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Chapter 5 - Section A - Mathcad Solutions

5.2 Let the symbols Q and Work represent rates in kJ/s. Then by Eq. (5.8) = TC Work = 1 QH TH TH := 798.15 K TC TH or By Eq. (5.1), Work = 148.78 kJ s QH := 250 kJ s

TC := 323.15 K Work := QH 1

Work = 148.78 kW which is the power. Ans. QC = 101.22 kJ s Ans.

QC := QH Work

5.3 (a) Let symbols Q and Work represent rates in kJ/s TH := 750 K By Eq. (5.8): = Work QH TC := 300 K := 1 TC TH QH := Work := 95000 kW = 0.6 Work

But

Whence

5 QH = 1.583 10 kW Ans.

QC := QH Work (b) := 0.35 QH := Work

4 QC = 6.333 10 kW Ans. 5 QH = 2.714 10 kW Ans. 5 QC = 1.764 10 kW Ans.

QC := QH Work

5.4 (a) TC := 303.15 K Carnot := 1 TC TH

TH := 623.15 K := 0.55 Carnot


123

= 0.282

Ans.

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(b)

:= 0.35

Carnot := TH :=

0.55 TC

Carnot = 0.636 TH = 833.66 K Ans.

By Eq. (5.8),

1 Carnot

5.7

Let the symbols represent rates where appropriate. Calculate mass rate of LNG evaporation: V := 9000 m s
3

P := 1.0133 bar mLNG := P V molwt R T

T := 298.15 K mLNG = 6254 kg s

molwt := 17

gm mol

Maximum power is generated by a Carnot engine, for which QH QC QH TH Work = = 1= 1 QC QC QC TC TH := 303.15 K QC := 512 kJ mLNG kg TC := 113.7 K QC = 3.202 10 kW
6

Work := QC

TH TC

Work = 5.336 10 kW QH = 8.538 10 kW


6

Ans. Ans.

QH := QC + Work

5.8

Take the heat capacity of water to be constant at the valueCP := 4.184 (a) T1 := 273.15 K T2 := 373.15 K Q := CP ( T2 T1) kJ kg K kJ kg K Ans.

kJ kg K kJ Q = 418.4 kg

SH2O := CP ln Sres := Q T2

T2 T1

SH2O = 1.305 Sres = 1.121


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Stotal := SH2O + Sres

Stotal = 0.184

kJ kg K

Ans.

(b) The entropy change of the water is the same as in (a), and the total heat transfer is the same, but divided into two halves. Sres := Q 1 1 + 2 323.15 K 373.15 K Stotal = 0.097 Sres = 1.208 kJ kg K

Stotal := Sres + SH2O

kJ kg K

Ans.

(c) The reversible heating of the water requires an infinite number of heat reservoirs covering the range of temperatures from 273.15 to 373.15 K, each one exchanging an infinitesimal quantity of heat with the water and raising its temperature by a differential increment. P1 := 1 bar n := P 1 V R T1 T1 := 500 K n = 1.443 mol V := 0.06 m CV := 5 R 2
3

5.9

Q := 15000 J

(a) Const.-V heating; T2 := T1 + By Eq. (5.18), P2 P1 T2 T1 Q n CV

U = Q + W = Q = n CV ( T2 T1) T2 = 1 10 K S = n CP ln
3

T2 T1

R ln

P2 P1
S = 20.794 J K Ans.

But

Whence

S := n CV ln

T2 T1

(b) The entropy change of the gas is the same as in (a). The entropy change of the surroundings is zero. Whence Stotal = 10.794 J K Ans.

The stirring process is irreversible.


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5.10 (a) The temperature drop of the second stream (B) in either 7 case is the same as the temperature rise of the first stream CP := R 2 (A), i.e., 120 degC. The exit temperature of the second stream is therefore 200 degC. In both cases we therefore have: SA := CP ln SA = 8.726 463.15 343.15 J mol K SB := CP ln SB = 6.577 473.15 593.15 J mol K Ans.

(b) For both cases: Stotal := SA + SB Stotal = 2.149 J mol K Ans.

