampling each of these fields, can
thusgiveadditive, particle-dependent signals, whilecancellingout fluctuationsdue
totemperatureandmagneticfieldstrength. Figure7.12showsthearrangementof the
device. Another device, an instrumentedoil drain plug, gives an analoguevoltage
proportional to theamount of debris deposited, therateof accumulation of debris
andthetemperatureof theoil. Thedevicecandetect massesof ferromagneticdebris
attractedtothepolepiecesrangingfrom10to600mgwitharesolutionof 10mgin
anoil flowvelocityof 0.1–0.5m/s.
Chemi cal moni tor i ng 155
Output cable
Unobstructed
oilway
Sensor coils
Main body tube
Sensor
Sensor
signal
Power
supplies
Oil flow
Airbourne integrated
data systems
Oscillator
Inductance
bridge
Demodulator Counter
AC DC
Amp
Oil flow
Fi gure 7.11 Str ucture of an i nducti ve debr i s detector
7.7.3 Other wear debr i s detecti on techni ques
Theferromagnetic techniques describedintheprevious sectionareappropriatefor
rollingelement bearingsbut not for thewhite-metalledsleevebearingsthat areused
onlarger electrical machines. LloydandCox [19] haveinvestigatedtheproblemof
detectingwearinthebearingsandhydrogensealsof largeturbinegeneratorsets. They
describeaninvestigationthatcharacterisedthedebriscirculatingintheoil systemof
anumberof 60MWturbinegeneratorsandcorrelatedtheresultswithplantcondition.
A major featureinthis correlationwas thepresenceof whitemetal inthemachine
bearingsthat typicallycontain85per cent tin.
The results of their investigation showed that by determining the ratio of tin
to iron in thedebris an operator could seehow much bearing damagewas occur-
ring, comparedto normal runningwear (seeFigure7.13). However, if information
156 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Epoxy resin
Brass sleeve
Pole piece
Permanent magnet
Permanent magnet
Hall effect sensor plus
temperature
compensating sensor
Fi gure 7.12 An i nstr umented magneti c dr ai n pl ug
0.2
0 1200
Cumulative running hours (from 3/9/78)
S
n

F
e

r
a
t
i
o
200 400 600 800 100
1.0
0.6
0.8
0.4
0.0
Set 8: accidental overload
Set 8: annual overhaul, a thrust
bearing and a journal bearing
found to be damaged
Sets 1–7 Set 8
Fi gure 7.13 Rati o of ti n to i ron i n the oi l fi l ter deposi ts from ei ght 60 MW tur bi ne
gener ator sets. [ Taken from Ll oyd and Cox [ 19] ]
Chemi cal moni tor i ng 157
was available about running time, monitoring of tin content alone would be
adequate.
LloydandCox thenproceededtoinvestigatehowtheoil systemcouldbeauto-
matically monitoredtoprovideearly warningof bearingdamage. Inparticular they
consideredx-rayfluorescencedetectionandthemeasurement of theelectrical prop-
ertiesof theoil. Their investigationshowedthatx-rayfluorescencewouldbefeasible
but wouldbeprohibitivelyexpensiveasanon-linetechnique.
7.8 Conclusion
Thischapter hasshownthat chemical andwear analysishavebeendemonstratedto
beeffectiveglobal monitoringtechniquesfor electrical machineswhichcanproduce
narrow bandwidth (<1 Hz) signals. Chemical degradation of insulating materials
and lubricants aredetectableand can givebulk indications of thecondition of an
electrical machine. Thisisparticularly important whenit isconsideredhowcentral
insulationandlubricationintegrityaretothelong-termlifeof amachine. However, the
detectabilitycriteriaforthesetechniquesaredifficult, thechemical analysisprocesses
involvedarecomplexandexpensive, andthequantityof datageneratedbychemical
analysiscurrentlyconfinetheir applicationtoonlythelargest machines.
7.9 Refer ences
1. SkalaG.F. (1966). Theionchamber detector asamonitor of thermallyproduced
particulates. Jour nal de Research Atmospher i que 1966; April/Sept.
2. CarsonC.C., BartonS.C. andEcheverriaF.S. Immediatewarningof local over-
heating in electrical machines by the detection of pyrolysis products. I EEE
Tr ansacti ons on Power Appar atus and Systems 1973; PAS-92: 533–42.
3. Tavner, P.J . andAndersonA.F. Corefaultsinlargegenerators. I EE Proceedi ngs,
El ectr i c Power Appl i cati ons 2005; 152: 1427–39.
4. Tavner, P.J ., Gaydon B.G. and Ward D.M. Monitoring generators and large
motors. I EE Proceedi ngs, Par t B, El ectr i c Power Appl i cati ons 1986; 133:
169–80.
5. Carson C.C., Barton S.C. and Gill R.S. Theoccurrenceand control of inter-
ference from oil-mist in the detection of overheating in a generator. I EEE
Tr ansacti ons on Power Appar atus and Systems 1978; PAS-57: 1590–614.
6. Ryder D.M., Wood J .W. and Gallagher P.L. The detection and identification
of overheated insulation in turbo-generators. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on Power
Appar atus and Systems 1979; PAS-98: 333–36.
7. BraunJ .M. andBrownG. Operational performanceof generatorconditionmon-
itors: comparisonof heatedandunheatedionchambers. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on
Energy Conver si on 1990; EC-5: 344–49.
8. Dear D.J .A., Dillon A.F. and Freedman A.N. Determination of organic com-
poundsinthehydrogenusedfor coolinglargeelectricitygenerators. Jour nal of
Chromatogr aphy 1977; 137: 315–22.
158 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
9. Kelley J .K., Auld J .W., Herter V.J ., Hutchinson, K.A. and Rugenstein, W.A.
Earlydetectionanddiagnosisof overheatingproblemsinturbinegeneratorsby
instrumental chemical analysis. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on Power Appar atus and
Systems 1976; PAS-95: 879–86.
10. SoritaT., Minami S., Adachi H., TakashimaN. andNumataS. Thedetection
of degradedmaterials inturbinegenerators by chemical analysis. Proceedi ngs
of I nter nati onal Symposi um on El ectr i cal I nsul ati ng Mater i al s, Toyohashi, Sep
1998. Piscataway: IEEE; 1998. pp. 751–754.
11. Sorita T., Enmanji K., Kato K., Takashima M. and Nakamura K. On-line
detectionof overheatingmaterial inturbinegeneratorsusingchemical analysis.
Proceedi ngs of the Annual Conference on El ectr i cal I nsul ati on and Di el ectr i c
Phenomena, Austin, Oct 1999. Piscataway: IEEE; 1999. 2: pp. 533–6.
12. SoritaT., Enmanji K., KatoK., TakashimaM. andNakamuraK. A novel on-line
methodandequipment todetect local problemsinturbinegenerators. Proceed-
i ngs of the Annual Repor t Conference on El ectr i cal I nsul ati on and Di el ectr i c
Phenomena, Victoria, Oct 2000. Piscataway: IEEE; 2000. pp. 552–5.
13. Evans C. Wear debris analysis and condition monitoring. NDT I nter nati onal
1978; 11: 132–34.
14. Bowen R., Scott D, Seifert WW and Westcott VC. Ferrography. Tr i bol ogy
I nter nati onal 1976; 9: 109–15.
15. Verma S.P. and Girgis R.S. Shaft Potenti al s and Cur rents i n Large Tur -
bogener ator s. Report for the Canadian Electrical Association, 078 G 69
1981.
16. Rogers R. Concepts used in thedevelopment of theIEEE and IEC codes for
theinterpretationof incipient faults inpower transformers by dissolvedgas in
oil analysis. Presented at theIEEE Power Engineering Society Winter Power
Meeting, NewYork, 1978.
17. NealeN. andAssociates. A Gui de to the Condi ti on Moni tor i ng of Machi ner y.
London: Her Majesty’sStationaryOffice; 1979.
18. WhittingtonH.W., FlynnB.W. andMillsG.H. Anon-linewear debrismonitor.
Measurement Sci ence Technol ogy 1992; 3: 656–61.
19. LloydO. andCox A.F. Monitoringdebrisinturbinegenerator oil. Wear 1981;
71: 79–91.
Chapter 8
Vibr ation monitor ing
8.1 I ntr oduction
Anelectrical machine, itssupportstructureandtheloadtowhichitiscoupled, forma
complexelectromechanical system. Itcanreceiveimpulsiveexcitationthatvibratesit
atitsownnatural frequency, oritcanbeforcedbytheexcitingairgapelectromagnetic
fieldor torquespectrumof thedrivenor drivingmachineat manydifferent frequen-
cies. Thesefrequencies may causethemachineto emit anunacceptably highlevel
of acousticnoise, or causeprogressivemechanical damageduetohighcyclefatigue,
whichendsinamachinefailuremode. Consequentlyagreat deal of effort hasbeen
appliedtotry todeterminetheprincipal sourcesof vibrationinelectrical machines,
andalargeliteraturespanningmorethan80yearshasaccumulated. A representative
selectionof papersandarticlesisincludedinthereferences.
Theprincipal sourcesof vibrationinelectrical machinesare:
• the response of the stator core to the attractive force developed magnetically
betweenrotor andstator;
• thedynamicbehaviour of therotor inthebearingsasthemachinesrotates;
• the response of the shaft bearings, supported by the machine structure and
foundations, tovibrationtransmittedfromtherotor;
• the response of the stator end windings to the electromagnetic forces on the
conductors.
These four areas are interrelated; for example, bearing misalignment or wear can
result ineccentric running, whichwill inturnstimulatethevibrationmodes of the
stator andtherotor. Beforeexaminingspecific monitoringtechniquesweshall first
lookatthecharacteristicfeaturesof thefrequencyresponsesof themachineelements
listed.
8.2 Stator cor e r esponse
8.2.1 Gener al
Thestator andits support structurecompriseathick-walledcylinder, slottedat the
bore, resting insideathin-walled structure, which may or may not becylindrical.
A stator initscylindrical support structureisillustratedschematicallyinFigure8.1.
Analysis of athree-dimensional structuresuch as this, in responseto thecomplex
160 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Slotted region Stator core annulus
Support ribs Casing
Fi gure 8.1 A machi ne stator and i ts suppor ti ng str ucture
imposed force distribution, is a formidable problemeven for powerful numerical
techniques. Fortunately themain features of theresponsecan bedeveloped using
simplifiedmodels.
Alger [1] andJ ordan[2] consideredthemachinetobereducibletoaninfinitely
long, thin-walledcylinder representingthestator core. This simplificationallows a
qualitativeassessment of responsetobemade. A fuller treatment of themechanical
systemis providedby Erdelyi andErie[3], andYang[4] gives adetailedanalysis
of thecalculationof stator displacements, takingintoaccount thehigher frequency
effectsduetoslot passing.
Theforcesactingonthestator corearetheresult of theinteractionbetweenthe
airgap flux waveand thecurrents flowing in thewindings embedded in thestator
slots. Theforcesactingontheendwindingareduetotheinteractionbetweentheend
leakagefluxandthewindingcurrents. Itisapparent, therefore, thattheprecisenature
of theappliedforcewaveswill beafunctionof theformof thecurrent distribution,
andthegeometry of theairgapandendregions. Disturbancestoeither, duetorotor
eccentricity or damagedareasof therotor or stator windingsfor example, will alter
theharmoniccomponentsof theforcewaveandinitiateadifferentresponsefromthe
stator core, particularlyif theappliedforcesstimulateanyof thenatural modesof the
system.
Vi br ati on moni tor i ng 161
8.2.2 Cal cul ati on of natur al modes
For asimplethin-walledcylinder of infinitelengththeradial andperipheral displace-
ments, u
r
(θ, t ) andu
θ
(θ, t ), of thestructureat aradius fixedat themid-wall value,
maybewrittenas
u
r
(θ, t ) =

n =even
{a
n
(t ) cos(nθ) + b
n
(t ) sin(nθ)} (8.1)
and
u
θ
(θ, t ) =

n =even
{c
n
(t ) cos(nθ) + d
n
(t ) sin(nθ)} (8.2)
If it isfurther assumedthat thedeformationsareinextensible:
∂u
θ
∂θ
= −u
r
(8.3)
then
c
n
=
b
n
n
andd
n
= −
a
n
n
Duringdeformationbythedeflectionsin(8.1) and(8.2), thesystemaccumulates
volumetricelasticstrainpotential energy, V

, per unitlengthgivenbytheexpression
V

=
1
2
_
π
−π
EJ
(1− v)
2
r
2
_

2
u
r
∂θ
2
− u
r
_
dθ (8.4)
whereE isYoung’smodulusof thematerial, ν isPoisson’sratioof thematerial and
J isthepolar moment of inertiaof thecorecylinder.
Equation(8.4) reducesto
V

=
π
2
EJ
(1− ν
2
)r

n=1
(1− n
2
)
2
_
a
2
n
(t ) + b
n
2
(t )
_
(8.5)
Timoshenko[5] showedthat thekineticenergyof thesystem, T

, per unit length
will begivenby
T

=
w
2g
_
π
−π
(˙ u
2
r
+ ˙ u
2
θ
)dθ (8.6)
wherew is theweight per unit lengthper unit circumferential angleof thecylinder
andg istheaccelerationduetogravity. Substituting(8.1) and(8.2) into(8.6) gives
T

=
πw
2g

n−1
_
1+
1
n
2
_
[˙ a
2
n
(t ) +
˙
b
2
n
(t )] (8.7)
If it is necessary to includethevibrationof thecore, enclosureandframebuilding
bars of themachine, then thesecan also beincorporated. So for examplethetotal
162 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
elasticstrainenergy, V

, wouldbegivenby:
V

= V
E
+ V
S
+ V
F
(8.8)
wherethesubscriptsE, S andF refer totheenclosure, thestator coreandtheframe
buildingbarsrespectively.
Thetotal kineticenergyof thesystemwouldbegivenby
T

= T
E
+ T
S
+ T
F
(8.9)
However, thecalculationof thesequantities for theenclosureandframestructures
will becomplex. Theequationof motioncannowbeformulated. It isgivenfor free
vibrationbytheEuler–Lagrangeequation:

∂t
_
∂T

∂ ˙ a
n
_

∂V

∂ ˙ a
n
= 0 (8.10)
If theforcedvibrationresponseisrequireddirectlythentheright handsideof (8.10)
becomesaforcingfunction. For example, if weareinterestedinthesystemresponse
tothem
th
harmonicof theradial forcewavef (θ, t ), theforcingfunctionbecomesthe
workfunction, W, givenby
W =

m=1
f
m
(θ, t ) u
r m
(θ, t ) (8.11)
Generally, f
m
(θ, t ) hastheformof travellingwave:
f
m
(θ, t ) = F
m
cos(ω
m
t − mθ) (8.12)
Erdelyi andErie[3] showshowtheRayleigh–Ritz methodcanbeusedtosolve
(8.10) toyieldthenatural frequenciesof thesystem, under theassumptionthat time
variationsareharmonic. That is, thecoefficientsa
n
(t ) andb
n
(t ) aregivenby:
a
n
(t ) = A
n
sinω
n
t andb
n
(t ) = B
n
sinω
n
t (8.13)
Under thisassumption, (8.10) becomesapolynomial inω
n
whoserootsgivethe
natural frequencies. Someof thenatural circumferential modeshapes of theradial
vibrationof thestator areshowninFigure8.2.
Besidesthesecircumferential modesit isalsopossiblefor theradial vibrationof
thestator to vary as afunctionof machinelength. Themodeshapes for acylinder
vibratinginthiswayareillustratedinFigure8.3. Inpractice, however, onlythek
L
= 0
caseneedbeconsideredfor machinesof normal proportion. Verylongmachinesmay
exhibit vibrations at higher modes, but themost important modeshapes arethose
duetothecircumferential radial vibrations. It iseasily recognisedthat thecasesfor
k
c
= 0andk
L
= 0andareidentical.
Approximateformulaefor thenatural frequencies of asimplesingleringstator
havebeenreportedbyYang[4] intheformgivenhere. For k
c
= 0, thecorresponding
Vi br ati on moni tor i ng 163
K
c
= 0 = 1 = 2
= 3 = 4
K
c
K
c
K
c
K
c
Fi gure 8.2 Radi al mode shapes of a stator i n a ci rcumferenti al di recti on
K
L
= 0 = 1
= 2 = 3
K
L
K
L
K
L
Fi gure 8.3 Radi al mode shapes of a stator i n a l ongi tudi nal di recti on
natural frequencyf
0
isgivenby
f
0
=
1
2π r
mean
_
E
ρ
_
w
y
w
y
+ w
t
+ w
i
+ w
w
__
1/2
(8.14)
164 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
whereρ isthedensityof thecore, andw
y
, w
t
, w
i
andw
w
aretheweightsof thecore
yoke, teeth, insulation and windings, respectively, r
mean
is themean radius of the
core, excludingtheteeth. For k
c
= 1, thenatural frequencyf
1
isgivenby
f
1
= f
0
_
2
_
_
1+
t
2
0
S
12r
mean
2
_
w
y
w
y
+ w
t
+ w
i
+ w
w
_
__
1/2
(8.15)
wheret
0
istheradial thicknessof thestator coreannulusandS isaconstant related
tothestiffnessof thewinding, insulationandslot components:
S = 1+
N
s
2π J r
mean
_
w
t
+ w
i
+ w
w
w
t
_
_
1
3
+
t
0
2h
t
+
_
t
0
2h
t
_
2
_
a
t
h
3
t
(8.16)
whereN
s
isthenumber of stator slots, J isthepolar momentof inertiaof thecore, a
t
isthecross-sectionof areaof theteeth, andh
t
isthetoothdepth.
Thehigher natural frequencies, f
m
, maybecalculatedfrom
f
m
=
f
0
t
0
m(m
2
−1)G(m)
(2/3)r
mean
_
(m
2
+1)
(8.17)
wherethefunctionG(m) isgivenby
G(m) =
_
_
_
1+
t
2
0
12r
2
mean
(m
2
−1)
_
m
2
_
4+
w
y
M
w
y
+w
t
+w
i
+w
w
__
(m
2
+1)
_
¸
_
−1/2
(8.18)
It is clear that thecalculationof thenatural frequencies of complex mechanical
structures, as representedby thethestator coreandframeof anelectrical machine,
isadifficult matter. However, thiscouldberesolvedexperimentallybycarryingout
separatemobilitytestsof thestator androtor componentsandthenamobilitytest of
thecompositeassembly. By thesemeansit will bepossibletodeterminethemodes
of thestructure.
8.2.3 Stator el ectromagneti c force wave
Inorder toanticipatechangesinthestator coreframeandwindingvibrationsdueto
electrical or mechanical anomalies inthemachine, it is important to determinethe
excitingforces. Theproblemof calculatingtheforcesexertedonthestator androtor
reduces to calculatingtheflux density
¯
B intheairgapof themachine. This canbe
achievedusingnumerical techniques, suchasthefinite-elementmethod, andrequires
that asolutionbefoundtothefollowingequationfor themachine:
¯
∇ ×
¯
∇ ×
¯
B = σ
_
¯ v ×
¯
B − µ

¯
B
∂t
_
(8.19)
whereσ istheelectrical conductivityof theregion, andv isthevelocityof therotor,
relativetothetravellingfluxwaveproducedbythestator. Thesolutionof (8.19), even
inthetwodimensionsrepresentingacross-sectionintheradial andcircumferential
Vi br ati on moni tor i ng 165
directions of the machine, requires significant computational effort if the slotting
of bothrotor andstator areto betakeninto account. If goodaccuracy is required,
however, it is the only suitable path to follow. Penman et al . [6] gave a detailed
explanationof thesolutionof (8.19) for alinear machine, usingthefinite-element
technique.
Thefinite-element methodcanbeusedtoaccount for any distributionof wind-
ings and any radial or peripheral geometrical variations, simply by increasing the
complexityof themodel. However, therearelimitstotheaccuracyof finite-element
modellingdeterminedbytheaccuracyof theprecisemanufacturingdata. Thesemeth-
ods are essentially numerical and therefore quantitative. A qualitative assessment
is often morevaluablethan a full analysis and this is readily achieved, in certain
circumstances, usingsimpler (althoughlessaccurate) methods.
If therotor and stator surfaces areassumed to besmooth then it is possibleto
solve(8.19) intheradial andcircumferential planeanalytically, providedthemotion
termisneglected. Thisapproachallowstheeffectof individual conductor currentsto
beaccountedfor. Hague[7] andStafl [8], bothusedseparationof variabletechniques
tocalculateairgapfluxdensitiesfor avarietyof configurations.
Manyauthorshaveexaminedtheimportant sourcesof unbalancedmagneticpull
(UMP) andtheeffect it hasonvibration. Inparticular BinnsandDye[9] identifythe
roleof static eccentricity intheproductionof UMP. Inaddition, Swann[10] shows
howit is possibleto calculatetheharmonics introduced into theflux wavedueto
rotor eccentricity. Hedoesthisbyusingaconformal transformationtore-centrethe
rotor. A reviewof aconsiderableamountof previousworkonUMPmaybefoundin
thereport byRai [11].
Perhapsthesimplest, generallyuseful methodof gainingaqualitativeassessment
of the flux waveformis that used by Yang [4]. Here the flux wave is calculated
by simply multiplying thestator magnetomotiveforcedistribution (F
1
) dueto the
windingcurrents, bythepermeance() of theairgap:
= F
1
(8.20)
Binns[12] suggestedthat thisprocedurehadlimitedaccuracy, but withinthelimita-
tionssuggestedbyLim[13]thetechniqueisvaluable, sinceitcaneasilyaccommodate
geometrical effectsandanomaliesinwindingarrangements. WilliamsonandSmith
[14] later proposed an analytical permeance-wavemethod for calculating thehar-
monic impedancesof amachineand, by useof harmonic equivalent circuits, it was
thereforepossibleto predict machinerotor torques. Williamson and other authors
have subsequently successfully used this method, sometimes incorporating finite-
element solutions, toallowfor three-dimensional components that arenot tractable
by theanalytical method. Usingsuchtechniquesit hasbeenpossibletoanalysethe
effectsof windingfaultsandrotor eccentricityonthefluxdensityintheairgap.
Vas madethepoint inhis book [15] about theall-embracingnatureof theelec-
tromagneticfieldintheenergy conversionprocess, stressingthecentral importance
of theairgapfluxdensityinmonitoringelectrical machines. Thispoint relatestothe
emphasistherehasbeentodateinthepublishedliteratureontheeffect of themore
tractablefaultsontheairgapfield, asmentionedinChapter 3.
166 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Thepermeancevariation, takingintoaccounttherelativemotionof therotorwith
respect tothestator, canbeexpressedintheformof aninfiniteseriesof harmonics.
If boththerotor andstator surfacesareslottedthenthepermeancewavehastheform

1
, t ) =

m=1

n=1
ˆ

m,n
cos[mN
r
ω
r m
t − (mN
r
± nN
s

1
] (8.21)
with
ˆ

m,n
thepeak amplitudeof thepermeancewavedefined above, m and n are
integer slot harmonics, N
s
andN
r
arenumber of stator androtor slots respectively,
andω
r m
isthemechanical angular speedof therotor.
Similarly themagetomotiveforce(MMF) of thestator, f
1
, canbeexpressedas
an infiniteseries of spaceand timeharmonics. Theresult, which can befound in
standardtexts, is
f
1
(t ) =

=1

q=1
ˆ
f
s, , q
cos
_
ω
se
t − qp
_
θ
1

α
s
z
L
_
− φ
q
_
(8.22)
where
ˆ
f
s, , q
isthestatorMMFwavecomponentsof theformNI with timeharmonics
andq spaceharmonics, q istheorderof thestatorwindingMMF spaceharmonic, is
theorder of thesupplytimeharmonics, ω
se
istheangular frequencyof theelectrical
supply, z isthelongitudinal distancefromthecentreof themachine, L istheactive
lengthof thecore, α
s
is theskewangleof thestator, φ
q
is thephaseangleof the
stator MMF wavef
s, , q
, andp isthenumber of polepairs.
Similarlytherotor MMF, referredtothestator, canbeexpressedas
f
2
(t ) =

=1

q=1
ˆ
f
r , , q
cos
_

se
t − kp
_
θ
2

α
r
z
L
_
− φ
q
_
(8.23)
wheres is theslipof therotor withrespect tothestator magnetic field,
ˆ
f
r , , q
is the
rotor MMF wave components of the formNI with time harmonics and k space
harmonics. Thetotal MMF canbefoundby adding(8.22) and(8.23), andtheflux
wavecalculatedbymultiplyingthissumbytheresult of (8.21).
Yangshowsthat theeffect of eccentricity canbeincorporatedby modifyingthe
expressionforthepermeancewave(8.21). Heproposesthefollowingexpressionsfor
dynamicandstaticeccentricity.
• Stator permeancevariations,
s,ecc
, duetostaticeccentricity:

s,ecc
=

n=1

0,ecc
cosnθ
1
(8.24)
• Stator permeancevariations,
d,ecc
, duetodynamiceccentricity:

d,ecc
=

n=1
ˆ

0,ecc
cos(ω
ecc
t − nθ
1
) (8.25)
whereω
ecc
istheangular velocityof theeccentricity.
Vi br ati on moni tor i ng 167
Theseexpressionscanbecombinedwith(8.21) togivethepermeancewavefor
thecompletesystemandthefluxwavefoundinthemanner outlined. Ovalityof the
stator borecanbeaccountedfor inasimilar manner. Theexpressionsandmethodol-
ogy outlinedhereprovideageneral andrelatively simplemethodof calculatingthe
harmonicsof thefluxwaveactingonthestatorsothatitsresponsecanbedetermined.
Theradial andtangential forces appliedtothecorecanbecalculatedfromtheflux
density usingthemethodof Maxwell stresses, asdescribedby Carpenter [16] from
theradial andtangential stressesgivenbyσ
r
andσ
θ
:
σ
r
=
B
2
r

0
andσ
θ
=
B
2
θ

0
(8.26)
whereB
r
andB
θ
aretheamplitudesof theradial andtangential flux density waves,
calculatedfromtheMMF andpermeancewavesthat whenintegratedgive(8.20).
8.3 Stator end-winding r esponse
Theend-windingstructureof anelectrical machinehasarelatively lowstiffnessor
compliancebutrelativelyhighnon-linear dampingcoefficientsduetofrictional con-
tact betweenadjacent conductorsinthestructure. Thestiffnessmaybeincreasedby
improvedmethodsof bracing, whichareusedinlargeturbinegeneratorsorinduction
machineswithmoreonerousstartingduties. Themotionof thestator endwindingis
excitedbytwomechanisms:
• seismicexcitationof thecoils, asencastrebeams, bytheovalisingdisplacements
of thestator coreanddisplacement of themachinebyitsenvironment;
• electromagnetic forces on the coils themselves due to the currents flowing in
them.
Theselatter forces havebeenconsideredby Brandl [17]. Thedynamics of theend
winding are very complex, partly because of its complicated geometry but also
becauseof thedistributednatureof theforcesappliedtoit andthenon-linear coeffi-
cientsof itsresponse. Theresultant displacementsareat twicetheelectrical supply
frequency, f
se
, andit isnecessarytocarryout averythoroughanalysistodetermine
themodeshapes of thestructures. Thedynamic behaviour has been described by
Ohtaguroet al . [18]. Againwhenanalysisisdifficultandexperimental determination
of thestructurecanbeobtainedbymobilityteststodeterminethemodal responseof
thestructure.
A number of utilities haveinstalledtriaxial accelerometers ontheend-winding
structures of largeturbinegenerators to monitor theamplitudes of 2f
sm
vibrations
at widely spaced intervals of timein order to check that theend winding has not
slackened. Displacements of endwindings onlargeturbinegenerators of 1–10mm
arequiteusual duringnormal running, evenwithmodernepoxyinsulationsystems,
andthiscanleadtofrettingof theinsulation, slackeninganddielectricdamage.
Becauseof this, end-windingmonitoringis nowbeingusedfor routineon-line
purposesonthevery largest synchronousmachinesbut cautionmust betaken, asit
168 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
requiresveryspecialistinterpretationtodeterminefromaccelerometer signalswhere
end-windingslackeninghasoccurredsothatremedial actioncantakeplace. However,
on smaller machines, for exampleinduction motors, thedisplacements arenot so
large, but do require special techniques for prediction [19], and for measurement
[20], particularlyduringstartingwhenwindingcurrentsareverylarge.
8.4 Rotor r esponse
Wenowconsider themotionof arotor inresponseto:
• transverse force excitation, due to self-weight, mechanical unbalance, shaft
whirling, dynamic or static electromagnetic UMP due to eccentricity or a
combinationof all four;
• torsional torqueexcitation, duetotheprimemoverdriveorelectromagnetictorque
reaction.
Transverseforcesareduetoasymmetriesinthemachine, whiletorsionisprimarily
duetothedrivingtorque; however, bothmaybeaffectedbyelectrical or mechanical
faults inthemachineitself or electrical or mechanical systemdisturbances outside
the machine. An important issue is the response of the machine to these applied
excitations. Therewill also beacoupling between torsional and transverseeffects
duetothetransferfunctionorstiffnessbetweentheseaxesof themachine, sotorsional
effects, likecurrent faults inrotor andstator windings, cancausetransverseeffects
likevibrations, andviceversa.
8.4.1 Tr ansver se response
8.4.1.1 Rigid r otor s
Inorder toexaminetheresponseof arotor tounbalancedforcesadistinctionmustbe
drawnbetweenrigidandflexiblerotors. Rigidor short rotorsmay beconsideredas
asinglemassactingat thebearings, andWort [21] showedthat thedisplacement, u,
of therotor anditsbearingscanbemodelledbythedifferential followingequation:
(M + M
s
)
d
2
u
dt
2
+ c
du
dt
+ ku = mr w
r m
2
(8.27)
whereM isthemassof therotatingsystem, m istheequivalent unbalancemasson
theshaft, M
s
is thesupport systemmass, r is theeffectiveradius of theequivalent
unbalancedmass, c isthedampingconstantof thesupportsystem, andk isthestiffness
of thesupport system
For sinusoidal motionthepeakdisplacement, ˆ u, isgivenbythesolutionto(8.27),
andis
ˆ u =
mr (ω
r m

0
)
2
((M + M
s
)
_
{(1− (ω
r m

0
)
2
)
2
+4D
2

r m

0
)
2
})
(8.28)
Vi br ati on moni tor i ng 169
withω
0
, thenatural frequencyof therotorsupportsystem, andD, thedampingfactor,
givenby
ω
0
=
_
k
(M + M
s
)
D =
c
2

k(M + M
s
If thedisplacement isdividedbythespecificunbalancee, givenby
e =
mr
M
(8.29)
thenthebehaviour of thedisplacement, u, asafunctionof frequencyisasshownin
Figure8.4. Thedegreeof residual unbalanceis denotedby thequantity G = eω
r m
and thepermissiblelimits areprovided by international standard ISO1940-1:2003
[22] asshowninFigure8.5.
1 w
w
o
1
e
e
u
Fi gure 8.4 Di spl acement per speci fi c unbal ance ver sus nor mal i sed frequency
For electrical machinerytheappropriatequalitygradesaretowardsthelower end
of thevaluesshowninFigure8.5. For example, G = 2.5isgenerally applicableto
machinesof all sizes, andG = 1.0for special requirements.
8.4.1.2 Flexible r otor s
For long, slender rotorsoperatingathigher speeds, asintwo-polemachines, particu-
larlylargeturbinegeneratorsthathaverestrictedrotor radii, theforegoinganalysisis
170 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
0.1
30 30,000 300 3000
Rotational frequency, Hz
R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l

u
n
b
a
l
a
n
c
e
,

µ
m


1.0
10
100
G = 2.5
G = 1.0
Fi gure 8.5 Extr act from I SO 1940-1: 2003 per mi ssi bl e l i mi ts to resi dual unbal ance
insufficient andthedistributionof unbalancemust beconsidered. AgainReference
[21] showshowitispossibletocalculatethenatural frequenciesof general problems
of arotor with aflexural rigidity EJ, and mass per unit length m, which areboth
functionsof axial locationz. Thedisplacementu, foranyz, isgivenbythesolutionof

2
∂z
2
_
EJ (z)

