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1. INTRODUCTION 1.

1 Introduction
Advertising is a form of communication that typically attempts to persuade potential customers to purchase or to consume more of a particular brand of product or service. While now central to the contemporary global economy and the reproduction of global production networks, it is only quite recently that advertising has been more than a marginal influence on patterns of sales and production. The formation of modern advertising was intimately bound up with the emergence of new forms of monopoly capitalism around the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century as one element in corporate strategies to create, organize and where possible control markets, especially for mass produced consumer goods. Mass production necessitated mass consumption, and this in turn required a certain homogenization of consumer tastes for final products. Many advertisements are designed to generate increased consumption of those products and services through the creation and reinvention of the "brand image. For these purposes, advertisements sometimes embed their persuasive message with factual information. Every major medium is used to deliver these messages, including television, radio, cinema, magazines, newspapers, video games, the Internet, carrier bags and billboards. Advertising is often placed by an advertising agency on behalf of a company or other organization.

"Advertising is the no personal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, services or ideas by identified sponsors through the various media." The power of advertising to persuade, manipulate, and shape behavior has long been recognized, estimated that the average American is exposed to over 37,000 advertisements each year through the medium of television alone. Earlier, FMCG advertising was seen as the sole barometer of economic growth. Now, the ad industry has recognized that the services sector will propel growth. The new emerging sectors such as insurance, telecom and healthcare are new kids on the block.

Advertising is the means of informing as well as influencing the general public to buy products or services through visual or oral messages. A product or service is advertised to 1

create awareness in the minds of potential buyers. Some of the commonly used media for advertising are T.V., radio, websites, newspapers, magazines, bill-boards, hoardings etc. As a result of economic liberalization and the changing social trends advertising industry has shown rapid growth in the last decade. Advertising is one of the aspects of mass communication. Advertising is actually brand-building through effective communication and is essentially a service industry. It helps to create demand, promote marketing system and boost economic growth. Thus advertising forms the basis of marketing. Advertising plays a significant role in today's highly competitive world. A career in advertisement is quite glamourous and at the same time challenging with more and more agencies opening up every day. Whether its brands, companies, personalities or even voluntary or religious organizations, all of them use some form of advertising in order to be able to communicate with the target audience. The salary structure in advertising is quite high and if you have the knack for it one can reach the top. It is an ideal profession for a creative individual who can handle work-pressure.

Since the early 1960s proponents of globalization have understood that economic development would direct to converging needs and tastes of consumers, and make possible standardization of marketing and advertising. Nowadays, businesses from the larger to the smaller do consider that it is of great importance to advertise their products or services. Since the competition is growing and there is a great variety of products, companies need to make themselves appeal superior comparing to the concurrent. Not surprisingly, a successful advertisement can lead a company to great profits whereas an unfortunate commercial can drive a company to bankruptcy. Moreover, advertising has to be continuous and consistent and not a onetime action. Therefore, it is not irrelevant at all that companies provide high budgets to their marketing departments. One of the most discussed issues on advertising is if it is doable to convince consumers in different markets with the same advertising message. When planning an advertising campaign it is significant to know if consumers will respond positively or if the advertising message should be adapted in order to represent the local culture. Moreover, advertising is frequently used as reflection of the cultural values. Therefore, they try to be appealing to the values that are supported by the target group. If it is not, then there is a risk that the consumer will not be able to relate to the product. 2

Today, new areas are emerging within advertising like event management, image management, internet marketing etc event management wherein events are marketed, Image management wherein a particular profile of an individual or an organization is projected. Internet marketing has also brought about a lot of changes in advertising as Internet means that one is catering to a select group of audience rather than a mass audience.

In the era of competition and open market, advertisement of a product is necessary to educate the people about the product and its benefits. For this, advertisement has to be attractive and informative to the extent of accuracy about the product. But a trend is now, picking up to make the advertisement attractive at the cost of vulgarity, obscenity and at times immorality. In order to get attention, women are being shown in scanty clothes in the advertisements of those products or services, which are not even remotely connected with them. Children are shown performing daring acts after consuming products of certain brands, which are occasionally imitated by them leading to disastrous consequences. At times schemes are sponsored in the advertisement encouraging children to buy certain products claiming that those who buy more of such products would be more intelligent and powerful. These are mostly misleading claims having an adverse impact on the impressionable minds of the children. Advertisements of liquor, though prohibited, are being shown in surrogate manner by replacing liquor by mineral water, soda or apple juice. Several advertisements about medicines are claiming a lot of things from weight reduction to that of the hair growth without any proof of their efficacy in the name of traditional herbal drugs. These drugs are not subject to any laboratory test on the plea that these are based on age-old traditional medicine system. A lot of people are minting money and duping public at large by making tall claims by means of attractive advertisements.

It is high time that some regulatory mechanism be put in place to control the menace of present day advertisement to save morality and decency and provide protection to public at large from these misleading advertisements. India occupies 17th place in the matter of advertisement market. In the name of investigative journalism, attempts are being made to create atmosphere of vulgarity, of obscenity. Five minutes news is telecast in half an hour and in the prime time of telecast of news, the advertisement of contraceptives are telecast in a vulgar manners. The 3

advertisement code has been framed and through this code an endeavor is being made to control all things. However, this code has not effectively been implemented .A committee should be formed to monitor obscenity. In the context of violence and obscenity, Censor Board has turned out to be an authority without any power. Censor regulations should be applied on TV programmes also. An authority should be formed to regulate advertisements. Advertisements of various areas should be given after getting it certified from the authority.

In print, vernacular language newspapers have grown. A major trend which happened is the increased and innovative segmentation of the newspapers. Specially targeted supplements have become the order of the day - education, appointments, suburban, IT, advertising, marketing, IT, sports amongst others. Technology has provided newspapers with the much required impetus to innovate. It has also provided local advertisers with an opportunity to address the segmented local audiences at comparatively lesser rates.

TV channels have grown but most of the clout is concentrated in the hands of a few select bouquets. Throughout the world, soaps and serials tickle the imagination of the viewers and advertisers use them as a platform to communicate with consumers. This trend was visible in India with the total domination of Kyuunki Saas. and Kahaani in households. New channels also did well and continue to grow in the near future. The cricket World Cup has definitely given a boost to ad spends. However, one wonders whether this will be followed by a lull and impact spends post World Cup. Many advertisers have proponed their ad spends to coincide with the World Cup and most of them haven't really increased their spends.

1.2 Gender Bias


Gender bias is so deeply ingrained in the system that the discrimination begins from the time a couple plans a baby. Today, science has advanced so far that it is possible to separate male and female sperm so as to predetermine the sex of a child. In some parts of the world the birth of a baby boy warrants a celebration whereas a baby girl may not be extended the same warm welcome. Despite the fact that India has crossed the billion mark in population, there

will still be families with five daughters and the mother trying desperately to give birth to a son. If a boy cries, he is asked if he is a sissy. If a girl plays cricket, she is labeled a tomboy. Girls will encounter gender bias at almost every stage in their lives. Educated women are so frustrated because despite their qualifications, they are ultimately expected to fall into the traditional mould of wife, mother and homemaker. Femininity is restricted to girls." People tend to have a more indulgent outlook on girls acting like tomboys. However, the opposite is not true for boys. There is a stigma attached to a boy being effeminate. That is the reason why society has a tendency to doubt the masculinity of men who design clothes for women, or male make-up artists, or men who follow any profession that breaks away from the straight and narrow. Somehow, men who don't hold nine to five jobs with a salary cheque that puts food on the table are not deemed manly enough. While most people believe that gender bias favors men, men have their own cross to bear. Even in these so-called liberated times, men are expected to go out and earn their bread and butter, the option of staying at home and looking after the children while the wife goes out to work is not open to them. They have this option only if they have the strength to withstand the gossip, the ridicule and the general disapproval. There has been considerable investigation of gender role portrayals in advertisements; comparatively little empirical attention has been paid to the portrayal of sexuality in advertisement. Majority advertisements featuring children had little boys in varying shapes, sizes and moods. And the few ads that did feature young girls, projected them with their mothers in ads for beauty products. Most reinforced stereotypical images of being chatterboxes, or sweet delicate things. Citing the Daag Achae Hai! campaign for Surf Excel, a detergent brand from Hindustan Unilever, all advertisements featured little boys in different roles, one as a protector brother beats up a mud puddle to make his sister laugh, another as crusader, and yet another as a well-intentioned individual who gets into a mock fight to break up another. Majority feature boys as dirty, naughty, rowdy, intelligent, cute or with celebrities making them appear even more desirable to parents, pointing out that when you do see two children in ads, its usually a boy and girl or two boys and rarely is a family with two girls spotted. 5

As communicators, there was need for greater consciousness on gender nuances, it was impossible for them to take on the responsibility of changing society. A classic example was the ad for TVS Scooty, which shows two sisters in small town India, who are enjoying the freedom and independence that mobility brings them. Or the ad for ICICI Prudential Life Insurance where the wife urges her husband to get life insurance as it would secure their future as well as provide for their daughters education. Experts maintained that advertising could influence society and big brands could take the initiative to break stereotypes. These did not necessarily have to translate into a radical anti-thesis. There is need for communication to be more reflective. If communicated through these small departures [from the norm], it could make for an interesting process. Some clichs havent gone, Women are still providers super-efficient, clairvoyant and proactive, and waiting for some sign that he cares (like in the Krack cream Bhoolna Nahin ad). Women are also seen as trophies sometimes a successful mans finest possession. Here the example of the Raymond ad that has women leaning on their men quite literally, as arm candy can be cited. A perfect example of this self-hate would be the Lakme Sunscreen Lotion ad which features a woman meeting her dusky self at a crowded marketplace and deciding to do something about it. The recent Recova ad shows a woman noticing the lost chemistry with her husband while having dinner and deciding to use the product to bring her glow (and consequently her mans attention) back.

Women empowerment and gender equality seem to be unfamiliar terms to ad gurus, or so it seems from the recent ads being aired on TV. The recent Ponds ad on age control creams sends out a message, if you want your husband to stay with you, or better still, want him to take you out for a romantic dinner, apply the cream. The brand doesnt seem to have learnt anything from the uproar their last campaign caused. The firm was accused of cashing in on marketing domestic violence, as the ads both in print and the electronic media gave the impression that they were cashing in on the act. These advertisements are both harmful and regressive. At a time when so many groups are working to educate the society, these ads are 6

encouraging negative tendencies. These are not the only advertisements that are reinforcing notions of patriarchy. Most ads show extremely domesticated women seeing off their husbands to office, while they work in the kitchen and take care of the children. There is a clear compartmentalization between the domain of the man and woman. All these ads are driven by the need to sell. They fit women into a certain imagery and create a notion of how she should be viewed by a man. This is not a healthy trend because women should be perceived as human beings, and not objects of affection. The overworked woman needs to apply Moov so she can prepare to work more than she can (with a smile intact). You dont need education or training to be an air hostess or a cricket commentator. Fair and Lovely will wave the magic wand. These fairness cream ads are unbearable. They tell the viewers that fairness is essential for finding a husband, to get a job and what not. Either you have the woman as the ideal housewife or she is portrayed as a sex object. This is definitely not a step forward. What is a woman doing in a Gillette razor ad? The macho man is flaunting a babe, giving the impression that a shave with Gillette gets you the girl. Without doubt, this is objectification of women. One could go on about the ads that show women as demure daughters-in-law and prospective brides, grossly dependent on the man.

The current ratio of 927 girls for every 1000 boys is a dangerous indicator of preference for the male child. , the United Nations Population Fund has warned that unless countries act fast to end gender discrimination and provide equal rights to women, they will not be able to eradicate poverty for many generations to come. In one of the earliest studies, Courtney and Lockeretz (1971) noted that advertisers tended to show women as mothers and housewives. Dominick and Rauch (1972) examined the settings in which women were placed in television commercials and noted that women were most often presented in at-home settings and for household products. Women were often presented as a sight to be gazed upon, certain stereotypical poses such as licensed withdrawal where the model appears to be drifting off (gazing away from the camera). Healso described the engaging gaze where the model makes eye contact with the camera, engaging the viewer with seductive eye contact or a sexually seductive look. Later, researchers who compared advertisements in six US magazines (Newsweek, Time, Cosmopolitan, Redbook, Playboy, and Esquire) between 1964 7

and 1984 found that female models were more likely than male models to be the object of another persons gaze.

Cultural perceptions need serious reform. This society teaches both men and women right from childhood that the male is a little more human than the female. Women are physically and mentally weak. They are not fit for emancipation. They cannot be aggressive. Repeatedly indoctrinated with such teaching, the self-confidence of women gets crushed. They do not unite, protest, oppose. Women not only remain silent against this anti-female society, there are women who actually hold it in high esteem and celebrate it. All societies have created differential norms and practices, structures and institutions, images and perceptions for social placement of woman in the society. Generally the domestic role is assigned to women while the public domain has been assigned to men. The three basic terms Femaleness, Feminity and Feminism they require clarity and effective discourse and require clarity in relation to their differentiated meanings. Femaleness focuses on physical and biological differentiation between man and woman, which provides variations necessary for reproduction and continuity of humanity. Feminity refers to social and cultural construction of women, wherein they are shaped differently not only in terms of representation of body but also in relation to institutionalized role performances, internal sedation of specific values and conformity to certain cultural practices. Feminism is and ideological position which emphasizes the equality of gender and advocates maximization of potential of both men and women so that culturally created constraints do not hinder the process and pattern of individual development. Apart from institutionalization of specific of men and women, there have been several social and cultural practices which further empower man and create inequality between sexes. The stigma associated with widowhood, barrenness, purity, population, devdasi system, notion of virginity, practice of sati, prostitution reveal the subordinate position of women which lower her status in society. Dominance of sexualization has led to objectification of women, 8

whereby her body has been converted into a commodity. There is need to enhance the value of the girl child and the advertising fraternity can play a role here.

