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This appendix describes planning for air defense operations. Battle command and staff procedures contained in FM 101-5 are the basis for ADA procedures. This chapter highlights the specific requirements of the AD estimate and annex. The estimate process assists the force commander in decision making. The ADA commander, as ADCOORD, prepares the air defense estimate. Planning begins with the receipt of a warning order. After the force commander approves a course of action, a warning order is sent out and the air defense planning process continues. The end result of this process is the air defense annex detailing air defense support for the concept of the operation. PREPARING THE AIR DEFENSE ESTIMATE Estimates are evaluations of how factors in each field of interest will influence the courses of action the commander considers. Although the estimate of the situation lies first and foremost in the commander's mind, staff estimates help the commander determine feasible, suitable, and acceptable courses of action. Staff estimates help the commander gather, update, analyze, evaluate, and validate critical facts, assumptions, and events. The estimate also allows the commander to formulate conclusions based on each staff's estimate. Estimates provide the basis for logically and analytically developing solutions to situations (both in planning future operations and fighting current operations). The staff recommends how the commander can employ the command's available assets. The commander uses this information to reach decisions. Once a mission is received, the estimate process begins. The ADA commander develops the air defense estimate in concert with the force S3 or G3. The ADA commander uses the IPB furnished by the force S2 or G2. Then, the ADA commander gathers and analyzes facts and makes assumptions. He will use these facts and assumptions to develop logical courses of action. The commander then chooses the course of action that best supports the mission. After the force commander selects a course of action, the air defense planning process continues. The result of this process is the air defense annex detailing air defense support for the concept of the operation. AIR DEFENSE ESTIMATE The air defense estimate follows the basic staff estimate format. The air defense estimate provides information regarding the air defense supportability of proposed courses of action. It also provides recommended air defense priorities and an air defense scheme of maneuver. This information forms a basis for the air defense plan and is presented in the air defense annex. The estimate must be constantly reevaluated to keep it current. The
or other documents. a. As the commander or operations officer. and other considerations guide the ADA commander and staff during the estimate and subsequent planning. However. The Estimate of the Air Defense Situation illustration shows a supporting commander's or operations estimate. determine those factors of the situation which influence friendly and enemy actions and which. ESTIMATE OF THE AIR DEFENSE SITUATION (Classification) Headquarters Place Date. Time Zone Used Throughout the Estimate: 1. THE SITUATION AND COURSES OF ACTION This paragraph describes the conditions under which the unit will perform its mission and the possible courses of action of the supported force. The Air Defense Estimate Situation Overview illustration shows the relationship among troop-leading procedures. decision making. use the unit's mission statement when the estimate's purpose is to determine which course of action best accomplishes the support mission. use the force level commander's mission statement. all elements of the estimate must be considered to make valid recommendations. MISSION When the estimate's purpose is to support the force level commander's operation. and zone Message reference number AIR DEFENSE ESTIMATE NUMBER____ References: Maps. Considerations affecting possible courses of action. The degree of detail presented in the estimate depends on the planning time available. The commander's or operations estimate formats provided in FM 101-5 may also be used. use logical assumptions that might directly affect the mission. For this paragraph. and IPB. may influence the choice of a course of action. estimate of the situation. charts. time. . OCOKA. therefore. (Classification) ESTIMATE OF THE AIR DEFENSE SITUATION (Continued) (Classification) AIR DEFENSE ESTIMATE NUMBER____ 2.factors of METT-T. In the absence of facts.