2
u
∂z
2
_
− ω
r m
2
m(z)u =

n=1
f
n
(8.30)
wheref
n
istheunbalanceforcingfunctionand
2πf
n
= ω
n
=
_
m(z)g
2
n
(z)dz (8.31)
with g
n
(z) the n
th
solution of equation (8.30). The solution for coupled systems
comprisingseveral rotors, consistingof theelectrical machineandthemachineit is
drivingor drivenby, isextremelycomplex. It isusual toassumethat thestiffnessof
couplingsbetweenrotorsislowandrotorsmaybeconsideredtobedecoupledfrom
oneanother, allowingthemtobeconsideredindividuallyasdescribedearlier.
The mode shapes for the rotor shafts will also depend upon the nature of the
bearingsupportsfor theshafts. For exampleFigure8.6showstheeffect of hardand
soft bearingsonthefirst andsecondmodesfor asingleflexiblerotor.
Vi br ati on moni tor i ng 171
Mode 1 Mode 1
Mode 2 Mode 2
Soft bearings Hard bearings
Fi gure 8.6 Rotor mode shapes for hard and soft bear i ngs
Theresultsforhighermodesarereadilydeducedfromtheseexamples. Fornearly
all electrical machine vibrations, for which monitoring would be appropriate, the
bearingsmay beconsideredtobehard, althoughSmart et al . [23] haveshownhow
theinfluenceof foundationscanbetakenintoaccount whenstudyingthetransverse
vibrationbehaviour of alargemachine.
Theinternational standardlimitsshowninFigure8.5areapplicabletorigidrotors
operating well belowtheir critical speed. For flexiblerotors it has been suggested
that theallowableeccentricity can bemodified so that thesamestandard applies.
Dimentberg[24] usesthecorrection
e
fl exi bl e
< e
r i gi d
_
1−
_
ω
r m
ω
0
_
2
_
(8.32)
whereω
0
isthefirst critical speedof therotor. This, however, isonlyapplicablefor
rotorsrunningat lessthanω
0
; that is, ahypocritical machine. Whenthemachineis
operatingaboveω
0
it isahypercritical machine.
8.4.2 Tor si onal response
Thetorsional oscillatorybehaviourof alargerotatingelectrical machineanditsdriven
machineorprimemovercanbecomplicated. Forexample, inalargeturbinegenerator
theelectrical machinelinksacomplexprimemovertoalargeinterconnectedelectrical
networkinwhichlargequantitiesof energyarebeingtransported. Thepossibilityof
forcedtorsional oscillationintherotor of aturbinegenerator is significant because
of its great length and relatively small radius. Thenatureof such oscillations will
172 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
dependupontheformof thedisruptionsthatoccur inthemechanical or theelectrical
system. Disturbances intheelectrical systemareparticularly important sinceit has
beenreportedthat theycanlimit shaft lifeduetofatigue[25–27].
J
1
C
1
T
i1
T
o1
C
12
K
12
J
1
C
2
T
i2
T
o2
C
23
K
23
J
3
C
3
T
i3
T
o3
C
34
K
34
J
4
C
4
T
i4
T
o4
C
4−1
K
4−1,4
Fi gure 8.7 A l umped par ameter model to deter mi ne tor si onal response
Cudworthet al . [28] havedevelopedacomputational model for aturbinegen-
erator shaft that is very general, andallows awidevariety of fault conditions tobe
investigated. Theelectrical systemis representedinphasevariables andtakes into
account as many static androtatingelectrical elements as may berequired. For the
mechanical systemthelumpedparameter model illustratedinFigure8.7isused. The
shaft dampingandsteamdampingeffects ontheturbineblades arerepresentedby
variableviscousdampersandmaterial dampingisalsoincluded.
ThewaveformshowninFigure8.8isrepresentativeof theresultsachievableusing
amodel suchastheonedescribedearlier. Thisshowstheoscillationsinshaft torque
0
LP2 – Generator shaft torque transient
S
h
a
f
t

t
o
r
q
u
e
,

p
.
u
.
0.0 2.8
3.0
2.5
0.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6
Time, seconds
3.0
Fi gure 8.8 Cal cul ated shaft torque tr ansi ents usi ng a l umped par ameter model , the
dots showi ng the per mi ssi bl e l i mi ts of er ror i n the cal cul ati on
Vi br ati on moni tor i ng 173
of a500MWgenerator followingaphase-to-phaseshort circuit onthetransmission
system. Thelowerlevel oscillationspersistforsomeconsiderabletimeafterthemajor
transient haslargelydiedawayandthishasobviousimplicationsfor thefatiguelife
of theshaft. It may beadvisableto monitor suchevents, andmethods for doingso
will bediscussedlater inthischapter.
8.5 Bear ing r esponse
8.5.1 Gener al
Rotor vibrationforceistransmittedtothestator viatheairgapmagneticfieldandthe
bearingsinparallel. It isthereforeimportant toconsider theresponseof thebearings
tothat vibrationforcesothat itseffect isnot confusedwithvibrationsgeneratedby
faults withinthebearings themselves. Rotor vibrationforcewill causevibrationof
therotorrelativetothehousingandanabsolutevibrationof thebearinghousing. This
actionmustbeconsideredfor bothrollingelementbearingsandoil-lubricatedsleeve
bearings.
8.5.2 Rol l i ng el ement bear i ngs
A schematic viewof atypical rolling element bearing is shown in Figure8.9 and
thesearefittedtomachinesgenerallybelow300kWinoutput, whichconstitutethe
vast majorityof electrical machines.
Housing
Inner race
Roller elements
Shaft
Outer race
Cage
Vibration
accelerometer
Shock pulse
transducer
Fi gure 8.9 Rol l i ng el ement bear i ng assembl y
174 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Thefailureof rollingelement bearingsisthemost commonfailuremodeassoci-
atedwithsmaller machines. Becauseof their construction, rollingelement bearings
generate precisely identifiable vibration frequencies. Also, since the oil or grease
filmis very thin, therelativemotionbetweenthehousingandtheshaft is small. It
is thereforepossibleto detect on thestator sidethevibrations associated with the
bearingsusinganaccelerometer mounteddirectlyonthebearinghousing, ω
sm
.
Thecharacteristicfrequenciesof rollingelementbearingsdependonthegeomet-
rical sizeof thevariouselements, andcanbefoundinmanytexts(seeCollacott [29]
for example). Table8.1summarisesthesefrequenciesandtheir origins.
BesidesthefrequenciesgiveninTable8.1, therewill alsobehigher frequencies
generatedbyelasticdeformationof therollingelementsthemselves, andtheexcita-
tionof thenatural modesof theringsthat comprisetheinner andouter races. These
effects will, however, besecondary to theprincipal components definedhere. The
magnitudesof thecomponentsgiveninTable8.1areoftenlost inthegeneral back-
groundnoisewhenthedegreeof damageissmall, butbecauseof their precisenature
they present an effectiveroutefor monitoring progressivebearing degradation. A
simpleinstrument can bedevised using an accelerometer mounted on thebearing
housingtodetecttheamplitudeof vibrationatthesecharacteristicfrequencies. Once
thecharacteristicfrequencieshavebeencalculateditispossibletoenhancetheperfor-
manceof theinstrumentbytheuseof highlyselectivefiltersandweightingfunctions,
soastobeabletoidentifybearingfaultsat anearlier stage.
Tabl e 8.1 Char acter i sti c tr ansver se mechani cal angul ar frequenci es produced by
rol l i ng el ement bear i ngs
Fault Stator transversemechanical Comment
frequency, w
sm
, rad/s
Outer race
ω
sm
=
n
b
2
ω
r m
_
1−
d
b
D
b
cosφ
_
Rollingelement passing
frequencyontheouter
race
Inner race
ω
sm
=
n
b
2
ω
r m
_
1+
d
b
D
b
cosφ
_
Rollingelement passing
frequencyontheinner
race
Rollingelement
ω
sm
=
D
b
2d
b
ω
r m
_
1−
_
d
b
D
b
_
2
cos
2
φ
_
Rollingelement spin
frequency
Trainfault
ω
sm
=
1
2
ω
r m
_
1−
d
b
D
b
cosφ
_
Causedbyanirregularity
inthetrain
Definitions: n
b
= number of rollingelements; ω
r m
=
2πN
60
mechanical rotational frequency,
Hz; w
sm
= mechanical vibrationfrequencyonthestator side; N = rotational speedinrev/min; d
b
=
rollingelement diameter; D
b
= rollingelement pitch; f = rollingelement contact anglewithraces.
Vi br ati on moni tor i ng 175
When monitoring thevibration dueto rolling element bearings it is prudent to
obtain agood vibration baseline. This is becauseoncethebearing becomes worn
significantly thevibrationspectrumit emitsbecomesmorerandomagain, although
at ahigher baselinethanfor agoodbearing. If no baselineis available, no history
has beenbuilt upandthebackgroundnoisehas risen, thenit will beimpossibleto
detect specific faults. Machinery will also haveadegreeof unbalance, which will
modulate the characteristic frequencies of the bearings and produce side bands at
therotational frequency. Vibrationmonitoringishighly suitablefor rollingelement
bearings, although it is complex but has gained wide acceptance throughout the
industry. Stacket al . [30] giveadescriptionof theprocesstoclassifyrollingelement
bearingfaults.
8.5.3 Sl eeve bear i ngs
Insleevebearings, theshaft is supportedby afluidfilmpumped, by themotionof
the shaft, at high pressure into the space between the bearing liner and the shaft.
Becauseof thecomplianceof theoil filmandthelimitedflexibility of thebearing
housing, vibrationsmeasuredatthehousingmaybeof lowamplitude. Also, because
thelinersof thebearingwill inevitablybeasoft material suchaswhitemetal, small
faultsarevery difficult toidentify by measuringtheabsolutevibrationof thehous-
ing. These factors point to the use of displacement transducers as being the most
effective tool, but they will only be useful at lower frequencies. Higher frequen-
cies; for examplemultiples of therotational frequency, arebest measured with an
accelerometer mountedonthebearinghousing. Itisworthbearinginmind, however,
that asthebearingloadincreasesduetoanincreaseinrotor load, theoil filmthick-
ness decreases withacommensuratedecreaseinbearingflexibility. This increases
thevibration detectableat thebearing housing and allows moreinformation to be
derivedfromthemeasurement.
Animportantconcernfor sleevebearingsistheonsetof instabilityintheoil film.
Thiscanresultinoil whirl andsubsequentlyoil whip, inresponsetounusual loading
of thebearing. Figure8.10showstheforcesactingupontheshaftinasleevebearing,
andillustratesthattheshaftissupportedbyawedgeof oil justatthepointof minimum
clearance.
Theoil filmis circulatingat aspeedof approximately half theshaft speed, but
becauseof thepressuredifferenceoneither sideof theminimumclearancepoint, the
shaftprecessesatjustbelowhalf speed. Thismotionistermedoil whirl andisadirect
resultof thepressuredifferencementionedearlier, whichcomesaboutduetoviscous
lossinthelubricant. Instabilitiesoccur whenthewhirl frequencycorrespondstothe
natural frequency of theshaft. Under suchconditionstheoil filmmay nolonger be
ableto support theweight of theshaft. Details of themechanisms involved in oil
whirl and its development into themoreserious instability called oil whip (which
occurswhentheshaft speedistwiceitsnatural frequency) aregivenby Ehrichand
Childs[31]. Caremust betaken, therefore, that either themachinedoesnot operate
at aspeedhigher thantwicethefirst critical speedof therotor shaft, or if it must,
176 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Low pressure fluid
Shaft rotation
Minimum
clearance point
F
P
R
W
High presure fluid
R Reaction
F Destabilising components
P Pressure
W Whirl force
Vibration
accelerometer
Y-axis
proximeter
X-axis
proximeter
Fi gure 8.10 Forces acti ng upon a shaft i n a sl eeve bear i ng
thenoil whirl must besuppressed. Thefollowingfrequency, ω
sm
, isidentifiedinthe
literatureascausedbyoil whirl:
ω
sm
= (0.43to0.48)ω
r m
(8.33)
8.6 M onitor ing techniques
Nowthatwehavediscussedthewaysinwhichtransverseandtorsional vibrationcan
beproducedinelectrical machines, andwehaveoutlined, inChapter 3, theprincipal
analytical toolsat our disposal tomeasuretheeffect of vibration, wecanproceedto
showhowvibrationcanbeusedtomonitor thehealthof machines.
For electrical machine condition monitoring it is important to recognise that
mechanical andelectrical faults excitethemachinestructureindifferent ways. For
example:
• Mechanical faultslikeself-weight, mechanical unbalanceandshaftwhirlingwill
excitetransversemotioninthemachineframe, detectablebyvibrationsensors.
Vi br ati on moni tor i ng 177
• Dynamic or static electromagnetic UMP due to eccentricity, which may be
causedbybearingwear, will alsoexcitetransversemotioninthemachineframe,
detectablebyvibrationsensors.
• Electrical faults in stator or rotor windings will excite torsional motion in the
shaft that will bedetectableinthetorquesignal but not necessarily by vibration
sensors, unlesstheactivityiscoupledtotransversemotionbyasymmetriesinthe
machineframe.
Becausemanyfaultscanbeidentifiedbymorethanonemethod, andbecausethe
internationallyagreedstandardsandlimitsrelatenottospecificitemsof plant, butto
theformof analysistowhichmeasurementissubjected, weshall usethemeasurement
treatment as thegeneric identifier. Weshall also beprincipally concerned with so
calledon-linemonitoring; that is, weareinterestedintechniquesthat canbeapplied
tomachinerythatisrunningandinthepredictivepower of themonitoringrather than
simply theability to merely intercept faulty conditions when they becomeserious
enough to cause damage. There may often be some commonality between these
objectives.
8.6.1 Over al l l evel moni tor i ng
This simple formof monitoring is the most commonly used technique, although
as an aid to diagnosis of faults in electrical machines its efficacy is limited. The
measurement takenis simply therms valueof thevibrationlevel onthestator side
of themachineover aselected bandwidth. Theusual bandwidth is 0.01–1 kHz or
0.01–10kHz, andin practicethemeasuredparameter is usually vibration velocity
takenat thebearingcapof themachineunder surveillance. Thetechniquehasfound
favour becauseover theyears aconsiderableexperiencehas beenbuilt uptorelate
overall vibrationmonitoringlevelstomachineryfailuremodes. Thishasresultedin
thepublicationof recommendedvibrationstandards for runningmachinery. These
standardsdonotgivediagnosticinformation, butsimplyindicatetheoverall healthof
machineryatagivenvibrationlevel. Manyoperatorsusesuchinformationtodevelop
astrategyfor maintenancescheduling.
TheguidancegiveninthepastbytheGermanVibrationStandardVDI 2056[32]
is illustratedinTable8.2; however, therelevant up-to-datestandardis ISO 10816-
1:1995[33]. Thesecriteriaarebasedsolelyonmachineratingandsupport systems,
andutilisea0.01–1kHz bandwidth. Essentially it recommendsthat whenvibration
levelschangeby8dB or morecaremustbeexercised, andwhenthechangeexceeds
20dB actionshouldfollow. Theselimits canberelaxed, however, if asubsequent
frequencyanalysisshowsthat thecauseof theincreaseinlevel isduetoariseinthe
higherfrequencycomponents. Insuchcaseschangesof 16dBand40dBrespectively
may bemoreappropriate. A section of thespecification, as it relates to electrical
machines, isgiveninTable8.3. GroupK signifiessmaller, quietrunningplant, group
M is medium-sizedplant andgroupG is thelarger, noisier plant. This reflects that
electrical machines, when uncoupled fromtheir prime mover or driven plant, are
generallylow-noise, low-vibrationmachines.
178 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Tabl e 8.2 Vi br ati on standard VDI 2056
Vibration Vibration GroupK GroupM GroupG
velocity, velocity, dB,
mm/srms ref 10
−6
mm/s
45 153 Not permissible Not permissible Not permissible
28 149 20dB (×10)
18 145
11.2 141 J ust tolerable
7.1 137 J ust tolerable
4.5 133 J ust tolerable Allowable
2.8 129 Allowable
1.8 125 Allowable Goodlarge
1.12 121 Goodmedium machineswith
0.71 117 Goodsmall machines rigidandheavy
0.45 119 machinesup 15–75kWor up foundations
0.28 109 to15kW to300kWon whosenatural
0.18 105 special frequency
foundations exceedsmachine
speed
Tabl e 8.3 Vi br ati on l i mi ts for mai ntenance as gi ven i n CDA/MS/NVSH107
Typeof plant Newmachines Wornmachines
(full-loadoperation)
100–1000 1000–10000 Servicelevel, Immediate
hour life, mm/s hour life, mm/s mm/s overhaul

, mm/s
Boiler auxiliaries 1.0 3.2 5.6 10.0
Largesteamturbine 1.8 18.0 18.0 32.0
Motor-generator set 1.0 3.2 5.6 10.0
Pumpdrives 1.4 5.6 10.0 18.0
Fandrives 1.0 3.2 5.6 10.0
Motorsingeneral 0.25 1.8 3.2 5.6

Theselevelsmust not beexceededinanyoctaveband
Another useful set of criteriawasgivenintheCanadianGovernment Specifica-
tionCDA/MS/NVSH107[34], whichisnolonger issued. Thisspecificationrelates
primarily to measurements takenonbearings, andit is herethat overall level mea-
surement is most commonly employed. This specificationhas abroader bandwidth
than VDI 2056, namely 0.01–10 kHz, but still relies on overall velocity vibration
measurement.
Vi br ati on moni tor i ng 179
Thestrengthof theoverall vibrationlevel techniqueisitssimplicity. It requires
only thesimplest of instrumentationappliedto thestator sideof themachine, and
becauseof thisit isacommonfeatureinmanyinstallations. It alsoprovidesanideal
methodforusewithportableinstruments, butitmakesheavydemandsupontechnical
personnel. Thesensitivity of thetechniqueis also low, particularly whenafault is
at an early stage, and there is little help on offer to aid diagnosis without further
sophisticatedtechniquesbeingemployed.
TheNealeReport[35]indicatesthatitmaybepossibletoeffectalimiteddiagnosis
by takingtwooverall level measurements: V
a
, thepeak vibrationvelocity inmm/s;
andX , thepeaktopeakdisplacementinµm. Thesequantitiesarethenusedtodefine
theparameter F asfollows:
F =
0.52NX
V
a
(8.34)
whereN isthespeedinrev/minof themachine. TheinterpretationsinTable8.4are
thenappropriate.
Tabl e 8.4 Di agnosi s usi ng over al l l evel measurements
based on the Neal e Repor t [ 35]
Valueof F Trend Fault
<1 Decreasing Oil whirl
=1 Steady Unbalance, indicativeof
eccentricityor perhaps
faultyrotor
>1 Increasing Misalignment, static
eccentricity
8.6.2 Frequency spectr um moni tor i ng
Thekeytovibrationmonitoringdiagnosticsisthefrequencyspectrumof thesignal,
andthepast decadehas seenaremarkableincreaseintherangeandsophistication
of techniques andinstrumentationavailablefor spectral analysis. Therearevarious
levelsof spectral analysiscommonlyused, andthesemayberegardedasacontinuum
extendingfromtheoverall level readingtothenarrowbandwithconstant frequency
bandwidthpresentation, asshowninFigure8.11.
In theoctaveband and third-octaveband techniques thespectrumis split into
discretebands, asdefinedbyFigure8.12. Thebandsare, bydefinition, suchthatwhen
thefrequency is scaledlogarithmically thebands areof equal width. Theconstant
percentagebandisonewhichisalwaysthesamepercentageof thecentrefrequency,
whiletheconstant frequency bandwidth is an absolutely fixed bandwidth formof
analysis that can give very high resolution, provided the instrumentation is of a
sufficientlyhighspecification.
180 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Wide band Narrow band
Overall
level
Octave
band
1
/
3
Octave
band
Narrow
constant
% of centre
frequency
Narrow
constant
frequency
bandwidth
Fi gure 8.11 Level s of spectr al anal ysi s
1
/
3
O
c
t
a
v
e
O
c
t
a
v
e
Frequency
12
14
18
28
36.5
56
71
121
141
224
282
450
560
890
1120
1700
2240
3500
4000
7100
8900
22.5
45
90
180
365
710
1400
2000
5600
1120
Fi gure 8.12 Octave and thi rd-octave bands
The effect that the change of bandwidth has on the processed signal output
highlights precisely why thenarrow-bandtechniqueis superior to theoverall level
technique as a diagnostic tool. For example, a certain transducer may provide an
output power spectral density output that may beinterpretedintheways shownin
Figure8.13. It is apparent that thecomponents around frequency f
1
dominatethe
overall level reading, and theshapeof thethird octaveresult. Important changes,
say at f
2
and f
3
or thepresenceof other components, could go largely unnoticed,
except by theuseof narrow-bandmethods. Thisiscrucial becausetheflexibility of
themechanical systemmaybesuchthat important componentsaremaskedbythose
closer toresonancesinthemechanical structureof themachine.
Vi br ati on moni tor i ng 181
V
i
b
r
a
t
i
o
n

v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,

w
a
v
e
f
o
r
m
,

P
S
D
Overall level
Octave band
Narrow band
frequency
f3
Frequency, Hz
f1 f2
1
/
3
Fi gure 8.13 Effect of change i n bandwi dth on spectr al response
Thenarrowbandspectrumalsoallowstheoperator totrendtheconditionof the
machinemost effectively. Thisrequiresthat aninitial baselinespectrumistakenand
subsequent spectraarecomparedwithit. Theuseof digitallyderivedspectrameans
thattheresultsof suchcomparisonscanbecomputedquicklysincethespectrareduce
toasimplesequenceof numbersatdiscretefrequencies, ascloselyspacedasrequired
withinthelimitationsof theinstrumentation. InthiswaycriteriasuchasVDI 2056can
beappliedfor eachfrequency. Becauseof thelargeamountsof datageneratedusing
narrow-band methods, it is frequently convenient to predetermine the operational
limits, onthebasisof oneof thevibrationstandards, andtoconstruct anoperational
envelopearound thebaselinespectrum. This can takeaccount of thewider limits
allowable at higher frequencies, and can be used to automatically flag warnings
when maintenance limits are reached. The basis of this technique is illustrated in
Figure8.14, wherethebaselineis set at themaximumvalueof vibrationexpected
andtheoperational envelopeat whichtripsareinitiated, isset abovethis.
Thetechniquesdescribedthusfar inthissectionarerelativelygeneral. Inorder to
identifynotjustunsatisfactoryoverall performance, buttopinpointspecificproblems,
itisnecessarytoexaminediscretefrequencies, or groupsof frequencies, asindicated
earlierinthischapter. Inductionmotorsinparticularrequireahighdegreeof frequency
resolutionappliedtotheir vibrationsignalssincethespeedof rotationisclosetothe
electrical supply frequency. This tends to generate side bands spaced at s and 2s
aroundtheharmonics of thesupply frequency, wheres is theslipfrequency of the
machine.
Theapplicationof vibrationmonitoringfor fault diagnosisinlargeturbinegen-
eratorshasbeendescribedbyMayes[36] andcomputer analysistechniquesthat can
beappliedoff-linetovibrationdatacollectedon-linearedescribedbyHerbert [37].
182 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
V
i
b
r
a
t
i
o
n

v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,

w
a
v
e
f
o
r
m

P
S
D
Operation limit
Monitored record
Base line
Frequency, Hz Higher frequency limits used Lower frequency limits used
Fi gure 8.14 Oper ati onal envel ope around a spectr al response
Someof thedetail of analysisandtheeffectof thefoundationresponsetothemachine
excitationisgivenbySmart et al . [38].
8.6.3 Faul ts detectabl e from the stator force wave
Usingthetechniquesdescribedintheprevioussectionandverifyingbymeasurement,
it hasbeenshownthat UMP canexcitestator sidevibrationcomponentsat one, two
andfour timesthesupplyfrequency. Dynamicunbalanceandcouplingmisalignment
alsoproducethiseffect [11,39].
The last reference also suggests that even orders of the fundamental occur in
theframevibrationspectrumduetointer-turnwindingfaultsonthestator [39]. The
authors usetheprincipal slot harmonics as anindicator of eccentric running. They
also usethetransversemechanical angular frequency, ω
sm
, measuredonthestator
frame, excitedbyradial forces, givenbyYang[4] andothersas
ω
sm
= ω
se
_
(nN
r
± k
e
)
(1− s)
p
± q
_
(8.35)
wheren isaninteger, q isthespaceharmonicof thestator windingMMF, 1, 3, 5, 7
…, k
e
istheso-calledeccentricityorder number, whichiszerofor staticeccentricity
andalowinteger valuefor dynamiceccentricity.
They report tests onamachinewitha51-slot rotor (N
r
) andafour-pole, three-
phasestator, whichexhibitsanincreaseinframevibrationlevelsof 25dB and17dB
atthefrequencies1104Hzand1152Hzduetotheintroductionof 50percentdynamic
eccentricity.
Therearestrongindicationsthatframevibrationcanbeusedtomonitor avariety
of fault conditions, particularly ininductionmachines. Cautionmust beexercised,
Vi br ati on moni tor i ng 183
however, forvibrationtransmittedfromadjacentorcoupledplantmayexciteanatural
modeinthemachine, whileaforcedcomponentfromafaultwithinthemachinemay
besufficientlydifferent fromanynatural frequencytocauseonlyaslight response.
This effective signal-to-noise ratio for the detection of faults by frame-borne
vibration can be quantified using the notion of systemflexibility or mobility, the
flexibility being regarded as thesumof themodal responses of themachine, and
thevibrationexperiencedby themachineis theproduct of theexcitingforcewave
and this flexibility. Smart et al . [38] givean explanation of theinteraction of the
foundationresponseof aturbinegenerator totheexcitingeffect of unbalanceduring
arundown.
A number of authors havereportedtheidentificationof various vibrational fre-
quencies associated with faults in induction machines, including Rai [11], Dorrell
et al . [39], Hargis[40] andNandi et al . [41]. It hasbeensuggestedbyRai [11] that,
on amachinesuppliedat f
se
= 50Hz, vibration at or near 50, 100and200Hz is
indicativeof eccentricity, but thepictureis confusedbecauseother anomalies also
manifest themselves by theproduction of such frequencies, for examplemisalign-
ment anddynamicunbalance. Dorrell et al . [39] showedthat onamachinesupplied
at f
se
= 50 Hz, thestator framevibration will exhibit 100, 200 and 300 Hz com-
ponents dueto an inter-turn winding fault or supply voltageunbalance, including
singlephasing. Theyalsoshowthathigher-order harmonicsoccur inthestator frame
vibrationduetoeccentricity, asderivedfrom(8.35). However, theexactarrangement
of thedriveandthenatureof thecoupledloadmay beof critical importance, since
transmittedvibrationmaymaskthefrequencythat oneishopingtomeasure.
Vibration can occur in electrical machinery as a result of both electrical and
mechanical action. Finally, Trutt et al . [42] recently carriedout atheoretical review
of therelationshipsthat shouldexist betweenelectrical windingparametersandthe
mechanical vibrationof AC machineelements under normal andfaultedoperating
conditions. Table8.5hasbeencompiledtodistil theinformationtobefoundinthese
variousreferences.
8.6.4 Tor si onal osci l l ati on moni tor i ng
Aswehaveseenpreviously inSection8.4.2, theremay beaspecific needtomoni-
tor thetorsional behaviour of along, thinshaft suchas onaturbinegenerator. The
directapproachtothisproblemwouldbetomountsuitablestraingaugesontheshaft,
together withsuitabletelemetry, totransmitthegaugeoutputfromtherotatingrefer-
enceframe. Thishasonlybeendoneforexperimental purposesandisnotappropriate
for long-termuseowingto theharshoperational conditions thetransducers would
needtowithstand. Anindirectmethodof monitoringthetorsional responsesof shafts
havebeenoutlinedby Walker et al . [26], inwhichthetwist of theshaft systemis
measuredby comparingtheangular displacement of thenon-driveendof thehigh
pressure turbine shaft with that of the non-drive end of the generator exciter, see
Fig. 8.15. The airgap torque produced by the machine is calculated directly from
themonitoredelectrical quantities. Themonitor hasamodular construction, thetwo
principal elements being concerned with the capture of the mechanical, or torque
T
a
b
l
e
8
.
5
M
e
c
h
a
n
i
c
a
l
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
c
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
s
r
e
l
a
t
e
d
t
o
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
f
a
u
l
t
s
R
o
t
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
a
n
g
u
l
a
r
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
o
f
t
h
e
r
o
t
o
r
,
ω
m
,
r
a
d
/
s
T
r
a
n
s
v
e
r
s
e
v
i
b
r
a
t
i
o
n
a
n
g
u
l
a
r
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
o
n
t
h
e
s
t
a
t
o
r
,
ω
s
m
,
r
a
d
/
s
C
o
m
m
e
n
t
s
M
e
c
h
a
n
i
c
a
l
f
a
u
l
t
s
O
i
l
w
h
i
r
l
a
n
d
w
h
i
p
i
n
s
l
e
e
v
e
b
e
a
r
i
n
g
s

ω
s
m
=
(
0
.
4
3
t
o
0
.
4
8
)
ω
r
m
E
q
u
a
t
i
o
n
(
8
.
3
3
)
.
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
-
f
e
d
l
u
b
r
i
c
a
t
e
d
b
e
a
r
i
n
g
s
o
n
l
D
a
m
a
g
e
i
n
r
o
l
l
i
n
g
e
l
e
m
e
n
t
b
e
a
r
i
n
g
s

ω
s
m
=
n
b
2
ω
r
m
_
1

d
b
D
b
c
o
s
φ
_
ω
s
m
=
n
b
2
ω
r
m
_
1
+
d
b
D
b
c
o
s
φ
_
ω
s
m
=
D
b
2
d
b
ω
r
m
_
1

_
d
b
D
b
_
2
c
o
s
2
φ
_
ω
s
m
=
1 2
ω
r
m
_
1

d
b
D
b
c
o
s
φ
_
C
o
m
m
o
n
s
o
u
r
c
e
o
f
v
i
b
r
a
t
i
o
n
.
A
l
s
o
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
i
e
s
i
n
t
h
e
r
a
n
g
e
2

6
0
k
H
z
d
u
e
t
o
e
l
e
m
e
n
t
r
e
s
o
n
a
n
c
e
.
R
o
l
l
i
n
g
e
l
e
m
e
n
t
b
e
a
r
i
n
g
f
a
u
l
t
s
c
a
n
a
l
s
o
b
e
d
i
a
g
n
o
s
e
d
b
y
s
h
o
c
k
p
u
l
s
e
m
e
t
h
o
d
T
a
b
l
e
8
.
1
S
t
a
t
i
c
m
i
s
a
l
i
g
n
m
e
n
t
o
f
r
o
t
o
r
s
h
a
f
t
i
n
a
s
y
n
c
h
r
o
n
o
u
s
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
ω
r
m
=
ω
s
e
/
p
ω
s
m
=
2
p
ω
r
m
C
a
u
s
e
s
s
t
a
t
i
c
e
c
c
e
n
t
r
i
c
i
t
y
U
n
b
a
l
a
n
c
e
d
m
a
s
s
o
n
r
o
t
o
r
o
f
a
s
y
n
c
h
r
o
n
o
u
s
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
ω
r
m
=
ω
s
e
/
p
ω
s
m
=
ω
r
m
V
e
r
y
c
o
m
m
o
n
.
U
n
b
a
l
a
n
c
e
c
a
u
s
e
s
d
y
n
a
m
i
c
e
c
c
e
n
t
r
i
c
i
t
y
o
f
t
h
e
r
o
t
o
r
(
s
e
e
b
e
l
o
w
)
D
y
n
a
m
i
c
e
c
c
e
n
t
r
i
c
i
t
y
i
n
a
s
y
n
c
h
r
o
n
o
u
s
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
ω
r
m
=
ω
s
e
/
p
ω
s
m
=
ω
r
m
D
y
n
a
m
i
c
e
c
c
e
n
t
r
i
c
i
t
y
c
a
u
s
e
s
U
M
P
i
n
a
n
e
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
a
l
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
(
c
o
n
t
i
n
u
e
d
)
R
o
t
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
a
n
g
u
l
a
r
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
o
f
t
h
e
r
o
t
o
r
,
ω
m
,
r
a
d
/
s
T
r
a
n
s
v
e
r
s
e
v
i
b
r
a
t
i
o
n
a
n
g
u
l
a
r
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
o
n
t
h
e
s
t
a
t
o
r
,
ω
s
m
,
r
a
d
/
s
C
o
m
m
e
n
t
s
D
y
n
a
m
i
c
d
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
o
f
s
h
a
f
t
i
n
b
e
a
r
i
n
g
h
o
u
s
i
n
g
i
n
a
s
y
n
c
h
r
o
n
o
u
s
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
ω
r
m
=
ω
s
e
/
p
ω
s
m
=
ω
r
m
,
2
ω
r
m
.
.
.
C
a
u
s
e
s
d
y
n
a
m
i
c
e
c
c
e
n
t
r
i
c
i
t
y
.
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
s
a
c
l
i
p
p
e
d
t
i
m
e
w
a
v
e
f
o
r
m
,
d
u
e
t
o
s
h
a
f
t
m
o
t
i
o
n
b
e
i
n
g
l
i
m
i
t
e
d
b
y
b
e
a
r
i
n
g
c
o
n
s
t
r
a
i
n
t
,
t
h
e
r
e
f
o
r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
e
s
a
h
i
g
h
n
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
h
a
r
m
o
n
i
c
s
G
e
n
e
r
a
l
e
x
p
r
e
s
s
i
o
n
f
o
r
s
t
a
t
i
c
a
n
d
d
y
n
a
m
i
c
e
c
c
e
n
t
r
i
c
i
t
y
i
n
a
n
i
n
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
ω
r
m
=
(
1

s
)
n
ω
s
e
/
p
ω
s
m
=
ω
r
m
[
(
n
N
r
±
k
e
)
(
1

s
)
±
p
k
]
E
q
u
a
t
i
o
n
(
8
.
3
5
)
.
S
i
d
e
b
a
n
d
s
a
t
p
l
u
s
o
r
m
i
n
u
s
s
l
i
p
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
m
a
y
o
c
c
u
r
a
n
d
c
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
s
d
u
e
t
o
U
M
P
(
s
e
e
a
b
o
v
e
)
C
o
m
m
u
t
a
t
o
r
f
a
u
l
t
s
i
n
D
C
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
ω
s
m
=
2
p
k
c
ω
r
m
f
o
r
l
a
p
w
o
u
n
d
ω
s
m
=
2
k
c
ω
r
m
f
o
r
w
a
v
e
w
o
u
n
d
U
n
b
a
l
a
n
c
e
d
r
o
t
o
r
c
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
s
a
l
s
o
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d
E
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
a
l
f
a
u
l
t
s
B
r
o
k
e
n
r
o
t
o
r
b
a
r
i
n
a
n
i
n
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
ω
r
m
±
2
n
s
ω
s
e
p
ω
s
m
=
_
ω
r
m
±
2
n
s
ω
s
e
p
_
D
i
f
f
i
c
u
l
t
t
o
d
e
t
e
c
t
b
e
c
a
u
s
e
o
f
s
m
a
l
l
a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
.
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
,
s
p
e
e
d
o
r
l
e
a
k
a
g
e
f
i
e
l
d
h
a
v
e
b
e
t
t
e
r
d
e
t
e
c
t
i
o
n
l
e
v
e
l
s
S
t
a
t
o
r
w
i
n
d
i
n
g
f
a
u
l
t
s
i
n
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
a
n
d
s
y
n
c
h
r
o
n
o
u
s
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
s
ω
s
m
=
p
ω
r
m
,
2
p
ω
r
m
,
4
p
ω
r
m
.
.
.
P
r
o
b
l
e
m
s
c
a
n
b
e
i
d
e
n
t
i
f
i
e
d
a
s
o
f
e
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
a
l
o
r
i
g
i
n
b
y
r
e
m
o
v
i
n
g
s
u
p
p
l
y
a
n
d
i
d
e
n
t
i
f
y
i
n
g
c
h
a
n
g
e
.
C
a
n
n
o
t
d
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
t
i
a
t
e
w
i
n
d
i
n
g
f
a
u
l
t
t
y
p
e
s
o
n
v
i
b
r
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
o
n
e
,
c
u
r
r
e
n
t
m
o
n
i
t
o
r
i
n
g
a
l
s
o
n
e
c
e
s
s
a
r
y
D
e
f
i
n
i
t
i
o
n
s
:
ω
s
m
=
m
e
c
h
a
n
i
c
a
l
v
i
b
r
a
t
i
o
n
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
o
n
t
h
e
s
t
a
t
o
r
s
i
d
e
;
ω
s
e
=
e
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
a
l
s
u
p
p
l
y
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
;
N
r
=
i
n
t
e
g
e
r
n
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
r
o
t
o
r
s
l
o
t
s
;
N
=
r
o
t
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
s
p
e
e
d
i
n
r
e
v
/
m
i
n
;
f
ω
r
m
=
2
π
N
6
0
m
e
c
h
a
n
i
c
a
l
r
o
t
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
,
H
z
;
ω
r
m
=
ω
s
e
/
p
f
o
r
a
s
y
n
c
h
r
o
n
o
u
s
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
;
ω
r
m
=
(
1

s
)
ω
s
e
/
p
f
o
r
a
n
a
s
y
n
c
h
r
o
n
o
u
s
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
s
=
a
s
y
n
c
h
r
o
n
o
u
s
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
r
o
t
o
r
s
p
e
e
d
s
l
i
p
,
0

1
;
p
=
p
o
l
e
p
a
i
r
s
;
n
=
a
n
i
n
t
e
g
e
r
;
k
e
=
e
c
c
e
n
t
r
i
c
i
t
y
o
r
d
e
r
,
z
e
r
o
f
o
r
s
t
a
t
i
c
e
c
c
e
n
t
r
i
c
i
t
y
,
l
o
w
i
n
t
e
g
e
r
v
a
l
u
e
1
,
2
,
3

f
o
r
d
y
n
a
m
i
c
e
c
c
e
n
t
r
i
c
i
t
y
;
k
=
s
p
a
c
e
h
a
r
m
o
n
i
c
o
f
t
h
e
s
t
a
t
o
r
w
i
n
d
i
n
g
M
M
F
,
1
,
3
,
5
,
7