1.3 HINDUTVA AND GENDER DISCRIMINATION


Hindutva is clearly anti-female, generally silent on gender issues and is opposed to gender equality and womens rights. M.S.Golwalkar (1906-1973) one of the leading theorists who systematised the ideology of Hindutva says in his Bunch of Thoughts: There is now a clamour for equality of women and their emancipation from mans domination. Reservation of seats in various positions of power is being claimed on the basis of their separate sex, thus adding one more ism sexism!

Hinduism upholds a patriarchal set up where women are of little significance. According to The Laws of Manu a woman is valuable only as far as she is the possible begetter of a male offspring. In her childhood a woman should always be subject to her father, in youth to her husband and when he is dead to her sons (The Laws of Manu, 5,148). Manu also demanded that day and night women must be kept in dependence by the male members of their families (The Laws of Manu, 9, 2). An ideal woman is one who immolates herself along with the corpse of her husband. There is a Rajput lobby in India which ardently supports this practice even after the British legally abolishing it more than 170 years ago. The deplorable condition of women in the Indian society and the gender distinction manifested in female foeticide, the liabilities attached to the girl child, declining sex ratio, high level of illiteracy among women, treatment of women as inferior and second class citizens, the various other forms of exploitation and gender violence are directly linked to the Hindu attitude to women. A woman who asserts her identity is frowned upon by the proponents of Hindutva. It is said that there is a centuries-old tradition in Bengal of symbolically taking earth from the doorsteps of a brothel to build clay images of goddess Durga for Durga Puja. Now thousands of sex workers in Kolkata want the ritual to be removed because the ritual insults and brands a person as a prostitute. But some Hindu priests are resisting the suggestion.

The gender bias of Hinditva is manifested in many ways in contemporary Indian society. For example, the tradition bound up-brining of girls, the alarming decline in the female sex ratio, despicably low literacy rate among women, female infanticide, sex selective abortions, dowry system and dowry deaths, torture of women in its various forms (domestic violence, witch-hunt, ordeal by fire, etc), poor representation of women in Parliament, State legislative assemblies, administrative posts, etc. According to Brinda Karat, the general secretary of All India Democratic Womens Association (AIDWA), the Hindutva concept will harm women. The Hindutva philosophy is therefore anti-women in all respects for it compels women to accept an inferior status in society.

The human development report of the United Nations Development Project released in July 2002 refers to the rampant practice of female infanticide in India: around the world there are 100 million missing women of whom fifty million are in India alone, who would be alive but for infanticide, neglect or sex selective abortions. In July 2003 the Supreme Court had to order the Maharashtra government to take appropriate steps against sex selection advertisements. Earlier in 2002 the Supreme Court had intervened in the case of nine states Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Delhi and Bihar for not complying with its May 2001 order directing all States and Union territories to implement the provision of the Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques Act. The barbaric practices of selling girls, auctioning women to the highest bidder, widespread domestic violence and the gory ritual of ordeal by fire (agni pariksha) to verify the guilt or innocence of accused women are also reported from some parts of India, and some see nothing wrong with it for even Lord Rama tested the virtue of his wife Sita using the same method!

1.4 ROLE OF MEDIA IN GENDER BIASED ADVERTISING


The Global era is the era of information and communication .In this cut throat competition where information and immediate reasonable and proactive action or decision decides the fate of a company, product, person or system it becomes prerequisite to be informed and 10

knowledgeable. Media works as a mediator or platform to exchange information, knowledge and make people as (consumers) aware of all if about of the market .Thus media serves as a catalyst, transformer and a information support system to disseminate , filter and collect feedback or response about all events thus spreading awareness and thus making things happen In the present Global era right management approach and effective leadership style works as success indicator and determiner which can be judiciously used only if a right medium is selected. Here comes the significance of media which acts as the widest platform and most accessible medium for expanding horizon for information dissemination. The basic purpose of advertising is to make the information reach to maximum people and thus help in not only market expansion and leadership but also in making products services or systems to be popularized and known. It works as a profitability indicator and the feedback received helps in further decision making, forecasting and in making business strategies for future promotion. Media helps in gaining and retaining attention of people as prospective customers thus creating a relationship and a bond by touching the emotional or the need front through alluring commercials and above all it is the strongest medium for mass marketing. It serves as a Global tool for accessing people throughout the globe and making the chances of profitability fast and minimizes the risk factor. Advertising can be initiated in different forms the main channels include radio , television , journals , newspaper , direct mail , billboard , yellow pages , transit space, poster , directories etc. these mediums of media play a vital role in spreading communication , increasing data base and in expanding the customer retention.

Media has played a pluralistic role in the image construction of women. At one level the womans body has been constructed for entertainment and for marketing and on other hand she has been constructed in a traditional role model in whom there is a great emphasis on control and conformity. Women have entered the media into several ways through Advertisements, serials, articles, fiction and news reporting. The media is an instrumentality of the transmission of information, values, norms, images, ideologies, linguistic and paralinguistic, symbols of communication, aspirations, fantasies, styles of life, belief system, which have cognitive, aesthetic, physical, spiritual dimensions. These dimensions are transmitted visually, orally, both or in linguistic written forms. 11

According to the Media Awareness Network, the coverage of women's games is abysmal compared to men's games. Female athletics fared horribly on ESPN's SportsCenter, where they occupied just over 2 percent of air time. In 2002, the "Watch Out, Listen Up!" report by the National Organization for Women Foundation observed that the six major networks on television "employed 134 more men than women in regular primetime roles. Programs told from a male point-of-view outnumbered those with a female point-of-view more than twoto-one."All it takes is a flip through the channels during the 5 o'clock news to see the extreme difference in gender expectations among reporters. For a female anchor to make it in the business, she must be not only intelligent and well-spoken, but she must also fit into the standards for femininity. Her hair, make-up and general appearance are just as important as her news-casting abilities. Women in sports are also held to the typical beauty standards and condemned for seeming "unfeminine." The fact they excel athletically puts them outside traditional gender stereotypes so much the media feels the need to compensate. For example, volleyball players must wear bikinis while they compete so people will be interested in watching. Apparently physical prowess in a man is enough to gain a persons respect, but women; unfortunately, cannot be admired in the same way. Many people can't bear to take their mind outside the box of our culturally instituted gender roles. Changing the media we consume is one of the best ways to stop our society from forming confining ideas about what men or women are supposed to do or be. Newspapers, magazines and television are the media where this resistance must occur. Gender stereotypes are harmful for both men and women. These inaccurate depictions create standards in our society neither gender should have to fulfill. All women are not overly emotional, bad at sports and interested in shopping, just like all men are not emotionless, athletic and obsessed with cars. The media may be powerful and effective in creating inequality between the sexes and as individuals, but we must express our discontent with this discriminatory system.

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1.5 ROLE OF MEN AND WOMEN IN INDIAN SOCIETY


Women often play a subservient role to men in Indian culture, a role well defined in ancient and sacred literature as the traditional role of Indian women. Women are expected to perform the role of being caring and dutiful wives, mothers and daughter-in-laws, and proving themselves to be morally virtuous and standing by their men when it comes to bringing about familial harmony. Indian men are considered as providers of economic security. The sex ratio is particularly favorable to males than to females. Parents favor boys for a number of security reasons. Several legislative interventions, from eighteenth century laws passed under the British rule, the Indian Constitution, written in 1948 to present-day Indian acts, and several women's and other movements, have sought to improve the status of the women by expanding their rights and freedom, and by guaranteeing them certain legal/constitutional protections. However, in reality they often do not enjoy these privileges to which they are entitled. The rise of Hindu nationalism in the 1990s have called for women to be traditional homemakers has also contributed to this issue. Marriage is considered essential and sacred for practically everyone in India. For both males and females free association with the opposite sex and dating are not looked upon favorably.

1.6 ROLE OF WOMEN AND MEN IN ADVERTISING


As we unfortunately see in all forms of media, the roles of women in print advertising are stereotypical and limiting. Studies such as Courtney and Whipple (1983) and Barthel (1987) confirm that the association of women and specific domestic roles has been solidified in popular culture, particularly advertising. Important analysis of magazine advertising (1971) indicated that women have been portrayed as domestic providers who do not make significant decisions, are dependent on men, and are essentially sex objects. A study found that offensive ads had declined, but that women were still seen as belonging to the private sphere of the home. The messages of popular culture also ironically reflect the multiple roles that women have to play in western society. The strains felt by women as a result of work and home duties are tremendous. Some ads in womens magazines reflect the ambivalence 13

that women feel about their stressful new roles. Role strain is exhibited in many situations in popular culture and advertising. The roles offered to women are very limited. Many involve a womans confinement to the domestic spherecaring for children, cleaning the house, shopping for groceries and making meals for a husband. At a semiotic level there is disparity in the portrayal of men and women in popular advertising. When men and women appear in ads together, the women are often depicted as weaker than the male, either through composition of the ad or particular situations in the scene. When females appear in ads alone we again note the stereotype of the female as sexual, unintelligent and fragile. Males, conversely, appear as strong and cultured. Particular roles and gender constructs are also evident in male ads. Males are told to act tough, hide their emotions, and compete at all costs. According to few writers attainment of masculinity is a problematic issue for boys, particularly as boys are taught to differentiate themselves from others. Depictions of sexual acts are very common in popular culture. In the case of advertising a number of ads utilize sexuality as a means of selling products. Many critics of the critics of popular culture use the adage that "sex sells" to justify the depictions in popular culture. Indeed, it is hard to argue with the fact that sex is used to sell products, but one can argue with the fact that our most inner and intimate matters have been commodified by corporations, and with the fact that throwing sex around as it is not healthy in a society that is prone to sexual violence, rape, unwanted pregnancies, and with the fact that companies treat people like fools by turning products into sex. Unfortunately, it is difficult to discuss sex in our society: though it is so prevalent, many of us repress our consideration of it and this may have dangerous consequences. The argument is not to critique our sexual nature, but to draw attention to problems with our sexual nature and with the ways in which corporations use our sexual being to their advantage. Being a gender critic does not equate to being a prude, but it does equate to being intelligent about how sex and advertising are used against people.

1.7 EXPLOITATION OF WOMEN IN ADVERTISEMENTS


People are exposed to nearly 2000 ads in a day constituting perhaps the most powerful educational force in the society. Women projected as bodies only 14

Objectification of women Focus on women s body parts only Treating women as sex objects Dehumanization of women Women as literal objects Portrayal of women in ads having no connection to the product Projection of stereotype role of women Portrayed as domestic providers who do not make significant decisions and are dependent on men

The following would show few examples of the advertisements regarding representation of women:

WOMEN AS LITERAL OBJECTS In a number of ads the levels of the objectification of women becomes literal. Many ads depict women as various objects. In some cases, even though there is not a body present, such as in some beer can ads, the implication is that a womans body is being objectified. The ads below help emphasize the fact that women's bodies are objectified in multiple ways. Such ads give rise to questions like, would anyone like to have their identity connected to any of the following?

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Dehumanization of women Women are not only portrayed in decorative senses in advertising (Wiles 1991), but too often they are portrayed as less-than-human objectshumiliated and subjects of violence. These ads establish the problematic dimensions of gender and sexuality in the society. The question here is, are there similar examples of men being dehumanized in today's advertising?

Portrayal of women in ads having no connection to the product An ad is made to sell a product and therefore should be related to it. But often there are no representational connections in contemporary advertising. Women are exploited in ads that are unrelated to her.

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Treating women as sex objects Exposure to media depicting women in degrading and subordinate situations, even if not explicitly sexual or violent in nature, will lead to increased violent behavior of men against women in society.

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Exploitation of men in Advertising

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1.8 CONSUMERISM
Consumerism is all about protection of the interests of the consumers. According to McMillan Dictionary (1985) "Consumerism is concerned with protecting consumers from all organizations with which there is exchanged relationship. It encompasses the set of activities of government, business, independent organizations and concerned consumers that are designed to protect the rights of consumers". The Chamber's Dictionary (1993) defines Consumerism as the protection of the interests of the buyers of goods and services against defective or dangerous goods etc. "Consumerism is a movement or policies aimed at regulating the products or services, methods or standards of manufacturers, sellers and advertisers in the interest of buyers, such regulation maybe institutional, statutory or embodied in a voluntary code occupied by a particular industry or it may result more indirectly from the influence of consumer organisations"

As commonly understood consumerism refers to wide range of activities of government business and independent organizations designed to protect rights of the consumers. Consumerism is a process through which the consumers seek redress, restitution and remedy for their dissatisfaction and frustration with the help of their all organized or unorganized efforts and activities. It is, in-fact a social movement seeking to protect the rights of consumers in relation to the producers of goods and providers of services. In-fact consumerism today is an all-pervasive term meaning nothing more than people's search for getting better value for their money. Consumer is the focal point of any business. Consumers' satisfaction will benefit not only business but government and society as well. So consumerism should not be considered as consumers' war against business. It is a collective consciousness on the part of consumers, business, government and civil society to enhance consumers' satisfaction and social welfare which will in turn benefit all of them and finally make the society a better place to live in.

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1.8.1 COMPONENTS OF CONSUMERISM

There are various components of consumerism. First and foremost is self-protection by consumers. Consumer must be aware of his rights, raise voice against exploitation and seek redressal of his grievances. Consumers' consciousness determines the effectiveness of consumerism. It is the duty of the consumer to identify his rights and to protect them. Voluntary Consumer Organisations engaged in organising consumers and encouraging them to safeguard their interests is another important element of consumer movement The success of consumerism lies in the realisation of the business that there is no substitute for voluntary self-regulations. Little attention from the business will not only serve consumers interest but will also benefit them. Some businesses in India have come together to adopt a code of conduct for regulating their own activities. Regulation of business through legislation is one of the important means of protecting the consumers. Consumerism has over the time developed into a sound force designed to aid and protect the consumer by exerting, legal, moral and economic pressure on producers and providers in some of the developed countries.

Pecuniary Jurisdiction In cases where the value of goods and services involved is less than Rs. 20 Lakhs in value, you will have to file the complaint in the District Forum constituted in the specified districts of a State. In cases where the value of goods and services involved is more than Rs. 20 Lakhs in value but does not exceed Rs 1 crore you will have to file the complaint with the State Commission constituted in the capital cities of the different states. In cases where the value of goods and services involved is more than 1 crore in value then you can file a complaint with the National Commission which has been constituted only in New Delhi. Territorial Jurisdiction.

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The jurisdiction of the complaint is determined by the facts of the case and where the cause of action arises. Further, when you file a complaint, the area in which the opposite party resides or carries on his work or business will also have to be taken into consideration by you. This means that if you are filing a complaint against a service provider for a sum below 20 lakhs you would have to approach the District Forum in the jurisdiction where the cause of action arose. If the matter is above 20 lakhs but below 1 crore then it would be filed in the State Commission within which State the trader/ service provider/ manufacturer is located in the state in which the trader resides or works in. These two factors will have to be kept in mind while filing your complaint.

1.8.2 Consumer Courts Consumer Forums There are consumer forums at the District, State and National level. At present, there are 569 District Consumer Forums, 33 State Commissions & the highest body which is the National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission (NCDRC). The District Forum consist of one president and two other members (one of whom is to be a woman).The president of the Forum is a person who is, or has been qualified to be a District Judge, and other members are persons of ability, integrity and standing, and have adequate knowledge or experience of, or have shown capacity in dealing with, problems relating to economics, law, commerce, accountancy, industry, public affairs or administration. They can hear the case involving amount of Rs. Twenty Lacs. It is situated in the District head quarters. A State Commission has jurisdiction in whole of the State for which it is constituted. It can hear the cases involving the amount more than rupees twenty lacs and up to rupees one crore. It has also jurisdiction to hear appeal against the orders of District Forum of that particular State. It is situated in the capital of the State. State Commission consists of a president and two members one of whom is to be a woman. President is a person who is or has been a Judge of a High Court, and a person of ability, integrity and standing and has adequate knowledge or experience of, or has shown capacity in dealing with, 21

problems relating to economics, law, commerce, accountancy, industry, public affairs or administration. The National Commission consists of a president, and four other members (one of whom is to be a woman).The president should be the one who is or has been a Judge of the Supreme Court, and the members should be the persons of ability, integrity and standing and have adequate knowledge or experience of, or have shown capacity in dealing with, problems relating to economics, law, commerce, accountancy, industry, public affairs or administration.

District Courts/High Courts The jurisdiction of other courts to hear consumer disputes is not excluded. This is because the Parliament of India felt it was necessary to have an efficient & convenient mechanism to address and resolve the various consumer complaints across the country. As a result it created three-tier remedial machinery for the inexpensive and quick disposal of consumer complaints. As these forums only deal with consumer complaints/issues and nothing else, all their time can be devoted to addressing consumers complaints.

1.9 CONCLUSION
Awareness about gender bias has slowly spread over time. But it will take a long time for this awareness to seep into the grassroots and translate into social change. The world has moved forward. Today, we have women astronauts, women prime ministers, even women wrestlers, but there are still millions of women who face these double standards at every juncture of their lives. Feminists have been shouting themselves hoarse, demanding equality for women. Some people believe that women and men can never be equal, just different. Yes, but different does not necessarily mean inferior or lesser in any way. Women must be

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provided equal opportunity and this is not a task to be left to the government or any organization or authority. Social change begins at home. Parents have to learn to adopt an androgynous attitude towards bringing up their children. They shouldn't panic if their son prefers to play with dolls or their daughters decide they don't want to marry till they are thirty. Parents need to give both sons and daughters the chance to live their lives free from the fetters of gender bias. This is one side of the story while some feel advertising just looking at life and playing it back. Unfortunately, one mans poison is another mans food. But the extent to which such advertising is permissible has to be kept in mind.

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2. RESEARCH DESIGN

2.1 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

How to Portray Men and Women in Advertisements? Explicit and Implicit Evaluations of Ads Depicting Different Gender Roles

D. Vantomme, M. Geuens, S. Dewitte


The purpose this study was to gain more insight in the evaluation of advertisements containing different gender role portrayals (stereotypical/a-stereotypical) by examining explicit and implicit processes of ad evaluation. The results of two experiments showed an explicit preference for ads containing a-stereotypical images (feminine, warm, positive, caring traits). Implicitly, there was preference for warm ads irrespective of the degree of gender stereo typicality of the advertisement. These findings suggested that complex stimuli such as ads may inhibit implicit gender stereotype activation. At an implicit level, warmth seems a better predictor of advertisement evaluation. The experiments concluded that more people associate women with warmth and care and men with words referring to toughness and potency.

Cigarette advertising in Mumbai, India: targeting different socioeconomic groups, women, and youth
This study sought to assess cigarette companies marketing strategies in Mumbai, India. Cigarette advertising was ubiquitous in the environment, present in news and in film magazines, but not in womens magazines or the newspapers. The four major advertising campaigns all associated smoking with aspiration; the premium brands targeting the higher socioeconomic status market utilized tangible images of westernization and affluence whereas the "bingo" (low priced) segment advertisements invited smokers to belong to a league of their own and "rise to the taste" using intangible images. Women were not depicted smoking, but were present in cigarette advertisementsfor example, a woman almost always accompanied a man in "the man with the smooth edge" Four Square campaign. Advertisements and product placements at low heights and next to candies at point of sale were easily accessible by children. In view of the imminent enforcement of the ban on tobacco advertisements, cigarette companies are increasing advertising for

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the existing brand images, launching brand extensions, and brand stretching. Cigarette companies have developed sophisticated campaigns targeting men, women, and children in different socioeconomic groups. Many of these strategies circumvent the Indian tobacco advertising ban. Understanding these marketing strategies is critical to minimize the exploitation of loopholes in tobacco control legislation. This is an example where women are used in unrelated product advertisement.

Cross-cultural analysis of gender roles: Indian and US advertisements

Durriya H.Z. Khairullah, Zahid Y. Khairullah


The objective of this research was to examine gender roles portrayal in Indian and US magazine advertisements. The impact of the socio-cultural influences on the gender roles portrayal in magazine advertisements of the two countries is examined. Advertisements appearing in popular Indian and US magazine advertisements were analyzed with respect to the portrayal of male and female models shown in the print advertisements. The role portrayals of the male and female models in the two countries are compared and discussed. The study concluded that there are both significant

differences and some similarities in characteristics of gender roles as manifested in Indian and US magazine advertisements. The findings are consistent with those of the few earlier researchers comparing gender roles in different countries. Based on the results, it appears that subtle gender biases exist both in Indian and US magazine advertising. Interestingly, in all Indian and most US advertisements women are neither shown in passive roles nor as sex objects. The overall results of the present study suggest to international advertisers that in developing their advertising campaigns for international markets it is important to reflect the cultural values of the society in which they wish to do business.

Advertising and the Exploitation of Female Sexuality Chineze J. Onyejekwe


This paper analyzes the role that the media, both print and electronic, play in constructing the exploitation of female sexuality to sell products especially in advertising.The link between media advertising and its influence on young people especially women is discussed. Efforts at tackling this problem are also discussed. This exploitation of female sexuality in advertising has negative consequences for women. Images of thin models seen, for example, in TV and magazine advertisements, and good-looking

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muscular men appear daily in magazines, films and television. Thanks to beauty pageants such as Miss World and Miss Universe, as well as locally organized beauty pageants, teenage girls now define beauty by the shape and size of their bodies with the impression that being skinnier is sexier. More young men are also turning to drugs such as steroids to help build muscle strength. This unrealistic importance given to body image has been blamed for the poor self-esteem and unhappiness among ordinary people, particularly the youth. While doctors do not agree on the extent of this problem, eating disorders such as anorexia have been affecting more young people (Cooper 1997).Great concern has been expressed about the role of the media especially as an agent of socialization. Advertising is very important to profit-driven media conglomerates more interested in delivering viewers to advertisers than in serving the needs of the public. Formulating and applying ethical codes for the communications media and for advertising might go a long way in promoting respect and common good. This is particularly so for television, which beams homogeneous images right into peoples homes and around the world. However, confronting the negative effects of the new media on women requires focusing on the entire spectrum of media representations that limit, demean or degrade women. This includes the Internet. Internet advertising is growing bigger by the day and the medium is greatly increasing the influence of media corporations, and the opportunity for pornography considered by many feminists, as degrading to women.

Catering to Indian and British Tastes: Gender in Early Indian Print Advertisements Javed Masood
This project aimed at collecting and archiving print advertisements from the popular English newspapers and periodicals published in India in roughly three periods 1940s, 1960s and 1980s, to look for examples of visual portrayal of men and women depicting modern and westernized lifestyle while maintaining much of the gender stereotypes. Among the archives of periodicals traced for this project were The Hindu (Madras), The Illustrated Weekly of India (Mumbai/Delhi), and a few others. It compares different variations on advertisements from 1946-47, a few months before India got Independence from British Rule. It states that this was the time when the special products targeted towards British consumers shared the same space, on a typical newspaper page, with figures of national heroes of the proposed independent nation and with newly emerging Indian products. Looking at a few examples of print advertisements 26

published in the 1940s, the most distinct feature in terms of the representation of women seem to be the sharp contrast between the European and Indian facial features and lifestyles, as if different advertisements were made for the readers of different classes or identities. In the early twentieth century, the main focus was only on press advertisements in which the British administrators and the princely families were offered luxurious goods, voyages, and other services. The watershed of Indian advertising was in the 1950s, when with the commencement of industrialization as many Indians undertook mass production that led to "India-centric" advertising. The Indian middle class emerged and ended the hitherto exclusive clientele of the noble and princely classes. The advertising focus shifted from status-driven goods to convenience-driven consumer goods.

Changing

sex

roles

in

Indian

advertisements

Shoma Chatterji
The Sex Roles study drew similarities and differences in the way women and men are portrayed in Indian ads and the way they are portrayed in other countries. The similarities, according to the study, largely borne out by fact seem to be that (1) overall, men and women in Indian ads are also portrayed in stereotypical ways; (2) the stereotypes in India also seem to be changing and softening, albeit slowly; (3) as in the case of western ads, women and men appear for different types of products in Indian ads; and (4) role portrayals seem to be affected by the nature of the product in the case of women, as in other nations. Two major differences in female role portrayals were noted: 1. Some of the common stereotypical portrayals seem less prevalent in Indian ads. For example, women in Indian magazine ads were more likely to be portrayed in "neutral/other" ways and less likely to be portrayed as sex objects. Women modeling for mobile phones, cars and twowheelers, painkillers, and as protagonists carry neutral portrayals. Women were also less likely to be portrayed in "dependency" roles in Indian ads. It is noteworthy that these results are similar to those found in two other Asian countries--Korea and Japan--where, again, females were less 27

likely to be portrayed in very negative stereotypical ways than in western nations. As mentioned earlier, the religious and cultural differences between India and western nations may account for this finding. 2. The polarizing trend found in the West, i.e., a tendency to portray women in dependency and housewife roles and in nontraditional activities, career-oriented, and authority figure roles, is not found for India by Das' study. 'Polarizing' means strong opposites where one woman is shown driving all alone in a car with an expression of confidence on her face juxtaposed against the image of a woman sensually posing for a cosmetic product or spouting forth the advantages of a health drink for children. In India, the trend seems to be to portray women less often as housewives or concerned with looks, but not more often in nontraditional, career-oriented, or authority figure roles. Instead, there seems to be an increase in neutral portrayals of women, due, in part, to the dramatic increase in the number of ads for such products. This might be attributable to the fact that although Indian society is changing, it is still a patriarchal society and dramatic changes (such as portraying women in nontraditional ways) may not be accepted as easily in Indian society. Any change in role portrayals of women have to be done while being posited clearly within dominant ideology, not from without. Furthermore, as studies by G Ramu (1988) and S Bharat (1995) had found, Indian men and women, regardless of their educational level or career status, hold conservative perceptions of women's roles within the family. Thus, although portraying women in neutral ways may be acceptable to Indians, portraying them in nontraditional ways may not be. Besides, there is an increasing trend in 'family' and 'couple' representations in ads for consumer durables like washing machines, refrigerators and microwave ovens, products earlier dominated by women alone. Still, with the increasing number of female models shown in advertising today, the media seem to give more equality to female images, but the underlying messages still emphasizes sexuality, often presenting women as sex objects. Also, the number of women in "decorative roles" had actually increased over time, according to a 1993 US study by L J Busy and G Leichty.

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THE INFLUENCE OF TELEVISION ON CHILDRENS GENDER ROLE SOCIALIZATION Susan D. Witt


As children move through childhood and adolescence, television is an important influence on their gender role socialization. The gender biased and gender stereotyped behaviors and attitudes that developing young people are exposed to on television will have an impact on their perception of male and female roles in our society. An overview of literature dealing with the influence of television on childrens gender role socialization suggests strict adherence to traditional gender roles, despite being limiting to children and adolescents as they grow into adulthood.

Development of Children As children grow and develop, they are taking in information and acquiring knowledge at a rapid pace. As children develop their cognitive abilities, they assimilate new information into their existing knowledge base and adjust to the new information by accommodating it to what they already know (Piaget, 1954). Childrens ideas about how the world works come from the experiences they have and the attitudes and behaviors they see around them. The young child who comes to understand women are nurses and men are doctors may have come to the realization because the first doctor he or she saw was a man, and he was assisted by a female nurse. This man as doctor, woman as nurse idea may have reinforced by parents reading books; conversations with friends and television may reinforce also. If the child frequently is faced with gender biases and gender stereotypes, this knowledge will be incorporated and influence perceptions regarding men and women. Keeping in mind young children with developing minds watch many hours of television, and recalling television reinforces gender stereotypes, it is not surprising children come away from this television experience with firmly held beliefs. Frequently these beliefs are stereotyped with regard to gender.

Of the various factors which help shape gender-typed behaviors, role models and imitation are extremely influential (Beal, 1994; Basow, 1992, Hargreaves & Colley, 1986; Bandura, 1977). Children are exposed to models throughout their environment, including those on television. Research suggests children who view violent programming on television will behave 29

more aggressively with peers (Strasburg, 1995; Bandura, 1977). It is also true children who view prosocial behaviors on television are likely to exhibit those types of behaviors themselves. Young children will imitate and repeat behaviors they see on television. Because children are influenced by gender stereotyped role models they see on television, they will also exhibit gender biased behaviors and develop gender biased attitudes that they see modeled on television.

Positive developmental outcomes for young children during their growing-up years include developing autonomy, initiative, and a sense of industriousness (Erikson, 1964). Children who witness female characters on television programs who are passive, indecisive, and subordinate to men (and see this reinforced by the environment around them) come to understand this is the appropriate way for females to behave. It is less likely for female children to develop autonomy, initiative and industriousness when they rarely see it modeled in those around them. Similarly, because male characters on television programs are more likely to be shown in leadership roles and exhibit assertive, decisive behavior, children learn this is the appropriate way for males to behave (Seidman, 1999; Carter, 1991; Cantor, 1977). What Children are watching? Regarding gender role development on television, the National Institute of Mental Health has determined: 1) In male-female interaction, men are usually more dominant.

2) Men on television are rational, ambitious, smart, competitive, powerful, stable, violent, and tolerant, while women are sensitive, romantic, attractive, happy, warm, sociable, peaceful, fair, submissive, and timid.

3) For men, the emphasis is on strength, performance, and skill;for women, it is on attractiveness and desirability. 4) Marriage and family are not important to televisions men. One study found that for nearly half the men, it wasnt possible to tell if they were married, a fact that was true for only 11% of the women.

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Research indicates that television has a socializing influence on children regarding their attitudes toward gender roles. Gender role stereotypes seen on television are, in turn, reinforced by parents, friends, and school, contributing to the childs sense of what it means to be male or female in society. Television sends forceful and compelling messages to children about the societal-approved roles for boys and girls and men and women. These messages are often stereotyped, biased, and outdated yet continue to persist and influence the behavior of children. As children continue to develop and grow, they are exposed to more and more examples of gender biases and stereotypes, and thus children perpetuate similar unfair attitudes and behaviors.

Traditional gender roles, wherein men are encouraged to be decisive and to show leadership qualities and women are encouraged to be deferential and dependent do not benefit individuals, particularly women. Traditional gender roles discourage the full range of expression and accomplishment. Children should be allowed to develop a sense of self in a gender fair environment which encourages both boys and girls to feel they are a force in the society.

Women's rights N. S. Venkataraman


It has been said that Indian women have been traditionally deprived of their rights and subjected to humiliation. This article states how women are exploited the need to emancipate Indian women and give them their due role in society. In fact, it is now the considered view world over that equal rights and opportunity to women in all respects is the essence of civilization and a sign of a progressive society. The efforts to liberate women from deprived conditions are now yielding results in India. At the same time, women are becoming the targets of humiliation, practiced subtly by a male-dominated society and unwittingly aided by a few women too. While women may not be terrorised or enslaved, they are being sexually exploited in the name liberalisation and fashionable living conditions. Many advertisements and journals carry pictures of women in compromising postures as a matter of routine and, perhaps, business policy. Most 31

women think this is the trend of the day and are unaware that their form and shape are being exploited by busines s agencies. The fashion and beauty shows are the worst forms of exploitation of women in the modern era. They are asked to reveal themselves so that they may be viewed and inspected. Is this meant to emancipate women? Is it not the vulgar abuse of a freedom that is being given to society by a well-meaning Government? The recent beauty shows are cause for concern as the winners are seen as sex symbols and not as epitomising the spirit of womanhood.

2.2 Statement of the Problem


Advertising is one of the most important cultural factors molding our lives today, particularly in its power to establish and reinforce social identities. Past research indicates that despite the gains that women have made in society, images of women in advertising continue to be highly stereotyped. Advertising's transnational growth raises questions about the extent to which gender stereotypes appear in ads. Women are usually depicted as weak, object to sex and entertainment. They are shown as mentally and physically weak. They are not fit for emancipation. They cannot be aggressive. At one level the womans body has been constructed for entertainment and for marketing and on other hand she has been constructed in a traditional role model. Gender portrayals in advertisements mirror gender roles in society. Researchers in communication, marketing, psychology, and gender studies have addressed this topic and produced a body of work in this area. This project intended to look at the extent to which there is gender biass and stereotyping in advertisements and its influence on the consumer.

2.3 OBJECTIVES
To identify the most gender biased advertisements To identify the sector that resorts most to gender biased advertisement. To identify the impact of gender biased advertising on women To identify the impact of gender biased advertising on men 32

To identify the extent to which gender biased advertising has changed

2.4 Scope of the Study


The study was conducted on the advertisement viewers in Bangalore. This study helped to find out the influence of gender biased advertising on consumer behavior. Therefore the companies can use the results of this study while making an ad campaign to ensure that they do not create a negative impact about their product in the consumers mind by resorting to any gender bias. For this study print & television advertisements was considered.

2.5 Research Methodology: 2.5.1 Type of study:


The type of study that was carried out is both exploratory and descriptive Researches. The Exploratory research gave insight into the gender biased advertisements, and descriptive research helped in finding out the impact of gender biased advertising on the consumers.

2.5.2 Sources of data: Primary data:


The primary data was collected through questionnaires internet.

Secondary Data: The secondary data was collected from magazines, books and Method of collecting primary data:
The method for collecting the primary data was questionnaires.

2.5.3 Type of survey:


A sample survey was carried out for the study.

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2.5.3.1 Method of sampling:

Judgment Convenient sampling was used for this study

2.5.3.2 Sampling unit:


The sampling unit consisted of consumers.

2.5.3.3 Sampling size:


The sampling size consisted of 100 consumers (50 men and 50 women).

2.5.3.4 Tools for data collection:


A structured questionnaire was formulated and given to a respondent which was the tool that was utilized for data collection along with the secondary data collection. The questionnaire was be formulated in such a way as to have a very few open ended questions to make it easier for analysis of data.

2.6 Limitations of the Study:


The study was restricted to advertisement viewers in Bangalore. The results of the study can be replicated in any other place if required as Bangalore being a cosmopolitan city has a mixed crowd. The responses are highly subjective to an individuals perception and thus may be biased. Due care has been taken to minimize bias.

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2.7 Chapter Scheme


The study is divided into five chapters and presented accordingly.

Chapter 1: Introduction and background


This chapter will include the introduction and background of the study that is going to be carried out.

Chapter 2: Research Design


This chapter will include the introduction to the problem, need for the problem, objectives, research methodology, and limitations of the research study.

Chapter 3: Industry Profile


This chapter will consist of the details about Advertising sector, SWOT analysis, issues in the industry, policies and regulations etc.

Chapter 4: Analysis and interpretation


In this chapter the data collected from the respondents will be tabulated and the analysis will be done with the help of statistical tools and inferences will be drawn from the analysis.

Chapter 5: Summary of Findings, Conclusions and suggestions


This chapter will include the summary of findings obtained from the inferences and the conclusions will be made with respect to the findings.

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INDUSTRY PROFILE

3.1 ADVERTISING INDUSTRY


Advertising industry is a rapidly growing industry and determines to a considerable extent the GDP or the gross domestic product of any country. The advertising industry besides functioning as an intermediate between the manufacturers and the customers plays an important role in the economy of the country. This industry necessitates investment for funding different resources. One cannot measure the degree of development by interpretation of inputs in the economy which yields some production. In the event when consumption levels far exceed than what is reckoned, this is not a means of triggering or bringing about transformation in the culture, society or development in human resources or economy. What the time demands is optimum and efficient execution of advertising projects by involving appropriate technology along scientific lines.

Movies, Internet, Print Media, broadcasting constitute 0.99% in approximately 57 countries in terms of economic growth worldwide. This ratio was found to be unaltered in the years 2007 through 2008.

It was observed that expenses incurred on advertising in the European countries exceeded the expenses incurred by United States of America in the year 2007.

Reports also suggest that the trend of growth in the advertising industry may become sluggish in 2009, the ratio being 5.6%. This ratio may drop to 5.3% in the year 2009.

2008 will see a majority of the emerging markets whose advertising markets are likely grow as much as USD19.2 billion. On the other hand, the stake in the global advertising market may escalate from 7.9%- 10.8% during the same period. The endless scope for packaging any product through a very attractive manner by unleashing the most innovative of advertising concepts has been the single most inspiring factor for the growth of the advertising industry. With companies dealing in various kinds of business making a beeline for popular agencies offering their business intelligence in advertising, the growth has reached new horizons. In India, the scope for advertising has progressed considerably with big names dealing in various businesses coming forward to showcase their specialties through advertising. In fact, a lot of capital and expertise goes on to the industry to make it a viable 36

pasture for grazing. There is stiff competition in the industry and the existence is very tough. Pitch is one such Indian advertising agency, which offers its advertising intelligence for various companies dealing in various products and services. An Indian advertising agency has to take a lot of factors into consideration taking care not to cross the line of discomfort for the consumers. The Advertising Global Industry Guide is an essential resource for top-level data and analysis covering the Advertising industry. It includes detailed data on market size and segmentation, textual analysis of the key trends and competitive landscape, and profiles of the leading companies. This incisive report provides expert analysis on a global, regional and country basis. The highlights of this guide are as follows: The global advertising market grew by 2.4% in 2007 to reach a value of $82.3 billion. In 2012, the global advertising market is forecast to have a value of $106.7 billion, an increase of 29.7% since 2007. Food, beverage and personal/health care generate 23.6% of the global advertising markets value. Americas accounts for 49.8% of the global advertising markets value. WPP Group plc generates 6.9% of the global advertising markets value. TV and cinema form the dominant distribution channel in the global advertising market, accounting for 43.9% of the markets value.

Industry Evolution and Growth The first advertising agencies in India began in the early 1900s, mostly serving to place newspaper ads for clients. Soon, foreign agencies such as DJ Keymer and LA Stronach entered the market. J Walter Thompson (JWT), one of the biggest players in the market today, entered India in 1926. Post independence, advertising agencies began offering clients larger teams with distinct client servicing and creative resources. Media planning and buying however grew into important functions only recently, since earlier, there were fewer media outlets and print media tended to have fixed card rates. It was after 1990 that advertising agencies went through some fundamental changes. With the explosion of television channels, ad agencies realized that media planning and buying needed to be treated as a separate discipline. Clients too questioned the 37

standard 15% commission on media bought, which most ad agencies levied. This led to the creation of media houses distinct from ad agencies. Clients began to pay ad agencies a fee for their creative efforts, unrelated to the amount of media space or spots purchased. Another major change was the rapid consolidation of agencies, as most were bought out by large conglomerates. Today, two of the largest global marketing communication groups, WPP and Interpublic own most of the major advertising agencies, between them. WPP Group holds JWT, Ogilvy & Mather (O&M), Contract, Bates, Rediffusion DY&R and other smaller agencies besides large media agencies such as MindShare and Meritus under its GroupM umbrella. Interpublic Group holds Lowe, McCann, Enterprise Nexus and FCB besides media agencies such as Initiative and Universal McCann. Omnicon group, a third global giant, which holds agencies such as BBDO, DDB and TBWA does not yet have a large presence in India, but has announced plans to aggressively expand in the Indian market. Many of these agencies also have their associated PR agencies, notably JWT's IPAN and WPP's Ogilvy Public Relations. Unlike the advertising industry, PR in India has not yet seen these levels of consolidation. The largest agencies such as Adfactors PR, Perfect Relations, Genesis and Vaishnavi, are still largely locally owned and not yet part of conglomerates. Instead, most of these agencies have established loose partnerships with international agencies, to undertake global work for their clients. Scope of Advertising Industry in India

The advertising industry in India has several competitive advantages:

India has a rich pool of strategic planning, creative and media services personnel: Indeed, Indian advertising industry has been exporting senior-level talent to many countries, particularly to the Gulf, South-East Asia, China, the UK and the US. Indian talent is recognized and respected in global agency networks.

No other country has access to so many trained management graduates who can provide strategic inputs for brand and media planning.

Indians are multicultural: we learn at least two languages and that gives us a head start in understanding cultural diversity.

Most of the top 20 agencies in India have a global partner or owner, which should provide an immediate link to global markets.

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Our production standards in TV and print have improved: With a vibrant animation software industry, we have access to this area of TV production.

India's advanced IT capabilities can be used to develop Web-based communication packages for global clients.

The structure of the advertising industry in Asia Pacific has been affected by globalization and international alignments creating a smaller number of very large agencies and the growth of independent major media buying houses. Very sophisticated software optimization and planning systems are now integral to the industry, enabling agencies to offer a unique positioning in the marketplace to attract new business. American companies are discovering the appeal of marketing their products in India. With a population of approximately one billion, and a middle class that's larger than the total population of the United States, there's definitely money to be made. Local retailers in apparel, food, watches and jewellery have all increased their average ad spending by almost 50% in the past two years. Coupled with many other local players big retailing brands are spending to the tune of Rs 12,000 crores annually on advertising and promotional activities. This figure, according to industry estimates, was less than Rs 400 crores about 3 years ago which means the growth has been a whopping 40%. The local firms are using all the available advertising tools from electronic to print, outdoor advertising and even models. The advertising and promotional spending by local brands is substantial during the festival season and almost 70% of the spending is done between September to January. The advertising industry in India is growing at an average rate of 10-12% per annum. Over 80% of the business is from Mumbai and Delhi followed by Bangalore and Chennai.

The Indian Advertising industry caters to the marketing and communication needs of both foreign and Indian marketers operating in India. Post economic liberalization in the early 90s, the number of brands in each product category increased rapidly. Over time, many brands no longer have any significant product differentiation. Communication has therefore come to play a very important role in how products and brands are perceived.

While advertising primarily carries out this communication to a specific consumer base, public relations activities are targeted not just at customers, but at other stakeholders such as the media, the financial community, investors, employees, government and regulatory authorities. 39

Advertising agencies offer various services from developing a brand and communication strategy to preparing communication tools such as print and TV advertisements or more recently, web based campaigns. Related services include media planning, tracking and buying where agencies act as an intermediary between clients and media providers such as newspapers, magazines and television channels.

3.2 FUTURE TRENDS


Unlike manufacturing or IT, for a long time, it was believed that communications activities were highly country specific and could not be outsourced. This is changing, as the world becomes more integrated and ideas can be easily translated across cultures. The Indian advertising industry is beginning to attract global communications work. The first large event of this kind happened when Lenovo moved its entire advertising account to O&M's Bangalore branch, in 2007. This trend is expected to intensify in the future as clients see not just cost savings, but also a large English speaking and thinking talent pool in India. Another trend is the shift in spends to non-traditional media such as outdoor advertising, promotional activities, events and recently, web-based media. These areas often call for quite different skills; web-based advertising in particular calls for good understanding of online consumer interaction and technology. As client spends on these areas grow, the role of advertising agencies is bound to change, and with it, the nature of skills needed.

3.3 TYPES OF ADVERTISING IN THE INDUSTRY


Newspaper Advertising Everyone knows that for business promotion there is strong need of effective advertising so as to make the brand recognizable worldwide. There are various means of advertising available, including newspapers, magazines, television, radio and Internet. In India, newspaper advertising is one of the oldest means of promotion for any product or service. Reading newspaper is a daily practice of many people in India, and due to this popularity of newspaper in India it is known to be a good medium of advertising. The success of newspaper advertising in India is due to its wide reach and visibility. Through advertising in newspapers, you can target the Indian market on a wider scale as well as get in contact with a large group of people. So, it would not be wrong 40

to say that through newspaper advertising you can advertise your product or service at one shot among a large group of people. Another beneficial factor of newspaper advertising in India is that it has different newspapers in different languages, and in this way you can easily capture your target group and advertise accordingly to meet your business objectives.

www.pitchonnet.com offers you all sought of information regarding newspaper advertising in India. Newspaper advertising in India has many distinctive advantages if compared to other means of advertising and these advantages cannot be ignored. You need not have to pay huge amount of money for newspaper advertising, the cost is very economical. Also the advertisements can be inserted in any popular newspaper in just 24 hours. Moreover it helps in a better brand recall value. Almost every Indian likes reading newspaper so as to remain updated with latest happenings in and around the society, hence it is the best way to get maximum publicity. Hence, we can say that newspaper advertising saves time, money and effort as compared to other modes of advertising. There are many newspapers in India that are directly or indirectly associated with advertising like Hindustan Times, Times of India, The Statesman, The Pioneer and so on. Outdoor Advertising Industry Outdoor advertising industry plays an important role in determining the economy of any country. Outdoor advertising is a very cost effective way of putting across one's product to the common people. Statistics have indicated that the growth in the revenue due to outdoor advertising industry was approximately 5.5 billion in the year 2007. This sale record in the outdoor advertising market is predicted to go up to around 12.4 billion in the year 2009. Revenues also increased to $298 million in 2007 which escalated by 9% in the year 2008. It is anticipated that this figure may go up to $324 million in the next few years. In addition to generating revenue for the country, it also provides employment facilities to individuals directly associated or indirectly associated with the advertising industry. It was found that in Florida alone, the total number of jobs available in the outdoor advertising segment or outdoor advertising related segment was 10,000 in the year 2006. It is believed that there will be a decrease in the number of jobs, the job count going down to 7,600 by 2010. The decline can be attributed to diversification in other 41

industries. The Gross revenue product or the GRP was found to be $405 million in the year 2006 and is expected to be $457 million by the year 2010. Statistics also suggest that the real disposal income in the outdoor advertising industry as in 2006 was $264 million which is likely to rise to $311 million in 2010. Growth in the economy of United States of America, has accelerated the production of different products. Every effort is made by the companies to penetrate into the market by opting for better and efficient marketing tools. Outdoor advertising is a very effective economic instrument which enables an individual to access critical information about the new products on the shelf. Outdoor advertising industry also helps individuals to decide about purchasing products. The outdoor advertisers comprise of the entertainment industry, lodging, tourism, telecommunications, amusement, automobile industry etc. On line Advertising Industry It is assumed that by the year 2009, the revenues generated in the Online advertising industry, as a result of searches, will amount to $5.7 billion. Online advertising industry is growing by leaps and bounds. The Online advertising industry is reckoned to improve further in the years to come. Expenses incurred on Online advertising industry is gradually increasing. Reports suggest that in the year 2003, the Online advertising industry yielded revenues equal to $1.9 billion, which escalated to $2.3 billion. The year 2009 will be a witness to several alternative means of advertising other than the conventional tools of marketing. Advantage of Online advertising industry is that an individual has the liberty to browse through the different products on offer and can also compare prices from the comfort of ones office or home. Online Advertising industry can use the Internet as a marketing tool for different spheres. Whether an individual wishes to sell, buy relocate etc, the real estate marketing sites can be accessed. There are several instances when the Internet can be made an effective marketing instrument. Trend in the growth of the Online advertising Industry and its impact on the economy is as follows. Online advertising industry is expected to be stable and manifest an upward trend in the year 2009. This trend is likely to continue till 2011. The compound annual growth rate is anticipated to increase by 17.4% during this period (2008 through 2011) and touch the $197.11 billion mark. Every industry in the US economy use the Online advertising tool for marketing products. The different sectors yield revenues and add to the GDP or the gross domestic product. Online advertising tools can be used in several sectors as enumerated below: 42

Banking Real Estate Steel Mining Paper Plastic Software Biotechnology Health Care Agriculture, etc.

Internet Advertising The world of advertising is a very booming industry with enormous scope for innovation and creativity to boost up the various kinds of concepts in waylaying the potential to promote different services and products through various platforms. Internet advertising is just one of the many platforms for the promotion of products and services apart from newspapers, magazines, television, and so on. The degree of creativity in producing concepts to catch the attention of the consumers varies from each and every platform. Internet advertising differs from other forms of advertising such as newspaper advertising, television advertising in its structure and presentation. Overcoming those differences in presenting attractive concepts is the biggest challenge that each of these platforms face. In Internet advertising, concepts have to be very distinct and crisp so as to overcome the constraints that are evident in comparison to television advertising where stills and voices can be displayed. But, with the far-reaching ability of the Internet, the advertisements presented online are the advantage of reaching out to the masses. There are many Indian Internet advertising agencies that provide their services to various companies promoting various products and services. Online advertising spending is holding its own and will continue to grow steadily over the next several years. Marketers are responding to the economic challenges with new techniques and strategies, along with research data to prove their effectiveness. According to 43

statistics, online ad spending has reached $23 billion. Nonetheless, nearly three-quarters of web advertising space goes unsold and more than 99.7 per cent of banner ads are not clicked on. Advertising on internet, albeit a new phenomenon compare to advertising through newspapers, magazines, radio, television, billboards and direct mail, is becoming more popular by days and replacing the conventional media. Commercial advertisements are taking more and more areas in the landscape of the world-wide-web. Mass media like newspapers, magazines, radio and television are no doubt hugely effective media for commercial advertisements, but internet is completely different from them in many respects in terms of achieving the objective of an ad. Advertising media internet is more promising than the conventional media in the sense that internet serves not only as a communication channel but also a transaction and distribution channel. One can get information and make purchases and payments all through the net. Internet has become the single stop for various purposes because of its capacity for multimedia content. It carries not only text and graphics but also audio and video content. This nature of the Internet is suitable for achieving high impact of any advertising. Advertisers are using innovative software tools to place their ads on the internet in many new innovative forms like animated pop ups, banner ads, sponsor logos, interstitials, advertorials, 3-D visualization and advertainment. Search Engine Marketing (SEM) and EMail Marketing (EMM) are quickly replacing other forms of advertising for reaching, targeting, and selling to businesses and consumers alike. Powerhouse online advertising companies like Google, MSN, Yahoo are proving this to businesses worldwide. In India, though there is no latest survey available on the internet media advertising, experts predict of a boom in internet advertising. According to an MSN study, the online advertising in India is likely to cross the 100 million dollars by 2010. According to Nasscom (Survey, August 2000) there are 1.6 million homes in India with Internet connections and on average at least 3 people use one system. At present it must be around 30 million internet users in India, says an expert in the field. India's advertising industry generates about 2.2 billion dollars annually. Spending on internet advertising was about 34 million dollars in this financial year and experts predict it may cross 57 million dollars in 2006-2007. Print and television still hog a major share of Indian advertising at 700 to 920 million dollars annually.

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New Media Advertising As the internet is growing in popularity in the current scenario, big companies have started relying more on this source of new media advertising. The new phenomenon of internet advertising has been added to the conventional use of newspaper, magazine and television, internet advertising. The foremost thing that attracts advertisers to this mode of advertising is the availability of huge scope for the promotion of products and services. This is an interactive medium of advertising which can reach the masses around the world, give them the information and at the same time communicate their response. It supports online trading, wherein the users can make transaction just by clicking the mouse. The advertisers can quickly reach their prospective clients and can also promptly receive their replies. Another major advantage of this system of new media advertising is that it is comparatively cheaper than other advertising techniques. Hence, it can be said that it gives maximum revenue with minimal expenditure. Advertisers can also use innovative software tools to convey the message more clearly and effectively. Graphics, pop-ups, animated pictures, colors and user interface are some of the commonly used means on internet to make the advertisement more attractive and comprehensible for the users. Newsletter is one of the best means available to contact the prospective buyers and keep them updated with the company affairs involving very less efforts. Search Engine Marketing (SEM) and E-mail Marketing (EMM) are two other methods of new media advertising that are being highly preferred and utilized by the advertisers. Through these techniques the audiences can be reached more effectively and the gap between users and the promoters can be minimized. It provides the facility to address a number of potential customers in less time. These techniques are proving to be extremely profitable for the business tycoons.

3.4 MARKETING AND ADVERTISEMENT


Marketing and Advertisement are the means by which an organization relates itself to its audience and interacts in the market. Marketing in advertising is a very complex business and it emphasizes on new ideas, technologies and lifestyle trends. There are new advertising and promotional methods that need to assess and compare with traditional available methods that is more or less cost-effective. Though it is difficult to measure the response from the advertising as it inevitably involves a bit of calculated guesswork but still it is better to keep the records of what 45

you did, when, to whom, for how much and what resulted. This may make your task much easier. There some basic rules for good marketing and advertising such as try to keep it simple that is ideally suited for targeted audience. Provide as much updated information as possible with fancy graphic and less complicated visual effects so that they are properly conveyed to the large masses of people. The banner is the attention part that closely relates to the reader about the concerned issues. Create of desire and action that relates benefits to the reader so that they are interested and influenced. Make a prominent message that benefits the marketing and advertisement. Not to forget, always highlight a single impressive benefit, quickly and simply as it offers an impressive, relevant benefit to the reader. This benefit should ideally contain the business brand name. Also, try to use simple vocabulary and language in order to communicate with the audience at the same level. The message of your advertisement must be quick and easy to absorb with clear fonts and language. Do not distract the reader from the text by overlaying images or using fancy fonts and avoid any complicated words. Make the message easily readable with description in such a way that the customer can visualize their personal involvement and affects them in a way that they will easily relate to it. Generally, it has seen that people respond better and are more easily attracted initially to a concept that is new or original. So try to develop a proposition that is special or unique. One must try to emphasize what makes your service special. One must try to claim superiority over their competitors; one should put as much emphasis as they can behind their USP (unique selling point) by displaying the references or testimonials.

3.5 ADVERTISING INDUSTRY TRENDS


Advertising Industry trends reflect the dynamics of the advertising industry and its contribution to the economy of the country. The advertising industry plays a significant role in contributing to the global GDP or the gross domestic product. Advertising industry trends suggested that advertising expenses with regard to magazines in the beginning of 2008 escalated by 7.1% as compared to the first half of 2007. The same period witnessed a decrease in the expenses on magazines dealing with business articles, reports and business statistics by as much as 5.2%. A survey conducted on the advertising industry trends also suggested that total amount spent on advertising pertaining all categories of media registered a reduction by 0.3% in the first three 46

months of 2008 as compared to the last quarter of the 2007. The advertising analysis report conducted on advertising industry trends observed that approximately 19.2% was spent on magazines during the first 3 months of 2008. There was an increase by 0.9% as compared to the hike registered last year during the same time. Research and analysis carried out in the context of the advertising industry noticed the following advertising industry trends:

As many as 1,370 magazines were launched in the United States of America and Canada in the year 2006.

The advertising industry report anticipates that another 820 magazines are likely to be launched within 2009. This will take the number of magazines to 26,960 by 2008 end.

It is apprehended that a decrease is likely to occur in the number of advertisement pages in the magazines by around 9% between 2008 through 2011. The shift in the trend of advertising industry from the print media to the Internet is considered to be one of the reasons for the down slope.

Surfing the Internet for various purposes like shopping on line, information about a store, searching for information or randomly browsing the net accounted for approximately 12%, 15%, 22% and 31% respectively. Studies on advertising industry trends also revealed that people are opting for surfing the net for commodities on line as compared to the print media. Due to escalation in the cost of postage in the year 2008, a tendency might set in when the publishers may opt for the reduction of the size of papers and decrease in paper weight. Consequently, page volume is likely to go down by 9% by the year 2011. Advertising Industry Report The Advertising Industry Report suggests that the revenue earned from media as well as advertising in the United States of America, attained the $13.10 billion mark in the year 2006. Advertising Industry Report analyzes the trends and the market conditions pertaining to the advertising industry. Advertising industry reports revolving around advertising related activities like campaigning, electronic and printed displays, billboards, shopping malls, retail market etc.,are all taken into consideration while working out reports. The contribution of the 47

advertising industry to GDP or the gross domestic product is also accounted for. The advertising industry report also implies that as many as 30,000 plus companies operate in the United States of America. The contribution of these advertising companies towards the yearly revenue sums up to approximately $60 billion. Omnicom, WPP, Interpublic are some of the reputed advertising companies operating in America. A segregation prevails in the advertising market. Trends in the advertising industry indicates that the as many as 50 companies which are quite reputed hold around 40% of the market stake. This was an increase by approximately 4.2% as compared to the revenues earned in the year 2005. The yearly revenue earned from every employee in the advertisement industry amounts to $150,000. There are many risks which the advertisement industry is subjected to. The advertisement industry report throws light on the various types of risks and the statistical data pertaining to the risks which the advertisement companies have been subjected to at that point of time. Risks can be of three types, structural risks are the risks which may be encountered from within the advertisement industry. Growth risk report provides the probabilities of the risks likely to appear in future. Several factors like prices of articles, regulations of the government rates of interest and exchange rates may affect the advertising industry to a considerable extent and these factors constitute the last risk factor called the sensitivity risk.

3.6 INDIAN ADVERTISING INDUSTRY


The Indian advertising industry is talking business today. It has evolved from being a smallscale business to a full-fledged industry. It has emerged as one of the major industries and tertiary sectors and has broadened its horizons be it the creative aspect, the capital employed or the number of personnel involved. Indian advertising industry in very little time has carved a niche for itself and placed itself on the global map. Indian advertising industry with an estimated value of es13, 200-crore has made jaws drop and set eyeballs gazing with some astonishing pieces of work that it has given in the recent past. The creative minds that the Indian advertising industry incorporates have come up with some mind-boggling concepts and work that can be termed as masterpieces in the field of advertising.

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Advertising agencies in the country too have taken a leap. They have come a long way from being small and medium sized industries to becoming well known brands in the business. Mudra, Ogilvy and Mathew (O&M), Mccann Ericsonn, Rediffussion, Leo Burnett are some of the top agencies of the country. Indian economy is on a boom and the market is on a continuous trail of expansion. With the market gaining grounds Indian advertising has every reason to celebrate. Businesses are looking up to advertising as a tool to cash in on lucrative business opportunities. Growth in business has lead to a consecutive boom in the advertising industry as well. The Indian advertising today handles both national and international projects. This is primarily because of the reason that the industry offers a host of functions to its clients that include everything from start to finish that include client servicing, media planning, media buying, creative conceptualization, pre and post campaign analysis, market research, marketing, branding, and services. Keeping in mind the current pace at which the Indian advertising industry is moving the industry is expected to witness a major boom in the times ahead. If the experts are to be believed then the industry in the coming times will form a major contribution to the GDP. With al this there is definitely no looking back for the Indian advertising industry that is all set to win accolades from the world over. The global advertising market grew by 2.4% in 2007 to reach a value of $82.3 billion. In 2012, the global advertising market is forecast to have a value of $106.7 billion, an increase of 29.7% since 2007.Food, beverage and personal/health care generate 23.6% of the global advertising markets value. Americas accounts for 49.8% of the global advertising markets value. WPP Group plc generates 6.9% of the global advertising markets value.TV and cinema form the dominant distribution channel in the global advertising market, accounting for 43.9% of the markets value. The growth Advertisement of Indias advertising industry is set to halve to 10 per cent by 2013, according to the latest projections by Media Partners Asia (MPA), a leading international media research agency. This is, however, in line with a general projected slowdown in the region, a Hong-Kong-based agency said. India, however, will still grow faster than China, Malaysia, and Indonesia, the agency said. The compounded annual growth rate of India between 2008 and 2013 will be 12.8 per cent, ahead of China (11.8 per cent) and Indonesia (11.4 per cent), the report added. MPAs projections are significant because they contradict some of the earlier projections made by other international research agencies at the

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start of the year, showing that the Indian advertising industry would be growing at 18 to 22 per cent over the next three or four years. According to the report, most of the Asian countries are expected to witness a slowdown in their advertising industry and the Asian markets average growth will touch 5 per cent in 2008 against over 7 per cent last year. The MPA report said: the growth of advertising on television and print media will come at a significant cost because of intensifying competition and increasing diversification.Print media will continue to lose market share with the notable exception of India, while newspapers will remain significant advertising platforms in Southeast Asian markets like Singapore and Malaysia. This report gains significance as the Indian media and entertainment market is expected to grow at over 18 per cent riding on the back of the increasing penetration of television, cable, direct-to-home (DTH) and the print medium. Any slowdown in the ad-industrys growth has a direct impact on the television and print medium and an overall consumer spending. But the good news is that the growth will be in double digits as suggested by MPA.

3.7 ADVERTISING STANDARDS COUNCIL OF INDIA

Advertising regulation refers to the laws and rules defining the ways in which products can be advertised in a particular region. Rules can define a wide number of different aspects, such as placement, timing, and content. Advertising Standards Council of India is a self regulatory voluntary organization of the advertising industry. The Role and Functioning of the ASCI & its CCC in dealing with Complaints received from Consumers and Industry, against Advertisements which are considered as False, Misleading, Indecent, Illegal, leading to Unsafe practices, or Unfair to competition, and consequently in contravention of the ASCI Code for Self-Regulation in Advertising. The Role and Functioning of the ASCI & its Consumer Complaints Council (CCC) in dealing with Complaints received from Consumers and Industry, against Ads which are considered as False, Misleading, Indecent, Illegal, leading to Unsafe practices, or Unfair to 50

competition, and consequently in contravention of the ASCI Code for Self -Regulation in Advertising. ASCI is a voluntary self-regulatory council, registered as a not-for-profit Company under section 25 of the Indian Cos. Act. The sponsors of the ASCI, who are its principal members, are firms of considerable repute within Industry in India, and co mprise Advertisers, Media, and Advertisement Agencies and other Professional /Ancillary services connected with advertising practice. The ASCI is not a Government body, nor does it formulate rules for the public or for the relevant industries. The Purpose and the Mission of the ASCI is spelt out clearly in the literature provide. If an AD is to be reviewed for its likely impact on the sensibilities of individual viewers of TV, or readers of press publications, it requires to convey to the Advertiser concerned, the substantial issues raised in the complaint, in the exact context of the specific Ad, as conveyed by the perception of the complainant, and to elicit the appropriate response by way of comments from the Advertiser. Only then will the CCC, of the ASCI, be in a position to deliberate meaningfully on the issues involved, and to arrive at a fair and objective conclusion, which would stand the scrutiny of all concerned with the right to freedom of expression, and the freedom of consumers to choose the products /services made available to them in the market-place. For this it requires in each case a clearly readable copy or clipping of the Ad under complaint, with full particulars of name and date of publication, or a printout of an Ad or promotion on a Website or in case of a T.V. Commercial, the channel, date and time or programme of airing, and a description of the contents of the TVC, along with a hard copy of the complete complaint preferably signed by the complainant. Objectives The main objects to be pursued by the Company on its incorporation are To monitor administer and promote standards of advertising practices in India with a view to Ensuring the truthfulness and honesty of representations and claims made through advertising and safeguarding against misleading advertising. 51

Ensuring that Advertising is not offensive to generally accepted norms and standards of public decency Safeguarding against the indiscriminate use of advertising for the promotion of products or services which are generally regarded as hazardous to society or to individuals or which are unacceptable to society as a whole Ensuring that advertisements observe fairness in competition and the canons of generally accepted competitive behaviour To codify adopt and from time to time modify the code of advertising practices in India and implement, administer and promote and publicize such a code. To provide facilities and machinery in the form of one or more Consumer Complaints Councils having such composition and with such powers as may be prescribed from time to time to examine complaints against advertisements in terms of the Code of Advertising practices and report thereon To give wide publicity to the Code and seek adherence to it of as many as p ossible of those engaged in advertising To print and publish pamphlets, leaflets, circulars or other literature or material, that may be considered desirable for the promotion of or carrying out of the objects of the Company and disseminate it through any medium of communication. Why Self Regulation Is Necessary? In recent years the quantity of false, misleading and offensive advertising has resulted in consumers having an increasing disbelief in advertising, and a growing resentment of it. Misleading, false advertising also constitutes unfair competition. It could lead to marketplace disaster or even litigation. If this kind of advertising continues, it wont be long before statutory regulations and procedures are imposed which make even fair, truthful, decent advertising cumbersome if not impossible. This certainly will affect your ability to compete and grow. The Advertising Standards Council of India (ASCI) (1985) has adopted a Code for Self-Regulation in Advertising. It is a commitment to honest advertising and to fair competition in the market-place. It stands for the protection of the 52

legitimate interests of consumers and all concerned with advertising - advertisers, media, advertising agencies and others who help in the creation or placement of advertisements. As the Code becomes increasingly accepted and observed pro-actively, three things will begin to happen.

1. Fewer false, misleading claims 2. Fewer unfair advertisements 3. Increasing respectability

In India, as in several advanced economies, there is only one body for Self-Regulation in Advertising the ASCI, which is concerned with safeguarding the interests of consumers whilst monitoring/guiding the commercial communications of Practitioners in Advertising on behalf of advertisers, for advertisements carried by the Media, in their endeavors to influence buying decisions of the Consuming Public.

ASCI Code The purpose of the Code is to control the content of advertisements, not to hamper the sale of products which may be found offensive, for whatever reason, by some people. Provided, therefore, that advertisements for such products are not themselves offensive, there will normally be no ground for objection to them in terms of this Code. This Code for Self-Regulation has been drawn up by people in professions and industries in or connected with advertising, in consultation with representatives of people affected by advertising, and has been accepted by individuals, corporate bodies and associations engaged in or otherwise concerned with the practice of advertising, with the following as basic guidelines, with a view to achieve the acceptance of fair advertising practices in the best interest of the ultimate consumer. The responsibility for the observance of this Code for Self-Regulation in Advertising lies with all who commission, create, place or publish any advertisement or assist in the creation or publishing of any advertisement. All advertisers, advertising agencies and media are expected not to commission, create, place or publish any advertisement which is in contravention of this Code. This is a self-imposed discipline required under this Code for Self-Regulation in 53

Advertising from all involved in the commissioning, creation, placement or publishing of advertisements. This Code applies to advertisements read, heard or viewed in India even if they originate or are published abroad so long as they are directed to consumers in India or are exposed to significant number of consumers in India. ASCI Code made compulsory for TV Ads Self Regulation in advertising as practiced and duly recognized in many countries including USA, UK, Australia, Japan, China and Brazil etc., has been pursued and monitored in India in an inexpensive and expeditious manner for the last 20 years by the Advertising Standards Council of India (ASCI), a voluntary and non-profit organization set up by a group of advertisers, advertising agencies, media etc., way back in 1985, with the objective of ensuring that all advertising should be legal, decent, honest and truthful along with a sense of social responsibility to the consumer and to the rules of fair competition. ASCI's role has been acclaimed by various agencies including the Government. However, it lacked the force of legal recognition. The Government of India has at last, taken note of this and by one stroke on 2nd August 2006 vide a notification in The Gazette of India: Extraordinary {Part II sec. 3(i)}, made sure that at least as far as TV Commercials go, they abide by the ASCI code. The amendment made in Cable Television Networks (Amendment) Rules, 2006 now states: "(9) No advertisement which violates the Code for Self-Regulation in Advertising, as adopted by the Advertising Standards Council of India (ASCI), Mumbai for public exhibition in India, from time to time, shall be carried in the cable service". ASCI encourages the public to complain against advertisements which they consider to be false, misleading, offensive or unfair. All complaints are evaluated by an independent Consumer Complaints Council (CCC) which has 21 members - 12 from civil society and 9 from advertising practitioners. The CCC has been able to decide upon the complaints within a period of 4 to 6 weeks. Recent statistics suggest that in as many as 85% of the complaints upheld against TV advertisements, the advertisers/channels have confirmed in writing to have forthwith complied with the decisions of CCC, either by withdrawing or modifying appropriately the subject advertisements. ASCI has now sought the support of the concerned associations such as Indian Broadcasting Foundation (IBF) to persuade the TV channels to adhere to ASCI's Code as well as implement the decisions of its CCC in this regard.

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Consumer Complaints Council The Board of Governors shall appoint Consumer Complaints Council (CCC), the number of members of which shall not be more than twenty one. The Consumer Complaints Council shall examine and investigate the complaints received from the consumers and the general public, including the members of the Company, regarding any breach of the Code of Conduct and/or advertising ethics and recommend the action to be taken in that regards.

Power Of The Consumer Complaints Council Each Council shall be entitled to receive complaints from the Board of Governors, the Consumers, the general public and members of the Company. Each Council shall enquire, investigate and decide upon the complaints received by it within the frame work of the Code of Conduct adopted by the Company. All the decisions of each Council shall be by simple majority, in writing and may specify the action to be taken in respect of the offending advertisement.

3.8 SWOT ANALYSIS OF MEDIA AND ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY


STRENGTHS:

1. Media And Entertainment is one of the most booming sectors in India due to its vast customer reach. The various segments of the Media And Entertainment industry like television and film industry have a large customer base.

2. The growing middle class with higher disposable income has become the strength of the Media And Entertainment industry.

3. Change in the lifestyle and spending patterns of the Indian masses on entertainment.

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4. Technological innovations like online distribution channels, web-stores, multi- and megaplexes are complementing the ongoing revolution and the growth of the sector. 5. Indian film industry is second largest in the world and the largest in terms of the films produced and tickets sold. 6. The low cost of production and high revenues ensure a good return on investment for Indian Media And Entertainment industry.

WEAKNESSES: 1. The Media And Entertainment sector in India is highly fragmented. 2. Lack of cohesive production & distribution infrastructure, especially in the case of music industry. 3. The lack of efforts for media penetration in lower socio-economic classes, where the media penetration is low.

OPPORTUNITIES: 1. The concept of crossover movies, such as Bend It Like Beckham has helped open up new doors to the crossover audience and offers immense potential for development. 2. The increasing interest of the global investors in the sector. 3. The media penetration is poor among the poorer sections of the society, offering opportunities for expansion in the area. 4. The nascent stage of the new distribution channels offers an opportunity for development. 5. Rapid de-regulation in the Industry. 6. Rise in the viewership and the advertising expenditure. 7. Technological innovations like animations, multiplexes, etc and new distribution channels like 56

mobiles and Internet have opened up the doors of new opportunities in the sector.

THREATS: 1. Piracy, violation of intellectual property rights pose a major treat to the Media And Entertainment companies. 2. Lack of quality content has emerged as a major concern because of the 'Quick- buck' route being followed in the industry. 3. With technological innovations taking place so rapidly, the media sector is facing considerable uncertainty about success in the marketplace.

3.9 PEST ANALYSIS OF ADVERTISING INDUSTRY


Political Factors 1. Review of Advertising Code 2. Ban on Surrogate Advertising Hitting Advertising Revenues 3. CAS Implementation Altering Viewership Distribution 4. Direct-To-Home Growth Spurring Niche Programming 5. FM Radio Deregulation Increasing Media Penetration Economic Factors 1. Opportunities from Rural Income Growth 2. GDP Growth Fuelling Advertisement Spends Social Factors 1. Teens Emerge as Influential Consumer 2. Non-Metro India Influencing Advertising Strategies Technological Factors 57

1. Digital and Graphic Innovation in Outdoor Advertising 2. Animation Industry Driving Creativity

3. Internet Penetration Driving Online Advertising 3.10 Michael Porters Five Force Analysis Buyer Power 1. Increased Bargaining Power of Buyers 2. Big Accounts Rule Over Agencies Supplier Power 1. Shortage of Creative Talent 2. Mushrooming TV Channels Advantageous for Agencies Intensity of Competition 1. Concentrated Market with MNCs Leading the Industry 2. Advertising Players Setting up Second Agencies 3. Rush for Neighboring Markets Threat of New Entrants 1. Dominance of Top Agencies 2. India Gaining Popularity as an Emerging Market Threat of Substitute Products 1. Direct Marketing

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4. ANALYSIS and INTERPRETATION 4.1 Demographic Profile of the Respondents 4.1.1 Age

Males Variable
21- 30 30- 40 40- 50

Frequency
25 14 11

Percentage
50% 28% 22%

No. of Males in each Age Group


30 25 20 15 10 5 0 21- 30 30- 40 40- 50 14 11 25

Interpretation The most number of respondents are in the age group 21-30 as this is the group most of the advertisers target in males. The advertisements do not have much impact on the older age group in males.

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Females Variable
21- 30 30-40 40-50

Frequency
22 15 13

Percentage
44% 30% 26%

No. of Females in each Age Group


25 20 15 15 10 5 0 21- 30 30-40 40-50 13 22

Interpretation The most number of respondents are in the age group of 21- 30 as this age group is influenced a lot by the advertisements related to their products.

4.1.2 Income Males Variable


Less than 1 lakh 3- 5 lakh 5- 6 lakh

Frequency
22 15 13 60

Percentage
44% 30% 26%

No. of Males in each Income Group


30 25 20 15 15 10 5 0 less than 1 lakh 3-5 lakh more than 5 lakh 11 24

Interpretation The most number of respondents are in the income group of less than 1 lakh as this group consists of students and they are the target of any companies that resort to gender biased advertising.

Females Variable
Less than 1 lakh 3- 5 lakh 5- 6 lakh

Frequency
22 15 13

Percentage
44% 30% 26%

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No. of Females in each Income Group


35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 less than 1 lakh 3-5 lakh more than 5 lakh 12 6 32

Interpretation The most number of respondents are in the income group of less than 1 lakh as this group consists of households and students who are targets of companies that resort to gender biased advertising.

4.1.3 Occupation Males Variable


Less than 1 lakh 3- 5 lakh 5- 6 lakh

Frequency
22 15 13

Percentage
44% 30% 26%

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No. of Males for each Occupation


30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Working student 16 24

Interpretation Among the male respondents nearly 50% are students as they are the one who observe gender biased advertisements and can give their opinion on such topics.

Females Variable
Less than 1 lakh d3- 5 lakh 5- 6 lakh

Frequency
22 15 13

Percentage
44% 30% 26%

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No. of Females in each Occupation


20 18 18 16 14 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 working housewife student 18

Interpretation The female respondents consist of housewives majorly as they are the main decision makers of many products that resort to gender biased advertising.

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4.2 DATA ANALYSIS


4.2.1 To identify the various gender biased advertisements The male respondents were asked to:1.

Mention an advertisement in which a woman was wrongly exploited

Table 1- Women wrongly exploited Ads (Male)

Variable
Axe CK Mentos LML Wildstone Amul Bajaj Pulsar

Frequency
17 3 4 3 6 7 10

Percentage
34% 6% 8% 6% 12% 14% 20%

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Chart 1- Women wrongly exploited (Male) Ads

Women wrongly exploited Ads


0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 axe ck mentos LML wildstone amul pulsar 6% 8% 6% 12% 14% 20% 34%

Interpretation 34 % of male respondents have rated Axe deodorant as the most gender biased advertisement as this deodorant portrays women as getting sexually attracted to men. The next gender biased advertisement is Bajaj pulsar which again shows girls craving for boys. All the above advertisements considered has gender biased have shown women in sexual manner.

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2. Mention two gender biased advertisements

Table 2- Gender Biased Ads (Male)

Variable
Amul Axe Gillette Bajaj Pulsar Set wet Wildstone Jockey Lux LML Fair & Lovely

Frequency
19 20 6 11 7 10 8 8 8 3

Percentage
19% 20% 6% 11% 7% 10% 8% 8% 8% 3%

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Chart 2 Gender Biased Ads (Male)

Gender Biased Ads


0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 6% 19% 20%

11% 7%

10%

8%

8%

8% 3%

Interpretation The male respondents have considered 10 advertisements as gender biased. 20% and 19% have rated Axe and Amul Macho as the gender biased advertisements respectively. Axe showing women getting sexually attracted to men and Amul showing a women been exploited by making her wash her husbands underwear are biased towards men.

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3. Mention two advertisements in which a woman is casted for an unrelated product

Table 3- Ads that cast women for unrelated (Male) products

Variable
Pulsar Axe Gillette Set wet Wildstone Brylcream

Frequency
37 24 12 15 10 2

Percentage
37% 24% 12% 15% 10% 2%

Chart 3 Ads that cast women for unrelated (Male) products

Advertisements in which a woman is casted for an unrelated product


0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 Pulsar Axe Gillette Setwet Wildstone Brylcream 2% 12% 24% 15% 10% 37%

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Interpretation Products that cast women for unrelated products in their advertisements are Pulsar, Axe, Gillette, Set wet, Wildstone and Brylcream according to 37%, 24%, 12%,15%, 10% and 2% of respondents respectively. The female respondents were asked to:1. Mention an advertisement in which a woman was wrongly exploited.

Table 4 Woman wrongly exploited Ads

Variable
Pulsar Axe Gillette Set wet Wildstone Brylcream

Frequency
37 24 12 15 10 2

Percentage
37% 24% 12% 15% 10% 2%

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Chart 4 Women wrongly exploited Ads

Women wrongly expolited Ads


0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 Axe Amul Wildstone Macho Pulsar Bell Bazao Lux Cozy Fairever 12% 8% 4% 2% 14% 34% 26%

2. Mention two gender biased advertisements

Table 5- Gender Biased Ads

Variable
Pulsar Axe Gillette Set wet Wildstone Brylcream

Frequency
37 24 12 15 10 2

Percentage
37% 24% 12% 15% 10% 2%

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Chart 5 Gender Biased Ads

Gender Biased Ads


0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 Axe Amul Macho Fairever Pulsar Wildstone Moov 16% 18% 14% 6% 26% 20%

Interpretation 26% female respondents say Fairever is the most gender biased Advertisement. Following that are Moov, Pulsar, Axe, Amul Macho and Wildstone by 20%, 18%, 16%, 14% and 6% of the respondents respectively.
3. Mention two advertisements in which a woman is casted for an unrelated product

Table 6- Ads that cast women for unrelated products Variable Frequency Percentage Pulsar Axe Gillette Set wet 36 18 14 12 36% 18% 14% 12%

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Wildstone Brylcream

8 12

8% 12%

Chart 6- Ads that cast women for unrelated products

Ads that cast women for unrelated products


0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 Axe Pulsar Rupa Frontline Lux Cozy Gillette Jockey 0.18 0.14 0.12 0.08 0.12 0.36

Interpretation Products that cast women for unrelated products in their advertisements are Axe, Pulsar, Rupa Frontline, Lux Cozy, Gillette and Jockey according to 36%, 18%, 14%, 12%, 8% and 12% of respondents respectively. 4.2.2 To identify the sector that resorts most to gender biased advertisement The male respondents were asked to:1. Mention the sector that mostly resorts to gender biased advertisements Table 7- Sectors that resort to gender biased (Male) advertising FMCG

Variable

Frequency
13

Percentage
26%

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Apparel Automobile Alcohol

2 0 9

4% 0% 18%

Chart 7 Sectors that resort to gender biased advertising (Male)

Sectors that resorts to Gender Biased advertising


0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 20% 0.2 0.1 0 FMCG Apparel Automobile Alcohol 12% 12% 56%

Interpretation The sector that mostly resorts to gender biased advertising according to male respondents is FMCG (Fast Moving Consumable Goods) and second to it stands Automobile sector. The other sectors that resort to gender biased advertising are Apparel and Alcohol. The respondents have clearly mentioned cosmetics section of the FMCG sector and mens innerwear section in the Apparel sector as gender biased.

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The female respondents were asked to:1. Mention the sector that mostly resorts to gender biased advertisements

Table 8- Sectors that resort to gender biased advertising

Variable
FMCG Apparel Automobile Insurance

Frequency
13 2 0 9

Percentage
68% 20% 4% 8%

Chart 8 Sectors that resort to gender biased advertising

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Sector that resorts to Gender Biased Advertising


0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 FMCG Aotomobile Apparel Insurance 4% 8% 20% 68%

Interpretation The 68% of female respondents have rated FMCG sector as the sector that resorts to the highest gender biased advertising, following it are the automobile, apparel and insurance sector. In FMCG sector the cosmetics section has been rated as most of the advertisements show that beautiful women alone are successful in personal and professional life. The recent popular Bajaj Pulsar advertisement showing women craving for guys is mainly the reason for rating Automobile sector next to the FMCG sector.

4.2.3 To identify the impact of gender biased advertising on women The female respondents were asked:1. What using a woman in an advertisement does?

Table 9 What using a woman in an Ad Does?

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Variable
Increases Sales Increases Awareness Simply Entertaining

Frequency
3 14 32

Percentage
6% 28% 64%

Chart 9 What using a woman in an Ad Does?

What using a woman in an Ad does?


0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 Increases Sales Increses Awareness Simply Entertaing 6% 28% 64%

Interpretation 64% of the females consider using a woman in advertisement as simply entertaining and only 6% feel it increases sales and 28% feel it increases awareness. The advertising objective of a

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company is never entertainment. Therefore this response clearly states using a woman does not meet the objectives of increasing sales and awareness to a very small extent.

2. Does a beautiful woman in an ad increase your recall value?

Table 10 Does a beautiful woman in Ad increase your recall value?

Variable
Yes No Sometimes

Frequency
18 7 25

Percentage
36% 14% 50%

Chart 10 Does a beautiful woman in Ad increase your recall value?

Does a beautiful woman in an Ad increases your recall value ?


0.6 50% 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 Yes No Sometimes 14% 36%

Interpretation

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36% have stated that using a woman increases their recall value and 50% of female respondents have stated that a woman increases their recall value sometimes. This response states that a company can use a woman in an advertisement if it wants to increase the recall value of consumers.
3. Should women should be used in unrelated product advertisements

Table 11 Should women be used in unrelated product Ads?

Variable
Yes No Sometimes

Frequency
3 32 15

Percentage
6% 64% 30%

Chart 11 Should women be used in unrelated product Ads?

Should women should be used in unrelated product Ads


0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 Yes No Sometimes 6% 30% 64%

Interpretation 79

64% of the female respondents feel that woman should not be used in unrelated products. As 30% respondents feel that woman can be used in unrelated product, companies should be more cautious while using women in unrelated products depending on the concept of the advertisement and kind of product.
4. Is there preference for a product in whose advertisement a beautiful woman is casted

Table 12 Is there preference for a product in whose advertisement a beautiful woman is casted

Variable
Yes No Sometimes

Frequency
11 10 29

Percentage
6% 64% 30%

Chart 12 Is there preference for a product in whose advertisement a beautiful woman is casted

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Is there preference for a product in whose advertisement a beautiful woman is casted


1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 12% 0.1 0% 0 Yes No Sometimes 88%

Interpretation 88% women have stated that they have preference for a product that casts a beautiful. Therefore products related to women should cast beautiful women in their advertisements. This would help in meeting their objective of increasing sales as they would be able to create preference.

4.2.4 To identify the impact of gender biased advertising on men The male respondents were asked:81

1. What using a woman in an advertisement does?

Table 13 What using a woman in an Ad Does? (Male)

Variable
Increases Sales Increases Awareness Simply Entertaining

Frequency
11 10 29

Percentage
22% 20% 58%

Chart 13 What using a woman in an Ad Does? (Male)

What using a woman in an Ad does?


0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 Increases Sales Increses Awareness Simply Entertaing 22% 20% 58%

Interpretation 58% of men feel women in an advertisement is simply entertaining. 22% and 20% of respondents feel women increase sales and awareness respectively.

2. Does a beautiful woman in an ad increase your recall value?

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Table 14 Does a beautiful woman in Ad increase your recall value? (Male)


(Male) (Male) (Male) (Male)

Variable
Yes No Sometimes

Frequency
31 0 19

Percentage
62% 0% 38%

Chart 14 Does a beautiful woman in Ad increase your recall value? (Male)

Does a beautiful woman in an ad increase recall value?


0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 Yes No Sometimes 0% 38% 62%

Interpretation 62% of men state that a beautiful women in an advertisement increases recall value. 38% feel it increases recall value sometimes.

3. Should women should be used in unrelated product advertisements

Table 15 Should women should 83 be used in unrelated product? (Male) )advertisements (Male)

Variable
Yes No Sometimes

Frequency
10 28 12

Percentage
20% 56% 24%

Chart 15 Should women should be used in unrelated product? (Male)

Should women be used in unrelated product advertisements


0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 20% 0.2 0.1 0 Yes No Sometimes 24% 56%

Interpretation 56% of men feel women should not be used in unrelated product advertisements. 24% feel women can be used sometimes in unrelated product advertisements and 20% feel they can be used.
4. Is there preference for a product in whose advertisement a beautiful woman is casted

Table 16 Is there preference for a product in whose advertisement a beautiful woman is casted (Male)

Variable

Frequency
84

Percentage

Yes No Sometimes

17 33 0

34% 66% 0%

Chart 16 Is there preference for a product in whose advertisement a beautiful woman is casted (Male)

Is there preference for a product in whose advertisement a beautiful woman is casted


0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0% 0 Yes No Sometimes 34% 66%

Interpretation 66% of men say that they do not have preference for a product that casts a beautiful woman in its advertisement. 34% say they have preference for a product that casts a beautiful woman in its advertisement. 4.2.5 To identify the extent to which gender biased advertising has changed The male respondents were asked about their opinion on:-

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1. Women in todays advertisements are portrayed in the same manner as they were a decade ago.

Table 17 Women in todays Ads are portrayed in the same manner as they were a decade ago (Male)

Variable
Strongly Agree Agree Indifferent Disagree Strongly Disagree

Frequency
13 2 0 9 26

Percentage
26% 4% 0% 18% 52%

Chart 17 Women in todays Ads are portrayed in the same manner as they were a decade ago (Male)

Women in today Ads are portrayed in the same manner as they were a decade ago
0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 52%

26% 18% 4% Strongly Agree Agree 0% Indifferent Diasagree Strongly Disagree

Interpretation 52% say that women are not casted in the same as they were a decade ago while 26% strongly feel that they are casted in the same manner.

2. Stereotyping women in advertisements for household work still exits. Table 18 Stereotyping women in Ads for household work still exists (Male) 86

Variable

Frequency

Percentage
14% 70% 10% 6% 0%

Strongly Agree 7 Agree Indifferent Disagree Strongly Disagree 35 5 3 0

Chart 18 Stereotyping women in Ads for household work still exists (Male)

Stereotyping women in Ads for household work still exists


0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 70%

14%

10%

6% Diasagree

0% Strongly Disagree

Strongly Agree

Agree

Indifferent

Interpretation 70% agree that stereotyping of women in advertisements for household work still exits. None of them strongly disagree while only 6% disagree with this. 10% say that they are indifferent to this statement.
3. Today the use of women in advertisements is in accordance with the demand of the product and the script.

Table 19 Today use of women in Ads is in accordance with the demand of the product and script (Male) 87

Variable

Frequency

Percentage
6% 12% 40% 10% 32%

Strongly Agree 3 Agree Indifferent Disagree Strongly Disagree 6 20 5 16

Chart 19 Today use of women in Ads is in accordance with the demand of the product and script (Male)

Today the use of women in ads is in accordance with the demand of the product and the script
0.5 40% 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 Strongly Agree Agree Indifferent Diasagree Strongly Disagree 6% 12% 10% 32%

Interpretation Only 6% and 12% of men strongly agree and agree respectively that women in advertisements are in accordance with the demand of the product and the script while 32% strongly disagree with this view. 4. Today women in advertisements are depicted as much more dynamic and intellectual. Table 20 Today women in Ads are depicted as much more dynamic and intellectual (Male) 88

Variable

Frequency

Percentage
20% 44% 20% 10% 6%

Strongly Agree 10 Agree Indifferent Disagree Strongly Disagree 22 10 5 3

Chart 20 Today women in Ads are depicted as much more dynamic and intellectual (Male)

Today women in ads are depicted as much more dynamic and intellectual
0.5 0.4 0.3 20% 0.2 10% 0.1 0 Strongly Agree Agree Indifferent Diasagree Strongly Disagree 6% 20% 44%

Interpretation 44% agree that women are depicted as much more dynamic and intellectual than before. 20% are indifferent to this aspect. 6%s and 10% men respectively feel that women are not depicted as dynamic and intellectual than before in advertisements. 5. Women can be shown in a sexual manner in todays advertisement scenario Table 21 Women can be shown in a sexual manner in todays advertisement scenario (Male) 89

Variable

Frequency

Percentage
10% 6% 26% 30% 28%

Strongly Agree 5 Agree Indifferent Disagree Strongly Disagree 3 13 15 14

Chart 21 Women can be shown in a sexual manner in todays advertisement scenario (Male)

Woman can be shown in a sexual manner in todays advertisement scenario


0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 26% 30% 28%

10%

6%

Strongly Agree

Agree

Indifferent

Diasagree

Strongly Disagree

Interpretation 10% and 6% of the respondents strongly agree and agree respectively that women can be shown in a sexual manner in todays advertising scenario while 28% and 30% of the respondents strongly disagree and disagree respectively with this view. 26% say that they are indifferent. The female respondents were asked about their opinion on:-

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1. Women in todays advertisements are portrayed in the same manner as they were a decade ago.

Table 22 Women in todays Ads are portrayed in the same manner as they were a decade ago

Variable

Frequency

Percentage
4% 4% 0% 70% 22%

Strongly Agree 2 Agree Indifferent Disagree Strongly Disagree 2 0 35 22

Chart 22 Women in todays Ads are portrayed in the same manner as they were a decade ago

Women in ads today are portrayed in the same manner as they were a decade ago

0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

70%

22% 4% Strongly Agree 4% Agree 0% Indifferent Diasagree Strongly Disagree

Interpretation 22% and 70% of men strongly disagree and disagree respectively that women in advertisements are portrayed in the same manner as they were a decade ago. Only 8% of them agree that women are portrayed in the same manner as they were a decade ago.

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2. Stereotyping women in advertisements for household work still exits.

Table 23 Stereotyping women in Ads for household work still exists

Variable

Frequency

Percentage
32% 62% 6% 0% 0%

Strongly Agree 16 Agree Indifferent Disagree Strongly Disagree 31 3 0 0

Chart 23 Stereotyping women in Ads for household work still exists

Stereotyping women in ads for household work still exists


0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 Strongly Agree Agree Indifferent Diasagree Strongly Disagree 6% 0% 0% 32% 62%

Interpretation

32% and 62% man feel that stereotyping of women in advertisements for household work still exists and 6% are indifferent to this statement.

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3. Today the use of women in advertisements is in accordance with the demand of the product and the script.

Table24 Today use of women in Ads is in accordance with the demand of the product and script

Variable

Frequency

Percentage
4% 4% 0% 70% 22%

Strongly Agree 2 Agree Indifferent Disagree Strongly Disagree 2 0 35 22

Chart24 Today use of women in Ads is in accordance with the demand of the product and script

Today the use of women in ads is in accordance with the demand of the product and the script
0.5 0.4 0.3 20% 0.2 0.1 0 Strongly Agree Agree Indifferent Diasagree Strongly Disagree 2% 0% 32% 46%

Interpretation 32% of men agree that today women are se in accordance with the demand of the product and the script while 46% disagree with this and 20% are indifferent. 93

4. Today women in advertisements are depicted as much more dynamic and intellectual. Table 25 Today women in Ads are depicted as much more dynamic and intellectual

Variable

Frequency

Percentage
12% 56% 20% 12% 0%

Strongly Agree 6 Agree Indifferent Disagree Strongly Disagree 28 10 6 0

Chart 25 Today women in Ads are depicted as much more dynamic and intellectual

Today women in ads are depicted as much more dynamic and intellectual
0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 Strongly Agree Agree Indifferent Diasagree Strongly Disagree 12% 20% 12% 0% 56%

Interpretation 56% of men agree that today women in advertisements are depicted as much more dynamic and intellectual than before while 12% disagree to this and 20% are indifferent. 94

5. Women can be shown in a sexual manner in todays advertisement scenario Table 26 Women can be shown in a sexual manner in todays advertisement scenario

Variable

Frequency

Percentage
12% 56% 20% 12% 0%

Strongly Agree 6 Agree Indifferent Disagree Strongly Disagree 28 10 6 0

Chart 26 Women can be shown in a sexual manner in todays advertisement scenario

Woman can be shown in a sexual manner in todays advertisement scenario?


0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0

34% 24%

32%

10% 0% Strongly Agree Agree Indifferent Diasagree Strongly Disagree

Interpretation 10% of men feel that women can be shown in a sexual manner in todays advertisement scenario while 24% and 32% disagree and strongly disagree with this view. 34% are indifferent. 95

5.1 FINDINGS

Objective 1: To identify the most Gender Biased Advertisements

The most gender biased advertisements according to the male and female respondents are Axe, Bajaj Pulsar and Amul Macho. Objective 2: To identify the sector that resorts most to gender biased advertisement The sector that resorts most to gender biased advertising is FMCG (Fast Moving Consumable Goods) according to the male and female respondents as the respondents feel most of the gender biased advertisements are those of the cosmetics. Objective 3: To identify the impact of gender biased advertising on women 64% of the females consider using a woman in advertisement as simply entertaining and only 6% feel it increases sales and 28% feel it increases awareness. 36% have stated that using a woman increases their recall value and 50% of female respondents have stated that a woman increases their recall value sometimes. 64% of the female respondents feel that woman should not be used in unrelated products. 88% women have stated that they have preference for a product that casts a beautiful. Therefore most of the women feel that gender biased advertising is simply entertaining, it helps in increasing their recall value sometimes, women should not be used in advertising unrelated products and they have preference for a product that casts a beautiful woman in its advertisement. Objective 4: To identify the impact of gender biased advertising on men 58% of men feel women in an advertisement is simply entertaining. 22% and 20% of respondents feel women increase sales and awareness respectively. 62% of men state that a beautiful women in an advertisement increases recall value. 38% feel it increases recall value sometimes. 56% of men feel women should not be used in unrelated product advertisements. 24% feel women can be used sometimes in unrelated product 96

advertisements and 20% feel they can be used. 66% of men say that they do not have preference for a product that casts a beautiful woman in its advertisement. Therefore most of the men feel that gender biased advertising is simply entertaining, it helps in increasing their recall value, women should not be used for unrelated products and they do not have preference for a product that casts a beautiful woman in its advertisement. Objective 5: To identify the extent to which gender biased advertising has changed
Most of the male respondents feel that women are not casted in advertisements in the same manner as they were a decade ago, stereotyping of women for household work still exists, women are depicted as much more dynamic and intellectual, women should not be shown in a sexual manner in advertisements and they are indifferent to the statement that women in todays advertisements are in accordance with the demand of the product and script. Most of the female respondents feel that women are not casted in advertisements in the same manner as they were a decade ago, stereotyping of women for household work still exists, women are depicted as much more dynamic and intellectual, women can be shown in a sexual manner in toda ys advertising scenario and that women in todays advertisements are not in accordance with the demand of the product and script.

5.2 SUGGESTIONS
A study on the gender biased advertisements has helped me to devise certain suggestion for companies that are resorting to gender biased advertising. 1. Axe, Amul Macho and Bajaj Pulsar advertisements are suggested to be modified to avoid having a negative effect of the consumers on the product as they are considered as the most gender biased advertisements.

2. FMCG (Fast Moving Consumable Goods) sector is suggested to minimize gender biased advertisements for the products as it has been considered as the sector that has the highest number of gender biased advertisements.

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3. Companies are suggested not resort to gender biased advertising as it is considered as simply entertaining. Beautiful women should be casted for products related to women as they have preference for such products.

4. Companies are suggested not use beautiful women for men related products as they do not have preference for such products but a beautiful woman can be used if the companys objective is to increase the recall value. 5. Companies are suggested to cast women in accordance with the demand of the product and script as using of women for unrelated product is not preferred. 6. Companies are suggested to avoid stereotyping of women for household work in advertisements as in todays scenario the number of working women has increased and such stereotyping would have a negative effect on the product.

5.3 CONCLUSION
Companies should be very cautious while making an advertisement especially while using a woman in the advertisement. The companys advertising objective should also be considered while making an advertisement. Gender biased advertisements are mostly considered as entertaining and do not meet the advertising objectives of the companies. An advertisement should be made in accordance with the demand of the product and script.

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My Learning

This study has helped me to understand gender biased advertising, the various advertisements that consumers consider as gender biased and the positive and negative impacts of resorting to gender biased advertising. The most important learning was acquiring skills relating to carrying out research and collecting primary data. It enabled me to comprehend the rationale behind the use of gender bias in advertising and the influence it has on consumer buying behaviour. This study helped me to come out with suggestion that would help companies resorting to gender biased advertising.

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