transportation. peculiar or unusual mission requirements. (b) Terrain. (3) Enemy situation. unconventional warfare. electronic warfare and combat surveillance.(1) Operations to be supported. Also address how many sorties and missiles are . missiles. and other factors (such as hydrography. movement (surface and air). psychological operations. sociological. Include deduction about their effects on friendly and enemy operations. materiel. economic. The enemy organization for combat includes identity of units. (c) Other pertinent factors. Put the analysis of data from predicted weather and light conditions for the period In this paragraph. A brief description of the operation to be supported includes composition and strengths of possible supported forces. (b) Composition. safety and accident prevention. Consider the following: (a) Weather. including effects on observation and fire. Also include the evaluation of how weather and light conditions might affect the use of enemy UAVs. aircran. employment of friendly and enemy NBC weapons. Analyze the effects of terrain. Assess how the weather affects friendly operations. List analysis of political. psychological. Determine key terrain and air avenues of approach. and manpower). A threat evaluation discusses enemy capabilities that are or may be a threat to the operation. Also discuss terrain features that limit air vehicle detection or target acquisition and terrain that might canalize or force air targets to fly a particular profile. science. and airborne or air assault operations. technology. cover and concealment. and armament. both fixedand rotarywing aircraft. This paragraph includes analysis of the effects of pertinent characteristics on conducting air defense operations. List locations of enemy forces that will participate in air or missle operations or that threaten friendly air defense operations. environment. Try to determine where the enemy will most probably use air assets. (2) Characteristics of the area of operations. Determine combinations of air platforms that the enemy may use when conducting a particular type of operation. communications. (a) Disposition. types of air platforms and missiles. Try to determine or predict when the enemy will probably use those assets due to the weather. communications. and other aspects of military operations. and any other factors that affect the scope of the supported unit mission.
and the unit's mission. logistics. where. When. Identify civil-military operations requirements. Include any guidance which affects air defense operations. (4) Own situation. type of air plaffomms. The friendly force air defense disposition. The status of personnel and logistics in the unit. Enemy forces not discussed above. and possible composition of those sorties. (a) Tactical situation. composition.expected to be flown per day. Highlight the vulnerability of the force to enemy air and missile attacks and surveillance. and civil-military operations. Include description of any phasing of operations in the courses of action and the impact of those operations on support relationships or requirements. Indicate enemy peculiarities and weaknesses that might influence combat effectiveness. Highlight any enemy air activity to include number. Consider the location of the enemy. enemy doctrine. Identify limitations which affect or may affect the conduct of air defense operations. and how many air platfomms will the enemy fly during this operation? (d) Other considerations. (b) Personnel. Can the mission be accomplished? . Identify air and missile assets and air support units that could or may affect the operation. including vulnerability to deception. (g) Enemy capabilities. and locations. Numbers and sizes of committed and reinforcing units. A compilation of available information from which to draw conclusions about possible enemy air courses of action and how they relate to the enemy ground courses of action. (e) Recent and present signicant activities. (Classification) ESTIMATE OF THE AIR DEFENSE SITUATION (Continued) (Classification) AIR DEFENSE ESTIMATE NUMBER____ (c) Strength. Summary of recent enemy activities that were both successful and unsuccessful. and strength. State the force commander's course of action. (f) Peculiarities and weaknesses.
Air defense scheme of maneuver. Apply these factors to the analysis by considering the impact of enemy capabilities and significant difficulties on the possible success of each course of action. Command and support relationships. Anticipated difficulties or difficulty patterns. and rear). and why). Air defense fires. Present an air defense course of action for each of the supported force courses of action. c. • . times. 5. where. COMPARISON OF COURSES OF ACTION Compare each of the courses of action to determine which course of action air defense can best support. including critical incidents. what. Combined arms for air defense active measures. ADA task organization. when. 4. deep. DECISION (RECOMMENDATION) Compare each of the courses of action to determine a recommendation. • Indicate which course or courses of action ADA can best support (using the elements of who. Air defense priorities. Determine the probable outcome of each course of action.b. Key passive air defense measures. and significant difficulties. Each ADA course of action presented should include the following aspects: o o o o o o o o o Air defense mission. (Classification) ESTIMATE OF THE AIR DEFENSE SITUATION (Continued) (Classification) AIR DEFENSE ESTIMATE NUMBER____ 3. areas. Own courses of action. Identify those aspects in the commander's plan which create difficulity in providing air defense and affect the ability of the force to accomplish its mission. Type of action required in each operational area (close. how. ANALYSIS OF COURSES OF ACTION Present a narrative which war-games each course of action. Present advantages and disadvantages for each course of action. Recommend a list of air defense priorities.
The ADCOORD must conduct detailed coordination with other staff sections to develop this annex.• State the recommended ADA organization for combat. Passive and active air defense measures which will be most effective. The air defense annex assigns specific air defense missions each unit must accomplish. Possible OCA targets. the staff prepares OPLANs and OPORDs. See the Annex G (Air Defense) to OPORD illustration. Additionally. ANNEX G (AIR DEFENSE) TO OPORD (Classification) Copy___of___copies Issuing headquarters Place of Issue Date-time group of signature Message reference number . Concurrently or sequentially. Once the commander makes this decision and clearly articulates the intent. AIR DEFENSE ANNEX The ADCOORD writes the plan as a five-paragraph annex to the supported unit's OPLAN or OPORD. The ADCOORD derives information affecting the air defense annex from other staff estimates. and employment of other active air defense assets. ADA units may be preparing their own OPLANs or OPORDs. the air defense estimate helps drive these other staff estimates. ________________________ NAME RANK (Air Defense Coordinator) • • ANNEXES: (as required) (Classification) PREPARING THE AIR DEFENSE ANNEX The estimate of the situation assists the commander in determining the most suitable course of action to accomplish the mission.
ADA mission at all applicable levels. (4) Air avenues of approach. List all known beginning points and describe avenue of approach as it goes through the area of interest. List air threat information pertinent to the operation but not covered in the Intelligence Annex. Describe how the air defense plan integrates with higher echelon plans. or other relevant documents. Outline adjacent AD unit intent and plans. Note supporting units and support relationship. subordination of air elements to ground units. due to terrain and weather constraints. MISSION . (3) Additional air threat information. Detail enemy air capabilitles. c. Friendly Forces. SITUATION a. (3) Supporting elements. List all expected air avenues of approach. (1) Higher units. and recent significant activities. Attachments and detachments.ANNEX G (AIR DEFENSE) TO OPORD_____ References: Maps. (2) Adjacent units. Enemy Forces. Briefly discuss when and where the enemy will most probably use air platforms. Time Zone Used Throughout the Order: Task Organlzation 1. (Classification) ANNEX G (AIR DEFENSE) TO OPORD (Continued) (Classification) ANNEX G (AIR DEFENSE) TO OPORD____ b. Identify air defense resources attached from other commands and identify those air defense resources detached. List air-capable organizations including air platforms by number and type. See Intelligence Annex. Highlight specific air threat considerations like sortie rates. 2. target preferences. tactics. (1) Enemy air order of battle. Outline higher AD unit intent and plans. ordnance peculiarities. charts. (2) Air threat data. (5) Terrain and weather.
how. Briefly discuss initial SOR and plans to change or rotate SOR. (4) Hostile criteria.Who. Briefly discuss specific passive air defense measures that all units should take to protect themselves from air and missile attack or surveillance during this operation. 3. b. EXECUTION a. Include any plans to change WCS. Tasks to subordinate ADA units. Concept of the operatlon. Briefly discuss specific techniques units should use to help in defending themselves against an air or missile attack or surveillance. command and support relationships. (Classification) ANNEX G (AIR DEFENSE) TO OPORD (Continued) (Classification) ANNEX G (AIR DEFENSE) TO OPORD____ (7) Comblned arms for air defense. and priorities. Basic rules the commander has established to assist in the identification of friendly or hostile air vehicles. (5) Rules of engagement. c. and priority of protection. and why statement of the mission for the air defense artillery unit. where. (6) Passive air defense. Address ROE unique to the operation or points in the operation where changes are intended. LADW and LADW authority also. Instructions applicable to two or more subordinate units. Include references to other applicable annexes. when. Briefly discuss ADA plan. (1) ADW and ADW authority. Coordinating instructions. Include preplanned changes. what. Review method and format for passing early warning to the entire force. (2) SOR plan. (3) WCS and WCS authority. objectives. (8) Early warning. . Commanders overall ADA plan to include the intent. Include use of supplemental fire control measures.
b. See Signal Annex.4. (1) ADA CP locations. Command. 5. (2) Succession of command. (1) IFF code edition and book number. COMMAND AND SIGNAL a. ACKNOWLEDGE: OFFICIAL: NAME (Commander's last name) APPENDIXES: RANK (Commander's rank) APPENDIXES: DISTRIBUTION: (Classification) . Signal. SERVICE SUPPORT See Service Support Annex.