;
n
b
=
n
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
r
o
l
l
i
n
g
e
l
e
m
e
n
t
s
;
d
b
=
r
o
l
l
i
n
g
e
l
e
m
e
n
t
d
i
a
m
e
t
e
r
;
D
b
=
r
o
l
l
i
n
g
e
l
e
m
e
n
t
p
i
t
c
h
;
φ
=
r
o
l
l
i
n
g
e
l
e
m
e
n
t
c
o
n
t
a
c
t
a
n
g
l
e
w
i
t
h
r
a
c
e
s
;
k
c
=
n
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
f
a
u
l
t
y
c
o
m
m
u
t
a
t
o
r
s
e
g
m
e
n
t
s
186 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
transientandelectrical transient. Thetorquetransientcaptureunitistriggeredbyany
suddenincreaseintheairgaptorqueor bysuddenchangesintheshaftangular vibra-
tionvelocities. Similarly, theelectrical transientiscapturedinresponsetoanysudden
changeinthevalueof thelinecurrents. Thecaptureddatacanthenbetransmittedfor
further analysis andevaluation. Thesoftwarereceives thecaptureddataanddeter-
minesthetorsional responseof theshaftandtheassociatedimpactonthefatiguelife
of theset. Theresultsobtainedinthiswaycanbeusedtoplanmaintenanceintervals
onthebasisof need, rather thanrisk catastrophicfailurewhentherehasbeenahigh
level of systemdisturbancesbetweenfixedoutages.
Data
processing and
analysis
Individual
shaft
torsional
responses
Fatigue life
extrapolation
Line voltage
signals
Line current
signals
Shaft velocity
signals
Maintenance
scheduling
Fi gure 8.15 Functi onal descr i pti on of tor si onal osci l l ati on moni tor i ng system
Themonitoringof torsional oscillationscanalsobeusedtodetectfaultsininduc-
tionmotors. Thespeedof aninductionmotordrivinganideal loadshouldbeconstant.
Perturbationsinloadandfaultswithintherotor circuit of themachinewill causethe
speedtofluctuate. If therotorisdefectivethespeedfluctuationwill occurattwicethe
slipfrequency. Thisisbecausethenormallytorque-producingslipfrequencycurrents
that flowintherotor windingareunabletoflowthroughthedefectivepart. Ineffect
thespeedfluctuations complement thetwicetheslipfrequency current fluctuation
describedinChapter 9. A defectiveinductionmachinewitharotor of infiniteinertia
will havetwicetheslipfrequencycurrentfluctuationsandnospeedvariation, whereas
alowinertiarotor will exhibit speedfluctuationsbut nocurrent fluctuation. Tavner
et al . reportedthismethod[43] developedbyGaydon., whichhasbeeninvestigated
further asthe‘instantaneousangular speed’ methodbyBenSasi et al . [44,45], anda
typical measurement result isshowninFigure8.16.
Vi br ati on moni tor i ng 187
S
p
e
e
d

w
a
v
e
f
o
r
m

P
S
D
,

d
B
0
−20
−40
−60
1.75
Hz
3.5 Hz
Pole pass speed
lower side band
at 27.7 Hz
Pole pass speed
upper side band
at 20.7 Hz
Rotor speed – 24.2 Hz
Frequency, Hz
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
−80
−100
−120
−140
−160
−180
Fi gure 8.16 Rotor speed spectr um from an i nducti on motor wi th a rotor bar faul t.
[ Taken from Ben Sasi et al . [ 44] ]
8.6.5 Shock pul se moni tor i ng
Theshock pulsemethodis usedexclusively for detectingfaults inrollingelement
bearingsandisbasedontheprinciplesdescribedinSection8.5.2. Sincethelargest
proportion of electrical machine failures are ascribable to bearing problems (see
Table 3.2) and the majority of machines are smaller than 300 kW, this technique
is important for alargenumber of machines. As arolling element bearing deteri-
orates themoving surfaces develop small pits or imperfections and theinteraction
betweensuchsurfacesgeneratesmechanical stresswavesorshockpulsesinthebear-
ingmaterial, whichpropagateintotheframeandstructureof theelectrical machine.
Theseshockpulsesareatultrasonicfrequenciesandcanbedetectedbypiezoelectric
transducerswithastrongresonantfrequencycharacteristictunedtotheexpectedfre-
quency of thepulses at around32kHz. Toincreasethesensitivity of theelectronic
conditioning, thetransducer istunedtothisresonant frequency. A peak holdcircuit
enablesthemaximumvalueof theshockpulsetoberecorded, whichistakentobea
measureof theconditionof therollingelementbearing. Thisconditionof thebearing
isassessedbydefiningaquantityknownastheshockpulsevalue(SPV) definedas:
SPV =
R
N
2
F
2
(8.36)
whereR is theshock pulsemeter reading, N is theshaft speed in rev/min, and F
is the factor relating to bearing geometry. Low values indicate bearings in good
condition. Generallythetechniqueisbest usedinconjunctionwithoverall vibration
level monitoring, andTable8.6canbeusedtogivequalitativeguidanceonthebearing
condition.
188 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Tabl e 8.6 Shock pul se i nter pretati on
Overall vibrationlevel
trend
Shockpulsevaluetrend Comments
Lowandrising Remainslow Nobearingdamage
Lowandrising Lowbut risingat thesame
rateastheoverall vibration
level
Bearingdamagelikely
Lowandrising Highvaluebut constant Damagedbearingbut another
problemiscausingtherising
vibration
Tandonet al . [46,47] describethedevelopment of rollingelement bearingmoni-
toringincludingvibration, acousticandshockpulsemethods. Thereisatechniquefor
assessingthethicknessof theoil orgreasefilmintherollingelementbearing, basedon
theexperimental evidencethat theshockpulsevalueincreases, inapproximatelythe
manner showninFigure8.17, asafunctionof thepercentageof drycontact timeper
revolution. Thedrycontact timewasmeasuredbymonitoringcurrent flowbetween
theinner andouter racesof atest bearingandcurrent flowtakenasanindicationof
drycontact.

D
r
y

r
u
n
n
i
n
g

t
i
m
e
,

%
0
50
100
Dry running value
Shock pulse value
0dB −10 −20 −30 −40
Fi gure 8.17 Shock pul se val ue as a functi on of dr y r unni ng ti me per revol uti on
Vi br ati on moni tor i ng 189
Stack et al . [30] classify motor bearingfaults illustratingtheunpredictableand
broadband natureof theeffects produced, emphasising its significance, becausea
successful bearingcondition-monitoringschememust beableto reliably detect all
classesof faults. Thequantitativeevaluationof bearingsusingtheshockpulsemethod
thereforeremainsdifficult.
8.7 Conclusion
Vibration measurement is at the heart of the monitoring of rotating machines.
Although electrical machines are generally low-vibration devices, they may be
coupled to high-vibration primemovers or driven plant viaflexiblecouplings and
mounted on separatefoundations viaresilient mounts. Theexcitation of electrical
machinevibration is generally mechanical unbalanceor harmonic electromagnetic
forces originating fromthemachineairgap. Theresponseof themachineto these
excitingforcesdependsontheprecisecouplingandmountingof themachine.
Vibrationmonitoringandshockpulseanalysisarenon-invasivebutuseanumber
of specialisedsensors, broadbandwidthandcomplexanalysis. Thepreciseselection
andlocationof sensorsisvery important. However, becauseof itswideapplication
inother rotatingmachines vibrationanalysis has establisheditself as areliableand
widelyacceptedtechniquefor electrical machinesandshockpulseanalysis, andalso
(particularlyforbearings) becauseitiscapableof differentiatingbetweenmechanical
andelectromagnetic excitationforces, whichis invaluableindetectingroot causes
beforetheydevelopintofailuremodes. Motor speedhasbeenanalysedusinginstan-
taneousangular speedtodetectrotor electrical faultsbuthasnotbeenwidelyusedby
operators. Thefollowingchapter will showthecloserelationshipbetweenvibration
andelectrical monitoringof themachine.
8.8 Refer ences
1. Alger P.L. The Nature of I nducti on Machi nes. NewYork: GordonandBeach;
1965.
2. J ordanH. The Low Noi se El ectr i c Motor . Essen: Springer Verlag; 1950.
3. Erdelyi E. andErieP.A. Vibrationmodesof statesof inductionmotors. ASME
Tr ansacti ons 1956; A-28: 39–45.
4. YangS. Low Noi se El ectr i c Motor s. Oxford, UK: ClarendonPress; 1981.
5. Timoshenko S. Vi br ati on Probl ems i n Engi neer i ng. NewYork: J ohnWiley &
Sons, VanNostrandInc.; 1974.
6. PenmanJ ., ChalmersB.J . etal (1981). Theperformanceof solidsteel secondary
linearinductionmachines. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on Power Appar atus and Systems
1981; PAS-100: 2927–35.
7. HagueB. Pr i nci pl es of El ectromagneti sm Appl i ed to El ectr i cal Machi nes. New
York: Dover; 1962.
8. Stafl M. El ectrodynami cs of El ectr i cal Machi nes. Prague: Academia; 1967.
190 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
9. BinnsK.J . andDyeM. Identificationof principal factorsaffectingunbalanced
magnetic pull in cageinduction motors. I EE Proceedi ngs, Par t B 1973; 120:
349–54.
10. SwannS.A. Effect of rotor eccentricity onthemagnetic fieldof anon-salient
polemachine. I EE Proceedi ngs 1963; 110: 903–15.
11. Rai R.B. Ai rgap Eccentr i ci ty i n I nducti on Motor s. ERA Report, 1974: 1174–88.
12. BinnsK.J . Coggingtorquesininductionmachines. I EE Proceedi ngs 1968; 115:
1783–90.
13. LimC.Y. Characteristics of reluctance motors. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on Power
Appar atus and Systems 1951; PAS-70: 1971–8.
14. Williamson S. and Smith A.C. Field analysis for rotating induction machines
andits relationshipto theequivalent circuit method. I EE Proceedi ngs, Par t B
1980; 127: 83–90.
15. VasP. Par ameter Esti mati on, Condi ti on Moni tor i ng and Di agnosi s of El ectr i cal
Machi nes. Oxford, UK: ClarendonPress; 1996.
16. Carpenter C.J . Sur face I ntegr al Methods of Cal cul ati ng Force on Magneti zed
I ron Par ts. IEE MonographNo. 342, 1959.
17. Brandl P. Forces ontheendwindings of AC machines. Brown Bover i Revi ew
1980; 2: 128–34.
18. Ohtaguro M., Yagiuchi K. andYamaguchi H. Mechanical behaviour of stator
endwindings. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on Power Appar atus and Systems 1980; PAS-
99: 1181–5.
19. WilliamsonS.andEllisM.R.E.Influenceof rotorcurrentsonend-windingforces
incagemotor. I EE Proceedi ngs, Par t B, El ectr i c Power Appl i cati ons 1988; 135:
371–9.
20. Campbell J .J ., Clark P.E., McShane I. E. and Wakeley K. Strains on motor
endwindings. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on I ndustr y Appl i cati ons 1984; I A-20:
37–44.
21. Wort J .F.G. The fundamentals of industrial balancing machines and their
applications. Br uel and Kj aer Revi ew 1981; 1: 3–31.
22. International Organization for Standardization. Mechanical vibration–balance
quality requirements for rotors inaconstant (rigid) state. Part 1: Specification
andverificationof balancetolerances. ISO1940-1. International Organization
for Standardization, Geneva, 2003.
23. SmartM.G., Friswell M.I. andLeesA.W. Estimatingturbogenerator foundation
parameters: model selectionandregularization.Proceedi ngsof theRoyal Soci ety
A: Mathemati cal , Physi cal and Engi neer i ng Sci ences 2000; 456: 1583–607.
24. DimentbergF.M. Fl exur al Vi br ati ons of Rotati ng Shafts. London: Butterworths;
1961.
25. Walker D.N., Bowler C.E.J ., J acksonR.L. andHodgesD.A. Resultsof subsyn-
chronous resonancetest at Mohave. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on Power Appar atus
and Systems 1975; PAS-94: 1878–89.
26. Walker D.N., Adams S.L. and Placek R.J . Torsional vibration and fatigueof
turbine-generator shafts. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on Power Appar atus and Systems
1981; PAS-100: 4373–80.
Vi br ati on moni tor i ng 191
27. J oyceJ . S. andLambrechtD. Statusof evaluatingthefatigueof largesteamtur-
binegenerationcausedbyelectrical disturbances. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on Power
Appar atus and Systems 1980; PAS-99: 111–19.
28. Cudworth C.J ., Smith J .R. and Mykura F. Mechanical damping of torsional
vibrations inturbogenerators dueto network disturbances. Proceedi ngs of the
I nsti tuti on of Mechani cal Engi neer s 1984: 139–145.
29. Collacott R.A. Vi br ati on Moni tor i ng and Di agnosti cs. London: G. Godwin;
1979.
30. StackJ .R., HabetlerT.G.andHarley, R.G.Faultclassificationandfaultsignature
productionforrollingelementbearingsinelectricmachines. I EEE Tr ansacti ons
on I ndustr y Appl i cati ons 2004; I A-40: 735–9.
31. Ehrich F. and Childs D. Self-excited vibration in high-performanceturboma-
chinery. Mechani cal Engi neer i ng 1984; 106: 66–79.
32. VereinDeutscherIngenieure.BeurteilungsmaßstäbefürmechanischeSchwingun-
genvonMaschinen. VDI 2056. VDI Dusseldorf, Germany: VereinDeutscher
Ingenieure1964.
33. International Organization for Standardization. Mechanical vibration – Eval-
uation of machinevibration by measurements on non-rotating parts – Part 1:
General guidelines. ISO10816-1:1995. ISO, Geneva, 1995.
34. Canadian Government. Vibration Limits for Maintenance. Specification
CDA/MS/NVSH/107. Ohawa, Canada, CanadianGovernment.
35. NealeN. andAssociates. A Gui de to the Condi ti on Moni tor i ng of Machi ner y.
London: Her Majesty’sStationaryOffice; 1979.
36. MayesI.W.Useof neutral networksforonlinevibrationmonitoring.Proceedi ngs
of the I nsti tuti on of Mechani cal Engi neer s Par t A, Jour nal of Power and Energy
1994; 208: 267–74.
37. Herbert R.G. Computer techniques appliedto theroutineanalysis of rundown
vibrationdatafor conditionmonitoringof turbine-alternators. Br i ti sh Jour nal of
Non-Destr ucti ve Testi ng 1986; 28: 371–5.
38. SmartM.G., Friswell M.I. andLeesA.W. Estimatingturbogenerator foundation
parameters: model selectionandregularization.Proceedi ngsof theRoyal Soci ety
A: Mathemati cal , Physi cal and Engi neer i ng Sci ences 2000; 456: 1583–607.
39. Dorrell, D. G., W. T. ThomsonandRoachS. Analysis of airgapflux, current,
and vibration signals as a function of the combination of static and dynamic
airgapeccentricityin3-phaseinductionmotors. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on I ndustr y
Appl i cati ons 1997; I A-33: 24–34.
40. HargisC. Steady-stateanalysisof 3-phasecagemotorswithrotor-bar andend-
ringfaults. I EE Proceedi ngs, Par t B, El ectr i c Power Appl i cati ons 1983; 130:
225.
41. Nandi S., Bharadwaj R.M., Toliyat H.A. andParlos A.G. Performanceanaly-
sisof athree-phaseinductionmotor under mixedeccentricity condition. I EEE
Tr ansacti ons on Energy Conver si on 2002; EC-17: 392–9.
42. Trutt F.C., SottileJ . and Kohler J .L. Detection of AC machinewinding dete-
rioration using electrically excited vibrations. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on I ndustr y
Appl i cati ons 2001; I A-37: 10–14.
192 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
43. Tavner P.J ., Gaydon B.G. and Ward D.M. (1986). Monitoring generators and
largemotors. I EE Proceedi ngs, Par t B, El ectr i c Power Appl i cati ons 1986; 133:
169–80.
44. BenSasi A.Y., GuF., Li. Y. andBall A.D. A validatedmodel for theprediction
of rotor bar failureinsquirrel-cagemotors usinginstantaneous angular speed.
Jour nal of Mechani cal Systems and Si gnal Processi ng 2006; 20: 1572–89.
45. BenSasi A.Y., GuF., Payne, B.S. andBall A.D. Instantaneous angular speed
monitoringof electric motors. Jour nal of Qual i ty i n Mai ntenance Engi neer i ng
2004; 10: 123–35.
46. TandonN. andNakraB.C. Comparisonof vibrationandacousticmeasurement
techniquesfor theconditionmonitoringof rollingelement bearings. Tr i bol ogy
I nter nati onal 1992; 25: 205–12.
47. TandonN., YadavaG.S. andRamakrishnaK.M. A comparisonof somecondi-
tionmonitoringtechniques for thedetectionof defect ininductionmotor ball
bearings. Mechani cal Systems and Si gnal Processi ng 2007; 21: 244–56.
Chapter 9
Electr ical techniques: cur r ent, flux and power
monitor ing
9.1 I ntr oduction
Chapter 1 explained that electromechanical protective relays were the earliest
electrical techniquefor monitoringmotors. Thetechnologyof thesedevicesisdated,
their purposebeingexclusively to detect gross perturbations intheelectrical quan-
tities at theterminals of themachineto protect against catastrophic damage. They
arenowlargely being replaced by digital protection devices detecting voltageand
current perturbations, asdescribedinChapter 1(seeFigure1.2).
Within the machine the magnetic flux varies, circumferentially in the airgap,
periodicallyinspaceand, for anACmachine, periodicallywithtime, asdescribedin
Chapter 8. Under ideal conditionsthismagneticfluxwaveformwill besymmetrical
but electrical faults inthemachinewill distort it. Rotor faults couldbedetectedby
electrical sensorsfixedtotherotor, andstator faultscouldbedetectedby electrical
sensors fixed to the stator. Faults on either rotor or stator disrupt the radial and
circumferential patterns of flux inthemachinecausingchanges tothepower being
fedtothemachine, whichcanbedetectedviaitsterminal quantities– voltage, current
andpower – measuredoutsidethemachinetogiveanindicationof itscondition. In
effect, this is a more prolonged and detailed process than that conceived of in a
digital protectionrelay. Inthefollowingsectionswedescribeanumber of thesenew
techniques.
9.2 Gener ator and motor stator faults
9.2.1 Gener ator stator wi ndi ng faul t detecti on
Themost significant techniqueinthis areais on-linedischargedetection, whichis
dealt withinChapter 10.
9.2.2 Stator cur rent moni tor i ng for stator faul ts
This work, mostly concerned with motors, is connected with the earlier work
describedinChapter 8ontheeffect of faults onvibrations, whichalso considered
rotor eccentricitybut isnowextendedtoconsider stator windingfaults, seeworkby
194 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Rai [1], Dorrell et al . [2], Hargis [3] andNandi et al . [4]. Thework is also closely
associatedwiththedetectionof rotor windingfaultsdescribedinSection9.4.3. The
theoretical work, verifiedbylaboratoryexperimentswasstartedbyPenmanet al . [5]
andcontinuedwithPenmanandStavrou[6], who concentratedprimarily onstator
windingfaults. Thomsonet al . [7–9]thentookupthepractical applicationof thework
to machines inindustrial applications but withtheparticular intentionof detecting
rotor eccentricity, whichcouldindicatethedeteriorationof machinebearings, oneof
thecommonfailuremodesof electrical machinesasset out inChapter 3.
9.2.3 Br ushgear faul t detecti on
Brushgear, in those machines that use it, requires a steady maintenance commit-
ment if goodperformancewiththeminimumof sparkingis tobemaintained. Poor
performancecanbedetectedby measuringbrushor brush-holder temperaturebut a
moredirect methodwouldbetodetect theradiofrequency(RF) energygeneratedby
sparking, asdescribedbyMichiguchi et al . [10]. Theyusedawide-bandwidthdipole
antennaconnectedtoanRFamplifierwithabandwidthof 10–100MHz, theoutputof
whichwasrectified. Theprocessingelectronicsmeasuredtheareaunder anypulses
of RF power thatenter themonitor asaresultof sparkingactivityatthebrushes. The
monitor therebyproducesachart recordshowingtheaverageareaof sparkingpulse
andMichiguchi relatesthistoa‘spark number’ indicatinganintensity of sparking.
Maintenancestaff usethisindicationtodecidewhenbrushesshouldbechanged.
9.2.4 Rotor -mounted search coi l s
Wehavenot foundanytechniquesreportedfor detectingstator faultsbysearchcoils
mountedupontherotor. Nodoubt theusefulnessof thistechniqueisaffectedbythe
needtomount expensiveinstrument slipringsontherotor anditseffectivenesswill
belimitedbythereliabilityof themeasurementbrushgear, which, aswill bedescribed
inthesectiononshaft voltages, isnotoriouslypoor.
9.3 Gener ator r otor faults
9.3.1 Gener al
Therotorsof largeturbinegeneratorsareparticularlyhighlyratedbecauseof thelarge
mechanical andelectrical stressesplaceduponthem, inparticularthehighcentrifugal
forces onthewindingandtherelatively hightemperatures attainedinthewinding
insulation. Consequentlythat part of themachineisparticularlypronetofaultsthat,
asstatedinChapter 2, tendtodevelopover alongperiodof time. Therotor isalso
relativelyinaccessiblebothfor obtainingsignalsduringrunningandfor removal for
repair if afault isdetected. Thesefacts, takentogether withthehighvalueof turbine
generatorplant, havemeantthatmonitoringtechniquesforgeneratorrotorshavebeen
developedtoahighdegreeof sophistication. Someof thetechniques describedare
alsoapplicabletosmaller-output machines, but haveyet tobecomefullyaccepted.
El ectr i cal techni ques: cur rent, fl ux and power moni tor i ng 195
9.3.2 Ear th l eakage faul ts on-l i ne
Asingleearthleakagefaultonageneratorrotorwindingisnotseriousinitself, because
itcannotcauseanydamageastheearthleakagecurrentislimitedtoleakageresistance
of theexcitationsupply. However, if twowell-separatedearthfaultsoccur thenlarge
currentscanflow, leadingtosignificantdamagetothewinding, itsinsulationandthe
rotor forging. Theaimof arotor earthfault detector istoapplyaDC biasvoltageto
therotorwindingandmonitorthecurrentflowingtotherotorbodyviaanalarmrelay
(seeWarrington[11] andFigure9.1(a)). If suchanalarmoccurs, manyutilitieswould
consider that themachineshouldbeshut downsothat therotor canbeinvestigated.
However, operational pressures are such that this is often not possible, and it is
Rotor winding
Slip ring Slip ring
Rotor body
R
R
f
DC bias
voltage
Relay
Exiter
(a)
(b)
(c)
Rotor winding
Slip ring Slip ring
Rotor body
M
R
f
Meter
Exiter
Rotor winding
Slip ring Slip ring
Rotor body
R
f
R
m
V
1
V
2
Open
A
B
Switch
R
m
is a
measurement
resistor
R
f
is leakage
resistance to
earth at fault site
Fi gure 9.1 Detecti ng rotor ear th faul ts. (a) Use of an ear th l eakage rel ay. (b) Mon-
i tor i ng of an exi sti ng ear th faul t usi ng a potenti ometer. (c) Moni tor i ng
for a second ear th faul t by measur i ng resi stance to ear th from each end
of the wi ndi ng.
196 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
necessary to continuerunning theunit. Thenext step then is to monitor theearth
leakagecurrent andmanuallytriptheunit if thereisanyfurther increase, indicative
of asecondearthfault.
An alternative method is to use a potentiometer fed to earth via a sensitive
galvanometer makingabridgecircuit, asshowninFigure9.1(b). Astheearthfault
locationaltersorasecondfaultoccursthebridgeunbalancesandanindicationoccurs
onthemeter. Theproblemisthat thesecondearthfault may ariseclosetotheloca-
tion of thefirst fault and theresultant changein earth leakagecurrent may not be
particularlylarge.
A moresensitiveindicator of theonset of asecondearthfault is theresistance
of thewindingto earth, measuredfromeither terminal. Suchatechniquehas been
described using two voltmeters, V
1
and V
2
, as shown in Figure 9.1(c). When the
switchisopenthefaultposition, K , definedasthefractional positionupthewinding
fromthenegativeslipring, canbecalculated:
K =
V
1
V
1
+ V
2
(9.1)
When theswitch is closed to A thevoltages V
1
and V
2
will changeby an amount
dependingonthefault resistance, R
f
, andthecurrent flowingthroughthefault, I
f
,
sothat nowtheapparent positionK

isgivenby:
K

=
V

1
V
1
+ V

2
(9.2)
Fromtheapparent changein fault position K = K

− K , thevoltageacross the
faultresistancecanbecalculatedandfinallythefaultresistanceitself. Thisprocedure
canberepeatedbyconnectingthevoltmeterstotheother terminal of thewinding, by
closingtheswitchtoB. Thechoiceof terminal connectionisgovernedbytheinitial
faultposition, theobjectbeingtooptimisethemeasurementof thefaultresistanceR
f
.
Theschemecan beimplemented using amicroprocessor-based unit, which makes
themeasurement at eachterminal of thewindingat intervals of approximately 1s,
processestheresultsandpresentsinformationfor operatingstaff aswell asinitiating
relayindicationsif necessary.
9.3.3 Tur n-to-tur n faul ts on-l i ne
9.3.3.1 Air gap sear ch coils
Turn-to-turn faults in agenerator rotor winding may lead to local overheating and
eventually to rotor earth faults. In addition, the shorting of turns causes unequal
heating of the rotor leading to bending and an unbalanced pull, which together
cause increased vibration as described by Khudabashev [12]. Such faults can be
detected off-line by the method of recurrent surge oscillography, described in
Section 9.3.4, but away of detectingthemon-linewas first describedby Albright
[13] using astationary search coil fitted in theairgap of themachine. Thesearch
coil, of diameter less than the tooth-width of the rotor, is fixed to the stator usu-
ally in the airgap, and detects either the radial or circumferential component of
El ectr i cal techni ques: cur rent, fl ux and power moni tor i ng 197
(a)
(b)
Fi gure 9.2 Photogr aphs of two typi cal search coi l i nstal l ati ons i n l arge gener ator s
magnetic flux. Examples of two types of airgap search coil installation areshown
inFigure9.2.
Figure9.3showstypical waveformsobtainedfromaradial searchcoil inatwo-
polegenerator operatingonload. A normal two-polerotor will haveanevennumber
of windingslotsandwill producearadial fluxwave, B, intheairgapasfollows:
B =

n =1,3,5...
B
n
sinnωt +

m even
B
m
sinmωt (9.3)
Thisisthenormal MMF wavetoothripple.
198 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Time
Time
(a)
(b)
E
M
F
,

E

w
a
v
e
f
o
r
m
F
l
u
x

w
a
v
e
f
o
r
m

=

i
n
t
e
g
r
a
l

o
f

E

w
r
t

t
i
m
e
Fi gure 9.3 Typi cal vol tage and fl ux wavefor ms obtai ned from a gener ator ai r
gap search coi l . (a) Search coi l vol tage wavefor m. (b) Fl ux wavefor m
obtai ned by i ntegr ati ng (a).
Thesearchcoil normal EMF waveformper turnof thesearchcoil will be:
e
nor mal
(t ) = A
dB
dt
=

n =1,3,5...
AnωB
n
cosnωt normal MMF wave
+

m even
AmωB
n
cosmωt normal toothrippleMMF wave (9.4)
El ectr i cal techni ques: cur rent, fl ux and power moni tor i ng 199
whereA is theeffectivesearchcoil area. Then oddharmonics areduetothewave
shapeof theMMF waveintheairgapandaredependent uponthespreadof winding
slotsover therotor polepitch. Them evenharmonicsareduetotherotor toothripple
that ispresent inthevoltagewaveform.
Whenashortedturnoccurstwothingshappen. First it disturbstheMMF distri-
bution, causinglow-order evenharmonics or anasymmetry intheflux andsearch
coil voltagewaveforms. Secondit disruptsthen
th
order slot rippleharmonics. This
isshowninthesearchcoil faultywaveformasfollows:
e
faul t
(t ) =

n =1,3,5...
AnωB
n
cosnωt normal MMF wave
+

=2,4,6... dependent on fault location
AωB

cosωt fault assymmetricMMF wave
+

m=even
AmωB
m
cosmωt normal toothrippleMMF wave
+

p = ±1,±3
A(m + p)ωB
n
cos(m + p)ωt fault toothrippleMMF wave
(9.5)
Theheightsof thecorrespondingpeaksandtroughsintheripplewill changeso
that thesearchcoil voltagewill no longer besymmetrical about zero. Inprinciple,
thechanges in theheights of thepeaks and troughs can beused to determinethe
number andlocationof anyshortedturnsandthisiswhatAlbrightdidinhisoriginal
paper. Heidentifiedfaults by measuringthepeak heights of theripplefromstored
oscilloscopewaveforms, recordedunder open- andshort-circuit test conditions. He
didnot consider that waveformsobtainedwiththegenerator on-loadcouldprovide
thesensitivityrequiredtodetectshortedturns. Sincethattimeaconsiderablenumber
of large steamturbine-driven generators have been fitted with airgap search coils
andagreat deal moreexperiencehasbeenobtainedof detectingshortedturns. The
detectiontechniques havethereforebeenrefinedtodeal not only withthedifferent
typesandlocationsof searchcoilsbutalsotodetectshortedturnsunder bothoff-load
andon-loadconditions.
Newtechniqueshavebeendevelopedutilisingadigital storageoscilloscopecon-
nectedtothesearchcoil togiveaninitial indicationof thedevelopmentof aninter-turn
fault. Moredetailedanalysistechniquescanthenbeperformedoff-lineonthestored
anddownloadedwaveformstopositively identify andlocatethefaults. Theon-line
methodmeasures thesumof thefirst four evenharmonics of thesearchcoil wave-
form. Thepurposeis to identify any asymmetry intheMMF waveformcausedby
shortedturns. Themonitor producesananaloguesignal onachart recorder andthe
monitor can beadjusted so that any increaseaboveapreset level gives an alarm,
whichcanbeusedtoinitiateamoredetailedanalysis. Thesettingof thatpresetlevel
dependsuponthegenerator itself, itshistoryandthetypeof searchcoil fitted. Again
oneisfacedwiththeproblemsof determiningbackgroundlevels.
200 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Thethreemainmethodsof detailedanalysisof thesearchcoil waveformsyield
thefollowing:
• thedifferencebetweenthesearchcoil voltagewaveformandadelayedversion
of itself;
• the amplitude of the increments in the tooth ripple in the search coil voltage
waveform, usingthemethodof Albright [13];
• thefluxwaveformbyintegratingthesearchcoil voltagewaveform.
BeforethesecanbedonethewaveformisFourieranalysedintoitsreal andimaginary
components. Ithasbeenshownthatthewaveformobtainedfromasearchcoil atone
radial positionintheairgapcanbemodifiedtopredict thewaveformif thecoil were
atanother positioncloser totherotor. Thisisparticularlyhelpful for coilsfittedclose
to thestator surface, wheretherotor toothripplemay bevery small. It also allows
results fromdifferent sizes anddesigns of machines to becomparedonacommon
basis. Thedifferencewaveformcanbecalculatedfromthedigitisedcomponentsof
thesearchcoil voltageandthiswaveformcanbeplottedout toshowthepresenceof
afault asshowninFigure9.4.
Theincremental voltagesarecalculatedbymeasuringthevoltageheightbetween
thepeaksandtroughsof eachtoothrippleassociatedwitheachpoleof thewinding
and theheights aremeasured on thesideof theripplefurthest fromthepoleface.
Theseincremental voltagescanbeplottedout asahistogramover therotor surface
together withahistogramof thedifferencesbetweenthevoltagesover onepoleand
thenext asshowninFigure9.5.
Thefluxwaveformisfoundbyintegratingthevoltagewaveform. Distortionsof
theflux waveformcanbebrought tolight either by direct inspectionor by carrying
outthedifferenceproceduredescribedaboveforthesearchcoil waveform. Computer
simulationsandthepractical experienceof measuringsearchcoil voltagewaveforms
suggest that themagnitudeof theasymmetry inthesearchcoil waveformproduced
byafault dependsupontheloadaswell asthelocationandnumber of shortedturns.
This is because the degree of saturation affects the magnitude of the rotor tooth
ripple, which varies with load and with position around the rotor circumference.
In the absence of saturation the asymmetric component would be expected to be
proportional torotor current. However, magneticsaturationof theshortedturnhasa
significant effect, sothat for someloadsandlocationsof shortedturnthemagnitude
of theasymmetryactuallydecreaseswithincreasingrotor current.
9.3.3.2 Cir culating cur r ent measur ement
Analternativewayof monitoringfor sortedturns, whichisstill under development,
usesthestator windingitself asthesearchcoil. Theprincipleof thistechnique, first
suggestedbyKryukhin[14], hasbeendevelopedandfittedtoanumber of generators
in theUK. This techniquemakes useof thefact that in largetwo-polegenerators,
eachphaseof thestator windingconsistsof twohalf-phasewindingsinparallel. Any
asymmetryintherotorMMFwill inducecounter-MMFcurrentsinthestatorwinding
withatwicefundamental frequency, whichwill circulatebetweenthehalf-phases.
El ectr i cal techni ques: cur rent, fl ux and power moni tor i ng 201
Faulted coil
Faulted coil
20 ms
b
a
20 ms
a
b b
b
(a)
(b)
E
M
F

d
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
c
e

w
a
v
e
f
o
r
m
E
M
F

w
a
v
e
f
o
r
m
Fi gure 9.4 Effect of del ayi ng and addi ng the wavefor m from a search coi l fi tted to a
faul ty machi ne. (a) Predi cted search coi l vol tage cl ose to rotor sur face.
(b) Di fference wavefor m obtai ned by del ayi ng a) hal f a cycl e and addi ng
to i tsel f.
Thepresenceof shortedturnsisdetectedbymeasuringthoseevenharmoniccurrents.
Thesizeof thecurrentsdependsupontheseverityof theshortedturns, thecoupling
between rotor and stator and the impedance of the stator winding to the currents.
This approachhas beendevelopedby others withsupportinganalysis, for example
by Pöyhönenet al . [15], but has beensubsumedinto themorepopular analysis of
inductionmotors.
It canbeshownthat theEMF, e(t ), inducedacross astator half-phasewinding
duetoasingleshortedturn, spanninganangle, 2β, onatwo-polerotor isgivenby:
e(t ) =

