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# Engineering Mechanics – Statics Instructor: R. Ganesh Narayanan # 301; C-Block, Dept. of Mechanical Engg. IIT Guwahati ganu@iitg.

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R. Ganesh Narayanan, Jan-Apr 2010

-These lecture slides were prepared and used by me to conduct lectures for 1st year B. Tech. students as part of ME 101 – Engineering Mechanics course at IITG. - Theories, Figures, Problems, Concepts used in the slides to fulfill the course requirements are taken from the following textbooks - Kindly assume that the referencing of the following books have been done in this slide - I take responsibility for any mistakes in solving the problems. Readers are requested to rectify when using the same - I thank the following authors for making their books available for reference. The conditions are true for other parts of the slides (part2, part3…) also

R. Ganesh Narayanan 1. Vector Mechanics for Engineers – Statics & Dynamics, Beer & Johnston; 7th edition 2. Engineering Mechanics Statics & Dynamics, Shames; 4th edition 3. Engineering Mechanics Statics Vol. 1, Engineering Mechanics Dynamics Vol. 2, Meriam & Kraige; 5th edition 4. Schaum’s solved problems series Vol. 1: Statics; Vol. 2: Dynamics, Joseph F. Shelley

R. Ganesh Narayanan, Jan-Apr 2010

Two forces are applied as shown to a hook support. Using trigonometry and knowing that the magnitude of P is 600 N, determine (a) the required angle α if the resultant R of the two forces applied to the support is to be vertical, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.

P = 600 45°

1. Find ‘β’ 2. Apply cosine law, find ‘R’ 3. Apply sine law, find α, γ

R

γ α

β

900

R. Ganesh Narayanan, Jan-Apr 2010

Two structural members A and B are bolted to a bracket as shown. Knowing that both members are in compression and that the force is 30 kN in member A and 20 kN in member B, determine, using trigonometry, the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces applied to the bracket by members A and B.

45° φ

Find ‘γ’ Find ‘R’ using cosine law Find ‘α’ using sine law

30 kN

α

R

γ

Find ‘φ’ 20 kN

A force acts at the origin of a coordinate system in a direction defined by the angles θx= 43.2° and θz=83.8°. Knowing that the ‘y’ component of the force is −50 N , determine (a) the angle θy, (b) the other components and the magnitude of the force.

R. Ganesh Narayanan, Jan-Apr 2010

C. If the tension in wire AB is 2100 N. and D. Jan-Apr 2010 . F = F nAB = F (BA/BA) R. determine the components of the force exerted by the wire on the bolt at B. Ganesh Narayanan.A transmission tower is held by three guy wires anchored by bolts at B.

Statics: deals with effect of force on bodies which are not moving Dynamics: deals with force effect on moving bodies We consider RIGID BODIES – Non deformable R.Deals with effect of forces on objects Mechanics principles used in vibration. electrical. Jan-Apr 2010 . Ganesh Narayanan.Engineering mechanics . mechanical m/c design etc. spacecraft design. fluid flow.

j. speed. k – unit vectors In our course: R. velocity. acceleration etc.dimensionless and in direction of vector ‘V’ y j x z i k i. where IvI = magnitude. n = unit vector n = V / IvI n . Force. V = IvI n. mass… Vector quantity: Both direction and magnitude. Ganesh Narayanan. density.Scalar quantity: Only magnitude. displacement. volume. Jan-Apr 2010 . time.