(c) In this case the final temperature of steam B is 80 degC, i.e., there is a 10-degC driving force for heat transfer throughout the exchanger. Now SA := CP ln SA = 8.726 463.15 343.15 J mol K SB := CP ln SB = 8.512 353.15 473.15 J mol K J mol K Ans.

Stotal := SA + SB

Stotal = 0.214

Ans.

5.16 By Eq. (5.8),

T dW = 1 dQ T dW = dQ T dS

dW = dQ T

dQ T

Since dQ/T = dS,

Integration gives the required result. T1 := 600 K Q := CP ( T2 T1) T2 := 400 K Q = 5.82 10


3 J

T := 300 K

mol

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S := CP ln

T2 T1

S = 11.799

J mol K J mol Ans.

Work := Q T S Q := Q Work Sreservoir := Q T J mol K

Work = 2280 Q = 3540

J mol J mol K

Ans. Ans.

Sreservoir = 11.8

S + Sreservoir = 0

Process is reversible.

5.17 TH1 := 600 K

TC1 := 300 K

TH2 := 300 K

TC2 := 250 K

For the Carnot engine, use Eq. (5.8):

TH1 TC1 W = TH1 QH1

The Carnot refrigerator is a reverse Carnot engine. W TH2 TC2 = Combine Eqs. (5.8) & (5.7) to get: TC2 QC2 Equate the two work quantities and solve for the required ratio of the heat quantities: TC2 TH1 TC1 Ans. r := r = 2.5 TH1 TH2 TC2 7 R 2

5.18 (a) T1 := 300K H := Cp ( T2 T1) S := Cp ln

P1 := 1.2bar

T2 := 450K

P2 := 6bar
3 J

Cp :=

H = 4.365 10

mol

Ans.

T2 T1

R ln
3 J

P2 P1

S = 1.582

J mol K

Ans.

(b)

H = 5.82 10

mol

S = 1.484

J mol K

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(c)

H = 3.118 10 H = 3.741 10 H = 6.651 10

3 J

mol
3 J

S = 4.953 S = 2.618

J mol K J mol K J mol K

(d)

mol
3 J

(e)

mol

S = 3.607

5.19 This cycle is the same as is shown in Fig. 8.10 on p. 305. The equivalent states are A=3, B=4, C=1, and D=2. The efficiency is given by Eq. (A) on p. 305. Temperature T4 is not given and must be calaculated. The following equations are used to derive and expression for T4. For adiabatic steps 1 to 2 and 3 to 4: T1 V1
1

= T2 V2

T3 V3

= T4 V4

For constant-volume step 4 to 1: For isobaric step 2 to 3:

V1 = V4 P2 T2 = P3 T3

T2 Solving these 4 equations for T4 yields: T4 = T1 T3


Cp := 7 R 2 Cv := 5 R 2 := Cp Cv

= 1.4 T3 := ( 1700 + 273.15)K

T1 := ( 200 + 273.15)K

T2 := ( 1000 + 273.15)K T4 = 873.759 K

T2 T4 := T1 T3
Eq. (A) p. 306

:= 1

1 T4 T1 T3 T2

= 0.591

Ans.

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5.21 CV := CP R := CP CV

P1 := 2 bar = 1.4

P2 := 7 bar

T1 := 298.15 K

With the reversible work given by Eq. (3.34), we get for the actual W:
1 R T1 P2 Work := 1.35 1 1 P1

Work = 3.6 10

3 J

mol Work CV

But Q = 0, and W = U = CV ( T2 T1)

Whence

T2 := T1 +

T2 = 471.374 K S := CP ln

T2 T1

R ln

P2 P1

S = 2.914

J mol K

Ans.

5.25 P := 4

T := 800

Step 1-2: Volume decreases at constant P. Heat flows out of the system. Work is done on the system. W12 = P ( V2 V1) = R ( T2 T1) Step 2-3: Isothermal compression. Work is done on the system. Heat flows out of the system. W23 = R T2 ln

P3 P2

= R T2 ln

P3 P1

Step 3-1: Expansion process that produces work. Heat flows into the system. Since the PT product is constant, P dT + T dP = 0 P V = R T T dP = dT P (A)

P dV + V dP = R dT dP P

P dV = R dT V dP = R dT R T

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In combination with (A) this becomes P dV = R dT + R dT = 2 R dT Moreover, P3 = P1 T1 T3 = P 1 T1 T2