0
ω
πCg
NI r
ai rgap
L

n =1,3,5...
1
n
k
wn
sinnβ cos(nωt ) (9.6)
202 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Slot numbers showing a fault
1
6
4
1
1
6
4
1
−7
6
−7
6
(a)
(b)
E
M
F

i
n
c
r
e
m
e
n
t
s
D
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
c
e

i
n

E
M
F

i
n
c
r
e
m
e
n
t
s
Fi gure 9.5 Method of i ncremental vol tages proposed by Al br i ght [ 13] . (a) I ncre-
mental vol tages obtai ned from previ ous fi gure. (b) Di fferences i n
i ncremental vol tages between pol es obtai ned from Fi gure (a) above.
whereNI is theampere-turns of theshort, ω is therotational frequency, N is the
number of stator turnsinseriesper half phase, r
ai rgap
isthemeanradiusof theairgap,
L istheactivelengthof therotor, C istheCarter factor toaccount for slotting, g is
thewidth of theairgap, β is thehalf anglesubtendedby theshortedturn, n is the
harmonicnumber, andk
wn
isthestator windingfactor for then
th
harmonic.
TheEMF inducedintheoppositehalf-phasewinding, onthesamephase, will
be of the same formbut the termcos(nωt ) will be replaced by one of the form
cos(nωt −nπ). Theoddharmonicsof theEMFsinthetwohalf-phaseswill therefore
beof thesamesignandsowhenthehalf-phasesareconnectedinparallel they will
aid one another, forming the terminal voltage due to that shorted turn. The even
harmonicswill beof theoppositesignandsowill drivecirculatingcurrentsbetween
thehalf phases. Thecurrentsareflowinginthestator winding, rotatingat thesame
El ectr i cal techni ques: cur rent, fl ux and power moni tor i ng 203
speedastherotor, effectivelyreplacingtherotor shortedturn. Thesecondharmonic
circulatingcurrentthatflowsinthestator, i
2C
, canberelatedtothesecondharmonic
EMF, e
2
, inducedbytheshortedturn, providingthesecondharmonicimpedance, X
2
,
of thewindingisknown. Theimpedancetosecondharmoniccurrents, X
2
, isgivenby
X
2
= X
m2
+ X
2
(9.7)
where X
m2
is the second harmonic magnetising reactance and X
2
is the second
harmonicleakagereactance.
For atypical largemachineithasbeenshownthatX
2
= 0.516pu. Thereforefor a
singleshortedturnspanninganangleof 2β ontherotor thesecondharmoniccurrent
circulatinginthestator windingisapproximatedby
i
2C
=
e
2
sin2β
0.516
(9.8)
Thecurrentsaredetectedusingair-coredRogowski coilswrappedaroundthewinding
andadiagramof anon-linemonitor for doingthisisshowninFigure9.6.
Anadvantageof thisnewtechnique, whencomparedtoairgapsearchcoils, isthat
thecurrenttransducerscanbeinstalledwithouttheneedtoremovetherotor fromthe
generator. For manygeneratorsthehalf-phasewindingsarejoinedwithinthecooling
pressurecasinginafairlyrestrictedspacethat requiresspecial arrangementstogain
access. However, onsomemachinesthehalf-phasewindingsarejoinedoutsidethe
casing, sofittingof theRogowski coilsbecomessimpler. Caremustof coursebetaken
toprovideappropriatehigh-voltageinsulationandelectrostaticscreeningbetweenthe
Rogowski coil andtheconductor. A disadvantageof thecirculatingcurrent method,
however, isthat it doesnot giveinformationontheturnlocation, whereastheairgap
searchcoil methoddoes.
Line end
One phase of generator
stator warning
Neutral end
Differential
amplifier
100 Hz band
pass filter Rectifier
Meter
Chart recorder
Integrators
Fi gure 9.6 Conti nuous moni tor for use on ci rcul ati ng cur rent Rogowski coi l s
204 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Neither theairgapsearchcoil nor theRogowski coil methodsappear tohavebeen
appliedtomulti-polehydro-typegeneratorsor evenfour-poleturbine-typemachines.
Nodoubt applicationswill evolveasoperational circumstancesdemandthem.
9.3.4 Tur n-to-tur n and ear th l eakage faul ts off-l i ne
Surgetechniques havebeenusedfor many years by transformer manufacturers for
locatingfaultsinwindings. Morerecentlyturbinegeneratormanufacturershaveused
similar techniquesfor pinpointingfaultsintheir rotor windings, asaqualitycontrol
check immediately after a rotor has been assembled. Work in the former Central
ElectricityGeneratingBoardshowedthatsuchatechniquecanbeusedtodetectboth
earthleakageandturn-to-turnfaultsongeneratorsduringtheir servicelives, which
usedamercury-wettedcontactrelaytodeveloprecurrent, rapidrisetime(circa20ns)
surgesthatwereinjectedintothewindingbetweentheslip-ringandtheearthedbody
of therotor. Figure9.7(a) shows this recurrent surgegenerator, which is switched
onandoff at afrequencyof 50Hz, whileFigure9.7(b) showstheconnectionof the
generator totherotor winding. Thewindingapproximatestoasimpletransmission
linewherethepropagationisdominatedbythegeometryandinsulationof thewinding
conductor intherotor slot. Mutual couplingbetweenturnsof thewindingwill cause
dispersionbut thiseffect hasbeenfoundtobesmall insolid-steel rotors. Whenthe
surgeisinjectedat oneendit hasamagnitudedeterminedbythesourceimpedance,
R, of therecurrent surgegenerator andthesurgeimpedanceof thewinding, Z
0
. The
surgepropagatestothefar endof thewindinginatime, t , determinedbythelength
and propagation velocity of thewinding. Thesurgeis reflected at thefar end, its
magnitudedetermined by thereflection coefficient, k
r
. For awinding with thefar
endopen-circuited, k
r
= 1andwithit short-circuitedk
r
= −1. Thereflectedsurge
returnstothesourceandif thesourceimpedanceequalsthesurgeimpedanceof the
winding(k
r
= 0atsource), itisabsorbedwithoutfurther reflection. Thisisshownin
Figure9.8(a).
Whenaninsulationfaulttoearthoraturn-to-turnfaultisencountered, thisreflec-
tionpatternwill bedisruptedandmay beobservedontheoscilloscope. Thepattern
on theoscilloscopeis known as arecurrent surgeoscillograph (RSO) and this has
becomethenameof thetechnique. Therisetimeof thesurgewill affectthemethod’s
sensitivity andmust beless thanthepropagationtimeof thesurge-front througha
singlewindingturnfor sharpreflectiontooccur.
Figure9.7(b) showsresultsobtainedfromthepractical applicationof thismethod.
ThesourceimpedanceR was adjustedto beequal to thewindingsurgeimpedance
andasurgeof between10and100V wasappliedwitharisetimeof 20ns.
The surge was injected into each end of the winding, with the far-end open-
circuited, and two reflection traces wereobtained as shown in parts (i) and (ii) of
Figure9.8(b), either of whichshouldbecomparedto theideal responseof part (i)
of Figure9.8(a). Theresults showthedistortion of thetraceas aresult of disper-
sionandthelack of surgesharpness. Faultsareindicatedby superimposingthetwo
tracesandobservinganydeviationsbetweenthem, asshowninparts(ii) and(iii) of
Figure9.8(b).
El ectr i cal techni ques: cur rent, fl ux and power moni tor i ng 205
Rotor body
R
1
2
Rotor winding
Recurrent surge
generator see (a)
To oscilliscope
Channel 1
Channel 2
Frame
(a)
(b)
' S' is a mercury-wetted relay
Source voltage and ' R' must
be selected so that relay
rating is not exceeded
To rotor body
To slip rings
R S 10 k
10 k discharge
generator
100 µF
24 v
(typical)
50 Hz multivibrator
drive circuit
Slip ring Slip ring
Fi gure 9.7 Ar r angements for obtai ni ng a recur rent surge osci l l ogr aph from a rotor
wi ndi ng. (a) Recur rent surge gener ator. (b) Connecti on of the recur rent
surge gener ator to a rotor wi ndi ng.
Earth faults may beapproximately located by taking theratio of thetimes for
reflections fromthefault andfromtheendof thewinding. Similarly theelectrical
lengthof thewindingcanbeestimatedbymeasuringthetimefor thesurgetomake
asinglepassthroughthewinding. Thiscanbedonebyshort-circuitingthefar endof
thewindingtoobtainatracelikethat inpart (ii) of Figure9.8(a). Anyshorteningof
thelengthindicatesthat shortedturnsarepresent inthewinding.
Thesurgeimpedanceof arotor windingliesbetween20and30. A deviation
becomes observableon theRSO tracewhen theimpedanceto earth of thefault is
asignificantly small multipleof thesurgeimpedance. Ingeneral, thetechniquecan
detectfaultswithimpedancestoearthof lessthan500–600. Similarlythetechnique
206 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
V
o
l
t
a
g
e
V
o
l
t
a
g
e
Time
Response
E
Voltage step
E
Voltage step
Response
(i) Open-circuit line
t - time to traverse one length of the winding
E - start of reflection from winding end
0 t 2t 3t 4t 0 t 2t 3t 4t
Time
(ii) Short-circuited line
Y1
0 2t
Y2
0 2t
Y3
0 2t
0 2t
0 2t
0 2t
E F E
0 2t
F
E
(i) (ii) (iii)
X = 10 µs/div
Y1 - slip ring 3 to earth
Y2 - slip ring 4 to earth
Y3 Y1 & Y2 superimposed
E - start of reflection from
winding end (open
circuited)
F - start of reflection
from fault
Speed 0 rpm
Winding type: progressive
RSO for healthy rotor winding
X = 10 µs/div
Y1 - slip ring 1 to earth
Y2 - slip ring 2 to earth
Y3 Y1 & Y2 superimposed
X = 5 µs/div
ditto
RSO for faulted rotor winding
0 2t
0 2t
(a)
(b)
Fi gure 9.8 I deal and typi cal pr acti cal recur rent surge osci l l ogr aphs obtai ned
from gener ator rotor wi ndi ngs. (a) Appl i ed vol tages to rotor wi ndi ng.
(b) Typi cal responses for rotor wi ndi ng.
candetect aturn-to-turnfault that has aresistancesignificantly less thanthesurge
impedance, sayof theorder of 10 downtozero.
To carry out RSO measurements the generator must be isolated, the field de-
energisedandtheexciter connectiondisconnected. Itisknownthatmanyrotor faults
El ectr i cal techni ques: cur rent, fl ux and power moni tor i ng 207
areaffectedbybothgravitational andcentrifugal forcesupontheconductorsduring
rotation, soit iscommontocarryout thetestsstationary, at barringandat speedfor
comparisonpurposes. Thetest has nowbeenappliedby many utilities as aroutine
techniquefor assessingtheoperational stateof machinewindings, althoughitisclear
it cannot beusedfor brushlessmachineswithout therotor beingstationary.
Theadvantagesof thetechniquearethat withtheoscillographsit providesaper-
manent recordof thestateof arotor throughout itsservicelifeandit candetect both
earthandinter-turnfaultsbeforetheir resistancefallstoavaluewherelargefaultcur-
rentsflow. Experiencehasshownthat thedeteriorationof awindingcanbeassessed
byacomparisonbetweenoscillographsobtainedfromthesamerotor. It isnot possi-
ble, however, tomakecomparisonsbetweenoscillographsfromdifferentrotors, even
if theyareof thesamedesign, becauseof theeffectsonthesurgepropagationof quite
small variationsbetweentheinsulationandrotor bodypropertiesof different rotors.
Thedisadvantages arethat it detects faults of high resistanceand is unableto
differentiatebetweenfaultsthat areoperationally significant andthosethat arenot.
Also, itcannotbeusedon-line, testingthewindingundertrulyoperational mechanical
andthermal conditions. Thisisincontrasttotheeffectivenessof theairgapsearchcoil
orcirculatingcurrentmethodthatcanprovideon-lineinformation. Thereareanumber
of modernreferences that cover this andother techniques includingRamirez-Nino
andPascacio[16] andStreifel et al . [17].
9.4 M otor r otor faults
9.4.1 Gener al
Therotors of other electrical machines canbehighly stressed, thoughperhaps not
tothesamedegreeasturbinegenerators. Table2.4fromChapter 2showsthat large
inductionmotors canhavemechanical, electrical or magnetic loadings higher than
larger machinesandsquirrel cageor woundrotorshavehadproblems, astheexpe-
rience of Tavner et al . [18] shows. A number of both electrical and mechanical
techniques havedeveloped to monitor theseproblems. This section deals with the
electrical techniques.
9.4.2 Ai rgap search coi l s
Thework onairgapsearchcoils, describedinSection9.3.2, wasall onturbinegen-
eratorsbut thereisnoreasonwhysuchmethodscouldnot besuccessfullyappliedto
smaller machines. IndeedKamerbeek [19] hassuccessfully usedthemethodexper-
imentally onsmall inductionmotors but for measuringtorquerather thanmachine
faults. A paper bySeinsch[20] hasappliedthistechniquetoinductionmotorsusing
adistributedcoil onthestator.
9.4.3 Stator cur rent moni tor i ng for rotor faul ts
Although the technique of using a stator search coil has not been widely used, it
is possibleto usethestator winding itself as asearch coil, in asomewhat similar
208 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
way to themethoddescribedfor generators inSection9.3.3. Any rotor fault inan
induction motor will cause a characteristic swing in the supply ammeter reading,
whichmaintenancestaff havecometo recogniseas indicatingthat troubleis onits
way. Careful measurement of thestator current will thereforeenablesuchafault to
bemonitored.
Thecurrent drawnby anideal motor shouldhaveasinglecomponent of supply
frequency. Changesinloadwill modulatetheamplitudeof thecurrenttoproduceside
bands. Faultsintherotorcircuitwill generateasidebandbelowthesupplyfrequency
anddisplacedfromit by twicetheslipfrequency. This effect was describedinthe
references inTavner et al . [18] andanexplanationis givenhere. A motor winding
with p pole pairs and supply frequency ω
se
produces a fundamental stator radial
MMF wave, f
1
, at mechanical angleθ
1
containingoddharmonicsonly. Consider the
fundamental MMF wave
f
1
(t ) = N
1
I
1
sin(ω
se
t − pθ
1
) (9.9)
whereN
1
isthenumber of stator turnsandI
1
isthestator current.
Theangle, θ
2
, ontherotor isgivenby
θ
2
= θ
1
−ω
r m
t (9.10)
whereω
r m
istheangular speedof therotor andtherotational speedN = 60ω
r m
/2π,
sothat for ap polepair rotor therotor seestheMMF:
f
1
(t ) = N
1
I
1
sin[(ω
se
− pω
r m
)t − pθ
2
] (9.11)
This MMF rotates forwardwithrespect to therotor at theslipspeed; however,
under normal circumstances the rotor carries induced currents, which establish a
fundamental rotor MMF wave, f
2
, tocounter thestator MMF andmoveat thesame
speed:
f
2
(t ) = N
2
I
2
sin[(ω
se
− pω
r m
)t − pθ
2
] (9.12)
If therotor hasafault, suchasabrokenbar, theMMF duetotherotor current is
modulatedbysin2pθ
2
sothat:
f
2
(t ) = N
2
I
2
sin[(ω
se
− pω
r m
)t − pθ
2
] sin2pθ
2
(9.13)
Thereforefor ap polepair machine:
f
2
(t ) =
N
2
I
2
2
{cos[(ω
se
− pw
r m
)t −3pθ
2
] −cos[(ω
se
− pw
r m
)t + pθ
2
]} (9.14)
ReferringthisMMF tothestator, asthecounter to(9.11), using(9.10) gives
f
2
(t ) =
N
2
I
2
2
{cos[(ω
se
+2pω
r m
)t −3pθ
1
] −cos[(ω
se
−2pω
r m
)t + pθ
1
]}
(9.15)
El ectr i cal techni ques: cur rent, fl ux and power moni tor i ng 209
whichif weusethefractional slip
s =
_
ω
se
− pω
r m
ω
se
_
for ap polepair inductionmachinegives
θ
2
= θ
1

(1− s)
p
ω
se
t (9.16)
f
1
(t ) =
N
2
I
2
2
{(cos(3−2s)ω
se
t −3pθ
1
) −(cos(1−2s)ω
se
t − pθ
1
)} (9.17)
Notethat thesefundamental MMF waveequations(9.11) and(9.17) echoequations
(8.22) and (8.23) in Chapter 8 where all harmonic MMFs were considered in the
excitationof stator corevibrations by theairgapMMF waveactingontheboreof
thecore.
Thefirstcomponentof MMF in(9.17) induceszero-sequenceEMFsinthethree-
phasestator winding, becauseit contains3ω
se
t and3θ
1
, andgivesrisetonocurrent
contribution fromthe supply. The second component of MMF, however, induces
aproper three-phaseset of currents at thenormal supply frequency but contains a
component, or sideband, 2sω
se
belowthat frequency.
Thisistwicetheslipfrequency modulationof thesupply current that isseenas
theswingontheammeter reading. Suchacyclicvariationinthecurrent reactsback
ontotherotortoproduceatorquevariationattwicetheslipfrequencythat, if therotor
doesnothaveaninfinitelyhighinertia, givesrisetothe2spω
r m
variationinspeedor
2sω
se
variationinmechanical vibration, that canalsobeusedfor fault detectionas
describedinChapter 8, Section8.6.4. Thisspeedeffect reducesthelower sideband,
(1−2s)ω
se
, currentswingandproducesanupper sidebandat(1+2s)ω
se
, enhanced
bymodulationof thethirdharmonicfluxinthestator andit canbeshownthat other
sidebandsat(1±2ns)ω
se
arealsofound. Theratioof thelower sidebandamplitude
to themain supply frequency component gives astraightforward indication of the
extent of rotor damage, asdescribedbyJ ufer andAbdulaziz. [21].
The supply current can be monitored very easily, without interfering with the
machine, simply by fittingaclip-oncurrent transformer aroundthesupply cableto
themotor or aroundthecableof theprotectioncurrent transformer usedtomonitor
themotor current, seeFigure9.9. Thenormal procedureistouseaspectrumanalyser
packageinaPC connectedviaanA/Dconverter tothecurrent transformer. Surveys
of thesupply currents to anumber of motors can betaken at regular intervals, or
whenafault is suspected. Figure9.10shows thepower spectral density (PSD) for
thecurrent fromtwo identical machines. Themotor in Figure9.10(a) had arotor
fault corresponding to threefractured cagebars, shown by spectral components at
about 48, 49, 51and52Hz; that is, aslipfrequency of 0.5Hz for n = 1or 1Hz
for n = 2 and a slip s of 1 per cent, with side bands described by (1± 2ns)f
se
.
Thelower sideband, duetotheMMF modulation, canclearlybedistinguishedfrom
thesupplyfrequencyandanestimateof thefault severitycanbemadebytakingthe
ratiobetweentheamplitudesof thelower sidebandandthefundamental frequency.
210 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
3 phase supply
Regular portable monitor
A
f
Load
Occasional monitor
spectrum analyser
Motor
To alarm system
and control room
A to D
converter
Digital
spectrum
analyser
Software to
detect spectral
peaks
Fi gure 9.9 Detecti ng si de bands i n the suppl y cur rent of an i nducti on motor
Becausethecurrentmeasuringtechniquelooksintothemotor fromtheterminalsitis
alsopossibletoseebeyondtheelectrical circuitsanddetect faultsonthemechanical
loadtrainsuchasworngear teeth, whichthemotor isdriving. Figure9.10(a) showsa
widerfrequencyrangecurrentspectrumfromthemotor, withno(1−2s) component,
indicatingrotor damage, but other sidebandsduetothemotor drivingaloadwitha
damagedgearbox.
Interpretation of the current spectrumrequires a relatively skilled operator to
carryoutasurveyof machinesanditcannotbeconsideredascontinuousmonitoring.
Normal practicewouldbetocarry out asurvey whenever ammeter swingsindicate
thataproblemisimminent. Wheremotorsof highvalueareatrisk, morefrequentor
continuousmonitoringmay benecessary. Detectioncanbemoredifficult whenthe
motor speedisvaryingrhythmicallybecauseof thedrivenload, suchasabeltor mill
drive, or if thefrequency variationis significant, for exampleonarelatively small
power system.
Thetechniquehasstimulatedasurgeininvestigationsintheliteratureasanalysts
seektodescribethepreciseconditionsunder whichfaultscanbedetected. Examples
includeMenacer et al . [22] and Li and Mechefske[23], who makeacomparison
betweencurrent, vibrationandacousticmethodsof detection.
9.4.4 Rotor cur rent moni tor i ng
Therotorcircuitsof woundrotormotorsareusuallypoorlyprotectedinmostinstalla-
tions. Faultsinbrazedjointsandslip-ringconnectionshavesometimescausedsevere
El ectr i cal techni ques: cur rent, fl ux and power moni tor i ng 211
44 56
Frequency, Hz
50
Gearbox in the drive
components due to
mechanical phenomenon
No ± 2 sf
1
Sidebands
f
1
= 50.156 Hz
Gearbox in the drive
components due to
mechanical phenomenon
44 56
Frequency, Hz
50
3
6
.
2

d
B
Components due to
mechanical phenomenon
Components due to
mechanical phenomenon
f
1
= 50.156Hz
−2 sf
1
(0.719 Hz) +2 sf
1
(0.719 Hz)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

w
a
v
e
f
o
r
m

P
S
D
,

d
B
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

w
a
v
e
f
o
r
m

P
S
D
,

d
B
(a)
(b)
Fi gure 9.10 Suppl y cur rent spectr a from i nducti on motor dr i ve tr ai ns: (a) wi th a
faul t i n an attached gear box; (b) wi th a rotor cage defect. [ Taken from
Thomson et al . [ 9] ]
damagebecausethey havenot been detected promptly. Overheating of rotors can
also becaused by current imbalancein theexternal resistors or circuits connected
to the slip rings. The low frequency of these currents makes measurements with
conventional current transformersinaccurate. Faultsof thesetypesweresomeof the
reasonsthatencouragedthedevelopmentof proprietaryleakagefluxtechniquethatis
describedlaterinSection9.5[24]. However, low-frequencycurrentscanbemeasured
accurately by Rogowski coils. Thesehavebeenusedtomonitor therotor resistance
212 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
3 phase supply
Load
Motor
Slip rings
Rotor
resistances
To alarm system
and control room
Integrators
Summer
Comparators
Processing
electronics
Fi gure 9.11 Conti nuous moni tor of rotor cur rent i n a wound rotor i nducti on motor
currentsinvariablespeedwoundrotor motorsasshowninFigure9.11. Thesignals
fromtheRogowski coilsareintegratedtogiveavoltageproportional torotor current.
Thesesignalsaresummedtogivethemeancurrentinall threephasesof therotorand
arecompared to theindividual phasecurrents. Processing electronics then detects
whether severeunbalanceispresent andprovidesamplitudeandalarmsignalstothe
control room. TheapproachdescribedinReference24isbaseduponaprotectionphi-
losophy, inthatindicationsfromthemonitor areusedtotripthemachine. Inpractice,
however, theinstrument hasbeenusedtoprovidemonitoringindicationsthat assist
indeterminingwhenmotorsshouldbetakenout of servicefor repair.
9.5 Gener ator and motor compr ehensive methods
9.5.1 Gener al
The reader should be able to see, both fromthe introduction to this chapter and
fromthe methods that have been described, that electrical techniques have much
incommon. Therewouldseemtobesomeadvantageindevisingasingleelectrical
techniquethatiscapableof detectingall electrical faults, whethertheyareontherotor
or stator. Trutt et al . [25], Kohler et al . [26] andSottileet al . [27] haveadvocated
El ectr i cal techni ques: cur rent, fl ux and power moni tor i ng 213
this generalised approach to themonitoring of theterminal quantities of induction
machines and Sottile et al . [28] have applied the same technique to three-phase
synchronousgenerators. Wedescribefour techniquesthatdetectfaultsbymeasuring
theeffect theyhaveonthemachineterminal quantities.
9.5.2 Shaft fl ux
Shaft flux, or moregenerallyaxial leakageflux, occursinall electrical machines. It
is produced becauseno machinecan beconstructed with perfect symmetry. There
will alwaysbe, for example, slight differencesinthereluctanceof magneticcircuits
duetobuildingtolerances, core-plateanisotropy, andplatethicknessvariation[29].
Thisasymmetryisreflectedintheimpedancespresentedbythevariousphasegroups,
or coils inthemachinestator, andwill causeslight variations betweenthecurrents
flowinginthecoils. Itisalsothecauseof homopolar fluxesinthemachineshaftthat
canleadtoshaft voltagesasdescribedinalater section.
Thisasymmetry, together withsmall differencesintheelectrical propertiesof the
conductors andvariations inthephysical dispositionof theconductioninboththe
activelengthandendregionsof machines, will giverisetoanet differencebetween
the currents flowing in one section of the end winding when compared with the
correspondingsectiondiametricallyopposite. Theimbalanceleadsnaturallytoanet
axial fluxcomponent. A similar argument canbeappliedtotherotor circuits; hence
onecanexpect tomeasureaxial flux, eveninmachinesthat arein‘perfect health’.
It isasimpleextensionof thistoconsider what happenswhencertainfault con-
ditionsariseinamachine. Faults, suchaswindingshort circuits, voltageimbalance
andbrokenrotor bars, represent severedisruptions to theinternal symmetry of the
machine. Itislogical toconclude, therefore, thattheeffectontheproductionof axial
fluxwill bereadilyobservable. Anygrosschangeof magneticcircuitconditions, such
astheformationof aneccentricairgapduetobearingwear, will, bythesametoken,
bereflectedwithacorrespondingchangeinaxial leakageflux.
Thepurposeof axial fluxmonitoringisthereforetotranslateobserveddifferences
in the nature of the axial leakage flux into an indication of fault condition. The
productionof suchfluxes insquirrel cagerotor inductionmachines was studiedby
J ordanet al . [30,31] withparticular emphasisonthechangesoccurringduetostatic
eccentricity. Erlicki et al . [32] showedthatitispossibletodetectthelossof asupply
phasethroughaxial fluxmonitoring.
In the1970s in theUK alargepower station boiler auxiliary induction motor,
equipped with two stator windings for two-speed operation, was operating on one
windingwithashortedturnontheidlewinding. Circulatingcurrents inthefaulty
idlewinding, inducedby theenergisedwinding, causeddegradationof theinsula-
tion, charringandthegenerationof flammablegases (seeChapter 7, Section7.2).
Eventuallythesegasesenteredtheterminal box, ignited, burstingtheterminal boxand
causingafatality. This incident galvanisedinterest intheUK inmotor monitoring,
becauseitwasquicklyrealisedthatthefaultedidlewindingcouldhavebeendetected
bymonitoringtheaxial leakagefluxof themachine, particularlybymountingasearch
coil aroundtherotor shaft.
214 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Rickson[24] developedaprotectiondevicebasedonthisprincipal. Penmanet al .
[33] showedthat morediscriminationcouldbeachievedbetweenavariety of fault
conditions by carefully processingtheaxial flux signal andthis initiatedPenman’s
workonmachineconditionmonitoring.
The technique relies upon examining the changes in the spectral components
of theaxial flux. Thesecomponents ariseas describedbelow. Sincethefluxes are
producedbywindingcurrents, thefrequencyof thesefluxcomponentsmustberelated
tothefrequenciesof thecurrents. Rotor currentsarealsoinducedbytheairgapflux,
so the net airgap flux will be modified as a result. While the rotor is at rest the
airgapfieldresultssolelyfromthecurrentsflowinginthestator; henceonlythetime
harmonics present inthelinecurrents will appear intheaxial flux. Oncetherotor
moves, however, it doessowithanangular speed, ω
r m
= (1− s)ω
se
/p, withrespect
to thestator, wherep is thenumber of polepairs in themachine. Theairgap flux
components will consequently be frequency filtered. For example, in the normal
three-phasestator winding, theairgapfieldproduced, b
stator
, canbeapproximatedup
totheseventhharmonicbytheform
b
1
(t ) =
ˆ
B
1
cos(ω
se
t − pθ
1
) +
ˆ
B
5
cos(ω
se
t +5pθ
1
)

ˆ
B
7
cos(ω
se
t −7pθ
1
) + · · · (9.18)
Wecantransformthisexpressionintoaframeof referencemovingwiththerotor
by consideringFigure9.12, whichshowstherelationshipsbetweenafixedpoint in
thestator andafixedpoint ontherotor:
θ
2
= θ
1
−ω
r m
t (9.10)
Stator
Rotor
Stator ref.
R
o
t
o
r

r
e
f
.
Q
2
= w
rm
t
Q
Q
2
Q
1
Fi gure 9.12 Rotor and stator fr ames of reference
El ectr i cal techni ques: cur rent, fl ux and power moni tor i ng 215
However, for aninductionmachinewithp polepairs:
φ
2
= θ
1

(1− s)
p
ω
se
t (9.16)
Usingtheseexpressionsitcanbeshownthatthen
th
termof theairgapfieldinthe
stator frameis
b
n 1
(t ) =
ˆ
B
n
cos[(1±(1− s)nω
se
t ) ± npθ
1
] (9.19)
Therotor frameexpressioncorrespondingto(9.18) is
b
2
(t ) =
ˆ
B cos(sω
se
t − pθ
2
) +
ˆ
B
5
cos((6−5s)ω
se
t −5pθ
2
)

ˆ
B
7
cos((7s −6)ω
se
t − pθ
2
) + · · · (9.20)
Thefirstairgapharmonicproducescurrentsats timesthesupplyfrequency; thefifth
airgapharmonicproducestimefrequenciesof (6−5s) timesandsoon.
Itisnowapparentthattheaxial fluxspectrumisrichinharmonics, eveninawell-
constructed, healthy machine. Moreover, becausefault conditions such as shorted
turns, loss of phase, eccentricity and so on, causechanges in thespaceharmonic
distributionsintheairgap, suchconditionswill beaccompaniedbyacorresponding
changeinthetimeharmonicspectrumof axial flux. Furthermore, byeffectivelyusing
thestatorwindingasasearchcoil todetectrotorfaults, andtherotorwindingtodetect
stator faults, it is possibletogaininsight intotheharmonic changes tobeexpected
for agivenfault condition.
Let us followatypical fault condition through thediagnostic procedure. If we
assumethat aninter-turnshort circuit existsinthestator windingthenthiscondition
canberepresentedas asinglepulseof MMF, similar to that showninFigure9.13.
/2 Θ Π /2
Θ
H(Θ)
P/2 Q P 3P/2 2P
Q
H(Q)
Fi gure 9.13 MMF due to a si ngl e ful l y pi tched coi l
216 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Thecomponentsof thestator airgapfieldb
stator
generatedbythisdistributionare
b
1
(t ) =

n=1,3,5...
ˆ
B
n
cos(ω
se
t ± nθ) (9.21)
Then
th
component intherotor framewill thereforebe
b
n,2
(t ) =
ˆ
B
n
cos
__
1±(1− s)
n
p
_
ω
se
t ± nθ
2
_
(9.22)
Theseharmonicswill inducecurrentsintherotor circuits, andbecausethereare
asymmetries in the rotor magnetic and electric circuits, they will appear as addi-
tional componentsinthespectrumof axial flux. Table9.1at theendof thechapter
summarisestheangular frequencycomponentsarisingintheaxial flux. Figure9.14
A
x
i
a
l

c
o
i
l

e
m
f

a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
0 500
Frequency, Hz
(a)
100 200 300 400
A
x
i
a
l

c
o
i
l

e
m
f

a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
0 500
Frequency, Hz
(b)
100 200 300 400
A
x
i
a
l

c
o
i
l

e
m
f

a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
0 500
Frequency, Hz
(c)
100 200 300 400
A
x
i
a
l

c
o
i
l

e
m
f

a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
0 500
Frequency, Hz
(d)
100 200 300 400
0
500
0
2000
0
2500
0
500
Fi gure 9.14 Typi cal spectr a taken at i denti cal gai ns from an axi al fl ux search coi l
fi tted to an exper i mental motor. (a) Good rotor, no faul ts, no l oad;
(b) Broken rotor bar, no other faul ts; (c) Good rotor, l arge stator
shor ted tur n 1 amp, no l oad; (d) Good rotor, smal l stator negati ve
phase sequence, no l oad.
El ectr i cal techni ques: cur rent, fl ux and power moni tor i ng 217
illustratescomparableresultsfromasmall four-polesquirrel cageinductionmachine
using the technique. Only the spectral components below 500 Hz are shown, but
faults, suchasinter-turnshortcircuits, brokenrotor bars, or negativephasesequence
inthesupply, arevisibleinthespectraandhavebeenidentified.
Theaxial fluxmonitoringtechniqueisstill embryonicbut essentiallyit requires
thecollectionof anaxial flux signal, usingasearchcoil woundconcentrically with
theshaft of amachine. Thissignal isthenspectrallyanalysedandonthebasisof the
appearanceof certainharmonicgroupsadecisionismadeastotheconditionof the
machine. Theattractionsof themethodarethat it iscompletely non-invasiveanda
singlesensor canbeusedfor avariety of fault types. It is, however, acomplicated
techniquerequiringspecialisedequipment, andisrelativelyuntested.
9.5.3 Stator cur rent
Stator current has beenshowninSections 9.2.2and9.4.3to beaviablecondition-
monitoring technique for detecting faults in electrical machines. The results of
Figure 9.10(a) have also shown that it also has the capability to look beyond the
electrical machineitself anddetect faultsinthemechanicallydrivenload. A further
exampleof faultdetectioninthedrivenmachinebycurrentanalysiswasshown, for a
variablespeeddrivedownholepump, inFigure5.10byYacamini et al . [34] andRan
et al . [35], wherewaveletanalysiswasusedtodeal withthenon-stationarybehaviour
of thesignal.
Thereisnowamoreextensiveliteratureonthecurrentanalysismethodincluding
J oksimovic and Penman. [36] and Stavrou et al . [37] who investigated thefunda-
mental magnetic fieldeffects ontheairgap, Bellini et al . [38,39] who giveagood
accountof thepresentstateof theartandHeneoet al . [40,41]. Table9.2summarises
theangular frequencycomponentsthat canbedetectedinthestator current andtheir
relationtomachinefaults.
9.5.4 Power
RecentworkbyTrzynadlowski et al . [42] hasshownthatthepower spectrummaybe
aneffectivemonitor of machinehealthandit maysimplifysomeof thecomplexities
of thestator currentandaxial fluxspectra. ThiswasatechniquepioneeredbyHunter
et al . [43] andtheprocess canbeconsideredas follows. Theinstantaneous power,
p
1
, deliveredtoor fromathreephasemachineisgivenat thestator terminalsby
p
1
(t ) =
3

q=1

n=1

m=1
ˆ
V
nq
sin(θ
nn
)
ˆ
I
mq
sin(θ
mm

mq
) (9.23)
whereθ
nn
or θ
mm
aredefinedasfollows:
θ
k
= ω
se
t +(q −1)
2πk
3
(9.24)
where
ˆ
V
nq
is the peak of the n
th
harmonic of the phase voltage in the q
th
phase
assumingthatthephasevoltagesareangularlyspacedby2π/3,
ˆ
I
mq
isthepeakof the
218 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
m
th
harmonicof thephasecurrentintheq
th
phaseassumingthatthephasecurrentsare
angularlyspacedby2π/3, q isthephasenumber, n isthevoltageharmonicnumber, m
isthecurrentharmonicnumber, andφ
nq
isthephaseanglebetweenthephasecurrent,
ˆ
I
nq
, andthephasevoltage,
ˆ
V
nq
.
If theload on themachineis perfectly balanced between thethreephases and
thevoltagesandcurrentscontainnoharmonicsthentheexpressionfor instantaneous
power reducesto
p
1
(t ) =
ˆ
V
1
ˆ
I
1
3

q=1
sin(θ
11
+φ) (9.25)
p
1
(t ) =
ˆ
V
1
ˆ
I
1
2
3

q=1
{cosφ −cos(θ
2,2
+φ)} (9.26)
Thesecondterminbrackets sums to zero becausethethreephasecomponents are
spacedinphaseat 4π/3radians. Thenet balancedpower deliveredto or fromthe
stator of themachineisthereforeasexpected:
P
1
=
3
2
ˆ
V
ˆ
I cos φ (9.27)
Considerthecasewherethepeakphasevoltagesarebalancedandincludeharmon-
ics, V
n
, but thephasecurrentsareunbalancedandalsoincludeharmonics. Equation
(9.25) can berewritten in terms of thepeak positive, negativeand zero sequence
harmoniccurrents,
ˆ
I
+m
,
ˆ
I
−m
and
ˆ
I
0m
respectively, asfollows:
p
1
(t ) =

n=1

m=1
ˆ
V
n
sin(θ
n
){
ˆ
I
+m
sin(θ
+m

+m
)
+
ˆ
I
−m
sin(θ
−m

−m
) +
ˆ
I
0m
sin(θ
0m

0m
)} (9.28)
whereinthiscase:
θ
n
= nω
se
t
θ
+m
= +mω
se
t
Equation(9.28) reducesto
p
1
(t ) =

n=1

m=1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ˆ
V
n
ˆ
I
+m
2
_
cos(θ
(m−n)(m−n)