B = AB cos θ.(B+C) = A. ixi=0 Ax BX R.i=1 A. A. AxB = -(BxA) C x (A+B) = C x A + C x B j i k j i k i j AY BY k AZ BZ k x j = -i.Dot product of vectors: A.j=0 Cross product of vectors: A x B = C. Jan-Apr 2010 AxB = (Axi+Ayj+Azk)x(B xi+Byj+Bzk) = (AyBz.A (commutative) A. Ganesh Narayanan.B+A.AzBy)i+( )j+( )k .(Bxi+Byj+Bzk) = AxBx+AyBy+AzBz i.C (distributive operation) A θ B i.B = (Axi+Ayj+Azk). ICI = IAI IBI Sin θ.B = B.

direction. Vector quantity Force. Jan-Apr 2010 .required force can move a body in the direction of action. Ganesh Narayanan. point of application.Magnitude. kN Force < P kN bulging R.Force: .action of one body on another . P kN Direction of motion Body moves Body does not move P. otherwise no effect . failure is possible .some times plastic deformation.

bolts. Forces exerted by bracket. strain pattern – permanent strain.. bolts… R. (reactive force) Internal effect: Deformation. depends on material properties of bracket. Jan-Apr 2010 .Force system: Magnitude. Ganesh Narayanan. direction and point of application is important WIRE θ P Bracket External effect: Forces applied (applied force). foundation….

Transmissibility principle: A force may be applied at any point on a line of action without changing the resultant effects of the force applied external to rigid body on which it acts Magnitude. not point of application Line of action P P R. Ganesh Narayanan. direction and line of action is important. Jan-Apr 2010 .

F2 are concurrent forces R A F1 F2 R will be on same plane R = F1+F2 Law of sines Law of cosines Plane Use triangle law F2 F2 R A F1 A F1 F1 R does not pass through ‘A’ R = F1+F2 F2 F2 R A F1 R = F1+F2 R R.Concurrent force: Forces are said to be concurrent at a point if their lines of action intersect at that point Parallelogram law of forces Polygon law of forces F1. Jan-Apr 2010 . Ganesh Narayanan.

Fy = fy j. both are vector components in x. fy are scalar quantities Therefore.Two dimensional force system Rectangular components: j Fy F θ Fx i F = Fx + Fy.θ = tan -1 (fy/fx) . Fy = F sin θ F= + ve fx2 + fy2 . Ganesh Narayanan. Jan-Apr 2010 .ve R. F = fx i + fy j Sign convention + ve Fx = F cos θ.ve . y direction Fx = fx i . fx.

F2 at ‘O’. Ganesh Narayanan.Two concurrent forces F1. Jan-Apr 2010 . Ry = f1y + f2y = Σ Fy y j R F1 F2 x o f1x Rx f2x i R. F2 shifted as shown in fig. to tip of F1 R = F1 + F2 = (f1x i + f1y j) + (f2x i + f2y j) R = Rx i + Ry j = (f1x + f2x)i + (f1y + f2y)j Rx = f1x + f2x = Σ Fx.

e. perpendicular distance from the axis of rotation to the LOA of force O UNIT : N-m Moment is perpendicular to plane about axis O-O Counter CW = + ve. Jan-Apr 2010 α . R. torque (moment by a couple) O Moment about a point: M = Fd M F Magnitude of moment is A r proportional to the force ‘F’ and d B moment arm ‘d’ i.Moment: Tendency to rotate. CW = -ve Ganesh Narayanan.

M = Fd A d r B α M = r x F = -(F x r): sense is important Sin α = d / r R.Cross product: M = r x F. Jan-Apr 2010 . where ‘r’ is the position vector which runs from the moment reference point ‘A’ to any point on the LOA of ‘F’ F M = Fr sin α. Ganesh Narayanan.

Force ‘Q’ – moment arm ‘q’ Mo= Rd = -pP + qQ R.Varignon’s theorem: The moment of a force about any point is equal to the sum of the moments of the components of the forces about the same point P B o r Q R Concurrent forces – P. Jan-Apr 2010 . Ganesh Narayanan. moment about ‘O’ is (Rd) [d – difficult to Force ‘P’ – moment arm ‘p’. Q Mo = r x R = r x (P+Q) = r x P + r x Q Moment of ‘P’ Moment of ‘Q’ Usefulness: measure] Assume for resultant ‘R’.