1 W31 = P dV = 2 R ( T1 T3) = 2 R ( T1 T2) V


3

Q31 = U31 W31 = CV ( T1 T3) + 2 R ( T1 T3) Q31 = ( CV + 2 R) ( T1 T3) = ( CP + R) ( T1 T2) = CP := Wnet Qin 7 R 2 = W12 + W23 + W31 Q31 T1 := 700 K P1 := 1.5 bar W12 := R ( T2 T1) W23 := R T2 ln T2 := 350 K P3 := P1 W12 = 2.91 10 T1 T2
3 J

mol
3 J

P3 P1

W23 = 2.017 10

mol
3 J

W31 := 2 R ( T1 T2) Q31 := ( CP + R) ( T1 T2) := W12 + W23 + W31 Q31

W31 = 5.82 10 Q31 = 1.309 10 = 0.068

mol

4 J

mol

Ans.

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5.26 T := 403.15 K

P1 := 2.5 bar

P2 := 6.5 bar

Tres := 298.15 K J mol K

By Eq. (5.18),

S := R ln

P2 P1

S = 7.944

Ans.

With the reversible work given by Eq. (3.27), we get for the actual W: Work := 1.3 R T ln Q := Work

P2 P1

(Isothermal compresion) Work = 4.163 103

J mol

Q here is with respect to the system.

So for the heat reservoir, we have Sres := Q Tres Sres = 13.96 Stotal = 6.02 J mol K J mol K Ans.

Stotal := S + Sres

Ans.

5.27 (a) By Eq. (5.14) with P = const. and Eq. (5.15), we get for the entropy change of 10 moles n := 10 mol S := n R ICPS 473.15K , 1373.15K , 5.699 , 0.640 10 S = 536.1 J K Ans.

, 0.0 , 1.015 10

(b) By Eq. (5.14) with P = const. and Eq. (5.15), we get for the entropy change of 12 moles n := 12 mol S := n R ICPS 523.15K , 1473.15K , 1.213 , 28.785 10 S = 2018.7 J K Ans.

, 8.824 10

, 0.0

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5.28 (a) The final temperature for this process was found in Pb. 4.2a to be 1374.5 K. The entropy change for 10 moles is then found as follows n := 10 mol S := n R ICPS 473.15K , 1374.5K , 1.424 , 14.394 10 S = 900.86 J K Ans.

, 4.392 10

, 0.0

(b) The final temperature for this process was found in Pb. 4.2b to be 1413.8 K. The entropy change for 15 moles is then found as follows: n := 15 mol S := n R ICPS 533.15K , 1413.8K , 1.967 , 31.630 10 S = 2657.5 J K Ans.

, 9.873 10

, 0.0

(c) The final temperature for this process was found in Pb. 4.2c to be 1202.9 K. The entropy change for 18.14 kg moles is then found as follows n := 18140 mol S := n R ICPS 533.15K , 1202.9K , 1.424 , 14.394 10 S = 1.2436 10
6 J

, 4.392 10

, 0.0

Ans.

5.29 The relative amounts of the two streams are determined by an energy balance. Since Q = W = 0, the enthalpy changes of the two streams must cancel. Take a basis of 1 mole of air entering, and let x = moles of chilled air. Then 1 - x = the moles of warm air. T0 := 298.15 K T1 := 248.15 K T2 := 348.15 K Temperature of entering air Temperature of chilled air Temperature of warm air

x CP ( T1 T0) + ( 1 x) CP ( T2 T0) = 0 x := 0.3 (guess)


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Given

x T2 T0 = 1x T1 T0

x := Find ( x)

x = 0.5

Thus x = 0.5, and the process produces equal amounts of chilled and warmed air. The only remaining question is whether the process violates the second law. On the basis of 1 mole of entering air, the total entropy change is as follows. CP := 7 R 2 P0 := 5 bar P := 1 bar

Stotal := x CP ln

T1 T0

+ ( 1 x) CP ln

T2 T0

R ln

P P0

Stotal = 12.97

J mol K

Ans.

Since this is positive, there is no violation of the second law.

5.30

T1 := 523.15 K Tres := 303.15 K CV := CP R Sres := Q Tres

T2 := 353.15 K Work := 1800 J mol

P1 := 3 bar CP := 7 R 2

P2 := 1 bar

Q = U Work Sres = 5.718 J mol K

Q := CV ( T2 T1) Work Q = 1.733 10


3 J

mol

S := CP ln

T2 T1

R ln

P2 P1
Stotal = 3.42

S = 2.301

J mol K

Stotal := S + Sres

J PROCESS IS POSSIBLE. mol K

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5.33 For the process of cooling the brine: CP := 3.5 kJ kg K T := 40 K T1 = 298.15 K T2 = 258.15 K T = 303.15 K H = 140 kJ kg kJ kg K mdot := 20 kg sec t := 0.27

T1 := ( 273.15 + 25) K T2 := ( 273.15 15) K T := ( 273.15 + 30) K H := CP T S := CP ln Eq. (5.26): By Eq. (5.28):

T2 T1

S = 0.504

Wdotideal := mdot H T S Wdotideal = 256.938 kW Wdot := Wdotideal t i := 9.7 amp Wdotelect := i E Wdot = 951.6 kW Ans.

5.34 E := 110 volt Wdotmech := 1.25 hp

T := 300 K Wdotelect = 1.067 10 W


3

At steady state: Qdot + Wdotelect + Wdotmech = d Ut = 0 dt Qdot d t + SdotG = S = 0 T dt Qdot := Wdotelect Wdotmech SdotG := Qdot T Qdot = 134.875 W SdotG = 0.45 W K Ans.

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5.35 := 25 ohm Wdotelect := i At steady state:


2

i := 10 amp

T := 300 K
3

Wdotelect = 2.5 10 W Qdot + Wdotelect = d t U = 0 dt Qdot := Wdotelect SdotG := Ans. Qdot T

Qdot d t + SdotG = S = 0 T dt Qdot = 2.5 10 watt


3

SdotG = 8.333

watt K P1 := 10bar Cp Cv

5.38 mdot := 10 Cp := 7 R 2

kmol hr

T1 := ( 25 + 273.15)K Cv := Cp R :=

P2 := 1.2bar = 7 5 Ans.

(a) Assuming an isenthalpic process:


2 Cp 1 S P2 (b) = dT ln R R T P1 T 1

T2 := T1

T2 = 298.15 K

Eq. (5.14)

S :=

7 T2 P2 R ln R ln 2 T1 P1 SdotG = 48.966 Wlost := T S

S = 17.628 W K

J mol K

Ans.

(c) SdotG := mdot S (d) T := ( 20 + 273.15)K

Ans.
3 J

Wlost = 5.168 10

mol Cp :=

Ans. 7 R 2

5.39 (a) T1 := 500K T := 300K

P1 := 6bar Basis: 1 mol

T2 := 371K n := 1mol Ws := H
135

P2 := 1.2bar

H := n Cp ( T2 T1)

Ws = 3753.8 J

Ans.

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S := n Cp ln

T2 T1

R ln

P2 P1

S = 4.698

J K Ans. Ans. Ans.

Eq. (5.27) Eq. (5.30) Eq. (5.39) Ws (a) 3753.8J (b) 2460.9J (c) 3063.7J

Wideal := H T S Wlost := Wideal Ws SG := Wlost T Wideal 5163J 2953.9J 4193.7J 4952.4J 4119.2J

Wideal = 5163 J Wlost = 1409.3 J SG = 4.698 Wlost SG J K J 1.643 K J 3.767 K 4.698 J K J 3.546 K 3.663 T := 300K J K

1409.3J 493J 1130J

(d) 3853.5J (e) 3055.4J

1098.8J 1063.8J

5.41

P1 := 2500kPa S := R ln

P2 := 150kPa S = 0.023 kJ mol K

mdot := 20

P2 P1

mol sec

SdotG := mdot S Wdotlost := T SdotG 5.42 QH := 1kJ

SdotG = 0.468

kJ sec K

Ans. Ans. TH = 523.15 K TC = 298.15 K

Wdotlost = 140.344 kW

W := 0.45kJ

TH := ( 250 + 273.15)K TC := ( 25 + 273.15)K

actual :=

W QH

actual = 0.45

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max := 1

TC TH

max = 0.43

Since actual>max, the process is impossible. 5.43 QH := 150 kJ TH := 550 K (a) (b) SG := QH TH + Q1 := 50 kJ T1 := 350 K Q1 T1 + Q2 T2 Q2 := 100 kJ T2 := 250 K SG = 0.27 kJ K T := 300 K Ans. Ans.

Wlost := T SG

Wlost = 81.039 kJ

5.44

Wdot := 750 MW

TH := ( 315 + 273.15) K TH = 588.15 K

TC := ( 20 + 273.15) K TC = 293.15 K

(a) max := 1 QdotH :=

TC TH

max = 0.502

Ans.

Wdot max

QdotC := QdotH Wdot QdotC = 745.297 MW (minimum value) QdotH = 2.492 10 W


3 9

(b)

:= 0.6 max QdotC := QdotH Wdot

QdotH :=

Wdot

QdotC = 1.742 10 MW m s
3

(actual value) gm cm
3

River temperature rise: Vdot := 165 Cp := 1 cal gm K T :=

:= 1

QdotC Vdot Cp

T = 2.522 K

Ans.

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5.46 T1 := ( 20 + 273.15)K P1 := 5bar

T2 := ( 27 + 273.15) K P2 := 1atm

T3 := ( 22 + 273.15)K

First check the First Law using Eqn. (2.33) neglect changes in kinetic and potential energy. 6 3 5 R ICPH T1 , T2 , 3.355 , 0.575 10 , 0 , 0.016 10 ... 7 1 3 5 + ICPH T1 , T3 , 3.355 , 0.575 10 , 0 , 0.016 10 R 7 4 kJ H is essentially zero so the first law is satisfied. H = 8.797 10 mol H :=

Calculate the rate of entropy generation using Eqn. (5.23) SG := 6 3 5 R ICPS T1 , T2 , 3.355 , 0.575 10 , 0 , 0.016 10 ... 7 1 P2 3 5 + R ICPS T1 , T3 , 3.355 , 0.575 10 , 0 , 0.016 10 R ln 7 P1

SG = 0.013

kJ mol K

Since SG 0, this process is possible.

5.47 3 ft a) Vdot := 100000 hr P := 1atm

T1 := ( 70 + 459.67)rankine T2 := ( 20 + 459.67)rankine T := ( 70 + 459.67)rankine

Assume air is an Ideal Gas ndot := P Vdot R T1 ndot = 258.555 lbmol hr

Calculate ideal work using Eqn. (5.26) Wideal := ndot R ICPH T1 , T2 , 3.355 , 0.575 10 , 0 , 0.016 10 ... + T R ICPS T1 , T2 , 3.355 , 0.575 10 3 , 0 , 0.016 105
3 5

))

Wideal = 1.776 hp

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b) Vdot := 3000 P := 1atm

m hr

T1 := ( 25 + 273.15)K T := ( 25 + 273.15)K

T2 := ( 8 + 273.15)K

Assume air is an Ideal Gas ndot := P Vdot R T1 ndot = 34.064 mol s

Calculate ideal work using Eqn. (5.26) Wideal := ndot R ICPH T1 , T2 , 3.355 , 0.575 10 , 0 , 0.016 10 ... + T R ICPS T1 , T2 , 3.355 , 0.575 10 3 , 0 , 0.016 105
3 5

))

Wideal = 1.952 kW 5.48 T1 := ( 2000 + 459.67)rankine Cp ( T) := 3.83 + 0.000306 T2 := ( 300 + 459.67)rankine Hv := 970 BTU lbm M := 29 gm mol

T R rankine

T := ( 70 + 459.67)rankine

Tsteam := ( 212 + 459.67)rankine

a) First apply an energy balance on the boiler to get the ratio of steam flow rate to gas flow rate.: 2 ndotgas Cp ( T) dT + mdotsteam Hv = 0 T
1

mdotndot :=

2 Cp ( T) dT T
1

H v

mdotndot = 15.043

lb lbmol

Calculate the rate of entropy generation in the boiler. This is the sum of the entropy generation of the steam and the gas. SdotG = SdotGsteam + SdotGgas

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Calculate entropy generation per lbmol of gas: SdotG ndotgas = mdotsteam ndotgas H v Tsteam
T

Ssteam + Sgas BTU lb rankine


3 kg

Ssteam :=

Ssteam = 1.444

2 C p ( T) Sgas := dT T T
1

Sgas = 9.969 10 SdotG = 11.756

BTU mol lb rankine

SdotG := mdotndot Ssteam + Sgas Calculate lost work by Eq. (5.34) Wlost := SdotG T H v

BTU lbmol rankine

Wlost = 6227

BTU Ans. lbmol BTU lb rankine BTU lb

b) Hsteam := Hv

Ssteam :=

Tsteam

Ssteam = 1.444

Wideal := Hsteam T Ssteam

Wideal = 205.071

Calculate lbs of steam generated per lbmol of gas cooled. 2 Cp ( T) dT T


1

mn :=

H v

mn = 15.043

lb lbmol

Use ratio to calculate ideal work of steam per lbmol of gas Wideal mn = 3.085 10
T 3 BTU

lbmol

Ans.

2 c) Hgas := Cp ( T) dT T
1

Wideal := Hgas T Sgas

Wideal = 9.312 10

3 BTU

lbmol

Ans.

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5.49 T1 := ( 1100 + 273.15)K T Cp ( T) := 3.83 + 0.000551 R K T := ( 25 + 273.15)K

T2 := ( 150 + 273.15)K Hv := 2256.9 kJ kg M := 29 gm mol

Tsteam := ( 100 + 273.15)K

a) First apply an energy balance on the boiler to get the ratio of steam flow rate to gas flow rate.: 2 ndotgas Cp ( T) dT + mdotsteam Hv = 0 T
1

mdotndot :=

2 Cp ( T) dT T
1

H v

mdotndot = 15.135

gm mol

Calculate the rate of entropy generation in the boiler. This is the sum of the entropy generation of the steam and the gas. SdotG = SdotGsteam + SdotGgas Calculate entropy generation per lbmol of gas: SdotG ndotgas = mdotsteam ndotgas H v Tsteam
T

Ssteam + Sgas
3

Ssteam :=

Ssteam = 6.048 10

J kg K

2 C p ( T) Sgas := dT T T
1

Sgas = 41.835 SdotG = 49.708

J mol K

SdotG := mdotndot Ssteam + Sgas Calculate lost work by Eq. (5.34) Wlost := SdotG T

J mol K Ans.

Wlost = 14.8

kJ mol

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b) Hsteam := Hv

Ssteam :=

H v Tsteam

Ssteam = 6.048 10 kJ kg

J kg K

Wideal := Hsteam T Ssteam

Wideal = 453.618

Calculate lbs of steam generated per lbmol of gas cooled. 2 Cp ( T) dT T


1

mn :=

H v

mn = 15.135

gm mol

Use ratio to calculate ideal work of steam per lbmol of gas Wideal mn = 6.866
T

kJ mol

Ans.

2 c) Hgas := Cp ( T) dT T
1

Wideal := Hgas T Sgas

Wideal = 21.686

kJ mol

Ans.

5.50 T1 := ( 830 + 273.15)K

T2 := ( 35 + 273.15)K

T := ( 25 + 273.15)K

a) Sethylene := R ICPS T1 , T2 , 1.424 , 14.394 10 3 , 4.392 10 6 , 0 Sethylene = 0.09 kJ mol K

Qethylene := R ICPH T1 , T2 , 1.424 , 14.394 10 Qethylene = 60.563 kJ mol

, 4.392 10

,0

)
kJ mol

Wlost := T Sethylene Qethylene

Wlost = 33.803

Now place a heat engine between the ethylene and the surroundings. This would constitute a reversible process, therefore, the total entropy generated must be zero. calculate the heat released to the surroundings for Stotal = 0.
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Sethylene

QC T

= 0

Solving for QC gives:

QC := T Sethylene QC = 26.76 kJ mol

Now apply an energy balance around the heat engine to find the work produced. Note that the heat gained by the heat engine is the heat lost by the ethylene. QH := Qethylene WHE := QH + QC WHE = 33.803 kJ mol

The lost work is exactly equal to the work that could be produced by the heat engine

143

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