+m
) −cos(θ
(m+n)(m+n)

+m
)
_
+
ˆ
V
n
ˆ
I
−m
2
_
cos(θ
−(m−n)(m−n)

−m
)
−cos(θ
−(m+n)(m+n)

−m
)
_
+
ˆ
V
n
ˆ
I
0m
2
_
cos(θ
(m−n)−n

0m
) −cos(θ
(m+n)+n

0m
)
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(9.29)
El ectr i cal techni ques: cur rent, fl ux and power moni tor i ng 219
Whenm = n aDC contributionismadetothepower ineachphaseasshownin
(9.27). For harmoniccomponentsof power, however, becauseof thepresenceof the
phasefactor, (q −1)2π/3, acontributiontothepower onlyoccurswhen(m − n) or
(m+n) aremultiplesof 3, oraretriplens. Thesecontributionswill beat±(m−n)ω
se
t
or ±(m + n)ω
se
t , dependingonwhether thepositiveor negativesequencecurrents
arecontributingtothepower.
Frominspectionof thelast termin(9.29) it canbeseenthat therewill benozero
sequencecontribution to theripplein instantaneous power. This is becausefor all
valuesof n thetermin(q −1)2π/3inθ ensuresthatthesummationover threephases
alwayscomestozero.
Anapplicationof theseequationstothepowerconditionmonitoringof anelectri-
cal machinewouldbeathree-phaseinductionmotor withabrokencage. Wealready
knowfromTable9.1that at afundamental supply voltageangular frequency of ω
se
thefundamental supplycurrent will containcomponentsat (1±2s)ω
se
.
Thereforeforthefirstand(1−2s)
th
harmonicsof voltageandcurrentrespectively
±(m − n)ω
se
= ±2sω
se
±(m + n)ω
se
= ±2(1− s)ω
se
Sothepowerspectrumduetothefundamental supplyvoltagewill containcomponents
at 2sω
se
and2(1− s)ω
se
.
An example of this was simulated by Trzynadlowski et al . [42], as shown in
Figure9.15, for asix-poleinductionmotor withadamagedrotor fedat f
se
= 60Hz
withavery largeslipat thisoperatingconditionof 15.8per cent, thereforetheside
bandsonthecurrent PSD spectrumduetodamagearepositionedaboveandbelow
the60Hzfundamental, at41Hzand79Hz, whereasonthepower PSDspectrumthe
damagesidebandispositionedat 19Hz.
9.5.5 Shaft vol tage or cur rent
Manyelectrical power utilitieshaveattemptedtomonitor thevoltagesinducedalong
theshafts of electrical machines inthehopethat they may beauseful indicator of
machinecoreor windingdegradationandbecausethey cangiveriseto largeshaft
currents, whicharedamagingtobearings. Figure9.16shows howavoltagecanbe
induced between contacts sliding on a rotating machine shaft whenever fluxes in
themachinearedistorted, either fromthenormal radial andcircumferential pattern,
or fromthenormal axial pattern. Thesesliding contacts may betheresult of rubs
on defectivebearings or seals or could bebrushes placed to detect flux distortion.
Thebrushes wouldnormally beplacedat either endof themachinetoembracethe
completeshaft fluxcircuit. If afault, suchasarotor windingshortedturn, produces
arotatingdistortionof thefieldintheradial andcircumferential planethenanAC
or pulsatingshaft voltageresults. If afault produces adistortionof thefieldinthe
axial directionthenthisgivesriseineffect toahomopolar flux that producesaDC
shaft voltage. Insteamturbine-drivenmachines, shaft voltagescanalsobeproduced
by electrostatic action, wheretheimpingement of water droplets onturbineblades
chargestheshaft. VermaandGirgis[44]havegivenafull reportonthemechanismsfor
220 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

w
a
v
e
f
o
r
m

P
S
D
,

d
B
0
−100
0 250
−20
−80
50
Frequency, Hz
200 100 150
−40
−60
P
o
w
e
r

w
a
v
e
f
o
r
m

P
S
D
,

d
B
0 250 50
Frequency, Hz
200 100 150
(a)
(b)
0
−100
−20
−80
−40
−60
Fi gure 9.15 Spectr a from a si mul ati on of an i nducti on motor wi th broken rotor
bar s. The upper cur ve shows the cur rent spectr um wi th the typi cal
faul t si de bands. The l ower gr aph shows the power spectr um wi th the
faul t si de band shi fted down to DC. (a) Cur rent spectr um wi th typi cal
faul t si debands; (b) power spectr um wi th faul t si deband shi fted down
to DC. [ Taken from Tr zynadl owski et al . [ 42] . © I EEE (1999)]
theproductionof shaftvoltagesandcurrentsandthefaultstheymayindicate. Methods
of monitoringshaft voltages usually includemakingAC andDC measurements of
thevoltageandsometimesanalysingtheharmoniccontent of thewaveform. Verma
proposedacomprehensiveshaftvoltagemonitorin[44]andNippesamoreup-to-date
versionin[45].
Our experience, however, is that shaft voltage has not proved to be a useful
parameterforcontinuousmonitoring. Thevoltageisdifficulttomeasurecontinuously,
El ectr i cal techni ques: cur rent, fl ux and power moni tor i ng 221
M
M
I I I
X X X
Stator
Rotor
Fi gure 9.16 The producti on of shaft vol tages due to asymmetr i es i n the magneti c
fi el d of the machi ne
becauseof theunreliabilityof shaftbrushes, particularlywhentheyarecarryingonlya
small measurementcurrent. Inaddition, ithasbeenshownbytheauthors’ colleagues
that any damage to the core and winding would need to be substantial before a
significant variation in shaft voltage occurred. This should not detract, however,
fromthenormal regularmaintenanceprocedureof measuringshaftvoltagesatbearing
pedestals, fromtime-to-time, inorder tocheckthepedestal insulationandtoconfirm
that thereisnotendencyfor largeshaft currentstoflow.
9.5.6 Mechani cal and el ectr i cal i nter acti on
Thereisconsiderablecommonalitybetweentheapproachesdescribedinthissection
and thoseof Chapter 8, concerned respectively with theelectrical and mechanical
responsestofaultsintheelectrical machine. Thiscommonalityarisesfromtheairgap
magneticfieldandit will beimportant for futurecondition-monitoringstrategieson
electrical machines to haveaclear understandingof thelink betweentheelectrical
andmechanical root causesof faultsandtheir effect ontheairgapfield.
Mechanical engineerswill tendtolook for faultsviathevibrationspectrumand
electrical engineerswill looktothecurrent, fluxor power spectra. Therealityisthat
all thesespectraarecloselycoupledassetoutinChapter8anditmaybebettertolook
for somefaultsviathevibrationsignal andfor othersviatheflux, voltage, current,
power or vibrationsignals. InChapter 8, Table8.6wegaveasummaryof thelateral
vibrationangular frequenciescausedbyvariousfaults. Inthischapter, Tables9.1and
9.2, wegiveasimilar summaryrespectivelyof current andfluxangular frequencies
causedbyvariousfaults.
9.6 Effects of var iable speed oper ation
Variable speed converters are being applied in increasing numbers to electrical
machines. Whilethisbook hasbeenpreparedonthebasisthat it doesnot deal with
thespecificproblemsof condition-monitoringelectrical machinesdrivenat variable
222 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
speed, itwill beuseful heretoidentifythekeyproblemsthatmayarisefromcondition
monitoringsuchdrives.
• If thespeed of thedriveremains constant for substantial periods of timethen
thespectral analysisof flux, voltage, current, power or vibrationasdescribedin
Chapters8and9canstill bedoneprovidedthat theresultsareinterpretedfor the
speedandbasefrequencywhenthemeasurementsweremade.
• However, if thespeedisvaryingthennon-stationarytechniques, suchasspectro-
gramsover shorttimeintervals, waveletsor Wigner–Villetechniques, dependent
ontherateof changeof speed, will needtobeusedwiththemonitoringsignals
becausethespectrawill not bestationary.
• If speedis varyingunder control loopactionthenthefrequency content of the
monitoringsignalswill beaffectedbythebandwidthof thecontroller, asdescribed
byBellini et al . [46]. Inthiscaseitispossiblefor thedrivecontroller tosuppress
faultharmonicsignalsintheflux, voltage, current, power or vibration. However,
Bellini has shown that it is still possibleto extract condition-monitoring infor-
mationfromsignalsderivedinsidethecontroller; inBellini’sexample, thiswas
donefromthedirect axiscurrent, i
d
.
• Whensuppliedfromavariablespeeddriveall terminal quantitiesof theelectrical
machine, axial flux, current andpower, will bepollutedbyharmonicsgenerated
by the drive and filtering this pollution will be essential to obtaining a good
signal-to-noiseratiowithcondition-monitoringsignalsfromsuchamachine.
Chen et al . [47] has demonstrated a condition-monitoring systemfor variable
speedinductionmotorsusingthepower lineashiscommunicationchannel. Thisisa
brave attempt to achieve universal monitoring and wisely the author has avoided
monitoring the electrical signals but concentrated upon monitoring the winding
temperature.
Tabl e 9.1 Axi al fl ux angul ar frequency components rel ated to speci fi c i nducti on
machi ne assymmetr i es equati on (9.22). [ Taken from Vas [ 48] ]
Spaceharmonicof thestator windingMMF
k = 1 k = 3 k = 5 k = 7
Angular frequencycomponents, rad/s
Stator sω
se
(3s −2)ω
se
(5s −4)ω
se
(7s −6)ω
se
asymmetry (2− s)ω
se
(4−3s)ω
se
(6−5s)ω
se
(8−7s)ω
se
Rotor sω
se
(3−2s)ω
se
(5−4s)ω
se
(7−6s)ω
se
asymmetry (2s −1)ω
se
(4s −3)ω
se
(6s −5)ω
se
(8s −7)ω
se
T
a
b
l
e
9
.
2
E
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
a
l
a
n
g
u
l
a
r
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
c
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
s
r
e
l
a
t
e
d
t
o
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
e
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
a
l
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
f
a
u
l
t
s
A
n
g
u
l
a
r
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
c
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
s
,
r
a
d
/
s
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
F
l
u
x
P
o
w
e
r
M
e
c
h
a
n
i
c
a
l
f
a
u
l
t
s
O
i
l
w
h
i
r
l
a
n
d
w
h
i
p
i
n
s
l
e
e
v
e
b
e
a
r
i
n
g
s
(
0
.
4
3
t
o
0
.
4
8
)
ω
s
e
/
p
U
n
b
a
l
a
n
c
e
d
m
a
s
s
o
n
r
o
t
o
r
o
f
a
s
y
n
c
h
r
o
n
o
u
s
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
ω
s
e
/
p
ω
s
e
/
p
D
y
n
a
m
i
c
e
c
c
e
n
t
r
i
c
i
t
y
i
n
a
s
y
n
c
h
r
o
n
o
u
s
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
2
ω
s
e
p
2
ω
s
e
/
p
D
y
n
a
m
i
c
d
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
o
f
s
h
a
f
t
i
n
b
e
a
r
i
n
g
h
o
u
s
i
n
g
o
f
a
s
y
n
c
h
r
o
n
o
u
s
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
ω
s
e
/
p
,
2
ω
s
e
/
p
.
.
.
ω
s
e
/
p
,
2
ω
s
e
/
p
.
.
.
S
t
a
t
i
c
m
i
s
a
l
i
g
n
m
e
n
t
o
f
r
o
t
o
r
s
h
a
f
t
i
n
a
s
y
n
c
h
r
o
n
o
u
s
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
ω
s
e
/
p
,
2
ω
s
e
/
p
,
3
ω
s
e
/
p
.
.
.
ω
s
e
/
p
,
2
ω
s
e
/
p
,
3
ω
s
e
/
p
.
.
.
S
t
a
t
i
c
a
n
d
d
y
n
a
m
i
c
e
c
c
e
n
t
r
i
c
i
t
y
i
n
i
n
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
ω
s
e
_
(
n
N
r
±
k
e
)
(
1

s
)
p
±
k
_
ω
s
e
_
k
e
(
1

s
)
p
±
k
_
E
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
a
l
f
a
u
l
t
s
B
r
o
k
e
n
r
o
t
o
r
b
a
r
i
n
i
n
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
(
1
±
2
n
s
)
ω
s
e
/
p
s
ω
s
e
.
.
.
(
2
s

1
)
ω
s
e
.
.
.
2
n
s
ω
s
e
/
p
2
n
(
1

s
)
ω
s
e
/
p
S
t
a
t
o
r
w
i
n
d
i
n
g
f
a
u
l
t
s
i
n
a
s
y
n
c
h
r
o
n
o
u
s
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
2
ω
s
e
,
4
ω
s
e
.
.
.
ω
s
e
ω
s
e
,
3
ω
s
e
S
t
a
t
o
r
w
i
n
d
i
n
g
f
a
u
l
t
s
i
n
a
n
i
n
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
s
ω
s
e
.
.
.
(
2

s
)
ω
s
e
.
.
.
D
e
f
i
n
i
t
i
o
n
s
:
ω
s
m
=
m
e
c
h
a
n
i
c
a
l
v
i
b
r
a
t
i
o
n
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
o
n
t
h
e
s
t
a
t
o
r
s
i
d
e
;
ω
s
e
=
e
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
a
l
s
u
p
p
l
y
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
;
N
r
=
i
n
t
e
g
e
r
n
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
r
o
t
o
r
s
l
o
t
s
;
N
=
r
o
t
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
s
p
e
e
d
i
n
r
e
v
/
m
i
n
;
f
ω
r
m
=
2
π
N
6
0
m
e
c
h
a
n
i
c
a
l
r
o
t
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
,
H
z
;
ω
r
m
=
ω
s
e
/
p
f
o
r
a
s
y
n
c
h
r
o
n
o
u
s
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
;
ω
r
m
=
(
1

s
)
ω
s
e
/
p
f
o
r
a
n
a
s
y
n
c
h
r
o
n
o
u
s
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
;
s
=
a
s
y
n
c
h
r
o
n
o
u
s
m
a
c
h
i
n
e
r
o
t
o
r
s
p
e
e
d
s
l
i
p
,
0

1
;
p
=
p
o
l
e
p
a
i
r
s
;
n
=
a
n
i
n
t
e
g
e
r
;
k
e
=
e
c
c
e
n
t
r
i
c
i
t
y
o
r
d
e
r
,
z
e
r
o
f
o
r
s
t
a
t
i
c
e
c
c
e
n
t
r
i
c
i
t
y
,
l
o
w
i
n
t
e
g
e
r
v
a
l
u
e
1
,
2
,
3

f
o
r
d
y
n
a
m
i
c
e
c
c
e
n
t
r
i
c
i
t
y
;
k
=
s
p
a
c
e
h
a
r
m
o
n
i
c
o
f
t
h
e
s
t
a
t
o
r
w
i
n
d
i
n
g
M
M
F
,
1
,
3
,
5
,
7

224 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
9.7 Conclusion
This chapter has shownthat electrical techniques arepowerful tools for thecondi-
tion monitoringof electrical machines, particularly axial leakageflux, current and
power, offeringthepotential toprovideageneral condition-monitoringsignal for the
machine.
The availability of high-quality, digitally sampled mechanical vibration and
electrical terminal data from electrical machines opens the possibility for more
comprehensivemonitoringof themachineandprimemover or drivenmachinecom-
binations. However, thesesignalsgenerallyrequirebroadbandwidth(>50kHz) and
ahighdataratefor adequateanalysis. Thereforetheprincipal difficulty of applying
thesetechniquesisthecomplexityof thenecessaryspectral analysisandinterpretation
of their content.
Thissituationismademoredifficultif variablespeeddrivesareinvolvedbecause
time domain signals may no longer be stationary and will also be polluted by
harmonicsfromthepower electronicdrive.
Comprehensive monitoring of an electrical machine can be achieved by mea-
suring shaft flux, current, power and electrical dischargeactivity. Thesearebroad
bandwidth(generally>50kHz) signalsrequiringcomplexanalysis. Shaft flux, cur-
rent and power signals are capable of detecting faults in both the electrical and
mechanical partsof adrivetrain. Shaftvoltageor currentisanineffectivecondition-
monitoringtechniquefor electrical machines. Shaft fluxmonitoringisnon-invasive
anduses asinglesensor but it is complex toanalyseanduntestedinthefield. Cur-
rent monitoringis also non-invasive, but uses existingsensors andhas established
itself asmotor current spectral analysis, areliableandwidelyacceptedtechniquefor
machinemonitoring. Power monitoringis also non-invasive, uses existingsensors
but requires less bandwidth (<10 kHz) and less complex spectral interpretation to
detect faults but is not yet widely accepted, so it deserves investigation for future
development.
9.8 Refer ences
1. Rai R.B. Ai rgap Eccentr i ci ty i n I nducti on Motor s. ERA Report, 1974:
1174–88.
2. Dorrell D.G., Thomson W.T. and Roach S. Analysis of airgap flux, current,
and vibration signals as a function of the combination of static and dynamic
airgapeccentricityin3-phaseinductionmotors. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on I ndustr y
Appl i cati ons 1997; I A-33: 24–34.
3. Hargis C. Steady-state analysis of 3-phase cage motors with rotor-bar and
end-ring faults. I EE Proceedi ngs, Par t B, El ectr i c Power Appl i cati ons 1983;
130: 225.
4. Nandi S., Bharadwaj R.M., Toliyat H.A. andParlos A.G. Performanceanaly-
sisof athree-phaseinductionmotor under mixedeccentricity condition. I EEE
Tr ansacti ons on Energy Conver si on 2002; EC-17: 392–9.
El ectr i cal techni ques: cur rent, fl ux and power moni tor i ng 225
5. Penman J ., Sedding H.G., Lloyd B.A. and Fin W.T. Detection and location
of interturn short circuits in the stator windings of operating motors. I EEE
Tr ansacti ons on Energy Conver si on 1994; EC-9: 652–8.
6. PenmanJ . andStavrouA. Brokenrotor bars: their effect onthetransient per-
formance of induction machines. I EE Proceedi ngs, Par t B, El ectr i c Power
Appl i cati ons 1996; 143: 449–57.
7. Thomson W.T. and Fenger M. Current signature analysis to detect induction
motor faults. I EEE I ndustr y Appl i cati ons Magazi ne 2001; 7: 26–34.
8. Thomson W.T. and Barbour A. On-line current monitoring and application
of afiniteelement method to predict thelevel of static airgap eccentricity in
three-phaseinductionmotors. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on Energy Conver si on 1998;
EC-13: 347–57.
9. ThomsonW.T., RankinD. andDorrell D.G. On-linecurrentmonitoringtodiag-
nose airgap eccentricity in large three-phase induction motors-industrial case
historiesverifythepredictions. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on Energy Conver si on 1999;
EC-14: 1372–8.
10. Michiguchi Y., TonisakaS., Izumi S., WatanabeT. andMiyashitaI. Develop-
ment of a collector ring monitor for sparking detection on generators. I EEE
Tr ansacti ons of Power Appar atus and Systems 1983; PAS-102: 928–33.
11. Warrington A.W.V.C. Protecti ve Rel ays, thei r Theor y and Pr acti ce, Vol . 1.
London: ChapmanandHall; 1982.
12. Khudabashev, K.A. Effect of turnshort-circuitsinaturbogenerator rotor onits
stateof vibration. El ekt Stantsi i USSR 1961; 7: 40–5.
13. Albright D.R. Inter-turn short circuit detector for turbine generator rotor
windings. I EEE Tr ansacti ons Power Appar atus and Systems 1971; PAS-50:
478–83.
14. KryukhinS.S. A newprinciplefor synchronousmachineprotectionfromrotor
windinginter-turnanddoubleearthfaults. El ect. Technol . USSR 1972; 2: 47–59.
15. Pöyhönen S., NegreaM., J over P., Arkkio A. and Hyötyniemi H. Numerical
magnetic field analysis and signal processing for fault diagnostics of elec-
trical machines. COMPEL: The I nter nati onal Jour nal for Computati on and
Mathemati cs i n El ectr i cal and El ectroni c Engi neer i ng 2003; 22: 969–81.
16. Ramirez-Nino J . and Pascacio A. (2001). Detecting interturn short circuits in
rotor windings. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on Computer Appl i cati ons i n Power 2001;
CAP-14: 39–42.
17. Streifel R.J ., Marks II R.J ., El-Sharkawi M.A. andKerszenbaumI. Detection
of shorted-turns inthefieldwindingof turbine-generator rotors usingnovelty
detectors– developmentandfieldtest.I EEE Tr ansacti ons on Energy Conver si on
1996; EC-11: 312–17.
18. Tavner P.J ., Gaydon B.G. and Ward D.M. Monitoring generators and large
motors. I EE Proceedi ngs, Par t B, El ectr i c Power Appl i cati ons 1986; 133:
169–80.
19. Kamerbeek E.M.H. Torque measurements on induction motors using Hall
generators or measuring windings. Phi l i ps Techni cal Revi ew 1974; 34:
152–62.
226 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
20. SeinschH.O. Detectionanddiagnosisof abnormal operatingconditionsand/or
faultsinrotatingelectrical machines. Schorch Ber i chte 1986.
21. J ufer M. and Abdulaziz M. Influenced’unerupturedebarreou d’un anneau
sur les characteristiques externes d’un moteur asynchrone a cage. Bulletin
SEV/VSE, Switzerland, 1978; 69.
22. Menacer A., Nat-Said M.S., BenakchaA.H. and Drid S. Stator current anal-
ysis of incipient fault into inductionmachinerotor bars. Jour nal of El ectr i cal
Engi neer i ng 2004; 55: 122–30.
23. Li W.D. andMechefskeC.K. Detectionof inductionmotor faults: A compari-
sonof stator current, vibrationandacousticmethods. Jour nal of Vi br ati on and
Control 2006; 12: 165–88.
24. Rickson C.D. Protecting motors from overload due to asymmetrical fault
conditions. El ectr i cal Revi ew 1983: 778–80.
25. Trutt F.C., SottileJ . andKohler J .L. Onlineconditionmonitoringof induction
motors. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on I ndustr y Appl i cati ons 2002; I A-38: 1627–32.
26. Kohler J .L., SottileJ . andTrutt F.C. Condition monitoringof stator windings
in induction motors. I. Experimental investigation of the effective negative-
sequenceimpedancedetector.I EEE Tr ansacti onson I ndustr y Appl i cati ons2002;
I A-38: 1447–53.
27. SottileJ ., Trutt F.C. andKohler J .L. Conditionmonitoringof stator windingsin
inductionmotors. II. Experimental investigationof voltagemismatchdetectors.
I EEE Tr ansacti ons on I ndustr y Appl i cati ons 2002; I A-38: 1454–59.
28. SottileJ ., Trutt F.C. andLeedy A.W. Conditionmonitoringof brushlessthree-
phasesynchronousgeneratorswithstator windingor rotor circuit deterioration.
I EEE Tr ansacti ons on I ndustr y Appl i cati ons 2006; I A-42: 1209–15.
29. Tavner P.J . Permeabilitatsschwankungen auf Grund von Walzeffekten in
KernplattenohneValenzrichtung. El ektrotechni k und Maschi nenbau 1980; 97:
383–6.
30. J ordan H. and Tagen F. Wellenflusseinfolgecon schwankungen des luftapal-
teitwertes. El ektrotechni k und Zei tschr i ft 1964; 85: 865–7.
31. J ordan H., Kovacs K. and Roder P. Messungen des schlupfes von asyn-
chronmaschinen mit einer spule. El ektrotechni k und Zei tschr i ft 1965; 86:
294–6.
32. Erlicki M.S., Porat Y. andAlexandrovitz A. (1971). Leakagefieldchanges of
aninductionmotor asindicationof non-symmetric supply. I EEE Tr ansacti ons
on Gener al Appl i cati ons 1971; GA-7: 713–7.
33. PenmanJ ., Hadwick G. andStronachA.F. Protectionstrategy against faultsin
electrical machines. PresentedattheInternational ConferenceonDevelopments
inPower SystemProtection, London, 1980.
34. Yacamini R., Smith K.S. and Ran L. Monitoring torsional vibrations of elec-
tromechanical systemsusingstator currents. Jour nal of Vi br ati on and Acousti cs
1998; 120: 72–9.
35. RanL., Yacamini R. andSmithK.S. Torsional vibrationsinelectrical induction
motor drives during start up. Jour nal of Vi br ati on and Acousti cs 1996; 118:
242–51.
El ectr i cal techni ques: cur rent, fl ux and power moni tor i ng 227
36. J oksimovicG.M. andPenmanJ . Thedetectionof inter-turnshort circuitsinthe
statorwindingsof operatingmotors.I EEE Tr ansacti onson I ndustr i al El ectroni cs
2000; I A-47: 1078–84.
37. StavrouA., SeddingH.G. andPenmanH. Currentmonitoringfordetectinginter-
turnshortcircuitsininductionmotors. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on Energy Conver si on
2001; EC-16: 32–7.
38. Bellini A., Filippetti F. et al. Quantitativeevaluationof inductionmotor broken
bars by means of electrical signatureanalysis. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on I ndustr y
Appl i cati ons 2001; I A-37: 1248–55.
39. Bellini A., Filippetti F., Franceschini G., Tassoni C. andKlimanG.B. On-field
experiencewithonlinediagnosisof largeinductionmotorscagefailuresusing
MCSA. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on I ndustr y Appl i cati ons 2001; I A-38: 1045–53.
40. Henao H., Demian C. and Capolino G.A. A frequency-domain detection of
stator windingfaultsininductionmachinesusinganexternal fluxsensor. I EEE
Tr ansacti ons on I ndustr y Appl i cati ons 2003; I A-39: 1272–9.
41. Henao H., Razik H. andCapolino G.A. Analytical approachof thestator cur-
rent frequencyharmonicscomputationfor detectionof inductionmachinerotor
faults. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on I ndustr y Appl i cati ons 2005; I A-41: 801–7.
42. Trzynadlowski A.M., Ghassemzadeh M. and Legowski S.F. Diagnostics of
mechanical abnormalities in induction motors using instantaneous electric
power. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on Energy Conver si on 1999; EC-14: 1417–23.
43. Hunter D.J ., Tavner P.J ., Ward D.M. and Benaragma D.. Measurements of
the harmonic components of the instantaneous electrical power delivered at
theterminals of a500 MW turbogenerator. Presented at the3rd International
Conference on Sources and Effects of Power SystemDisturbances, London,
1982.
44. VermaS.P. andGirgisR.S. Shaft Potenti al s and Cur rents i n Large Tur bogener -
ator s. Report for theCanadianElectrical Association, 1981.
45. NippesP.I. Earlywarningof developingproblemsinrotatingmachineryaspro-
videdbymonitoringshaft voltagesandgroundingcurrents. I EEE Tr ansacti ons
on Energy Conver si on 2004; EC-19: 340–45.
46. Bellini A., Filippetti F., Franceschini G. and Tassoni C. Closed-loop control
impact on the diagnosis of induction motors faults. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on
I ndustr y Appl i cati ons 2000; I A-36: 1318–29.
47. ChenS., ZhongE. andLipoT.I. A newapproachtomotor conditionmonitoring
in induction motor drives. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on I ndustr y Appl i cati ons 1994;
I A-30: 905–11.
48. VasP. Par ameter Esti mati on Condi ti on Moni tor i ng and Di agnosi s of El ectr i cal
Machi nes. Oxford, UK: ClarendonPress; 1996.
Chapter 10
Electr ical techniques: dischar ge monitor ing
10.1 I ntr oduction
Chapter9concentratedontheperturbationstocurrent, fluxandpowerattheterminals
duetofaultsinthemachine. However, thereisanother effectatworkinhigh-voltage
electrical machinesandthatisperturbationstothevoltageandcurrentwavefedtothe
machineasaresult of electrical disturbancesor dischargesintheinsulationsystem.
This chapter deals withamorespecialisedterminal analysis thanconsideredin
Chapter 9, whichhasthepotential todetect thosedischargeactivitiespresent inthe
machinewindinginsulation, particularlyinhighvoltagemachines. Oneof thereasons
thistechniquehasreceivedsomuchattentionisbecausetheinsulationsystemliesat
theheart of everyelectrical machine, asdescribedinChapter 2, anditsdeterioration
canberelativelyslow, asdescribedinChapter 3. Thereforeitshouldbeagoodtarget
for conditionmonitoring.
10.2 Backgr ound to dischar ge detection
Dischargebehaviour iscomplexandcanbecategorisedinascendingorder of energy
anddamageas
• coronadischarge,
• partial discharge,
• sparkdischarge,
• arcdischarge.
A well-made insulation systemwill exhibit low-level corona discharge on the
surfaceof theinsulationat ACvoltagesabove4kV rmstoground. If therearevoids
insidethebodyof theinsulationsystemthosevoidswill alsoexhibitpartial discharges
at thepoints inthevoltagecyclewhenthelocal electric fieldstrengthexceeds the
Paschencurvelevel for thegasinthevoidatthattemperature. Neither thatsurfaceor
body activity is necessarily damagingunless theactivity is sufficiently powerful to
degradetheinsulationsystem, asdescribedinChapter7Section7.2. Thisactivitycan
progressively worsendependingonthequality of theinsulation, thelocal strength
of the field and the mechanical and electrical conditions to which the material is
subjected. Therearecertainpartsof high-voltagewindinginsulationsystemsthatare
particularlyvulnerabletodischargeactivity, namely:
• thestatorslotwall wherepartial dischargeactivitycanerodeanddamagethemain
wall insulation;
230 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
• theslot emergencewherecoilsemergefromtheearthprotectionof theslot and
theinsulationsystemisexposedtosurfacedischargeactivity;
• theend-windingsurfaces, whichcanbesubjectedtodamagingdischargeactivity,
particularly at thephaseseparationregions, whenthesurfaceis wet or dirty or
both.
A study of thefailuremechanisms inChapter 2shows that electrical discharge
activity is an early indicator of many electrical faults in machine stators and the
activity is also related to theremaining lifeof theinsulation system. Theaccurate
detectionof dischargeactivitycouldthereforegivevaluableearlywarningof failure
andcouldprovideinformationabout theremaininglifeof theinsulation.
Electrical discharges are transitory, low-energy disturbances that radiate elec-
tromagnetic, acoustic and thermal energy fromthedischargesite. That conducted
energycausesperturbationstothewaveformsof thevoltageandcurrent bothwithin
themachineand at themachineterminals. Theearliest applications of partial dis-
charge detection were to isolated insulation components, such as transformer and
highvoltagemachinebushings or most successfully tothestopjoints inoil-cooled
EHV cables[1], wheretheinsulationunder inspectionisclosetothecouplingcircuit
andisenergisedsolelyat thephasevoltageof thecable. After successful application
on cablestop joints themethod was then applied to thewindings of high-voltage
turbineandhydrogenerators. However, anelectrical machinewindingrepresents a
muchmorecomplexinsulationsystemthanastopjoint, seeFigure10.1.
HV terminals
Induced
currents
R
Windings
Stator core
Current
transformer
Neutral earth
connection
Discharge
site
Y B
Coupling
capacitors
Discharge
currents
a
b
a
a
Fi gure 10.1 The compl ex str ucture of a typi cal tur bi ne gener ator stator wi ndi ng
and i ts ar r angement [ Taken from Tavner and Jackson [ 2] ]
El ectr i cal techni ques: di scharge moni tor i ng 231
For example
• Theinsulation is distributed throughout thelength of thewinding, which may
represent manyhundredsof metersinlength.
• It isenergisedwithadistributedpotential, applyingfull linevoltagebetweenthe
windingendsbut zerovoltageat theneutral point.
• Thewindingiscomplexfromapropagationpoint of view:
• Containingpropagationpathbifurcations
• at coil connections,
• wheresectionsof thewindingareconnectedbetweenphases,
• whereindividual phasesconsist of parallel paths.
• It alsocontainsmany surgeimpedancetransitionsthroughout itslength(see
Figure10.2)
• asit entersandemergesfromtheslot,
• as the coupling varies between winding components, in slot and end-
windingportions,
• asit connectstothemainterminalsof themachine.
The following description traces the development of electrical machine wind-
ingpartial dischargedetectionupto thepresent day anddemonstrates thevalueof
dischargedetectiontechniques.
10.3 Ear ly dischar ge detection methods
10.3.1 RF coupl i ng method
Theearliestwork, summarisedbyHarroldet al . [3], describesatechniquedeveloped
by Westinghouse in the US to detect on-line the presence of subconductor arcing
inthestator windingsof largesteamturbinegenerators, bymeasuringperturbations
in the winding current. Arcing activity produces very wide-band electromagnetic
energy, someof whichpropagatesintotheneutral connectionof thestar-connected
winding. Emeryusedaferrite-coredRF currenttransformer(RFCT) wrappedaround
theneutral cabletocoupletothisactivity, whichhedetectedusingaquasi-peak, radio
interferencefieldintensity(RIFI) meter, asshowninFigure10.3. Theneutral cable
waschosenasagoodmeasurementlocationbecauseithasalowpotential withrespect
to groundandbecausearcingat any locationinthegenerator causes RF current to
flowintotheneutral lead.
TheRFCT hasafrequencyresponsefrom30Hz to30MHz andtheRIFI meter
hasanarrowbandwidthof ∼10kHzcentredatabout1MHz. Thecentrefrequencyis
nominallytunedtomatchresonancesinthewindingthatthearcingactivityexcites; the
RIFI meter effectivelymeasurestheaveragepeakenergyreceivedbytheinstrument.
TheRFCT and RIFI meters areproprietary items and asimplemonitoring system
can be assembled using these components. Westinghouse have also developed a
specialised RF monitor based on this technique[4]. Themonitor interfaces with a
remotepanel locatedinthemachinecontrol roomandprovidesapermanentrecordof
arcingactivity, withalarmindicationstotheoperator whenasevereincreaseoccurs.
E
n
d
w
i
n
d
i
n
g
p
o
r
t
i
o
n
L
e
L
e
C
e
2
C
e
2
C
e
2
C
e
2
C
e
2
C
e
C
s
C
s
C
s
2
C
e
2
C
e
2
C
e
2
C
e
2
L
s
2
L
s
2
L
s
L
e
M
e
M
s
M
s
M
e
2
L
s
2
L
s
L
e
2
L
s
2
L
s
L
e
2
L
s
2
C
e
2
C
e
C
s
2
C
e
C
k
e
L
e
2
C
e
C
s
2
L
s
2
L
s
L
e
1