) 2) Mo = r x F = (2i + 4j) x (600cos40i-600sin40j) 2 A 40 deg 4 o r 600N in mm j i = -771. Jan-Apr 2010 .Pb:2/5 (Meriam / Kraige): Calculate the magnitude of the moment about ‘O’ of the force 600 N 1) Mo = 600 cos 40 (4) + 600 sin 40 (2) = 2610 Nm (app. Ganesh Narayanan. mag = 2610 Nm R.85 Nm (CW).34-1839 = 2609.

depends on ‘d’ only ⇒ moment is same for all moment centers R. Perpendicular to plane ⇒Independent of distance from ‘o’. Ganesh Narayanan. Jan-Apr 2010 .Couple: Moment produced by two equal. opposite and non-collinear forces M o a d -F +F =>-F and F produces rotation =>Mo = F (a+d) – Fa = Fd.

Ganesh Narayanan.Vector algebra method CCW Couple o rb ra -F r +F CW Couple M = ra x F + rb x (-F) = (ra-rb) x F = r x F Equivalent couples •Changing the F and d values does not change a given couple as long as the product (Fd) remains same •Changing the plane will not alter couple as long as it is parallel R. Jan-Apr 2010 .

Jan-Apr 2010 .EXAMPLE M -F d +F M M -F -F d +F +F M d All four are equivalent couples +2F d/2 -2F R. Ganesh Narayanan.

Jan-Apr 2010 . 2) rotate the body about any axis ⇒Dual effect can be represented by a force-couple syatem ⇒ a force can be replaced by a force and couple B F A -F A B F F B F M = Fd R.Force-couple system =>Effect of force is two fold – 1) to push or pull. Ganesh Narayanan.

EXAMPLE 80N 9m 60deg 80N 9 60 deg o 80 N o 80 N 80 N o Mo = Y N m Mo = 80 (9 sin 60) = 624 N m. CCW R. Jan-Apr 2010 . Ganesh Narayanan.

R = (Σ Fx)2 + (Σ Fy)2 -1 (Ry/Rx) R. Ganesh Narayanan.Resultants To describe the resultant action of a group or system of forces Resultant: simplest force combination which replace the original forces without altering the external effect on the body to which the forces are applied R R = F1+F2+F3+…. Jan-Apr 2010 Θ = tan .. Ry = Σ Fy. = Σ F Rx = Σ Fx.

F1 – D1. M3 = F3d3 d R Mo=Rd NON-CONCURRENT FORCES R. F3 – D3 M2 = F2d2.How to obtain resultant force ? F1 F2 Mo= ΣFd F1 R= ΣF F2 F3 F3 M1 = F1d1. F2 – D2. Ganesh Narayanan. Jan-Apr 2010 .

Ganesh Narayanan.Principle of moments Summarize the above process: Mo= ΣFd R d R = ΣF Mo = ΣM = Σ(Fd) Mo = Rd R= ΣF Mo=Rd First two equations: reduce the system of forces to a force-couple system at some point ‘O’ Third equation: specifies distance ‘d’ from point ‘O’ to the line of action ‘R’ => VARIGNON’S THEOREM IS EXTENDED HERE FOR NON-CONCURENT FORCES R. Jan-Apr 2010 .

Boresi.Famous Authors for Engg. Mechanics 1. J. Kraige 2. F. Schmidt Quiz 1 Quiz 2 STATICS – MID SEMESTER EXAM – DYNAMICS – END SEMESTER EXAM R. Ganesh Narayanan. Shames 4. Beer. Meriam. Shelley – Schaum’s series 3. Jan-Apr 2010 . Johnston 5.

calculator. tagged A4 sheets. pencil. Ganesh Narayanan. text books • Submitted in same tutorial class • Solve div II tutorial problems also • Solve more problems as home work • Tutorial : 10 % contribution in grading • Do not miss any tutorial class Grading plan: Tutorial Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Mid semester R. Jan-Apr 2010 - 10 % 15% 20 % 25 % 30 % End semester .Instructions for TUTORIAL • Bring pen.

