Ass 3

- Every language is Sui Generis. So, some people get that it is just an unthinking replacement of languages, bearing in mind that we discern both the source language and the target language. Extremely off beam! Understanding of foreign language does not mean that we are translators and our translation will be delivered quite well. The skill of translating is to translate what the writer/ the speaker writes/ says as s/he says it, not what s/he is imaginary want to say but he does not say it. Other than, how can we sure that we read what the writer or the speaker has in his mind?! Once we start to translate, we should take into account that "every language is sui generis"; that is, every language is unique and has its own characteristics. Thus, translator must take into consideration rules of grammar of the two languages that govern the meaning relationships. In other words, if we understand the grammatical relationships, we can able to translate the meaning easily.

- Some of the features characteristic of Arabic. ‫الضمائر‬ ‫ أنت‬- ‫أنت‬

‫المثنى‬ ‫ طفلتان‬- ‫طفالن‬

‫أدوات الربط‬

.‫جاء أحمد فمحمود‬

- The three main features characteristic of English. 1- Affixation: A word element--a prefix, suffix, or infix--that can be attached to a base or root to form a new word. Affixes are bound morphemes. Prefix: A letter or group of letters attached to the beginning of a word that partly indicates its meaning. Common prefixes include anti-(against), co(with), mis- (wrong, bad), and trans- (across). Ex. illegal Suffix: A letter or group of letters added to the end of a word or root (i.e., a base form), serving to form a new word or functioning as an inflectional ending. Adjective: suffixal. Ex. legality Infix: A word element that can be inserted within the base form of a word (rather than at its beginning or end) to create a new word or intensify meaning. The process of inserting an infix is called infixation. mother-in-law 2- Compounding: the process of combining two words to create a new word (commonly a noun, verb, or adjective). Sunglasses, life-threatening, football stadium Acronym: A word formed from the initial letters of a name (for example, NATO, from North Atlantic Treaty Organization) or by combining initial letters of a series of words (radar, from radio detection and ranging). Adjective: acronymic. Abbreviation: A shortened as Jan. for January. initial form of a word or phrase, such

The first letter of a word or name or of each word in a phrase.

- The three primary rules for having a good translation. In the source language text there are grammatical relationships which establish the meaning relationships. The meaning relationships, will give us what we call the “idea”. This idea is conveyed in a “vehicle” that has specific linguistic features, which we call “style”. And when we read the text we move smoothly, because the constituting elements fit together, reflecting the typical spirit of the language, which we call “original composition”. These are three criteria for the translator. They are of paramount importance because they lend themselves easily to linguistic analysis. A good translation will be the one which will keep the same meaning-relationships of the original. - The golden transfer strategy. The working transfer strategy is simply to be keen to understand the source language text in terms of the source language. It should be taken into account that in understanding the source language text in terms of the source language, this should be done on both the lexical and the syntactic levels of language analysis. The transfer strategy SLTL is an oversimplification of the translation process and moreover, is quite detrimental to the trainer-trainee context. - Word-for-word or literal translation in the eye of the layman and of the professional. Every language is governed by a certain code of conduct, in the basis of which the linguistic product is expressed. This code of conduct is its grammar in the broadest sense of the word. Meaning management, therefore, is a process governed by describable rules of grammar. The basis of understanding any textual material is the grammatical relationships that will lead to meaning relationships. But the meaning relationships established in the source language should be meticulously preserved in the target language.

The translator translates grammatical relationships which will naturally lead to meaning relationships. - What is meant by a normal statement, and what is the difference between the normal and non-normal statement. Graphology: A branch of linguistics that studies writing and print as systems of signs. Adjective: graphological. Alphabet: he letters of a language, arranged in the order fixed by custom. Adjective: alphabetic. The basic principle of alphabetic writing is to represent a single sound (or phoneme) of a spoken language by a single letter. As Johanna Drucker notes in The Alphabetic Labyrinth (1995), "Thisphonetic writing system is at best an approximation. The orthography of English, for instance, is notoriously plagued by inconsistencies and peculiarities." Grapheme: A letter of the alphabet or mark of punctuation. Heading: A brief descriptive word or phrase that introduces or summarizes a document or a section within a document. Headings and subheadings (sometimes called heads and subheads) are commonly used in business writing and technical writing to help readers follow a discussion and locate information. Lexical functional grammar (LFG) is a grammar framework in theoretical linguistics, a variety of generative grammar For example, in the sentence The old woman eats the falafel, the cstructure analysis is that this is a sentence which is made up of two pieces, a noun phrase (NP) and a verb phrase (VP). The VP is itself made up of two pieces, a verb (V) and another NP. The NPs are also analyzed into their parts. Finally, the bottom of the structure is composed of the words out of which the sentence is constructed. The f-structure analysis, on the other hand, treats the sentence as being composed of attributes, which include features such as number and tense or functional units such a ssubject, predicate, or object. There are other structures which are hypothesized in LFG work:

argument structure (a-structure), a level which represents the number of arguments for a predicate and some aspects of the lexical semantics of these arguments. See theta-role.

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semantic structure (s-structure), a level which represents the meaning of phrases and sentences. See Glue Semantics. information structure (i-structure) morphological structure (m-structure) phonological structure (p-structure)

syntax: In linguistics, the study of the rules that govern the ways in which words combine to form phrases, clauses, and sentences. Syntax is one of the major components of grammar. - The three main sources of information that the translator can resort to. 1- Resource person. 2- Print source. 3- Online source. Pacta sunt servanda Means agreements must be kept (latin) Used in Law specially in civil law - The difference between grammatically verses acceptability. Grammatical but not acceptable Ex. Shake a leg. Acceptable but not grammatical. Ex. Far be it from me - The unworkable transfer strategy. The transfer strategy SLTL has proved to be quite impracticable. In moving directly from the source language to the target language, more often than not, the translator is likely to slip into either a language error or a translation error. Even when the translation is an acceptable one, in a trainer-trainee context this translation should be regarded as accidentally correct and hence methodologically unreliable.