t
u
r
n
1

t
u
r
n
2
C
k
e
2
C
e
2
C
e
2
C
k
s
b
c
a
C
k
e
2
L
e
E
n
d

w
i
n
d
i
n
g
p
o
r
t
i
o
n
1

t
u
r
n
S
l
o
t

p
o
r
t
i
o
n
F
i
g
u
r
e
1
0
.
2
T
h
e
e
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
a
l
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
o
f
o
n
e
t
u
r
n
o
f
a
t
y
p
i
c
a
l
s
t
a
t
o
r
w
i
n
d
i
n
g
a
n
d
t
h
e
c
o
m
p
l
e
x
c
o
u
p
l
i
n
g
a
r
r
a
n
g
e
m
e
n
t
s
.
(
a
)
S
i
m
p
l
e
s
t
m
o
d
e
l
,
o
n
e
t
u
r
n
r
e
p
r
e
s
e
n
t
e
d
b
y
a
T
e
e
e
q
u
i
v
a
l
e
n
t
c
i
r
c
u
i
t
.
(
b
)
I
n
c
r
e
a
s
e
d
c
o
m
p
l
e
x
i
t
y
,
o
n
e
t
u
r
n
r
e
p
r
e
s
e
n
t
e
d
b
y
a
s
e
r
i
e
s
o
f
T
e
e
e
q
u
i
v
a
l
e
n
t
c
i
r
c
u
i
t
s
.
(
c
)
F
u
r
t
h
e
r
c
o
m
p
l
e
x
i
t
y
,
o
n
e
t
u
r
n
r
e
p
r
e
s
e
n
t
e
d
b
y
a
s
e
r
i
e
s
o
f
T
e
e
e
q
u
i
v
a
l
e
n
t
c
i
r
c
u
i
t
s
,
w
i
t
h
t
h
e
c
o
r
e
a
n
d
e
n
d
w
i
n
d
i
n
g
c
o
u
p
l
i
n
g
s
a
p
p
r
o
x
i
m
a
t
e
d
.
[
T
a
k
e
n
f
r
o
m
T
a
v
n
e
r
e
t
a
l
.
[
2
]
]
El ectr i cal techni ques: di scharge moni tor i ng 233
Chart recorder
Electrical
machine
stator
Neutral resistor
if fitted
RI-FI meter
High frequency CT
Fi gure 10.3 Detecti on of di scharge acti vi ty i n a gener ator [ Taken from Emer y et al .
[ 4] . © I EEE (1981)]
Harroldet al . hadshownin[3], withfurther detailsbyEmeryet al . [4] andHarrold
and Emery [5], positive proof of the detection, not only of subconductor arcing,
but alsoof sparkinginother partsof steam-turbine-drivengenerators. However, the
changeinsignal level whenarcingoccurs, fromtheRIFI meter tunedto1MHz, is
notdramatic. Anincreaseof lessthan50percentof theunfaultedindicationistypical
andthismakesthesettingof alarmlevelsfor suchamonitor difficult.
Timperley [6] has used this techniqueand applied it not only to steamturbine
generatorsbutalsotohydroelectricmachinesintheAmericanElectricPowerservice.
Heappearstohaveusedwider bandwidthquasi-peakRIFI instrumentsconnectedto
theneutral RFCT becauseheanalysesthereceivedsignal inboththefrequencyand
time domains. Using the technique he has shown some evidence of the detection
of slot dischargeactivity onhydroelectric machines andother forms of unexpected
coronaactivity.
10.3.2 Ear th l oop tr ansi ent method
Wilsonet al . [1], intheUK, devisedasimilar techniquetothat of Emeryasacheap
methodof detectingdischargeactivityon-lineinawiderangeof high-voltageplant.
Initiallyitwasappliedtoarelativelysmall, identifiablesectionof insulation, suchas
astopjoint inanoil-insulatedEHV cable, andwasknownasanearthlooptransient
monitor. It has since been applied to the insulation of generator and motor stator
windings andaims to look for partial dischargeactivity inthebulk of thewinding.
234 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Chart recorder
Electrical
machine
stator
Neutral resistor
if fitted
Peak hold
circuit
High frequency CT
or Rogowski coil
Detector
Alarm
circuit
To alarm
circuit
Logarithmic
amplifier
Fi gure 10.4 Conti nuous moni tor of di scharge acti vi ty usi ng an ear th l oop tr ansi ent
moni tor [ Taken from Wi l son et al . [ 1] ]
It usesaRogowski coil, wrappedaroundtheneutral cableof themachinewinding,
andthedetector isanarrow-bandinstrument that measurestheaveragepeak energy
receivedbytheinstrumentasshowninFigure10.4. TheRogowski coil isanair-cored
solenoidal searchcoil thatisclosedonitself roundacurrent-carryingconductor. The
manufactureof thesecoils has beenpatentedintheUK by WardandExon[7] and
theyarecalledRogowski coilstodistinguishthemfromtheir ancestor, theChattock
potentiometer, whichisnot awraparoundcoil asneededfor current measurements.
Thefrequencyresponseof theRogowski coil isrelativelywidebutthedetector hasa
narrowbandwidthof ∼15kHz centredat avaluedeterminedbytheapplicationand
thebackgroundradionoise, but usuallyfor agenerator or motor windingthiswould
be1MHz.
Themonitor is calibratedinpicocoulombs andis providedwithalarmcircuits,
sothat whenthedischargelevel exceedsawarningthresholdanalarmsignal canbe
transmittedtotheplant control room. Wilsonhasexplainedthat whenapplyingthis
techniquetoadistributedinsulationsystem, suchasamachinewinding, caremustbe
takeninthecalibration, becauseenergymaybepropagatedtotheinstrument froma
number of different dischargesitesintheinsulationsimultaneously. Gearyet al . [8]
provideatheoretical model for themanner inwhichenergy, inthefrequency band
detectedby theinstrument, is propagatedfromthedischargesiteinto thewinding
neutral andhehasshownhowthispropagationdependscriticallyontheconfiguration
of thewindingandthesizeof thestator core, asdescribedinSection10.2.
El ectr i cal techni ques: di scharge moni tor i ng 235
10.3.3 Capaci ti ve coupl i ng method
Analternativetechnique, whereperturbationsinvoltagewaveformsaredetectedatthe
machineterminals, hasbeendescribedbyKurtzandStone[9]andappliedprimarilyto
hydroelectricalternatorsinCanadaaimedatdetectingtheslotdischargeactivitywith
whichthesehigh-voltageair-cooledwindingsareafflicted. Connectiontothewinding
ismadethroughcouplingcapacitorsconnectedtothelineterminalsof themachine
as showninFigure10.5. Dischargepulses arecoupledthroughthesecapacitors to
a specialised pulse height analyser, which characterises, in the electronics in the
analyser is 80 MHz and this is considered sufficient to capture partial discharge
pulses with risetimes of theorder of 1–10 ns. In theearly days of this technique
the coupling capacitors had to be connected to the machine during an outage but
in a later publication Kurtz et al . [10] describe how capacitative couplers can be
permanently built intothephaseringsof themachinesothat themeasurementscan
bemadewithout serviceinterruptions. Inadditionthesepermanent couplersarealso
intendedtoensurethatdischargeactivityfromtheelectrical supplysystem, towhich
themachineisconnected, isrejected. However, thepulseheightanalysisof discharges
bythismethodisstill carriedoutatintervalsduringthelifeof themachineratherthan
continuously on-line. Kurtz has not shownhowtheelectromagnetic energy froma
dischargesiteis propagatedthroughthewindingtothecouplingcapacitors but has
Neutral resistor
if fitted
Lower
threshold
Upper
threshold
Permanent
coupling
capacitor
Monostable
B
Monostable
A
Monostable
C
Q
Q
To pulse
counter
Fi gure 10.5 Detecti on of di scharge acti vi ty usi ng a coupl i ng capaci tor [ Taken from
Kur tz et al . [ 10] ]
236 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
shown empirically that themethod is capableof detecting slot discharges and the
steadydeteriorationof windinginsulationwithtime.
10.3.4 Wi deband RF method
All thetechniquesdescribedearlieroperateatrelativelylowfrequencies(1–80MHz)
anddetecttheelectromagneticenergypropagatedalongthewindingtotheneutral or
lineendconnections[2].
Inanyhealthymachinetherewill beabackgroundof coronaandpartial discharge
activity that will vary frommachine to machine and also vary with time. Malik
et al . [11] showedthatdamagingdischargepulses, suchasseriouspartial discharges,
sparking or arcing, have faster rise-times than the background corona and partial
dischargeactivityandthereforeproduceamuchhigher frequencyof electromagnetic
energy (350MHz). Malik et al . showedthat if this energy is detected, at as higha
frequencyaspossible, theratioof damagingdischargesignalstobackgroundactivity
is increased. Frequencies of electromagnetic energy >4 MHz propagate fromthe
dischargesiteby radiationfromthewinding, not by propagationalongthewinding
asinthecasewiththelower-frequencytechniques. Thisradiationcanbedetectedby
anRF aerial locatedeither insidetheenclosureof themachineor outside, closeto
anapertureinit. Thistechniqueisverysimilar tothat proposedbyMichiguchi et al .
[12] for detectingfaultsinbrushgear.
Malik et al . [11] describedamonitor for detectingdamagingdischargeactivity
inaturbinegenerator stator windingbasedonthisidea, asisshowninFigure10.6.
It receivestheenergyfromtheaerial andamplifiesit beforedetection. Themonitor
contains aband-pass filter that is tunedabovethecut-off frequency of background
activity(∼350MHz), avoidinganyinterferencefromnearbyradioor radar stations,
to thepart of thespectrumthat is of interest. Theoutput of themonitor is achart
recordthatshowstheinstantsintimeatwhichtheenergyduetodamagingdischarge
activityexceededathresholdvalue. Thisthresholdcanbeset accordingtothelevel
of backgroundactivityinthemachine.
Themonitorhasbeenusedsuccessfullyonlargeoperational steamturbine-driven
generators, wheretheaerial is relatively easy to fit outsidethecasingby mounting
it close to the neutral point connection. The instrument has positively identified
provensubconductor arcingandhasbeenshowntodetect other formsof damaging
dischargeactivity. Itsadvantageovertheothertechniquesisthatbydetectingathigher
frequencies the signal-to-noise ratio of damaging activity to background is much
larger andthismakesit mucheasier todeterminealarmsettingsfor theinstrument,
asisshowninFigure10.7. Ontheother handthereceivedsignal cannot berelated
directly todischargemagnitudes inpicocoulombs andall timinginformationabout
thedischargeislost.
10.3.5 I nsul ati on remanent l i fe
Besidesidentifyingspecificfaults, partial dischargedetectionandmeasurementhave
also heldout thepossibility of determiningtheremanent lifeof insulationsystems
El ectr i cal techni ques: di scharge moni tor i ng 237
Recorder
RF aerial
Detector RF amplifier Attenuator Turnable
bandpass
filter
Signal processing
electronics
Fi gure 10.6 Detecti on of damagi ng di scharge acti vi ty usi ng r adi ofrequency energy
[ Taken from Mal i k et al . [ 11] ]
10 100 1000
Frequency, MHz
Damaging discharge
activity
Background activity in
a healthy environment
Bandwidth of higher
frequency device
R
F
P
S
D
,

d
B
Bandwidth of lower
frequency devices
Fi gure 10.7 Radi ofrequency energy from background and damagi ng di scharge
acti vi ty
238 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
andthishasoccupiedaconsiderableamount of theliteratureasdescribedby Stone
et al . [13,14]. This process requires measurements of insulationresistance, polari-
sationindex, capacitance, dissipationfactor tip-up, partial dischargemagnitude, and
discharge inception voltage as well as on-line partial discharge activity and is an
elusiveanddifficult objective.
10.4 Detection pr oblems
Lower–frequency work (1–80MHz), involving propagation along ahomogeneous
conductor, suggests that a discharge site can be located by timing the arrival of
dischargepulsesreceivedatanumberof differentsensors. Thishasnowbeendemon-
strated, as showninthenext sectiononmoderntechniques, but reflections at each
discontinuity inthewindingor variationinits insulationandconnectionmakethe
identificationof pulsesat theterminalsextremelydifficult.
Thelow-frequencyRFCT devicesproducedanoutputcalibratedinpicocoulombs
of dischargeactivity, becausetheresponsecanberelateddirectly to theamplitude
of adischargecalibration pulse. This allows theuser to seethemeasured activity
in dischargeterms so that hecan decidewhat level of activity heconsiders to be
damaging. AlthoughtheRogowski coil iseasier tofit thantheRFCT it hassuffered
fromitsverylowsensitivityandisnowrarelyused.
Various other partial dischargedetectors havebeen investigated, including the
portableTennesseeValleyAuthority(TVA) probeandDischargeLocator (DL) [15],
andtheStator Slot Coupler (SSC) [16], whichcanbemountedabovethestator con-
ductor intheslot beneaththewedge(seeFigure2.4). Theseconfer someadvantages
inenablingtheoperator tolocatedischargeactivity.
Morerecently, partial dischargemeasurementhasbeenmadeusingastandardised
capacitivecoupler, basedontheCanadianexperience, whichisarobust power engi-
neeringcomponentof capacitanceC thatcaneasilybecalibratedinQ
m
, thedischarge
valueinmillivolts across thecoupler, whereQ
m
inmillivoltsQ/C, whereQ is the
dischargevalue.
Thehigher signal-to-noisepotential of wideband RF techniques at frequencies
(100MHz–1GHz) describedinSection10.3.4hasbeeninvestigatedfurtherbyStone
et al . [17] andfromthis work therewouldappear to bethepotential for discharge
sitelocationbytheuseof adirectional aerial. However, at thefrequenciesinvolved
thedimensionsof suchanaerial, diameter from0.6to6m, wouldbeimpracticably
largeandinanycasethecomplexmachinestructurewill causereflectionsandlocal
resonancesthatwill disruptlocation. However, thismethodhasbeenusedsuccessfully
intransformersusingthreeor moreRF sensorslocatedinpositionsonthesurfaceof
thetransformer tanktotriangulatethelocationof defects.
Ultrasonic detectionof thenoiseemittedfromdischargeshasalsobeendemon-
strated on transformers to bemuch moreeffectiveat fault location than electrical
methods in rotating electrical machines. So despite the potential of wideband RF
techniques their lack of location ability means that thetechniquehas now largely
beensuperseded.
El ectr i cal techni ques: di scharge moni tor i ng 239
It must bemadeclear at thisstagethat thereislessvalueinbeingabletodetect
dischargeactivityif, whenthemachineistakenoutof service, thatactivityisimposs-
ibletolocate. Itwouldbepreferabletoallowdamagingdischargeactivitytocontinue
until it hadreachedsuchapitchthat thedamagewasobservable. Thishighlightsthe
problemof what constitutesasignificant level dischargeactivity.
In all partial discharge detection systems it is necessary to shield the desired
partial dischargeactivity signal fromexternal noise, either dueto partial discharge
activityintheconnectionsandswitchgearof theelectrical machineorduetosparking
in brushgear or harmonic activity dueto nearby power electronics. In somecases,
theelectrical machineisconnectedtothesystemviaalengthy, low-dischargecross-
linkedpolyethylenecable, that providesthenecessary filter, but it isnot alwaysso.
ThesenoiseandcalibrationissuesaredealtwithbyGearyet al . [8], Woodet al . [18],
Campbell et al . [19], StoneandSedding[20] andKempet al . [21].
Anotherfundamental problemforall partial dischargedetectionsystemsisthatthe
dischargeactivityof identical windingsindifferentmachinesexhibitlargevariations
in background activity, due to variations in ambient conditions, small changes in
theinsulationhomogeneityandnoiseconditions. Thereforeonecannot saywithany
certainty what thebackgrounddischargeactivity for awindingshouldbe, andthis
activitywill varynaturallywithtimeregardlessof whether anydamagingactivityis
takingplace. Anexampleof partial dischargedetectionresultstakenfromadatabase
fromanumber of 13.8kV turbinegenerators intheUS, measuredusingcapacitive
couplers[22], areshowninTable10.1, wherethevariationswithvoltageandbetween
machinescanbeseen.
Tabl e 10.1 q
m
i n mi l l i vol ts from a database of resul ts on a set of 13.8 kV tur bi ne
gener ator s, measured usi ng 80 pf capaci ti vecoupl er s. [ Taken fromStone
et al . [ 13] ]
RatedV 2–4kV 6–8kV 10–12kV 13–15kV 16–18kV >19kV
25% 2 6 27 9 145 120
50% 15 29 63 79 269 208
75% 57 68 124 180 498 411
90% 120 247 236 362 1024 912
Average 89 88 121 168 457 401
Maximum 2461 1900 3410 3396 3548 3552
10.5 M oder n dischar ge detection methods
Modern on-linedischargedetection methods for rotating electrical machines have
developedfromtheearlywork describedinSection10.3, improvedtoresolvesome
of theproblemsdescribedinSection10.4andcannowbedividedintotwotechniques.
• Thehydro generator partial dischargeanalyser (PDA), basedonSection10.3.3
(p. 235) (seeFigure10.8andLylesandGoodeve[23]).
240 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
B1 B2
B2 + L2
B1 + L1
L2
Neutral
80 pF 80 pF
mv
ns
L1
Ring bus
Circuit parallel
To cancel noise:
B2 + L2 = B1 + L1
(travel time in
nanoseconds)
Fault
External noise
pulse
PDA
PT cubicle
Generator
Grid
Fault pulse
Fi gure 10.8 Di agr am of the coupl er connecti ons and el ectroni cs for the par ti al di s-
charge anal yser (PDA) [ Taken from Stone et al . [ 22] . © I EEE (2004)]
Fault Generator
Fault pulse
External
noise pulse
PT cubicle
Delay
Same
length
L1 L2
80pF 80pF
TGA
Grid
Fi gure 10.9 Di agr am of the connecti ons and el ectroni cs for the tur bi ne gener ator
anal yser (TGA) [ Taken from Stone et al . [ 22] . © I EEE (2004)]
• Themotor or turbinegenerator analayser (TGA), basedonSections 10.3.1and
10.3.2(p. 235), whichadoptsavariantof thePDA toimprovethesignal-to-noise
ratioof partial dischargedetectiononwindingsof thetypesfoundinmotorsand
turbinegenerators(seeFigure10.9). Experiencewiththistechniqueisdescribed
inStoneet al . [24].
AnIEEE standardhasalsonowbeendevised[25] tostandardisethemeasurementof
partial dischargeonrotatingmachines.
El ectr i cal techni ques: di scharge moni tor i ng 241
Work is continuing on partial dischargedetection methods, including work on
lower-voltage, 4kVmotorsbyTetraultet al . [26], workonlargemachinesKheirmand
et al . [27] andanexampleof aninsulationmonitoringsystemthat detectsinsulation
leakagecurrentsby measuringmachineterminal voltagesonaninductionmotor by
Leeet al . [28].
10.6 Conclusion
Dischargemeasurementhasshownitself tobethemostproblematicelectrical method
of conditionmonitoring. Itrequiresspecial sensors, widebandwidth(>100kHz) and
very complex analysis for fault detection and can only be recommended where a
specific high-voltagefailuremodeis being searched for in aknown location on a
largemachine. Itaddressesoneof themostvital partsof theelectrical machine, itcan
detect global effects, includingpossiblyremanent lifeof themachineinsulation, and
itdoesgivealongwarningbeforefailureoccurs. Yettheanalysisof Chapter 3shows
that, with modern materials, the proportion of machine failures due to insulation
faults arenowless than one-third. Furthermorethedetection method relies on the
mostadvancedsignal processingtoextractuseful indications, whicharethenopento
interpretationbypartial dischargemeasurement experts. Thishasmadeit extremely
difficult toincreasetheconfidenceof machineoperatorsinthevalueof thistypeof
monitoringbecauseof their needtorefer todifferingexpert opinion.
Partial dischargemonitoringwas first appliedto isolatedinsulatedcomponents
suchasbushingsandcablestopjointswhereit hasavital roletoplay andhasbeen
successfullyextendedtoconventional andgas-insulatedswitchgear. However, when
appliedtothedistributed, multi-path, multi-connection, variably stressedinsulation
systemof anelectrical machinewinding, asshowninFigures10.1and10.2, it hasa
muchmoredifficulttaskanditsgreatestimpacthasbeenonapplicationssuchashydro
generators, whereaspecific failuremodeisbeingsearchedfor inknownlocations,
whichallowthepreciselocationof couplersandthetailoringof thesignal processing
tothat failuremode. Work still continuestodevelopthismethod, includingtheuse
of artificial intelligence(seeChapter 11) todeterminetheoverall deteriorationof a
windinginsulationsystembut thisobjectivehasnot yet beenreached.
10.7 Refer ences
1. WilsonA., NyeA.E.T. andHopgoodD. Onlinedetectionof partial discharges
in HV plant. Presented at the4th BEAMA International Electrical Insulation
Conference, Brighton1982.
2. Tavner P.J . andJ acksonR.J . Couplingof dischargecurrentsbetweenconductors
of electrical machinesowingtolaminatedsteel core. I EE Proceedi ngs Par t B,
El ectr i c Power Appl i cati ons 1988; 135: 295–307.
3. HarroldR.T., EmeryF.T., MurphyF.J .andDrinkutS.A.Radiofrequencysensing
of incipient arcingfaultswithinlargeturbinegenerators. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on
Power Appar atus and Systems 1979; PAS-98: 1167–73.
242 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
4. Emery F.T., LenderkingB.N. andCouchR.D. Turbine-generator on-linediag-
nostics using RF monitoring. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on Power Appar atus and
Systems 1981; PAS-100: 4974–82.
5. HarroldR.T. andEmeryF.T. Radiofrequencydiagnosticmonitoringof electrical
machines. I EEE El ectr i cal I nsul ati on Magazi ne 1986; 2: 18–24.
6. TimperleyJ .E. Incipient fault detectionthroughneutral RF monitoringof large
rotatingmachines. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on Power Appar atus and Systems 1983;
PAS-102: 693–8.
7. Ward D.A. and Exon J .L.T. Using Rogowski coils for transient cur-
rent measurements. Engi neer i ng Sci ence and Educati on Jour nal 1993; 2:
105–13.
8. GearyR., KempI.J ., WilsonA. andWoodJ .W. Towardsimprovedcalibrationin
themeasurementof partial dischargesinrotatingmachinery. IEEEInternational
ConferenceonElectrical Insulation, Toronto, 1990.
9. Kurtz M. and Stone G.C. In-service partial discharge testing of generator
insulation. I EEE Tr ansacti ons of El ectr i cal I nsul ati on 1979; EI -14: 94–100.
10. Kurtz M., Stone G.C., Freeman D., Mulhall V.R. and Lonseth P. Diagnos-
tic testing of generator insulation without serviceinterruption. CIGRE, Paris,
1980.
11. MalikA.K., CookR.F. andTavnerP.J . Thedetectionof dischargesinalternators
usingwidebandradiofrequency techniques. Presentedat theIEE International
ConferenceonElectrical MachinesDesign& Applications, London, 1985.
12. Michiguchi Y., TonisakaS., Izumi S., WatanabeT. andMiyashitaI. Develop-
ment of a collector ring monitor for sparking detection on generators. I EEE
Tr ansacti ons of Power Appar atus and Systems 1983; PAS-102: 928–33.
13. StoneG.C., Boulter E.A., Culbert I. and Dhirani H. El ectr i cal I nsul ati on for
Rotati ng Machi nes, Desi gn, Eval uati on, Agi ng, Testi ng, and Repai r . NewYork:
Wiley–IEEE Press, 2004.
14. StoneG.C., SeddingH.G., LloydB.A. andGuptaB.K. Theabilityof diagnostic
tests to estimatetheremaininglifeof stator insulation. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on
Energy Conver si on 1988; EC-3: 833–41.
15. SeddingH.G. andStoneG.C. A dischargelocatingprobefor rotatingmachines.
I EEE El ectr i cal I nsul ati on Magazi ne 1989; 5: 14–17.
16. SeddingH.G., Campbell S.R., StoneG.C. andKlempner G.S. A newsensor for
detectingpartial dischargesinoperatingturbinegenerators. I EEE Tr ansacti ons
on Energy Conver si on 1991; EC-6: 700–6.
17. Stone G.C., Sedding H.G., Fujimoto, N. and Braun J .M. Practical imple-
mentationof ultrawidebandpartial dischargedetectors. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on
El ectr i cal I nsul ati on 1992; EI -27: 70–81.
18. WoodJ . W., SeddingH. G., HoggW.K., KempI.J . andZhuH. Partial discharges
inHV machines; initial considerationsfor aPDspecification. I EE Proceedi ngs,
Par t A, Sci ence, Measurement and Technol ogy 1993; 140: 409–16.
19. Campbell S.R., StoneG.C., SeddingH.G., Klempner G.S., McDermidW. and
Bussey R.G. Practical on-linepartial dischargetestsfor turbinegeneratorsand
motors. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on Energy Conver si on 1994; EC-9: 281–7.
El ectr i cal techni ques: di scharge moni tor i ng 243
20. Stone G.C. and Sedding H.G. In-service evaluation of motor and generator
stator windings using partial discharge tests. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on I ndustr y
Appl i cati ons 1995; I A-31: 299–303.
21. KempI.J ., ZhuH., SeddingH.G., WoodJ .W. andHoggW.K. Towardsanewpar-
tial dischargecalibrationstrategybasedonthetransferfunctionof machinestator
windings. I EE Proceedi ngs, Par t A, Sci ence, Measurement and Technol ogy
1996; 143: 57–62.
22. StoneG.C., Boulter E.A., Culbert I. and Dhirani H. El ectr i cal I nsul ati on for
Rotati ng Machi nes, Desi gn, Eval uati on, Agi ng, Testi ng, and Repai r . NewYork:
Wiley–IEEE Press; 2004.
23. Lyles J .F. and Goodeve T.E. Using diagnostic technology for identifying
generator windingneeds. Hydro Revi ew 1993; J une: 58–67.
24. Stone G.C., Sedding H.G. and Costello M. Application of partial discharge
testingtomotor andgenerator stator windingmaintenance. I EEE Tr ansacti ons
on I ndustr y Appl i cati ons 1996; I A-32: 459–64.
25. IEEE Standard. Trial use guide to the measurements of partial discharges in
rotatingmachines. IEEE 1434. IEEE, 2000.
26. Tetrault S.M., StoneG.C. andSteddingH.G. Monitoringpartial dischargeson
4-kVmotorwindings. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on I ndustr y Appl i cati ons 1999; I A-35:
682–8.
27. KheirmandA., LeijonM.andGubanski S.M.Advancesinonlinemonitoringand
localizationof partial dischargesinlargerotatingmachines. I EEE Tr ansacti ons
on Energy Conver si on 2004; EC-19: 53–9.
28. LeeS.B., Younsi K. andKilmanG.B. Anonlinetechniquefor monitoringthe
insulation condition of AC machine stator windings. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on
Energy Conver si on 2005; EC-20: 737–45.
Chapter 11
Application of ar tificial intelligence techniques
11.1 I ntr oduction
Inearlier chapters of thebook wehavepresentedvarious techniques for condition
monitoring. It wasseenthat most faultsdohavepredictablesymptomsduringtheir
development, fromrootcausetofailuremode, whichcanbedetectedbymechanical,
electromagnetic, optical or chemical sensors.
Condition monitoring has to establish amap between input signals and output
indicationsof themachinecondition. Classifyingmachineconditionanddetermining
theseverityof faultsfromtheinput signalshavenever beeneasytasksandtheyare
affectedbymanyfactors.
ReturntooursimpleanalogyinChapter4of anengineercollectingdataandacting
uponit. Itisinthisfinal, diagnosticstagethatexperiencedengineersstill outperform
most computerised condition-monitoring systems. Experienceand intelligenceare
extremelyimportantinthisinterpretativestagewheninformationfromdifferentsen-
sorsissiftedandconditionpreciselyindicatedbytracingtheprobabilitiesof different
root causes. Inrecent years, therehas beenconsiderableeffort to developartificial
intelligencesystemsthat canplay therolescurrently performedby humans. Thisis
important for at least tworeasons.
1. Electrical machines, both motors and generators, areincreasingly used as ele-
mentsinbigger systemswhereoperatorsarenotnecessarilyexperiencedintheir
design.
2. A human expert can be subject to influences that make quick and consistent
judgement impossible, particularly whentherearemany machinesintheplant.
Correct judgement may also depend on the knowledge and the experience of
manyexpertswhoarenot all availableat thesametime.
In order to design acomputerised systemthat mimics human intelligence, we
shouldbeclear about theresponsethat weexpect fromexperts. They must havea
certainamount of knowledgeabout therelationshipbetweenthemachinecondition
andthesymptoms. This is theknowledgedevelopedby researchers andengineers,
whichis what wehavebeentryingto document inthis book for rotatingelectrical
machines.
Wefurther expect theexperts toapply suchknowledgeby performingheuristic
reasoninguponreceivingconditiondatafromthemachinebeingmonitored. Devel-
opment of expert systems in artificial intelligenceallows such heuristic reasoning,
246 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
a feature of human intelligence, to be reproduced in a computerised system. The
experts must beableto handleuncertaininformationandfindways to increasethe
confidenceintheir final judgement. Crucial informationmaycomeinlinguisticfor-
matratherthanbeingquantified; forexample, ‘thewatercoolantflowof thismachine
is decreasingmuchfaster thanbefore’. Methods basedonfuzzy logic canbeused
to deal with such situations. Expert systems including fuzzy logic havebeen used
by both machine manufacturers and utilities for condition monitoring, as we will
describeinthischapter (seee.g. References1and2).
Manufacturersareaddingmorefunctionalitytonewmachines, whiletheutilities
aremorefocusedonaged, existingmachinestoextendtheirusablelifetime. Ithasbeen
realisedthat humanexperts facingacondition-monitoringtask will receivealarge
amountof data, someof whichmaybetrivial whileothersimportant. Thehumanman-
ner of processingsuchdatafeatures parallelism. Artificial neural networks (ANN),
whichtrytoemulatethatfeatureof humanintelligenceandthelearningcapability, are
particularly attractiveinreproducingthisparallelismincondition-monitoringtasks.
Thisisbeingactivelyresearchedandwewill outlinesomebasicconcepts.
ConditionmonitoringbasedonfuzzylogicandANNexpertsystemscanbecom-
binedwithother methodssuchassimulatedannealingandgeneticalgorithms, which
alsoemulatehumanintelligence. A geneticalgorithm, for example, doesnotof itself
performthemappingfrominput datatoanoutput of machinecondition. Instead, it
is astochastic optimisationtechniquethat canbeusedinthetrainingprocess of an
ANN. Combinations of thetechniques and such numerical algorithms will not be
describedinthisbook. Interestedreaderscanrefer toFilippetti et al . [3] for further
information. Wemustpointoutthatitisincreasinglyrecognisedthatmostindividual
artificial intelligencetechniques suffer fromspecific drawbacks, and that ahybrid
approachisneededinmost practical situations.
11.2 Exper t systems
Anexpert systemtreatstheconditionmonitoringof anelectricmachinelikeamed-
ical doctor diagnosingapatient. Someinitial andsuperficial informationis usedto
formhypothesesabout themachinecondition, whicharethentestedtoidentifypos-
siblefaults. Thenfurther evidenceis searchedfor to refinethediagnosis, increase
confidenceandthenmakeaspecific diagnosis. Whenengineers do this they apply
their knowledge, whichmust bepresentedtoanexpert systeminaway that canbe
interpreted by acomputer or digital signal processing system. This is not an easy
taskbecausesuchknowledgeisusuallyheuristicinnature, basedon‘ruleof thumb’
rather thanabsolutecertainties. Furthermorehumanknowledgeconsistsof complex
linguisticstructuresrather thannumerical precision, andmost of it isalmost embed-
dedat asubconscious level. Thereis no doubt that weneedto obtainasubstantial
amount of knowledgeinorder tobuildanexpert systemthat providesquality mon-
itoring functionality. Closeinteraction between machineand softwareengineers is
necessary, andinorder for thefinal product tobeuseful, theenduser’srequirement
must alsobetakenintoaccount.
Appl i cati on of ar ti fi ci al i ntel l i gence techni ques 247
Knowledgecanbepresentedinanumberof waystothecomputerordigital signal
processingsystem.
• Frame-basedsystems represent knowledgeindatastructures calledframes that
describethetypical situationsor instancesof entities.
• Semanticnetworksrepresenttheknowledgeinagraphical structurewherenodes
representconceptsandbeliefsaboutthesystemwhilearcsrepresentrelationships
betweentheseconceptsandbeliefs.
• Rule-basedsystems represent theknowledgeas ‘if–then’ rules inthecomputer
memory[4].
Typically the rules will not provide certainty in conclusions; rather there will
bedegrees of certainty inthemthat will holdfor giveninput conditions. Statistical
methodsareusedtodeterminethesedegreesof certainties[5]. Manydifferentrepre-
sentationshavebeenemployedindevelopingexpertsystemsforconditionmonitoring
but therule-basedknowledgeschemeisprobably themost widely usedinpractice.
Figure11.1showsthegeneral architectureof arule-basedexpert system.
Thereis declarativeknowledgeandimperativeknowledge, either of whichcan
berepresentedasrules.
• Declarativeknowledgetellstheexpertsystemwhatitcouldbelieve, withadegree
of certainty. For example, anegativesequencecomponent aboveacertainlevel
intheinputcurrentof aninductionmachineimpliesastator windingshortedturn
fault, or anunbalancedsupply.
• Ontheother hand, imperativeknowledgetellstheexpertsystemwhattodonext;
for example, lookinginto other datathat may indicatethat supply imbalanceis
not infact present.
Thisgivestheimpressionof anabilitytoapplyheuristicreasoning. Humanexperts
aredistinguishednotonlybythequantityof knowledgethattheypossessbutalsoby
thewaythattheknowledgeisappliedskilfully. Forreasonsdescribedatthebeginning
of this section, an expert systemfor condition monitoring needs to performboth
forwardandbackwardreasoning.
Explanation
system
Inference
engine
Knowledge
base editor
User
interface
Case-
specific
data
Knowledge
base
Expert system shell
Fi gure 11.1 Exper t system archi tecture
248 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
A featureof thearchitectureshowninFigure11.1isthat case-specific dataand
thegeneral knowledgebaseareseparated. Thisallowstheexpert systemtobeused
indifferent cases providedthat therules intheknowledgebaseareadequate. They
arebothseparatedfromamoregeneral part of thearchitecturecalledexpert system
shell. Commercial software shells with the appropriate characteristics to develop
the expert systemby programming the rules into it and setting the user interface
arenowavailable. Theshell shownherehas anexplanationsubsystemthat allows
theexpert systemto explain its reasoning to theuser. Theknowledgebaseeditor
allowstherulestobemodifiedwhennecessary andhencemakestheexpert system
sodevelopedmaintainableandadaptive. Itshouldbenotedthatalthoughcommercial
shellsareavailable, it istheexpert knowledgethat will determinethequality of the
expert system.
StoneandKapler [1] describeanexpert systemdevelopedfor monitoringstator
insulationinturbinegenerators. Stator windings ratedat 4kV or aboveexperience
gradual deterioration of electrical insulation. We have described in Chapter 2 the
dominantmechanismsleadingtostator windinginsulationfailure. Itcanbeseenthat
several interactingfactors, includingvibration, overheatingandmoisturecontami-
nation, areinvolved in thedegradation process and insulation failurecan occur in
differentpartsof thewinding. Assuchfactorscausevoidsintheinsulationstructure,
partial dischargeactivityoccursleadingtofurtherinsulationdamage. Partial discharge
activity can be monitored fromthe generator or neutral terminals as described in
Chapter10. ThemainmeasurementtechniqueshavebeendescribedinSections10.3–
10.5. Partial dischargesignalsaregenerally high-frequency spikes, inthe100MHz
range, whichcanbeeasily confusedwithnoisefromadjacent machines, or arcing
or coronaactivities in theswitchyard and switchgear. Expert knowledgeis impor-
tant toensurethereliability of thepartial dischargemeasurement data, by checking
for examplethedv/dt rate. StephanandLaird[2] alsoconfirmthisby showingthat
themeasurement datacanbecontaminatedby loosecontact of theshaft grounding
brushgear. They also showthat thedatareliability canbeimprovedby considering
thecorrelationof thepartial dischargeevent withthephaseangleof thegenerator
terminal voltage. Giventhereliabilityof theacquiredpartial dischargedata, conclu-
sionscanonlybedrawnbasedontrendanalysis, comparisonwithother generators,
maintenancerecords, earlier off-linetest results, present operatingpoint, vibration
andtemperaturemeasurement, visual inspectionandfleet experience. Suchaspects
arebesttakenintoaccountusinghumanexpertknowledge, representedinrules, asit
isextremelyhardtoestablishalgorithmicsolutionstosuchproblems.
TakenfromReference1, Figure11.2showsanexampleof theoutput screenof
anexpert systemmonitoringstator windinginsulation. It shows theoverall risk of
windinginsulationfailureasan‘overall conditionassessment’, expressedasarelative
positionbetweengoodandbad. Thiscanbeused, incomparisonwithothermachines,
todeterminethemachinethatismostinneedof maintenance. Theexpertsystemalso
provides alist of failuremechanisms that might beoccurring in thewinding. The
probabilities of suchmechanisms areindicatedandtheseareestimatedstatistically
usingexpertexperienceandknowledge. Otherauxiliaryinformationisalsodisplayed
Appl i cati on of ar ti fi ci al i ntel l i gence techni ques 249
Fi gure 11.2 I l l ustr ati on of the output of an exper t system used to moni tor the
i ntegr i ty of stator wi ndi ng i nsul ati on. [ Taken from Stone and Kapl er
[ 1] . © I EEE (1997)]
onscreenthat further aids theoperator. About 20humanexperts wereconsultedin
developingthisexpert system.
Inpractice, expertsystemscanbemademodularwitheachmodulefocusingonone
aspectof themachinecondition. All modulesarethenintegratedtoprovidemonitoring
over theentiremachine. Figure11.3shows thearchitectureof asystemdeveloped
for steamturbinesynchronousgeneratorstolook at stator androtor windingissues.
Interactionsbetweendifferentmodulesaretakenintoaccountandthesemodulesmay
overlapintheir functionalities. For example, theconditionof shaft groundinggear
canaffect partial discharge, as mentionedearlier. Highend-windingvibrationmay
indicateloosenessintheend-windingsupport, whichamongother thingscancause
cracksintheend-windingcoronaprotection, leadingtopartial dischargeinthisregion.
Theinclusion of an end-winding vibration monitoring moduleprovides additional
information. Combininginformationfromall themodulesinasynchronisedmanner
allowsfor correlation, andtheabilitytocheck plausibilityof different diagnoses, as
describedbyStephanandLaird[2].
250 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Partial
discharge
for stator
winding
insulation
Stator
end-
winding
vibration
Stator
water
tempera-
ture
Shaft
voltage/
current
for rotor
assess-
ment
Rotor flux
for rotor
winding
short
detection
Operating condition,
historical data, etc.
Remote access
Local platform
Fi gure 11.3 Confi gur ati on of a modul ar system
11.3 Fuzzy logic
The range and form of condition-monitoring signatures described in the previ-
ous chapters of this book could lead one to the conclusion that interpretation of
condition-monitoringsignals may beachievedinanunambiguous manner, but this
isunfortunatelynot usuallyrealistic. Takingastator windingshortedturnfault inan
inductionmotor asanexample, anobvioussignaturewouldbethenegativesequence
component intheinput current, or acoustic vibrationmeasuredonthemotor frame.
Assumingabalancedvoltagesupply andperfect manufactureof themachine, such
signals can beconfidently associated with thestator winding fault as described in
Chapter 9. However, supply imbalance and manufacturing imperfections always
exist; even abrand new machinewould allow themeasurement of somenegative
sequencecurrentandvibration. Unlesswecandefineathresholdvalue, theinforma-
tionwemeasurecouldbetter bedescribedas‘thenegativesequencecurrent isquite
large’. Theconditionof themachinebeingmonitoredcouldalsobedescribedinsuch
alinguistic manner, for examplethemachineconditionisnot necessarily ‘good’ or
‘bad’, but mayfall intosomeintermediaterange.
Fuzzylogicisparticularlysuitableinsuchcircumstances, wheretheinputsignals
that aretobeusedfor conditionmonitoringcanbeassociatedwithcertainmember-
shipfunctions. A membershipfunctionallowsaquantity, suchasanegativesequence
current, to beassociated with alinguistic variablewith certain degrees of truth or
confidence. For example, Figure11.4showsmembershipfunctionsfor thenegative
sequencecurrent measuredonaninductionmotor that isrunninginthesteadystate.
Thehorizontal axisisthenegativesequencecurrent normalisedtotheratedcurrent.
Thevertical axisindicateshowthenegativesequencecurrentisassociatedtofourlin-
guisticvariablesdenotedas‘negligible’ (N), ‘small’ (S), ‘medium’ (M) or‘large’ (L).
Thereforefourmembershipfunctionsareused. InBooleanlogic, thecurrentwouldbe
judgedeither ‘true’ or ‘false’ withrespect toanyof thefour linguisticvariables. But
infuzzylogic, suchaconcept isextendedtoallowthecurrent tobeassociatedwith
Appl i cati on of ar ti fi ci al i ntel l i gence techni ques 251
N S M L
m
Normalised negative
sequence current
0
1
1
Fi gure 11.4 I l l ustr ati on of member shi p functi ons for the negati ve sequence cur rent
i n a faul ted i nducti on motor
theselinguisticvariablestoanydegreebetween0(fullyfalse) and1(fullytrue). The
sameinput valuecanindicatemorethanonemembershipfunctionvalue, implying
that different statementscanbesimultaneouslytruebut todifferent degreesof truth.
For example, anegativesequencecurrentmaybejudgedas‘medium’ byadegreeof
0.6whileat thesametimeas ‘large’ by adegreeof 0.3. It is alsoconsideredbeing
not‘negligible’ or ‘small’ if thecorrespondingmembershipfunctionvaluesarezero.
Other input signatures, for example, negativesequencesupply voltage, canalsobe
representedinthisway, asfuzzysetsbymeansof membershipfunctions.
Different shapes of membership functions can be chosen for a given applica-
tion. Constructionof themembershipfunctions requires significant insight intothe
physical meaning of the signals and the linguistic variables to be used. Practical
experienceandexperiments inthelaboratory, or theindustrial environment is usu-
ally theonly sureway to gain such insight; thehard work cannot bebypassed, as
illustratedby BenbouzidandNejjari [6]. Nevertheless, thereis nodoubt that fuzzy
logicdoesprovideanalternativeandpowerful tool of informationrepresentationand
processing.
Associatinginput signalswithmembershipfunctionsiscalledfuzzification. The
power of fuzzy logic is moreevident in theoperation and inferencestages of the
process, whichderivenewresultsthatthenprovideprogressivelymorepreciseinfor-
mationabout theactual conditionof themachine. AsinBooleanlogic, basic fuzzy
logic operations could include‘AND’, ‘OR’ and ‘NOT’, but instead of producing
‘true’ or‘false’ asanoutcome, fuzzylogicoperationsresultinadegreevalue(between
0and1) forwhichthecombinedstatementof thelogicoperationistrue. Forexample,
consider thetwostatements.
• A: motor negativesequencecurrent issmall withmembershipfunctionof 0.7;
• B: negativesequencesupplyvoltageisnegligiblewithmembershipfunctionvalue
of 0.5.
Oneway todefineafuzzy logic ‘AND’ operationistousethesmaller valueof the
two involved membership function values. Therefore the degree of the following
statement beingtrueis0.5.
• (A)AND(B): (negativesequencecurrentissmall)and(negativesequencevoltage
isnegligible).
252 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Fuzzy logic ‘OR’ may besimilarly definedby usingthemaximummembership
function value, while fuzzy logic ‘NOT’ may be defined as 1 – u where u is the
membershipfunctionvalueof theoperandinvolved.
Fuzzyinferenceisappliedtothestatements, withorwithoutfuzzylogicoperators,
toimplythedegreetowhichaconsequentstatementissupportable. Thisusuallytakes
theformof ‘if–then’ rules. For example, oneof themanyrulesthat couldbeusedin
acondition-monitoringsystemfor stator windingshortedturnfault detectioncould
beexpressedas:
Rule(i): If [(negativesequencecurrent issmall) and(negativesequencevoltageis
negligible)] then(shortedturnfault ispresent)
Becausetheconditionor antecedent of this ruleis not 100per cent true, theoutput
statement, which is also linguistic, is not 100 per cent true either. For the output
statement, wearenotparticularlyinterestedintowhatextentitistrue. Whatitmeans
totheactual machineconditionisof moreimportance. Weapplyaprocedurecalled
fuzzyimplicationfor thispurpose. ThiswholeprocessisillustratedinFigure11.5. In
thefinal plot of Figure11.5, thehorizontal axisisfault severityandtheshadedarea
representsaprobabilisticdistributionof thefault severity.
N S
Fault severity Fault severity
Just present
-sequence voltage -sequence current
AND
Implication
Fi gure 11.5 I l l ustr ati on of theappl i cati on of fuzzy i nferenceto thenegati vesequence
cur rent as a resul t of a wi ndi ng faul t on an i nducti on motor
Theremay beseveral rules associatedwiththesameoutput statement, or con-
sequence, and a condition-monitoring systemmay haveseveral output statements
regardingthemachinecondition. For instance, another ruleoutput statement could
be‘shortedturnfault isserious’.
All rules are then scanned by a fuzzy logic inference engine, generating the
correspondingoutputimplications, whicharethenaggregatedtoformasingleoverall
fuzzy set regardingtheshortedturn fault severity. Theorder of all therules being
executeddoesnot matter inanywaysincetheaggregationprocedureshouldalways
becommutative. Threewaysof aggregationarecommonlyappliedtotheoutputsof
therules: maximumselection, probabilisticOR; that is, a + b − ab, andsummation.
Weightingfactors canbeintroducedto reflect therelativeimportanceof eachrule.
A defuzzificationprocedurecanthenbeusedtoobtainasinglenormalisedindexfor
theparticular fault that is beingmonitored. Oneway is to calculatethecentroidof
theaggregatedoverall distribution.
Appl i cati on of ar ti fi ci al i ntel l i gence techni ques 253
Expert
knowledge
Historical
data
Analytical
knowledge
Knowledge
acquisition
Rule base
Membership
functions
Fuzzy
inference
Data
acquisition &
processing
Condition
information
Plant under
diagnosis
Knowledge source
Knowledge base
Fi gure 11.6 Bl ock di agr am of a fuzzy di agnosti c system
Caldaraet al . [7] describeanearlyfuzzydiagnosticsystemfor alinear induction
motor drive. The systemhas the configuration outlined in Figure 11.6. There are
similarities between an expert systemand a fuzzy diagnostic systemin that they
are both knowledge-based. The added feature of a fuzzy diagnostic systemis in
therepresentation of knowledgeas membership functions and thefuzzy inference
methodology.
11.4 Ar tificial neur al networ ks
11.4.1 Gener al
Artificial neural networks (ANN) havebeen used for many different applications.
Thefeaturethatismostattractiveinconditionmonitoringistheir abilitytorepresent
complicated, non-linear relationships andto self-learninpatternrecognitiontasks.
In monitoring broken rotor bars in cageinduction motors for example, akey step
is to establish the correlation between the current components and perhaps other
signals, and thefault severity. However, aquantitativerelationship is complicated
andmanyfactors, suchasoperatingpoint, loadcharacteristicandinherent magnetic
orelectrical asymmetriesinthemachine, haveeffectsontherelationship. Suchfactors
aredifficulttotakeintoaccountinanyanalytical way. Aneural networkcan, however,
254 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
betrainedtorepresent thedesiredtarget relationship. Inaneural network approach,
theelectrical machineis treatedessentially as ablack box withonly theinput and
output signalsusedtotrainthenetwork. Theinput andoutput signalsarechosento
bethosemost relevant tothecondition-monitoringtask, whichoftenrequiresexpert
knowledgeof themachine. Timedomainsignalsareusuallypre-processedbyafast
Fouriertransform(FFT) andtheinputstotheneural networkaretheFFT components
and their derivatives [8]. A neural network properly trained can be used for both
fault and fault severity classification, which is theultimateobjectiveof condition
monitoring.
11.4.2 Super vi sed l ear ni ng
Of all neural networkstructures, themultilayeredperceptron, trainedusingtheback-
propagation algorithm, is perhaps the most widely used. Multilayered perceptron
(MLP) trainingcanalsobeviewedasagradient descent techniqueandtherefore, to
analysts, itpossessesahighdegreeof credibilityalthoughthelocal minimumproblem
needstobedealt withinthetrainingprocess[9].
Figure11.7showsanMLPnetworkthatwasdevelopedbyFilippetti et al . [10] to
detect brokenrotor bar faultsininductionmotors. Thenetwork consistsof aninput
layer that acceptssixinput signalsincluding:
• slips;
• slipasaratioof theratedslips/s
r
;
• aquantity dependent onthecurrent component, I
comp
, at frequency (1−2s)f
se
,
NI
comp
/N
m
I where N is the number of rotor bars and is normalised to the
fundamental current, I , andthemaximumbar number N
m
, sayN
m
= 100;
1 2 3 4 5 6
1 2 3
Bias s s/s
r NI
comp
/NI
m
I/I
r
P
a
/P
r
P
r
/P
b
Bias
15
16
7
1
n/n
m
Output layer
Weighted connection
Weighted connection
Hidden layer
Input layer
Fi gure 11.7 A neur al networ k str ucture for broken rotor bar detecti on
Appl i cati on of ar ti fi ci al i ntel l i gence techni ques 255
• f
se
isthemotor supplyfrequency;
• fundamental current, I , asaratiototheratedcurrent I
r
;
• input power, P
a
, asaratiototheratedpower P
r
;
• ratedpower, P
r
, asaratiotoaselectedbasepower P
b
, sayP
b
= 100kW.
Abovetheinputlayer isahiddenlayer of 15nodesor neuronsthateachperforms
thesamealgebraicoperation. Settingthenumber of hiddenneuronsisempirical and
requires‘trial anderror’ setting. A commonnon-linearfunctionof thehiddenneurons
isthesigmoid‘squashing’ functionandfor agiveninput tothesigmoid‘squashing’
function, x
i
, theoutput of ahiddenneuroniscalculatedas
F (x
i
) =
1
1+ e
−x
i
, i = 1, 2 . . . , 15 (11.1)
wherex
i
=