Ganesh Narayanan R. Chakraborty R. Ganesh Narayanan. Jan-Apr 2010 R.T1: 09010101 (ABHINANDAN NATH) to 09010144 (ROVIN BHANDARI) T2: 09010145 (SAURABH SAXENA) to 09010229 (MANCHALA SATYA VARDHAN) T3: 09010230 (MANISH KUMAR) to 09010320 (HEMANT KUMAR AGRAWAL) T4: 09010321 (HEMANT VERMA) to 09010402 (ABHISHEK KUMAR) T5: 09010403 (ABHISHEK SINGH) to 09010446 (SARTHAK KANSAL) T6: 09010447 (SHASHANK JAKHU) to 09010610 (G RAJESH) 09010601 to 09010610 => Biotechnology: DIVISION 1 Tutorial class: Thursday. Ganesh Narayanan . Dass Arnab Kumar De Vinayak Kulkarni Chandramohan Somayaji/D. 8-8.55 am Tutorial group T1 (CSE) T2 (CSE+ECE) T3 (ECE+ME) T4 (ME+CE) T5 (CE) T6 (CE+BT) Venue L1 L2 L3 L4 1G1 1G1 Tutors Anoop K.

Fy = F cos θy. m.Three dimensional force system Rectangular components Fx = F cos θx. Ganesh Narayanan. Jan-Apr 2010 l. Fz = F cos θz F = Fx i + Fy j + Fz k = F (i cos θx + j cos θy + k cos θz) = F (l i + m j + n k) F = F nf Fz k θz o θx Fx i R. n are directional cosines of ‘F’ F θy Fy j .

Jan-Apr 2010 R.a plane in 3D structure Mo = F d (TEDIOUS to find d) F A or Mo = r x F = – (F x r) (BETTER) Evaluating the cross product Described in determinant form: i rx FX j rY FY k rZ FZ Expanding … Narayanan. Ganesh .Moment in 3D Mo F r α d A .

) Similarly.n) n (vector reprn. γ – DCs of R. Mλ = (r x F.rzFy) i + (rzFx – rxFz) j + (rxFy – ryFx) k Mx = ryFz – rzFy. Mz = rxFy – ryFx Moment about any arbitrary axis λ: Magnitude of the moment Mλ of F about λ λ Mo Mλ o r rx Fx ry FY rz FZ γ n F Scalar triple product = Mo . β. n (scalar reprn. Jan-Apr 2010 . n Ganesh Narayanan.Mo = (ryFz .) α β α. My = rzFx – rxFz.

Ganesh Narayanan. Jan-Apr 2010 .Varignon’s theorem in 3D F2 B o r F1 F3 Mo = rxF1 + rxF2 + rx F3 +…= Σ(r x F) = r x (F1+F2+F3+…) = r x (ΣF) = r x R M Couples in 3D d -F B +F M = ra x F + rb x –F = (rarb) x F = rxF r A ra rb R.

3j. F4 • Rx = ΣFx. Ganesh Narayanan. α = 4. 2.3 F2 = 80N 20 30 15 2D force system. F2.Beer-Johnston.1 deg . Ry = ΣFy F4 = 100N • R = Rx i + Ry j • α = tan -1 (Ry/Rx) F3 = 110N Ry α Rx R R. equ. principle of moments F1 = 150N • Evaluate components of F1. Jan-Apr 2010 • R = 199i + 14. F3. Force-couple.

In a ship-unloading operation. a 3500-N automobile is supported by a cable. Jan-Apr 2010 . Ganesh Narayanan. A rope is tied to the cable and pulled to center the automobile over its intended position. What is the tension in the rope? T TAB 3500 N = AC = sin 120° sin 2° sin 58° TAB = 3570 N TAC = 144 N R.

It is desired to determine the drag force at a given speed on a prototype sailboat hull.5 m = 0.375 4m β = 20. For a given speed.25° tan β = 1.75 4m α = 60. Jan-Apr 2010 . r r r r r R = T AB + T AC + T AE + FD = 0 R. Determine the drag force exerted on the hull and the tension in cable AC. tan α = 7m = 1.56° • Express the condition for equilibrium for the hull by writing that the sum of all forces must be zero. Ganesh Narayanan. the tension is 40 N in cable AB and 60 N in cable AE. A model is placed in a test channel and three cables are used to align its bow on the channel centerline.

9363 TAC j r r ( ) = − T 60 N j r r = FD FD i 0 r R=0 r = (− 34. = +19.3512 T AC + FD )i r +( 19.84 + 0.56° j r r = 0.9 N FDNarayanan. Ganesh Jan-Apr .3512 T AC i + 0.56° i + T AC cos 20.26° j r r = −(34.r r r TAB = −(40 N )sin 60.73 + 0.73 N )i + (19.66 N 2010 R.84 N ) j r r r TAC = T AC sin 20.26° i + (40 N )cos 60.9363 T AC − 60) j 0 TAC = +42.

Meriam / kraige. If the magnitude of the couple is 4000 lb-ft. 2/37 Find the moment Mo of 780 N about the hinge point T = -780 COS20 i – 780 sin20 j = -732.083 feet . Mag = 5014 Nm Meriam / kraige. find ‘F’ M = 4000 = Fd => 4000/0. Ganesh Narayanan. 2/61 In the design of lifting hook the action of the applied force F at the section is a direct pull at B and a couple.6 j Mo = r x F = 5014 k .8 j r = OA = 10 cos 60 i + 10 sin 60 j = 5 i + 8.332 = 12048 lb R.9 i – 266. Jan-Apr 2010 D 780 N 20 DEG A 10 10 10m B C o OC – FLAG POLE OAB – LIGHT FRAME D – POWER WINCH B 4” F 1 inch = 0.

Meriam / kraige. Ganesh Narayanan.04) cos θ => Θ = 51.1) = 10 Nm (CCW) P = 400 N -P θ 100 2 M = 400 (0. find Θ 1 θ 100 P M = 100 (0.3 deg 100 100N 100N 1 In mm R. 2/6 2 M 40 Replace couple 1 by eq. Jan-Apr 2010 . couple p.04) cos θ 60 10 = 400 (0. -p.

m 8 kN . 2/76 Determine and locate the resultant R of the two forces and one couple acting on I-Beam x 25 kN.3 x = (5x2) + 25 + (-8 x 6) => x = 4.Meriam / kraige. Jan-Apr 2010 . Ganesh Narayanan. 33 m 2 2 5 kN 2 Moment by R Moment by forces and existing couple R.m 8 kN 2 5 kN 2 2 R = Σ Fy R = 5 – 8 = -3 kN x R 25 kN.

4 N R = 148.9 y = -237 Y = 0 => x o R. Ganesh Narayanan. Jan-Apr 2010 y x b = b = -1. 2/8 Find the resultant of four forces and one couple which act on the plate 40 N 2m 45° 2m 50 N 5m 140Nm 80N 2m o 1m 30 ° Rx = 40+80cos30-60cos45 = 66.9) = 63.792 m . d = 1.9i+132.2 deg o Final LOA of R: 148.2 deg LOA of R with x-axis: r X R = Mo (Xi + yj) x (66.3N 63.4/66.6 m o 63. Θ = tan-1 (132.3 d = 237.2° Mo = 140-50(5)+60cos45(4)-60sin45(7) = -237 Nm R = 148.4 x – 66.9 N Ry = 50+80sin 30+60cos45 = 132.4 x -66.3 N.9 y)k = -237k 132.3N 237 Nm R = 148.4j) = -237k R = 148.60 N Meriam / kraige.3N (132.

This means.Three external forces are acting on a L-shaped body as shown in fig. M = 250 Nm R. Find the equivalent system through point ‘O’. Jan-Apr 2010 . we need to find i) single resultant force. R and ii) single moment through O. ΣFy 2) Find R 3) Take moments (Mo) of all forces about ‘O’ 4) ‘R’ & ‘Mo’ constitute equivalent system R = 1261 N. Ganesh Narayanan. 1) Find ΣFx.