7
j =1
w
i j
u
j
is theweightedsummationof all theinput signals towards
thehiddenneuroni , w
i j
representstheweight frominput neuronj tohiddenneuron
i , andu
j
, j = 1, . . . , 7representstheinputs.
Theneural networkalsohasanoutputlayer, consistingof onlyoneneuroninthis
case, whichcalculates anestimationof thenumber of brokenbars, n, inaratio to
amaximumnumber of brokenbars, set arbitrarily to n
m
= 10, for example. The
calculationisbasedonthesamefunctionas(11.1) andtherearealsoweightinggains
fromthehiddenneuronstotheoutputneuron. InFigure11.7, therearetwobiasnodes
that affect thehiddenandoutput neurons directly. Thebias nodes canbemanually
set for calibrationpurposes.
Inorder for theneural networkstructuredinthiswaytohavetheintelligencethat
wewish, itmustgothroughalearningprocess. Thisenablesittofindpropervaluesfor
theweightsintheconnections. Thisrequirestrainingdatafrompractical recording,
experiments or detailed simulation models that can represent machinedefects to a
relativelyhighdegreeof accuracy. Thelearningprocessof amultilayeredperceptron
network, suchastheoneshownhere, usuallyrequiresaformof supervisioninwhich
all dataarelabelled. Thedatasetshouldcoverboththenormal conditionsandthefault
conditionsthat theneural networksystemintendstomonitor. Thedesiredoutput for
agiveninput patternshouldbeexplicitlystatedinthelearningprocess. Theweights
areadjusteduntil theoverall error, whichmeasuresthedifferencebetweenthedesired
outputsandtheobtainedoutputs, isminimised. A typical error functionisthesum-
of-squares error, as shown below, whereN
data
is thetotal number of input–output
pairsinthedataset tobelearnt.
Error =
N
data

i =1
{Output
cal cul ated
−Output
desi red
}
2
(11.2)
A wayof adjustingtheweightsistousetheback-propagationtrainingalgorithm
detailed by many authors including Halpin and Burch [11]. In this algorithm, the
error inthefinal output of theneural network is usedtomodify theweights, based
onasensitivity-likeprinciple. Howquicklytheweightscanbemodifiediscontrolled
by two parameters: the learning rate and the momentumthat helps to avoid any
256 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
local minimumandassistsconvergence. Theweightsclosest totheoutput layer are
modifiedfirst andtheerror is gradually propagatedback towards totheinput layer
tomodify other weights. Theprocedureisiterateduntil theoverall error definedin
(11.2) isminimised.
Table11.1showsthetrainedweightsthatwereusedintheneural networkshown
inFigure11.7[10]. Forinstance, thethirdcolumnistheweightsfromthethirdinputto
the15hiddenneurons. Thisinputisproportional totheside-bandcurrentcomponent
atfrequency(1−2s)f
se
. Thecorrespondingweightshavethehighestvaluesshowing
thatthisinputisindeedanimportantsignaturefor monitoringbrokenrotor bar faults.
Otherinputswereusedinthisnetworktoaccountfortheeffectsof theoperatingpoint
of themotor andother inherent asymmetries.
Theoutput of theneural network is proportional to thenumber of brokenrotor
bars, as showninTable11.2, inaseries of cases that weretestedusingthetrained
neural network. The actual output value is affected by the setting of n
m
= 10 in
thisparticular caseandthedesiredoutput usedinthetrainingprocess. For example,
thedesired output with onebroken rotor bar is 0.1 corresponding to 1/10 = 0.1.
The neural network output should ideally be the same disregarding the operating
point of themotor. Table11.2showsthat inthetestscarriedout, theobtainedoutput
of the trained multilayered perceptron network is very close to the targeted val-
ues and theeffect of changes to theoperating point, with different slips, has been
compensated.
11.4.3 Unsuper vi sed l ear ni ng
Aneural networkcanalsolearnunsupervised[9]. Comparedwithsupervisedlearning,
anunsupervisedsystemprovides asignificantly different neural network approach
totheidentificationof abnormal operationandthelearningcanbemoreprotracted.
Thesystemcanproceedthroughthelearningstagewithoutprovisionof correctclas-
sifications for each input set of data whereas the connection weight adaptation in
the multilayered perceptron is driven precisely by just such knowledge. The pos-
sibility of training a network on a set of data, with no labelled inputs or only a
fraction of which are labelled clearly, offers significant advantages. However to
interpret the outputs so formed and to use themfor classification, knowledge of
thetraining dataset is still required. Nevertheless, unsupervised networks require
fewer iterations in training, since they do not require exact optimisation for their
decision-making.
Theunsupervisednetwork implementationdescribedhereis basedonthewell-
known Kohonen feature map. This feature map approach, presented by Kohonen
in the 1980s, derives fromthe observation that the fine structure of the cerebral
cortex in thehuman brain may becreated during learning by algorithms that pro-
mote self-organisation. Kohonen’s algorithmmimics such processes. It creates a
vector quantiser by adjusting the weights fromcommon input nodes to the out-
put nodes, which are arranged in a two-dimensional grid-like network, as shown
inFigure11.8. Suchamappingisusuallyfromahigher-dimensional inputspaceinto
alow-dimensional output space.
T
a
b
l
e
1
1
.
1
W
e
i
g
h
t
m
a
t
r
i
x
f
o
r
a
t
r
a
i
n
e
d
m
u
l
t
i
-
l
e
v
e
l
p
e
r
c
e
p
t
r
o
n
n
e
t
w
o
r
k
[
1
0
]
I
n
p
u
t
t
o
h
i
d
d
e
n
c
o
n
n
e
c
t
i
o
n
H
i
d
d
e
n
t
o
o
u
t
p
u
t
I
n
p
u
t
l
a
y
e
r
n
e
u
r
o
n
s
c
o
n
n
e
c
t
i
o
n
H
i
d
d
e
n
l
a
y
e
r
1
(
s
)
2
(
s
/
s
r
)
3
(
N
l
c
o
m
p
/
N
m
I
)
4
(
I
/
I
r
)
5
(
P
a
/
P
r
)
6
(
P
r
/
P
b
)
7
(
b
i
a
s
)
H
i
d
d
e
n
l
a
y
e
r
O
u
t
p
u
t
n
e
u
r
o
n
n
e
u
r
o
n
s
n
e
u
r
o
n
s
(
n
/
n
m
a
x
)
1
0
.
1
2
9
7
6
4
0
.
2
8
9
6
4
1
.
1
5
7
7
5

0
.
4
0
3
7
4

0
.
7
5
3
2
0

0
.
0
2
8
3
8

0
.
3
4
8
5
7
4
1
1
.
0
0
5
4
5
2

0
.
0
2
7
8
6
0
.
3
0
3
4
1
1
.
0
3
7
3
8

0
.
3
6
9
6
5

0
.
7
2
4
5
1

0
.
1
8
4
5
7

0
.
2
7
8
0
1
2
0
.
9
7
6
9
5
3
1
.
7
4
8
1
3
2
.
5
0
9
7
0

1
.
8
7
5
8
9
2
.
5
1
2
5
7
4
.
8
6
8
9
0
1
.
4
7
3
8
3

0
.
1
7
4
0
6
3

3
.
9
9
7
3
3
4
0
.
9
9
5
5
9
2
.
9
9
4
8
6
5
.
9
8
6
0
8
1
.
9
5
8
2
3
1
.
1
9
3
1
6
0
.
7
5
4
9
4
0
.
3
7
9
6
1
4
4
.
4
7
2
1
1
5

1
.
6
2
9
5
5

2
.
8
0
1
1
0
1
.
8
3
4
4
0

2
.
3
3
8
9
5

3
.
9
2
4
4
5

1
.
8
2
8
4
9
8

0
.
1
1
6
2
7
5
3
.
4
4
3
2
7
6
0
.
4
3
7
4
3
0
.
3
9
5
9
0

1
.
3
9
1
4
3

0
.
4
7
0
8
4
0
.
2
6
6
6
6
0
.
2
6
0
2
7

0
.
6
0
8
1
0
6

1
.
3
9
6
3
5
7

0
.
4
9
2
6
8
0
.
2
7
7
0
8

0
.
0
4
3
2
6

0
.
1
5
6
1
1
-
0
.
2
5
0
5
4
0
.
2
1
1
7
6

0
.
4
2
6
0
8
7

0
.
0
6
1
8
9
8
0
.
3
5
0
8
7

0
.
2
6
8
9
6

0
.
4
7
8
9
2

0
.
4
4
5
2
2
0
.
5
0
4
6
2
0
.
5
3
9
4
6
0
.
2
1
0
1
8
8

0
.
8
9
7
3
9
9
0
.
3
4
1
8
7
0
.
1
1
6
2
7
9

0
.
5
2
4
1
7
0
.
2
7
9
3
4
0
.
2
8
1
6
1
0
.
3
1
2
6
3

0
.
6
5
6
4
1
9

0
.
3
2
9
2
8
1
0
0
.
2
0
3
2
2

0
.
0
4
3
5
7

0
.
2
2
0
0
8
0
.
3
8
8
7
8

0
.
0
2
7
6
2

0
.
4
9
0
4
5

0
.
3
2
3
0
4
1
0

0
.
0
3
2
8
5
1
1

0
.
3
5
4
8
0

0
.
1
3
3
1
0

1
.
3
3
1
4
6

0
.
7
1
9
8
6
0
.
8
0
9
2
5
0
.
1
9
9
4
7

0
.
2
3
9
2
7
1
1

1
.
5
1
6
9
0
1
2
0
.
0
0
6
1
3
0
.
6
4
9
9
5
1
.
2
4
1
9
9

0
.
6
5
0
5
6

1
.
7
1
7
8
7
0
.
0
5
5
4
0

0
.
3
9
3
8
4
1
2
1
.
7
7
1
2
2
1
3
0
.
3
3
7
6
6
0
.
4
7
1
5
5
1
.
5
7
5
2
9
0
.
7
0
2
0
8
0
.
0
4
7
5
1

0
.
1
8
0
1
7

0
.
2
2
1
5
7
1
3
1
.
4
7
9
7
7
1
4

0
.
6
4
1
8
7
0
.
6
8
8
5
8

1
4
.
7
9
2
0
6
0
.
9
6
8
7
9

1
.
5
8
8
8
1

0
.
5
4
3
2
3

1
.
6
4
8
4
1
1
4

9
.
1
9
3
9
0
1
5

0
.
0
2
8
0
7

0
.
0
9
2
6
4

1
.
2
5
6
1
3

0
.
3
0
0
7
3
0
.
2
9
8
5
4
0
.
2
7
4
0
5

0
.
3
9
0
7
3
1
5

1
.
2
6
9
0
9
1
6
(
B
i
a
s
)

0
.
8
5
7
0
4
258 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Tabl e 11.2 Test of a tr ai ned mul ti -l evel perceptron networ k
[ 10]
Slip(%) Number of broken Targeted Obtained
rotor bars, n output, n/n
m
output, n/n
m
0.1 0 0.1 0.10031
0.4 0 0.1 0.10017
0.6 0 0.1 0.10020
0.4 1 0.2 0.20200
0.6 1 0.2 0.20000
0.4 2 0.3 0.30500
x
1
x
2
...
x
N
Input
nodes i
Output
nodes j
Connection
weights w
ij
Fi gure 11.8 Str ucture of a sel f-organi si ng feature map
As showninFigure11.8, N inputs X
1
, X
2
, . . . , X
N
, aremappedonto M output
nodes Y
1
, Y
2
, Y
M
whichhavebeenarrangedinamatrix; for example, dimensioned
20× 20 shown as 5× 5 only in figure11.8. Each input unit i is connected to an
outputunitj throughweightW
i j
. Thecontinuousvaluedinputpatternsandconnection
weightswill givetheoutput nodej continuousvaluedactivationvalueA
j
:
A
j
=
N

i =1
W
i j
X
i
= W
j
X (11.3)
whereX = [X
1
, X
2
, . . . , X
N
] is theinput vector andW
j
= [W
1j
, W
2j
, . . . , W
Nj
]
T
is
theconnectionvector for output nodej .
A competitivelearningruleisused, choosingthewinnerc astheoutputnodewith
weight vector closest tothepresent input patternvector
X − W
c
= min
j
X − W
j
(11.4)
Appl i cati on of ar ti fi ci al i ntel l i gence techni ques 259
where denotestheEuclideandistance, or norm, betweenthetwovectors. Boththe
input andconnectionvectorsarenormalised.
Itisnotedthatthedatapresentedforthelearningpurposeconsistof onlyinputs, not
outputs. Whenaninputpatternispresentedtotheneural networkwithoutspecifying
thedesiredoutput, thelearningprocesswill findawinningoutput nodec according
to (11.4), and subsequently updates theweights associated with thewinning node
andits adjacent nodes. Theweights areupdatedin such away so that if thesame
input is presentedto thenetwork againimmediately, thewinningoutput nodewill
still fall into thesameneighbourhood of theoutput nodepicked up last time, and
withanevengreater winningmarginwhen(11.4) isusedtoselect thewinningnode
thistime. Inother words, thefeatureof theinput patternisenhancedbyupdatingthe
correspondingweights. A typical learningruleis



W
(k)
i j
= α
(k)

X
(k)
i
− W
(k)
i j

W
(k+1)
i j
= W
(k)
i j
+ W
(k)
i j
, j ∈ N
c
(11.5)
wheresuperscript k denotes thenumber of input patternpresentedfor learning. N
c
denotes theneighbourhood around thewinning nodec with respect to thepresent
input pattern. α
(k)
isthelearningratethat isusedinthisstepof learning.
As moreinput patterns arepresentedfor thenetwork to learn, thelearningrate
gradually decreasestoguaranteeconvergence. Theinitial weightscanberandomly
set, but normalised, andtheinput patterns canbeiteratively usedwithseveral rep-
etitions until convergence is reached [12]. After the training, each output node is
associated with a fixed set of weights; that is, W
j
= [W
1j
, W
2j
, . . . , W
Nj
]
T
. Each
inputpatterncanthenbemeasuredfor itsdistancetoall theoutputnodes. If aninput
patternissimilar tothosethat contributedtothedeterminationof theweightsasso-
ciatedwithaparticular output node, thenthedistancebetweenthesetwoinput and
outputnodeswill besmall. Thefeatureof thisinputpatternisconsequentlyidentified.
Thestructureandthelearningschemeof theneural networkgiverisetoitsabilityof
self-organisingmapping(SOM).
PenmanandYin[9] describesthedetailsof theconstructionandlearningprocess
of suchnetworks for conditionmonitoringof inductionmotors. Figure11.9shows
thevibrationsignal featuremapsfor threemachineconditions
• normal,
• unbalancedsupply,
• mechanical loosenessof framemounting.
In each case, the input to the neural network is a large number of vibration
componentsobtainedfromafastFouriertransformof anaccelerometeroutput. These
componentsarethenusedtocalculatethedistancesfromthisinput patterntoall of
the 20× 20 output nodes and the results are shown in Figure 11.9. The ground
planein Figure11.9 represents the20× 20 output nodes (space), and thevertical
axis indicates thedistancecalculated. It can beseen that thethreeconditions give
distinctively different featuremaps. Of course, thephysical meaningsof suchmaps
dependonthefurther knowledgethat hasbeenembeddedinthetrainingprocess.
260 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0
(a)
Normal
4
3
2
1
4
3
2
1
18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0
(b)
Unbalanced supply
18
10
10
8
6
2 9
6
4
2
16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0
(c)
Mechanical looseness
Fi gure 11.9 Kohonen feature map of machi ne condi ti ons
11.5 Conclusion
Thetechniques of artificial intelligencehavebeen seen as potentially valuablefor
thecondition monitoring of electrical machines becausetheunderlying physics of
machine operation and dynamics, as shown in Chapters 8 and 9, is so rich in
fundamental rules, andthesecouldbeexploitedbyanexpert system.
Thischapterhasshownthatthesetechniquescanbeusedtoimprovethesignal-to-
noiseratioinafaultsituation, particularlyinthecomplexareaof monitoringterminal
conditionsandthedifficult subset of that, thedetectionandmeasurement of partial
dischargeactivity. However, thedevelopment of artificial intelligencefor electrical
machineconditionmonitoringisstill initsinfancyanddespitetheconsiderablework
that hasbeendoneinthisarea, muchmoreisrequiredtobringsuchtechniquesinto
themainstreamof conditionmonitoring.
An abiding lesson fromthis chapter is to understand theimportancein condi-
tion monitoringof relatingvarious monitoringsignals with oneanother, what was
describedinthefirst editionof this text as multi-parameter monitoring. It is clear,
however, that thefutureof machinecondition monitoring will beheavily affected
Appl i cati on of ar ti fi ci al i ntel l i gence techni ques 261
bymulti-parameter monitoringandbytheapplicationof artificial intelligencetothat
process.
11.6 Refer ences
1. StoneG.C.andKaplerJ .Conditionbasedmaintenancefortheelectrical windings
of largemotorandgenerators. Proceedi ngs of the I EEE Pul p and Paper I ndustr y
Conference, Cincinnati, J un1997. Piscataway: IEEE; pp. 57–63.
2. StephanC.E. andLairdT. Conditionbasedmaintenanceof turbinegenerators:
what makes it real? Proceedi ngs of the I EEE El ectr i c Machi nes and Dr i ves
Conference, Madison, Wisconsin, J un2003. Piscataway: IEEE. 2: pp. 895–9.
3. Filippetti F., Franceschini G., Tassoni C. and Vas P. Recent developments of
inductionmotor drivesfault diagnosisusingAI techniques. I EEE Tr ansacti ons
on I ndustr i al El ectroni cs 2000; I E-47: 994–1004.
4. BirminghamW., J oobbani R. andKimJ . Knowledge-basedexpert systemsand
their applications. Proceedi ngs of the ACM/I EEE 23rd Conference on Desi gn
Automati on, LasVegas, J un1986. Piscataway: IEEE. pp. 531–539.
5. CawseyA. Essence of Ar ti fi ci al I ntel l i gence. NewYork: Prentice-Hall; 1997.
6. Benbouzid M.E.H. and Nejjari H. A simple fuzzy logic approach for induc-
tion motors stator condition monitoring. Proceedi ngs of the I EEE El ectr i c
Machi nes and Dr i ves Conference, Cambridge, MA, J un 2001. Piscataway:
IEEE. pp. 634–9.
7. CaldaraS., NuccioS., RiccoGalluzzoG. andTrapaneseM. A fuzzydiagnostic
system: applicationto linear inductionmotor drives. Proceedi ngs of the I EEE
I nstr umentati on and Measurement Technol ogy Conference, Ottawa, May1997.
Piscataway: IEEE. 1: 257–62.
8. Murray A. and Penman J . Extracting useful higher order features for condi-
tionmonitoringusingartificial neural networks. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on Si gnal
Processi ng 1997; SP-45: 2821–28.
9. Penman J . and Yin C.M. Feasibility of using unsupervised learning, artifi-
cial neural networks for thecondition monitoring of electrical machines. I EE
Proceedi ngs Par t B, El ectr i c Power Appl i cati ons 1994; 141: 317–22.
10. Filippetti F., Franceschini G. and Tassoni C. Neural networks aided on-line
diagnostics of induction motor rotor faults. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on I ndustr y
Appl i cati ons 1995; 31: 892–9.
11. HalpinS.M. andBurchR.F. Applicability of neural networkstoindustrial and
commercial power systems: atutorial overview. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on I ndustr y
Appl i cati ons 1997; 33: 1355–61.
12. WuS. andChowT.W.S. Inductionmachinefault detectionusingSOM-based
RBF neural networks. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on I ndustr i al El ectroni cs 2004; 51:
183–94.
Chapter 12
Condition-based maintenance and asset
management
12.1 I ntr oduction
Thefirstobjectiveof conditionmonitoringistogiveearlydetectionof afaultsothat
avoidingactioncanbetaken, eitherbyshuttingthemachinedownbeforecatastrophic
failureoccurs, orbytakingpreventativeactionthatreturnstheplanttofull operational
functionalityassoonaspossible.
Sofarthisbookhasbeenconcernedwiththeprocessof earlydetectionbutgreater
benefitscouldbeachievedfromconditionmonitoringif theinformationfrommoni-
toringisusedtoschedulemaintenance, allowingplannedshut-downssothat thelife
of plant, of whichtheelectrical machineforms apart, canbeextended. This is the
processof condition-basedmaintenance, first describedinChapter 1.
However, further benefits could be realised fromcondition monitoring if the
total life-cycle costs of the machine and the plant it serves could be reduced by
its application. This in turn requires an estimateof therunning costs of plant and
forecastsof itsvariationthroughout itslife. Inthelight of thisknowledgetheplant
or asset owner canoperate, maintain, renewor disposeof that asset onthebasis of
theinformationmadeavailablethroughtheseprocesses. Thisisasset management.
This chapter describes howthesetechniques couldbeappliedto rotatingelectrical
machines.
12.2 Condition-based maintenance
Condition-based maintenance (CBM), is a process of planning plant maintenance
actiononthebasisof conditioninformationobtainedfromtheplant. CBM requires
theapplication of specifically designed software, to beapplied to aspecific piece
of plant, where the plant structure is defined and the software receives condition
datafromtheplant. TheCBM softwarethencollates andpresents that information
in a way that assists maintenance engineers to plan shutdowns. Rao has given a
descriptionof CBM appliedtoelectrical machinesbut thisisanenumerationof the
condition-monitoringtechniquesapplicabletothem[1].
ThedatawhichCBM softwareneedstorecordwhenmonitoringrotatingelectri-
cal machines to enablemaintenancedecisions to bemadewill besignals of global
significancetothemachinesuchas
264 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
• runninghours,
• number of starts and stops, particularly important for induction motors and
standbygenerators,
• accumulatedkWhconsumedor producedagainst time,
• windingandcoolant temperaturesandinparticular temperaturerise,
• bearing condition at selected intervals via current measurement and/or
vibration,
• for high-voltagemachineswindingdischargelevel at selectedintervals.
Long-termdeterioratingfaultsthat couldbeavoidedbycondition-basedmainte-
nancearethe
• consequencesof overheating,
• consequencesof overspeed,
• consequencesof excessivevibration,
• consequencesof shockloadsor overloads,
• consequencesof corrosion.
Anexampleof theimprovementthatcanbemadebytheuseof CBMinextending
thepreventivemaintenancethresholdtoplant operatorsisshowninFigure12.1.
Breakdown level Breakdown level
Breakdown level
Condition threshold
Preventative
maintenance
interval
Preventative
maintenance
interval
Preventative
maintenance
interval
Average deterioration
Condition threshold
Condition threshold
Fast deterioration
Slow deterioration
Time t
1
t
2
t
3
Time t
4
Time t
8
t
9
t
10
t
5
t
6
t
7
V
i
b
r
a
t
i
o
n
V
i
b
r
a
t
i
o
n
V
i
b
r
a
t
i
o
n
Fi gure 12.1 The advantage of condi ti on-based mai ntenance, whi ch can extend
the preventi ve mai ntenance threshol d avai l abl e to pl ant oper ator s by
expandi ng the faul t-war ni ng per i od
Condi ti on-based mai ntenance and asset management 265
12.3 L ife-cycle costing
Life-cyclecosting, alsocalledwhole-lifecosting, isatechniquetoestablishthetotal
cost of ownership, includingthecapital cost of plant, itsinstallationandmonitoring
equipment andthecost of maintainingtheplant throughout itslife. It isastructured
management approachthat addresses all cost elements andcanbeusedto produce
a spend profile on the plant over its anticipated life. The subject was previously
hampered by a lack of international standardisation but a standard IEC 60300-3-
3:2005[2] nowexists.
Theresultsof alife-cyclecostinganalysiscanbeusedtoassistmanagerstomake
decisionswherethereisachoiceof maintenanceoptions; forexample, betweenbreak-
down, plannedor condition-basedmaintenance. Theaccuracy of life-cyclecosting
analysis diminishes as it projects further into thefuture, so it is most valuableas a
comparativetool whenthesamelong-termassumptionsareappliedtoall theoptions
andconsequentlyhavethesameimpact.
Life-cyclecostingis aninnovationof thelast 25years, reflectingadesirefrom
plant owners to get the maximumvalue fromtheir investments by sweating their
assets. It is born of an operational environment where the costs of capital invest-
ment and operations and maintenance labour are high. It is used in developed
countries as they attempt to competewith developing countries with lower labour
costs. It is also usedinprivatisednational utilities, likerailways, electricity, water
and gas, as private operators attempt to deliver profitability in a highly regulated
environment.
Life-cycle costing raises the incentive of a measurable extension to plant life,
reducingoverall cost, byinvestingaproportionof theoriginal plant capital inmon-
itoring and using CBM techniques to reduce through life costs. life-cycle costing
has also developed in other industries, for example defence, where high weapon
programmecosts forcegovernments to demand better field performance, and also
aerospace, wherethecosts of failuredueto loss-of-business and litigation can be
terminal for privatecompanies.
Inorder toachievelife-cyclebenefitsit isnecessaryto
• understandthelife-cyclecostsanddeviseamanagementsystemtocontrol them,
• monitor machinecondition,
• maintainthemachineonthebasisof conditionwherepossible,
• assesslong-termplant conditiononthebasisof monitoringsignalsandmanage
that plant accordingly.
12.4 Asset management
Thefinal part of theprevious section is theprocess of asset management. This is
a business process and forecasting framework for decision-making, based on the
behaviour of an asset, which draws fromeconomic and engineering data. Asset
management incorporatesaneconomicassessment of trade-offsbetweenalternative
investment options, using this information to help makecost-effectiveinvestment
266 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
1
10
100
1000
10000
100000
Comparative
state of
maintenance
development
1851–1900,
Corrective
maintenance
1901–1950,
Routine
overhauls
1951–1970,
Condition
monitoring and
preventative
maintenance
1971–1990,
Condition
based
maintenance
1991–2000, Life
Cycle costing
2001 onwards,
Asset
management
towards
terotechnology
Period
Fi gure 12.2 Devel opment of mai ntenance, condi ti on moni tor i ng, condi ti on-based
mai ntenance, l i fe-cycl e costi ng and ful l y i ntegr ated asset management.
[ Based on Hodges [ 3] ]
decisions andis describedby Hodges [3], whogives aninterestingtimegraphic of
theevolutionof maintenanceintowhat hecallsterotechnology(seeFigure12.2).
Proactiveassetmanagementexploitsconditionmonitoringtoassessthecondition
of assets, to control their operation, plan maintenance, replacement or disposal. It
ensures that maintenance work is carried out only when needed but before assets
deteriorate, toavoidcostlyfailures. Assetmanagementhascomeof ageinthelast10
yearsbecauseof
• changesintheeconomicenvironment, asdescribedearlier;
• changesinpublicexpectations;
• advancesininstrumentationandcomputer technology.
Asset management againrequires theapplicationof specifically designedsoft-
warethatbuildsuponthatusedfor CBM, extendingittoanetworkof assetsor plant,
incorporatinglife-cyclecostingandmanagement informationandpresents thecol-
latedinformationinawaythatassistsmanagersinplanningmaintenance, replacement
or disposal of theassets.
Asset management reflectsalevel of long-termcarefor engineeringplant that is
closer tothehealthcareof humanbeingsby ageneral practitioner. It isalongway
frombreakdownmaintenanceandrequires asignificant management andresource
commitment.
Condi ti on-based mai ntenance and asset management 267
In electrical engineering thegreatest advances in asset management havebeen
madewithtransmissionassetswithsomeworkgoingondistributionassetsandBrown
andHumphreyhavegivenanoverview[4] ashasMorton[5].
However, the most progress on asset management, in relation to condition
monitoring, hasbeenachievedon
• transformers, bytheuseof transformer gas-in-oil analysis[6],
• transformer windingpartial dischargedata[7],
• transmissionlinesbytheuseof monitoring[8].
Oneadvantageof transformeristhattherearenomovingpartsandthetransformer
is completely containedwithinits tank. Thereforecondition-monitoringtechniques
of global significancetothetransformer, likegas-in-oil analysisandpartial discharge
detection, are very effective for asset management and these techniques are par-
ticularly applicableto an life-cycleand CBM approach. Theasset management of
distributionsystemshasalsobeenconsidered, asdescribedbyFangxingandBrown
[9] andSonderegger et al . [10].
Todate, theauthorsareonlyawareof theapplicationof asset management tech-
niquestoelectrical machinesinlargepower stationswherekeycomponents, suchas
turbinegenerator rotors, canbemonitoredandspares heldto beinstalledinfaulty
machines when condition-monitoring signals suggest that precautionary measures
needtobetaken, Kohleret al . [11] havegivenadescriptionof whatcouldbepossible.
12.5 Conclusion
Theeraof condition-basedmaintenance, life-cyclecostingandasset management is
relativelynew, exemplifiedbyFigure12.2, andasyetthereappeartobenopublished
results to confirmtheefficacy of thesetechniques specifically to rotatingelectrical
machines. However, it isclear fromtheexperiencewithtransmissionplant that the
techniques can and will be applied to rotating electrical machine, particularly in
large installations. Electrical machines are of greatest importance where they are
integratedinto alargeprimemover or drivesystem, thegreat benefit of condition-
monitoringelectrical machineisthat byanalysingthemachineit will bepossibleto
detect deteriorationbothinthemachineandthecomponentsattachedtoit.
Therefore the monitoring techniques that are likely to have the most signifi-
cancefor theassessment of conditionfor thepurposesof maintenanceplanningare
techniquesof global significancetothemachinesuchas:
• windingandcoolant temperaturerise;
• rotor dynamics and bearing condition via power, current, speed and vibration
measurement;
• for high-voltagewindingspartial dischargemonitoring.
It is likely that themost effectivetechniques will infutureconsider thefailure
modes androot causes of failureinmachines andadopt artificial intelligencetech-
niques, based upon the tables of physical rules exemplified in Chapters 8 and 9,
268 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
relatingvariousmonitoringsignalswithoneanother inamulti-parameter approach
togivetheearliest warningof deterioratingcondition. Thecomprehensiveanalysis
of condition-monitoringsignalsmust takeaccount of theinter-relationshipbetween
electrical andmechanical signals.
12.6 Refer ences
1. RaoB.K.N. Handbook of Condi ti on Moni tor i ng. Oxford, UK: Elsevier, 1996.
2. International Electrotechnical Commission. Dependability management. Part
3-3: Applicationguide– lifecyclecosting. IEC 60300-3-3. IEC, 2005.
3. HodgesN.W. The Economi c Management of Physi cal Assets. London: Mechan-
ical EngineeringPublications; 1996.
4. Brown R.E. and Humphrey B.G. Asset management for transmission and
distribution. I EEE Power and Energy Magazi ne 2005; 3: 39–45.
5. Morton K. Asset management in theelectricity supply industry. Power Engi -
neer i ng Jour nal 1999; 13: 233–40.
6. Dominelli N., RaoA. andKundur P. Lifeextensionandconditionassessment:
techniquesforanagingutilityinfrastructure. I EEE Power and Energy Magazi ne
2006; 4: 24–35.
7. J uddM.D., McArthur S.D.J ., McDonaldJ .R. andFarishO. Intelligent condi-
tionmonitoringandasset management. Partial dischargemonitoringfor power
transformers. I EE Power Engi neer i ng Jour nal 2002; 16: 297–304.
8. Beehler M.E. Reliabilitycenteredmaintenancefor transmissionsystems. I EEE
Tr ansacti ons on Power Del i ver y 1997; PD-12: 1023–28.
9. Fangxing L. and Brown R.E. A cost-effectiveapproach of prioritizing distri-
bution maintenancebasedon systemreliability. I EEE Tr ansacti ons on Power
Del i ver y 2004; 19: 439–41.
10. SondereggerR.C., HendersonD., BubbS.andSteuryJ .Distributedassetinsight.
I EEE Power and Energy Magazi ne, 2004; 2: 32–9.
11. Kohler J .L., SottileJ . andTrutt F.C. Conditionbasedmaintenanceof electrical
machines. Proceedi ngs of the I EEE I ndustr y Appl i cati ons Conference, 34thIAS
Annual Meeting, Phoenix, 1999. Piscataway: IEEE. pp. 205–211.
Appendi x
Failur e modes and r oot causes in r otating
electr ical machines
BasedonthemachinestructureshowninFigures2.10and3.7.
Tabl e 1.
Subassembly Component Failuremode Root cause Earlyindicatorsof
thefault
Enclosure Heat
exchanger
Failureof
heat
exchanger
pipework
Failureof
heat
exchanger
tubes
Defectivematerial
Defective
installation
Corrosion
Vibration
Shock
Defectivematerial
Defective
installation
Corrosion
Vibration
Shock
Higher winding
temperature
Higher coolant
temperature
Moistureandlowered
insulationresistance
Increasedwinding
dischargeactivity
Vibration
Electrical
connections
Insulation
failureof
connector
Defectivematerial
Defective
installation
Excessivedielectric
stress
Excessive
temperature
Increasedconnector
dischargeactivity
Mechanical
failureof
connector
Defectivematerial
Defective
installation
Vibration
Shock
Higher winding
temperature
Vibration
Alteredmachine
performance
Conti nued
Tabl e 1. Conti nued
Subassembly Component Failuremode Root cause Earlyindicatorsof
thefault
Bushings Insulation
failureof
bushing
Defectivematerial
Defective
installation
Excessivedielectric
stress
Excessive
temperature
Vibration
Shock
Increasedbushing
dischargeactivity
Mechanical
failureof
bushing
Defectivematerial
Defective
installation
Vibration
Shock
Bearingsand
seals
Lossof
lubrication,
greaseor oil
Lubricationsystem
failure
Lackof
maintenance
Failureof seals
Higher bearing
temperature
Bearingvibration
Bearingnoise
Mechanical
failureof
bearing
element
Lossof lubrication
Vibration
Shock
Overload
Excessive
wear
Lossof lubrication
Vibration
Shock
Overload
Electrically
provoked
failureof
bearing
element
Shaft voltage
Vibration
Shock
Electrical fault
Higher bearing
temperature
Bearingvibration
Bearingnoise
Shaft current
Tabl e 2.
Subassembly Component Failuremode Root cause Earlyindicatorsof the
fault
Stator
winding
Conductors Failureof
conductor
cooling
hoses
Defectivedesign
Defective
manufacture
Excessivevibration
Excessive
temperature
Vibration
Failureof
subconduc-
tors
Excessivevibration
Shock
Component failure
Vibration
Increasedwinding
dischargeactivity
Increasedwinding
arcingactivity
Failureof
conductor
bar
Excessivevibration
Shock
Component failure
Vibration
Increasedwinding
dischargeactivity
Insulation Insulation
failureof
mainwall
insulation
Defectivedesign
Defective
manufacture
Overtemperature
Excessivedielectric
stressdueto
overvoltage
Excessivevibration
Excessive
temperature
Increasedwinding
dischargeactivity
Insulation
failureof
subconduc-
tor
insulation
Defectivedesign
Defective
manufacture
Overtemperature
Excessivedielectric
stress, duetohigh
dv/dt
Excessivevibration
Excessive
temperature
Conti nued
Tabl e 2. Conti nued
Subassembly Component Failuremode Root cause Earlyindicatorsof the
fault
Endwinding Endwinding
insulation
failure
Defectivedesign
Defective
manufacture
Excessive
temperature
Excessivedielectric
stressdueto
overvoltage
Excessivedielectric
stress, duetohigh
dv/dt
Excessivevibration
Contaminationor
debris
Vibration
Increasedwinding
dischargeactivity
Endwinding
movement or
fretting
Defectivedesign
Defective
manufacture
Excessivevibration
Contaminationor
debris
Endwinding
contamina-
tion
Oil inenclosure
Moisturein
enclosure
Contaminationor
debris
Tabl e 3.
Subassembly Component Failuremode Root cause Earlyindicators
of thefault
Rotor
winding
Conductors Failureof
subconduc-
tors
Excessivevibration
Shock
Component failure
Excessivetemperature
Vibration
Increasedwinding
dischargeactivity
Increasedwinding
arcingactivity
Failureof
conductor
bar
Excessivevibration
Shock
Component failure
Excessivetemperature
Vibration
Increasedwinding
dischargeactivity
Insulation Insulation
failureof
mainwall
insulation
Defectivedesign
Defectivemanufacture
Overtemperature
Excessivedielectric
stressdueto
overvoltage
Excessivevibration
Excessivetemperature
Increasedwinding
dischargeactivity
Insulation
failureof
subconduc-
tor
insulation
Defectivedesign
Defectivemanufacture
Overtemperature
Excessivedielectric
stress, duetohigh
dv/dt
Excessivevibration
Excessivetemperature
Endwinding Endwinding
insulation
failure
Defectivedesign
Defectivemanufacture
Overtemperature
Excessivedielectric
stressdueto
overvoltage
Excessivedielectric
stress, duetohigh
dv/dt
Excessivevibration
Excessivetemperature
Contaminationor
debris
Vibration
Increasedwinding
dischargeactivity
Endwinding
movement or
fretting
Defectivedesign
Defectivemanufacture
Excessivevibration
Contaminationor
debris
Conti nued
Tabl e 3. Conti nued
Subassembly Component Failuremode Root cause Earlyindicators
of thefault
Endwinding
banding
failure
Defectivedesign
Defectivemanufacture
Overspeed
Overload
Excessivevibration
Excessivetemperature
Contaminationor
debris
Tabl e 4.
Subassembly Component Failuremode Root cause Earlyindicators
of thefault
Rotor body Shaft Shaft failure Torsional vibration
Shockloading
Overload
Crackslocatedby
non-destructive
testingor run
downtests
Vibration
Rotor core
andbody
Corehotspot Defectivedesign
Defectivemanufacture
Debrisincore
Excessivevibration
Circulatingcurrent
Excessivetemperature
Higher core
temperature
Core
slackening
Defectivedesign
Defective
manufacture, faulty
assembly
Excessivevibration
Coreclampfailure
Vibration
Integrity
failureof
bodyor
wedges
Defectivedesign
Defectivemanufacture
Excessivevibration
Crackslocatedby
non-destructive
testingor run
downtests
Vibration
SlipRings Sparking
Overheating
Damaged
sliprings
Defectivemaintenance
Defectivebrushes
Excessivetemperature
Increased
brushgear arcing
activity
Increasedbrush
wear
Increased
brushgear
temperature
Commutator Sparking
Overheating
Damaged
commutator
Defectivemaintenance
Defectivebrushes
Excessivetemperature
Brushgear Overheating
Damaged
brushgear
Defectivemaintenance
Defectivebrushes
Excessivetemperature
I ndex
accelerometers 92–4, 167–8
AC commutator motors 32
AC reluctancemotors 32
ageingof insulation 35–9
aggregatefailurerate 68–9
aliasing 113–15
amplifier circuits 102–3
analogue-to-digital conversion 105
artificial intelligencetechniques 245–61
artificial neural networks(ANN) 253–60
expert systems 246–9
fuzzylogic 250–3
artificial neural networks(ANN) 253–60
assemblystructure 69–71
distributionof failures 73–5
asset management 265–7
auto-correlationfunction 116
availability, definition 62
axial leakagefluxmonitoring 113–17,
214–17, 223
bearings
damagecausedbyshaft voltages 57–8
failuremodesandroot causes 270
failurerates 73, 74
lubricationoil analysis 152–7
selectioncriteria 57
temperaturemeasurement 128–9
types 16–18
vibrationresponse 173–6
bitumen-basedinsulation 40
brushgear 26
failuremodesandroot causes 275
fault detection 194
materials 27
busbars 26
bushings
failuremodesandroot causes 270
insulationfailures 54–6
cabling, instrumentation 103
cause-and-effect diagram 70
cepstrumanalysis 118–20
chemical monitoring 137–57
detectability 138–42
gasanalysis 148–52
insulationdegradation
detection 142–52
mechanisms 137–8
lubricationoil analysis 152–7
particulatedetection
chemical analysis 146–8
coremonitors 142–5
circulatingcurrent measurement 200
commutators 26
failuremodesandroot causes 275
mechanical frequencycomponents 185
condition-basedmaintenance(CBM)
263–4
conditionmonitoring
breakdownof tasks 79–81
definitionof terms 61–3
connections: see electrical connections
constructionof electrical machines 17–33
connections 26
enclosures 20–5
materialsused 27
rotors 18
stator coreandframe 18
typical sizesandproperties 28–9
windings 18–20
contamination 35
insulation 38, 43
coolant systems
blocking 49–50, 56
chemical monitoring 139–41, 142–52
heat exchangers 26, 269
leaks 48–50, 56
temperaturemeasurement 132, 134
coremonitors 142–5
278 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
coronadischarge 229
correlationanalysis 116–17
coupledsystems 170
misalignment 182, 183
crosscorrelationfunction 116–17
current densities, typical 29
current imbalance, rotor windings 52,
211–12
current measurement 99, 100
current monitoring 207–12
dataacquisition 104–6
datasampling 105–6
aliasing 113–15
discreteFourier transform 111
timeaveraging 120–1
datastorage 110
DC generators 32
DC motors
construction 18, 23
root causesof faults 32
rotor windingfaults 54
debrismeasurement
debrissensitivedetectors 100–2
lubricationoil analysis 152–3, 153–7
definitionof terms 61–3
delaminationof insulation 38, 40–1
dischargemonitoring 229–41
capacitivecouplingmethod 234–6, 238
detectionproblems 238, 239
earthlooptransient method 233
insulationremanent lifedetermination
236, 238
other methods 238
RF couplingmethod 231, 238
widebandRF method 236, 237, 238
discreteFourier transform 111
displacement transducers 89–91
durationof thefailuresequence 62, 63–5
earthleakagefault detection 195–6
earthlooptransient monitors 233
electrical ageing, insulation 36–7
electrical connections 26
failuremodesandroot causes 269
faults 54–6
electrical insulation
contamination 38, 43
degradation 137–8
ageingmechanisms 35–9
detectability 138–42
detectionmethods 142–52
dischargemonitoring 229–41
todetermineremanent life 236, 238
failuremodes 39–54, 271–2, 273
bushings 54–6
expert systemsfor monitoring 248–9
rotor windings 50–4
stator windings 40–50
root causesof faults 45–54, 271–2, 273
rotor windings 18
stator windings 20
thermal properties 14–15
electrical measurements 99–100
comprehensivemethods 212–21
dischargemonitoring 229–41
mechanical andelectrical interaction 221
relatedtospecificfaults 223
electrical noise, precautions 104, 239
electricloading, typical 29
electromagneticvelocityprobes 91–2
embeddedtemperaturemeasurement 127–31
enclosures 20–5, 26
failuremodesandroot causes 269–70
materials 27
endwindings 20, 21
bracing 20
failuremodesandroot causes 48, 272,
273–4
insulation 42–3
materials 27
stressgrading 43
vibrationresponse 167–8
engine-drivengenerators 30
environmental ageing 38
environmental conditions 34, 35
insulationcontamination 38, 43
expert systems 246–9
failure, definition 61
failuremechanism, definition 61–2
failuremodeandeffectsanalysis(FMEA)
62–3
failuremodes
bearingfaults 56
connectionfaults 54–6
definition 61
electrical insulation 39–58
probabilitydensityfunction 66–9
rotor windings 50–4
shaft voltages 56–8
I ndex 279
stator corefaults 54
stator windingfaults 45–50
stator windinginsulation 40–5
summarytables 269–75
types 66
water coolant faults 56
failurerate 66–9
aggregate 68–9
definition 62
life-cyclevariation 68–9
typical 71–3
failuresequence 63–5
fast Fourier transform 111–12
ferromagnetictechniques, lubricationoil
analysis 153–4
fibre-opticproximetry 91
fibre-optictemperaturesensing 87–8, 131,
134
fibre-optictorquetransducers 96, 97
flameionisationdetectors 149–50
fluidicloadcells 97
forcemeasurement 94–7
fuzzylogic 250–3
gasanalysis 148–52
gaschromatography 146–7
off-lineanalysis 149
oil degradationdetection 153
gearboxes, vibrationanalysis 118–20
generator exciters 27–8
Hall-effect devices
current measurement 99
magneticfluxdensitymeasurement 97,
98–9
voltagemeasurement 100
harmonics, converter 113–15
hazardfunction 62
heat exchangers 26, 269
high-order spectral analysis 115–16
hot-spot measurement 132
hydrogenerators
partial dischargeanalyser (PDA) 239–40
root causesof faults 30
typical sizesandproperties 29
inductiongenerators 31
inductionmotors
construction 18, 23, 24, 25, 28
failurerates 72, 73, 74
fault detection
airgapsearchcoils 207
power spectrumanalysis 219
rotor current monitoring 210–12
stator current monitoring 207–10
root causesof faults 31
rotor faults 50–2, 185, 223
thermal imaging 133
typical sizesandproperties 29
variablespeedoperation 221
vibrationmonitoring 181, 183, 186
inductivedebrisdetectors 101, 153–4
inductivetorquetransducers 96
infra-redgasanalyser 152
infra-redthermography 87
insulation: see electrical insulation
integratedcircuit temperaturesensors 87
ionisingradiation, insulationageing 38
keyphasors 90
Kohonenfeaturemap 256, 258–60
leakagefluxmonitoring 113–17, 214–17, 223
life-cyclecosting 265
life-cyclevariationinfailurerates 68–9
lubricationoil analysis 152–7
magneticdrainplugs 154, 156
magneticfluxdensitymeasurement 97–9,
196–200
magneticloading, typical 29
magneto-elastictorquetransducers 97
maintenanceregimes 75–6, 263–4
material properties 14–16
electrical steel 18
stator coreandframe 18
materials, typesfor variouscomponents 27
meantimebetweenfailure(MTBF) 62, 71–3
meantimetofailure(MTTF) 62
meantimetorepair (MTTR) 62
mechanical ageing, insulation 37–8
mechanical loading, typical 29
mechanical properties 14
metal foil-typestraingauge 94–5
misalignment, coupledsystems 182, 183
moistureabsorptionbyinsulation 37, 38, 49
multilayeredperceptron(MLP) training
254–6
multiplexers 104–5
280 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
Nyquist frequency 106
oil whirl 175–6
frequencycomponents 184, 223
operational conditions 33
operational issues 81
optical debrissensors 101–2
optical encoders
torquemeasurement 97
vibrationmeasurement 91
ozonedetection 149
partial dischargeanalyser (PDA), hydro
generators 239–40
partial discharges 37
insulationdegradation 138
internal voiddischarge 40–1
slot discharge 41–2
see al so dischargemonitoring
particulatedetectionandanalysis 142–8
permanent magnet synchronousmachines 31
permeance-wavemethod 165–7
photo-ionisationdetectors 150, 152
‘picket fence’ effect 112–13
piezoelectricaccelerometers 92–4
power (electrical)
spectrumanalysis 217–19
relatedtospecificfaults 223
typical 29
power spectral density 115
power spectrum 118–20
probabilitydensityfunction 66–9
proximityprobes 89–91
quartz thermometers 87
recurrent surgeoscillograph(RSO) 204–7
redundancy 70–1
reliability, definition 62
reliabilityanalysis 66–9
reliabilityfunction 62, 66
resistancetemperaturedetector (RTD) 82
RF monitors 231, 236, 238
Roebel technique 46–7
Rogowski coils 100, 211–12, 234
rollingelement bearings
mechanical frequencycomponents 184
vibrationmonitoring 187–9
vibrationresponse 173–5
root causeanalysis(RCA) 62, 65
root causes
definition 61
summarytables 269–75
types 65
rotational speeds, typical 29
rotors
airgapeccentricity 56, 75
detection 183, 213
producingUMP 165–7, 182
bearingtypes 16–18
cooling 18, 29
coupledsystems 170
misalignment 182, 183
electrical angular frequencycomponentsof
faults 223
failuremodesandroot causes 275
materials 27
mechanical design 18
mechanical frequencycomponentsof
faults 184, 185
shaft
dynamicdisplacement of 185, 223
eccentricitymeasurement 90
staticmisalignment 184, 223
shaft voltages
bearingandlubricatingoil degradation
56–8, 153
monitoring 219–21
temperaturemeasurement 131
typical diameters 29
unbalancedmass 168–71
vibrationresponse 168–73
torsional oscillationmonitoring 183,
186
torsional response 171–3
transverseresponse 168–71
rotor windings 18
brokenrotor bars 51
detection 115–16, 122, 216, 220,
254–5
mechanical andelectrical frequency
components 185, 223
current imbalance 52, 211–12
failuremodes 50–3, 273–4
failurerates 73, 74
fault detection
circulatingcurrent measurement 200
earthleakage 195–6
fault detection 196–204
I ndex 281
inter-turnfaults 196–204, 204–7
recurrent surgeoscillograph(RSO)
204–7
rotor current monitoring 210–12
stator current monitoring 207–10
materials 27
root causesof faults 50–4, 273–4
samplingrate 105–6
seals, failuremodesandroot causes 270
searchcoils
dischargemonitoring 234
magneticfluxdensitymeasurement 97–8
rotor turn-to-turnfault detection 196–200
stator windingfault detection 194
self-organisingmapping(SOM) 259
semiconductor temperaturetransducers 87
sequenceof failure 63–5
shaft
dynamicdisplacement of 185, 223
eccentricitymeasurement 90
staticmisalignment 184, 223
shaft fluxmonitoring 113–17, 214–17, 223
shaft voltages
damagecausedtobearings 57–8, 153
monitoring 219–21
Shannonsamplingtheorem 105–6
shockpulsemonitoring 187–9
shockpulsevalue(SPV) 187
signal conditioning 102–3
signal processing 109–25
correlationanalysis 116–17
spectral analysis 110–16
timeaveraging 120–1
vibrationmeasurement 118–21
sleevebearings 175–6
sliprings 26
failuremodesandroot causes 275
materials 27
slot discharge 41–2
smokedetection 142–5
spectral analysis
aliasing 113–15
basictheory 110–11
correlationanalysis 116–17
high-order analysis 115–16
‘picket fence’ effect 112–13
shaft fluxmonitoring 214–17
vibrationmeasurement 118–21, 179–82
wavelet analysis 121–5
windowfunctions 111–12
standards
partial dischargemeasurement 240
permissiblelimitstoresidual unbalance
170
vibration 177–8
stator coreandframe 18, 20
coolant systems 29
corefaults 54
materials 27
typical corelength 29
vibration 159–67
electromagneticforcewave 164–7,
182–3
monitoring 182–3
natural frequencies 161–4
stator windings 18–20
coolant systems 29, 48–50
current monitoring 193–4, 217, 223
dischargemonitoring 233–4, 236
electrical angular frequencycomponentsof
faults 223
electrical structure 230, 232
endwindings 20, 21
bracing 20
faults 48
insulationfailuremodes 42–3
stressgrading 43
vibrationresponse 167–8
failuremodes 271–2
failurerates 73, 74
insulationfailuremodes 40–5
delaminationandvoids 40–1
endwindings 42–3
expert systemsfor monitoring
248–9
inter-turnfaults 44
repetitivetransients 44–5
slot discharge 41–2
transient voltages 44–5
inter-turnfault detection 182, 183
materials 27
mechanical frequencycomponentsof
faults 185
root causesof faults 45–50, 271–2
endwindingfaults 48
windingconductor faults 46–8
windingcoolant systemfaults
48–50
temperaturemeasurement 127–31
straingauges 94–6
282 Condi ti on moni tor i ng of rotati ng el ectr i cal machi nes
structural design 69–71
subassemblies 70–1
distributionof failures 73–5
supplyvoltageunbalance 33, 158–60, 183
surfacetracking 37, 54–6
survivor function 62
synergismbetweenageingstresses 39
telemetrysystems 96
temperaturemeasurement 81–8, 127–34
bulkmeasurement 132, 134
coolant systems 132, 134
embedded 127–31
fibre-opticsensing 87–8, 131, 134
hot-spot measurement 132
stator windings 127–31
thermal images 132
vapour pressuremethod 131
thermal ageing, electrical insulation 36,
137–8
thermal images 132
thermal properties 14–16
thermal stress 35
thermistors 86–7
thermocouples 83–6
timeaveraging 120–1
timebetweenfailure(TBF) 62
timetofailure(TTF) 62
timetorepair (TTR) 62
torquemeasurement 96–7
torsional oscillationmonitoring 183, 186
torsional response 171–3
transient voltages 33, 35, 37, 44–5
trendanalysis 120–1
turbinegenerator analyser (TGA) 240
turbinegenerators
construction 16–26
dischargemonitoring 236, 239
failurerates 72
off-linefault detection 204–7
on-linefault detection 195–204
partial dischargedetection 233
rotor windingfaults 52–3
stator windings 230
typical sizesandproperties 29
vibrationmonitoring 181–2, 183, 186
windinginsulationfailure, expert systems
249
ultrasonicdischargedetection 236
ultra-violet techniques, chemical analysis
147–8
unbalancedmagneticpull (UMP) 52, 56, 165,
182
unbalancedrotor mass 168–71
vapour pressuremethodof temperature
measurement 129, 131
variablespeedmotors 221
velocitytransducers 91
vibrationmeasurement 88–94, 176–86
monitoringtechniques 176–86
faultsdetectablefromthestator force
wave 182–3
frequencyspectrummonitoring
179–82
overall level monitoring 177–9
torsional oscillationmonitoring 183,
186
relatedtospecificmachinefaults 184–5
signal processing 118–21
typesfor variousapplications 94
vibrationresponse 159–76
bearings 173–6
endwindings 167–8
rotors 168–73
stator core 159–67
vibrationstandards 177–8, 181
voids, insulation 40–1, 43
voltagemeasurement 100
wavelet analysis 121–5
wear measurement
debrissensitivedetectors 100–2
lubricationoil analysis 152–3, 153–7
weights, typical 29
windings 18–20
materials 27
see al so rotor windings; stator windings
windowfunctions 111–12
windturbinegenerators
cause-and-effect diagram 70
failurerates 72
x-rayfluorescencedetection 157

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful