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M.NAWAZ KAHN (Geologist)

Nov. 2008 1

Fig No. 1: Fig No. 2: Fig No. 3: Fig No. 4: Fig No. 5: Location map of North Waziristan Agency. Geological map of North Waziristan. Geological maps of Shinkai area. Detail geological map of prospect No. 6. Detail geological map of prospect No. 3.


The Waziristan ignous complex of North and South Waziristan Agencies form an elongated belt of 1127 km2 nearly at Pak-Afghan border. It extends west ward Northward up to khost in Afghanistan and south ward into Bela-Muslim bagh of Baluchistan. It is a typical ophiolite of ocean crust with diagnostic sequence of ocean floor rock sequence. The rock sequence of the belt consists mostly of the ocean floor environment including ultrabasics, volcanic rock and associated shallow to deep marine sediments as remnants of the new Tethies ocean floor environment. The WOC demarcates the suture zone that separate Indian plate from Eurasian plate in the north and Afghanistan & Iran blocks in the west. It is Waziristan ophiolite is the third largest among the six major ophiolite of Pakistan and is associated with Jurassic cretaceous & early tertiary stratigraphic sequence and locally covered by quaternary deposits. It is technically emplaced in indo-pak plate in Paleocene to early Eocene where it occur in thrust slices over riding the messozic rock sequence of Indian mass. The sequence is obducted onto the Cretaceous shallow shelf sediments of the IndoPak plate in Paleocene to early Eocene time. The Waziristan ophiolite complex is structurally very disturbed. The rocks are intensively folded, faulted, fractured & brecciated. Deformation has dismembered the ophiolite in a stack of thrust slices and no example of complete section in normal order is present in the area, but all the members of ophiolite are scattered in different localities. Geologically, it contain all the components of typical ophiolite (ultramafics, gabbro sheeted dikes, plagio granite, volcanic rocks mainly basaltic pillow lava, andesite, dacite and pelagic sediments i.e. Jesperite & limestone). The ophiolite belt of Waziristan is economically potential for certain type of ore deposits, consisting VMS type of copper deposits, podiform chromite &


banded manganese. The occurrences of these deposits in the ophiolite belt of Waziristan was first reported by Asrarullah of GSP, Taher Kheli, Aftab Ahmed (1959), Afzal (1970) and recommended the same for further detail exploration. The defunct FATA Development Corporation in 1971 conducted the first regional geological survey, geological mapping in different parts of North and South Waziristan agencies and identified spotted findings of copper showing & other metallic minerals in the ophiolite belt. Major occurrences were confined to Shinkai, Degan Phakhel area North Waziristan and Spin Kammar, Makin, Shawal etc. areas of south Waziristan. FATA-DC conducted detail exploration for copper, manganese and chromite. Major exploration for copper were confined to Shinkai and Degan Pakhel localities around Tochi river in north Waziristan. The exploration activities mainly consist of survey, mapping, grid sampling and shallow drilling for delineation of prospective belts/ zones and as a result identified 15 prospects of various aerial extents in these areas. On priority basis, some of these prospects have been subjected into detail exploration through detail geological mapping, geophysical survey (1P) and core drilling and as result 35 million tones of copper ore with average 0.8% Cu has been established in prospect 2 & 3 at Shinkai area. As a result of detailed investigation including detailed survey, IP geophysical survey and probe drilling, total of 35 million tonne of copper ore with an average grade of 0.8% have been identified in Shinkai copper prospect. Primary sulphide mineralization (pyrite, chalcopyrite, bornite) are confined to the chloritized pillow breccia as stock work, fracture filling, cavity filling and dissemination. Chromite mineralization in the form of stringer, lenses, dissemination is widely spread in the ultramafic rock sequence of the ophiolite belt in North & South Waziristan Agencies. The Mineralization is mostly associated with peridolite & sheared serpentinite. Locals of the area are involved extraction of chromite through application of very primitive mining methods. 4

Manganese occurrences have been reported from Saidgai and Barzai areas. These deposits both banded & massive hosted by metachert/ jesperite. Local are involved in mining of these deposits in Degan Pakhel & DataKhel area of north Waziristan on small scale. No economic deposits of magnesite, talc, soap and iron are found/ identified so far with in Waziristan igneous complex. In pelagic rock component of ophiolite belt, transparent to translucent zones/ layers of Jesperite are found at places. These are fine grained red to brown in colour having smooth surface and homogenous texture which give good look in the field. These zones of jesperite may be tried as decoration stones & semi gemstone for ornamental purpose. On the basis of geological environment, mineralogical study, chemical analysis, geophysical & core drilling, the area contained enormous potential for Cyprus type deposits of copper mineralization and have attracted different private companies from Chins, Austrilia for joint venture but unfortunately the matter was not materialized at higher level. The exploration activities on north Waziristan copper remained suspended for about 20 years period. However realizing the potential of Waziristan copper deposits, FATA-DC has launched copper exploration/ development project at North Waziristan through PMDC as executive Agency for a period of four years w.e.f. 01.07.07. Exploration activities on North Waziristan copper suspended for the last 15 years. The New administration of FATA Development Authority proposed additional exploration studies on the known reserves. The studies aims at preparing ground for pre-feasibility and proving additional reserves in the immediate surrounding of the known copper occurrences in Shinkai area of North Waziristan Agency.


The main objective of this project is to enhance the already established reserves of copper at Shinkai area through additional detail exploration i.e. surface mapping, geophysical survey, drilling & reserves calculation. Under this project, a systematic database of copper & allied metals particularly gold, Zn, Ni & Co will be generated and documented to prepare bankable documents of the deposits for attracting national & multinational investment for further mining, processing & development of Shinkai copper prospect. The project is under implementation and hoping good results & positive response.

LOCATION AND ACCESSIBILITY: The Shinkai Copper Prospect is located on Tophosheet No 38 H/13 at 69°,50’,00" and 32°,51’,35". The area lies 30km west of Miranshah (The Head Quarter of N.Waziristan Agency). Miranshah is located about 270 Km south of Peshawar and about 60 km west of Bannu. Approach roads in the project site are fair, weather and access to most of the prospects out crops is easy. TOPHOGRAPHY/ CLIMATE:

The topography is fair. The entire out crop is having a moderate degree of slope. The elevation is generally in range of 1545 to 1845 meter above the sea level. The annual range of temperature various from 35º - 40ºc in the summer season and 10-20ºC in winter season. There is little rain fall in the summer season while moderate rain fall with highest peaks received snow fall in the winter season.

Since long Waziristan is known for various types of minerals like iron, copper, chromite, manganese etc and great efforts had been made to explore, develop and expoit the mineral wealth of this region. However, every efforts 6

made in this direction was hampered by the hostile attitude of the locals. Even today the overall position in the area is not satisfactory and no working environments exist. Alcoulson (1935 & 1940) was the first while conducting geological survey over an area along Jandola-Wana and Jandola-Rizmak lines, reported clays, coal, copper, iron, nickel and oil, none being of any economic importance. Asrarullah of GSP (1957) visited a number of localities for chromite, copper, iron, coal, oil and gas etc. His work was too much of reconnaissance type and therefore, he recommended further work. Tahir Kheli (verbal converstion) traversed Spin Kamar and some other interior parts and located veins of native copper, sulphide and chromite. He also visited Boya area and recommended detail exploration work for copper mineralization at Shinkai. Aftab Ahmed (1959) worked Nayi-Regha Manzer Khel area for chromite, manganese, copper, iron and asbestos. His report, was more detailed than the previous ones, carries a geological map of 350 sq miles area on 1:633 scale Afzal (1970), in continuation of the geological investigation of Aftab Ahmed, worked on copper and chromite and identified some new occurrences. Reserves of 1774.9 tons of copper ore were estimated at Khai and Modar Algads. WPIDC (1972) on behalf of FATA Development Corporation carried out investigation on copper and chromite in Boya area. Twelve chromite occurrences of disseminated, bands, stringes and veins were identified with a total reserves of 67.75 tones. Copper was concluded to have three modes of mineralization, vis vein copper; occupying the shear or brecciated zones and dispersions of copper minerals in altered caps or oxidation zones. Further work was recommended. Since 1977. FATA Development Corporation took the task in hand and continued their survey, investigation and exploration activities till 1995. The FATA DC, first regional survey, consisting of base mapping and mineral exploration in different parts of North and South Waziristan Agencies. As


result of the said preliminary survey & exploration work, occurrence of copper and other minerals have been identified along the ophiolite belt in North and South Waziristan agencies. The prospects of copper mineralization at Shinkai & Degan Pakel area around Tochi river was picked up as potential targets and identified 15 Nos mineralized bodies in roughly 5x2 km area. The prospective areas with gossans of Shinkai and Degan Paikhel were subjected into detail exploration and the initial studies established the fact that Shinkai prospect is one of the promising target, having bright chances of becoming feasible prospect. The exploration activities carried out by FATA DC along Waziristan ophiolite belt w.e.f. 1976 till 1995 is summarized as below. a) Preparation of geological base map of Waziristan ophiolite belt & its immediate surrounding on scale 1:50,000. b) Preparation of geological map of copper bearing areas on scale 1: 20,000, supplemented by surface grid sample analysis & ISO chem surface anomaly. c) Detailed survey & geological mapping of gossans on scle 1:10,000. d) Enlarge maps of promosing prospects on 1:5000 e) Geophysical survey in Degan Pakhel & Shinkai area using electro magnetic, gravity, magnetic & 1.P. f) Core drilling of 1264 meters through 92 holes with an average depth of 150 meters in Degan Pakel & Shinkai area. g) Chemical analysis of 9500 core samples at 3 meters interval, and 5500 surface grid samples. h) Megoscopic study & logging of core at 1m interval.


i) Petrographic study of bore holes samples. j) Cross check of copper & trace elements at Resource Development Corporation, Louester University U.K. Based on the aforementioned exploration work a total of 35 million tons of copper ore was established at Shinkai prospect 2 & 3 with an average of 0.8% Cu. Out of this 8 million tones has been proved, while 27 million tons is in indicated category. Other associated metals including Au, Ag, Cu, Ni, Pb & Zn are expected as by products. On the basis of geological mapping at scale of 1:1000 meter, the fifteen mineralized bodies of Shinkai & Deghan have an areal extension of 272706 Sq meter. The reserves of the copper ore with 3 mean density and 150 m inferred depth work out to 122.71 m/ tones (Main Sayed Badshah 1985). During the years, 1996 a Chinese expert geologist professor Zhitian Wang assess feasibility of the project. During his 3 months stay in office as well as at project site, he critically reviewed all the exploration data pertaining to copper exploration and was of the opinion that the Shinkai prospect, if further explored with a systematic approach and technical lines, would become successful venture. He also proposed certain addition exploration work & research study to be conducted in order to establish additional reserves & enhance the present reserves to attract investment for further development & exploration of Waziristan copper.


The Waziristan ignous complex which covered about 5000 km2 in North and South Waziristan Agencies, is the continuation of the Khost ophiolite of Afghanistan while that of Zhob (Baluchistan) is considered part of it. The ophiolite complex consist of structurally lower unit comprising pillow lava, chert & limestone, while structurally upper unit consist of group of ultrabasic with associated gabbro and dolorite sheets. The ophiolite is polygenetic in character. There are six ophiolite complexes in Pakistan, three of these is ocean crust related, while others are of island arc affinity/ subduction related. Among these, the Waziristan is third most largest after Zhob and Bela ophiolites. The Waziristan separate the Indian plate from Eurasian plate and the Gondwanic micro contents such as Afghanistan Iran blocks in north & west respectively and represent typical ophiolite of oceanic crust. The sedimentary rock associated Waziristan ophiolite are Mesozoic & Early Tertiary in age and locally covered by quaternary deposits. The ophiolite occur as thrust slicies overriding Jurassic to cretaceous sediments of the Tethyan Shelf Sequence. At places, rocks of the ophiolite are overlain unconformably by limestone and Shale of Eocen age (Khan etal 1983 Badshah 1985). On the basis of such sequential arrangements, Jan etal 1985 suggested that the slices of Neo-Telhyan oceanic lithosphere along suture zone obducted on to the deltic sedimentary wedge of the Indian plate margin in response to the north ward drifting of indo-pak plate and thus it lies close to an important suture zone. The entire Waziristan ophiolite belt display a complex structure. The rocks are generally intensively, thrusted, folded, faulted and in places fractured, brecciated & granulated. Deformation has dismembered the ophiolite which now consist of Chaotically arranged stack of thrust slices and hence a complete normal order sequence is no here preserved. However all the members of typical ophiolite (ultramafic, gabbro, pillow, lava, sheated dikes, pelagic dediments & plagic qranite) are present in different localities.


Regional tectonics on plate scale, the counter clock wise rotation and obduction of ophiolite further added to the deformation of the prospective areas. Skinkai area & its immediate surrounding show moderate to high degree of structure deformation in response to regional tectonics resulting in S1 type folding, subsequent thrust & strike slip displacement is some what obliterated by regional tectonics during closure of Neo-Tehys & subsequent obduction. Recurrent milanges and dismembered sequence present a complex stratigraphy and structure of Shinkai area. The copper in Waziristan area represent a volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits genetic model, originated at divergent plate boundary and then obducted over indo-pak. U Pb isotope on Zircon from plagio granite of khuzdar ophiolite (Baluchistan) gave an age of 65 ma (Ahmad 1992). The thrusting of ultramafic from the west and north over the pillow breccia produced two main anticlinal structure (Mian Ihsan & Ihsan Afridi) one at prospect No. 3 & the other at prospect No. 2. The axes of these anticlinal folds intersect one another at high angle as result of the combined effect of the compressional stresses from the west and north. The overall structures present a complex post mineralization deformation of stock work zone and may have been responsible for the displacement of the massive sulphide to the north east of prospects 2 and 3.


LOCAL GEOLOGY: The Geology of the area typically represent the oceanic crust ophiolite rock assemblage related to divergent plate boundaries, where igneous activities take place along the mid oceanic ridge at sea floor spreading centre. The local geology of the Shinkai and surrounding area comprising of the following rock units.


VOLCANICS: The volcanic rock sequence of the area consists of basalts, andesite,

dacite, rhyollite, tuffs and agglomerate. The basalt & andesite are voluminous rock, while the other are found as subordinate. BASALT: Basalt is generally pillow structure, but may also occurs in the form of massive beds. The phenocrysts of clinophyroxene and plagioclase with little olivine magnetite are found in the ground mass of basalts. These are generally brown to dark grey and light green. It also varies in style, size and in degree of alteration. The pillow are mostly elongated in form, however circuler and oval shape pillow are also noted in places. The pillow is generally jointed, fractured, crushed & brecciated at places. The material in between two pillows are highly deformed, weathered, glassy/ cemented, which indicate later sub aerial or shallow volcanism. Turtal lava, volcanic bom/ Agglomerate are found as irregular masses just North of prospect No.3. This sows shearing phenomena & sub aerial volcanism.


The pillow lava in the Shinkai area is common in the surrounding of prospect 3 and 2 as well as overlying the ultrabasic rock in this site. Chlorite, epidote, zoelite and calcite are their common alteration phases. ANDESITE: These are the voluminous rocks of volcanic group in the area. These are fine to medium grained, porpphyritic to vesicular in texture. The plagioclase and phyroxene forms the phenocrysts. The domenent constituent minerals are plagioclase, phyroxene. Chlorite, fibrous amphibole & phyroxene forms most of the ground mass. Pulses of diorite to granodiorite composition and small lenses of carbonate (limestone, marble) are also found in these rocks. RHYOLITE/ DACITE: Rhyolite and dacite are found as minor or subordinate volcanic rock in the area. They occur mostly in the form of pactches of few meter thick. They are hard, compact and white to grey in colour. These are fine grained, light green to whitish green volcanic, mostly occurred in the form of dykes/ sills and composed of quarts and feldspar with chlorite, epidote and sercite as accessories. Dacite exhibit porphyritic texture with plagioclase as main phenocryst phase and feldspar, quartz and muscovite formed the ground mass, while alkali feldspar and qtrz both as phenocrysts are found in the ground mass of Rhyolite. TUFFS AND AGGLOMERATE: The tuffs and agglomerate are very fine grained with chlorislized glassy matrix and show very obvious flow structure. Turtle eye structure are also common in the agglomerate/ bom volcanic, locally named Turtle lava.



ULTRAMAFIC: Roughly running in a north east – south west direction, the ultramafics

occupy the central part of the north-south Waziristan Agencies. These include peridotites, Harzbergite, phroxenite and dunite which are generally serpentinized. PERIDOTITES: The peridotite are dark coloured and medium to coarse grained. These are mainly composed of clinophyroxene with subordinate orthophyroxene and olivine which are slightly altered into serpentine at places. Stringes, veins and pockets of chromite are rarely present. In few places cross fibers of asbestose has taken place. DUNITE: Dunite is mostly found in the form of lenses, pockets and paches in Herzbergite. It is coarse grained, duly green to olive green and brownish grey rocks, mainly composed of olivine & phyroxene. Chormite occurrence in the form of stringes, dessimination and vein are sporadically found. The dunite is altered into serpentinite at places. HERZBERGITE: The harzbergite are the voluminous rocks among other ultrabasic rocks. These are greenish dark to back in colour and coarse grained. Individual crystal exhibit mica shine. Olivine and orthophyroxene are the main constituents with subordinate clinophyroxene. The olivine and phroxene is commonly altered into serpentinite, talc, chlorite, kaoline. Dark-redish-brown materials are also noted with in these rocks.


PYROXENITE: It is dark green and coarsely rock, mainly composed of clinophyroxene, plagioclase with subordinate orthophroxene which are altered into serpentinite, talc and or chlorite. Magnesite veins mostly fracture filled are found along the fault zones or tightly tectonised sheared zones.



These rocks generally occupy the extreme southern side of the Shinkai site upsteam in nalla intruded into ultrabasic rocks. These are medium to coarse grained with grey to whitish and brown colour, on fresh surface. These are intensely fractured & jointed. In hand specimen under pocket microscope, consists of plagioclase, phyroxene, hornblende & opaque minerals. The alteration of sericite, epidote, chlorite, clay and amphibole minerals are common. The rocks also contained thick fractures with serpentine and talc infill.


Plagio-granite occur as small plugs and intruded the ultra basic rock to the

south of prospect No.6 at Shinkai area. Several bodies of plagio granite has been found with in the ultrasic in the premises of prospect No.6. These are coarse grained, circular to enlogated bodies with large crystal/ laths of plagio clase. These are grey to whitish grey, equigranulor to sub equigranular & consist of plagioclase, quarts, feldspar with accessories of chlorite, muscovite, amphibole and opaque minerals. One small elongated body is found just on the faulted contact of volcanic & ultra basic with in the serpentinite/ hurzbergite rocks. Another large semicircular body is found on top of the ridge, south of prospect


No. 6. In this area more such bodies of very limited extent has been found with in the ultra basic rocks. These have sharp contact with the enclosing rocks. Granite is weathered on surface and greyish on fresh surface. Paches of ultra basic rock (Serpentinite) are also noted with in the plagio-granite. At some places, the plagiogranite is so intermixed with ultra basic rocks that constituted rock of intermediate composition. This intrusion indicate the last stage of magmatic activity, usually dry i.e. lacking any mineralization.


These sediments mostly overlies the volcanic rock (pillow lava) in the

project area and have a tectonic contacts. They comprises predominantly jesperite with chertly shales and limestone. Jesperite is maroon and greenish grey in hand specimen and is thin to medium bedded with fine grained matrix. Cherty shale is red-brown and is very hard. These are host rock for manganese, lenses of which have been reported from Deghan & Data Khel area. These are composed of chert, quartz with calcite as subordinate. Calcite veins mostly form a network/ cross cutting the meta chert/ Jesperite. Cherty bands of variable length are also found. The limestone is grey to reddish in colour, massive, medium to thick bedded, jointed, cracked & folded at places. Unidentified fossils has also been found with in the limestone. At one place just above south of prospect No. 3, the limestone is being mined for extraction of blocks as a dimension stone. The limestone is found as lenses or isolated blocks within rock sequence of pelagic sediments. Lenses of pelagic sediments (Jesperite, limestone) are also found within the basalt volcanic which indicate late phase of volcanic activity. This


phenomena is common just south of prospect No. 3 and prospect No. 2, where basalt pillow lava is in contact with pelagic sediments. (F) DYKES/ SILLS: Basic to intermediate and acidic dykes of very limited extension has been found with in the ophiolite complexes at places. These include dolerite, diorite, rhyolite and diabase dykes / sills. (i) DOLERITE Dolerite are fine to medium grained with granular texture, greyish in colour and also weathered on surface. Mostly consist of plagioclase, chlorite, hornblend, phyroxene & opaque mineral, plagioclase some time altered into epidote. These rocks are found as dykes/ sills, sporadically injected into the country rocks i.e. the rocks of ophiolite belt. Plagioclase & clinophyroxene are the major constituent minerals with hornblende and Biotite are the subordinate. Chlorite, serpentine, epidote are the common alteration phases. (ii) DIORITE: Medium to coarse grained, mostly composed of feldspar, quartz, amphisbole & opaque minerals. These dykes/ sills are very small in size & variable in shape, whitish to light grey in colour. In some places sheets of diorite (west-south of prospect No. 2) associated with pelagic sediments (jesperite + limestone) and volcanic rocks. (iii) RHYOLITE: Later intrusion in the form of volcanic pulses (rhyolitic, in composition) are also found with in ultra basic, south of prospect No.6. These volcanic are very


fined grained, greyish in colour and silicified in composition. Consists plagiochase, chlorite and quartz. Numerous dykes/ sills of dolerite, diorite & rhyolite of very limited extension have been found with in the Ultra basic rocks in the area of prospect No.6.


Since long the Waziristan area is known for various minerals like iron, manganese, copper and chromite etc. The area had been visited by a number of local and foreign geologists. A.L. Coulson (1935-1940) covered area along Jandola-Wana and Jandula-Razmik lines and reported clay, coal, copper, iron, nickol & oil, non being of economic importance. Asrarullah 1957 visited a number of localities for copper, chromite, iron, coal etc and recommend further work. However, the Defunct FATA DC, 1971 conducted the first regional geological survey and mineral exploration in parts of North and South Waziristan Agencies. As result they have identified sporaodic showing of copper mineralization in the Waziristan ophiolite complex. Several gossan have been identified and studied in Shinkai Mohammad Khel area, confined to 10 km 2 area. These yellowish to redish colour gossans form North-East to South trending belt in Shinkai area. Copper mineralization is associated with these leached / oxidized zones in the form of primary and secondary sulplrides. These yellow leached and oxidized gossans are found in the form of irregular bodies of various size and shape and are delineated as prospects with Nos to make easy their identification in the field and also for further geological interpretation. After detail survey, the Shinkai and Degan Paikhel area of North Waziristan was found of significant importance for copper mineralization. Both of these areas were subjected to detail exploration including geological mapping, sampling, geophysical survey and core drilling and established these areas prospective for the further detail exploration/ development. The gossans are generally accompanied pillow breccia which contained sulphide mineralization in the form of stock work, fine dissemination and laminea. The exposed out crop, commonly shows leaching of copper & iron pyrites, giving yellowish, reddish and greenish tent to the immediate surrounding rocks. The


talus materials noted around the prospects indicate heavy weathering and leaching out of the contained sulplride mineralization. Sulphide mineralization is confined to the stock work zones in the form of dissemination, fracture and cavity filling as well as blebs or laminea in the ground mass. The sulphide mineralization is mostly in the form of chalopyrite, pyrite, bornite, sphallerite, pyrrhotite along with its associated secondary oxidary oxides including malaclrite, goethite, Jarrosite & limonite. Sulphide mineralization is commonly associated with pronounce alteration zones of chlorite, epidote, Quartz, calcite & zeolite. Most of the prospects in the Shinkai area are associated with fault bounded graben, particularly along the southern limb of the graben closed to the faulted contact. On the northern limb of the graben, the faulted contact is mostly covered by alluvium, however where exposed small paches of gossans have been encountered. Moreover, major portion of the graben is alluvium covered, which may have some hidden prospects of the sulphide mineralization. The prospects identified with in the fault bounded graben at Shinkai area, are named prospect No. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. From P1 to P5, these are found along southern limb/fault of the graben, while prospect No.6 is lying at its nose. It has also been noticed that few prospects are located out side of the graben with in the rock sequence of ultrabasic & andesite volcanic. These prospects are named as prospect No. 7, 8, 9, 10 & 11 respectively. The geological description of these prospects are summarized below. Project – 1: No yet located and studied. Prospect No. 2: An elongated body of gossan/ oxiolized zone with yellowish

to red-brownish capping, lying at the month of Mada-Algnut nalla and extend in


east direction toward ward prospect No. 3. Minor secondary sulphide i.e. malachite, lemonite and goethite are noted in places. The host rock is brecciated volcanic, andesite to basalt in composition. The gossan/ oxidized body of the brecciated volcanic are yellow to brownish in colour, soft, crushed/ sheared with contamination of pelagic sediments (jesperite). This indicate that the brecciated volcanic are the later phase of volcanism. Stock work/ brecciated zone is massive, jointed/ fractured and is surrounded by yellowish colour gossan caping. Chlorite and Zeolite alteration are noted at places with in the oxidized/ gossan body. The volcanic rock at the northern contact of prospect is epidotized at places. To the west of the prospect brecciated volcanic is slightly oxidized. Further west ward oxidization is decreases while epidotization is common. Toward east is lying prospect No. 3 while the area in between two prospects are alluvium covered. Geophysical survey of the prospect also give weak positive anomalies along certain profiles. No primary sulphide mineralization is observed so far. However, this prospect was subjected by FATA-DC to core drilling, wherein few drill holes have intersected the primary sulphide mineralization in the form of disseminated pyrite and chalcopyrite. The geological characteristics of the prospect is very interesting, however, the prospect need closed electrode spacing 1.p geophysical survey to locate any hidden sulphide orc body as well as core drilling of the positive geophysical anomaly.


PROSPECT NO. 3: The prospect No. 3, a semi circular body of oxidized rock with gossan, caping covering an area of about 1sq km. The brecciated stock work zone is occupied the centre part of the prospect. The stock work zone is highly fractured, jointed & cracked, giving rise to cress cross structure. Malachite showing are dominant on the southern side of the prospect. Primary sulphide mineralization in the form of disseminated pyrite, chalcopyrite and blebs of chalcopyrite are confined to stock work zones. The mineralization is mostly associated with fractures, crackes and cavities as well as in the ground mass of the brecciated volcanic. Disseminated pyrite + chalcopyrite are also found with in oxidized brecciated volcanic beyond the stock work zone with in the prospect area. Chlorite alteration is common mostly associated with sulphide mineralization. Quartz, calcite, zeolite and epidote alteration are also noted at places. Jarosite, limonite and goethite mineralization are common. Potential wise the best prospect identified so far in Shinkai area. This prospect is extensively subjected into detail exploration by FATA DC in shape of geological/ mineralogical study, sampling, geophysical and core drilling. Geophysical survey indicated various positive anomalies in range of 40 – 50. These positive geophysical anomalies were drilled, randomly through No. of drill holes at very close spacing. However, the results of some of these drill holes are quite encouraging and the massive zone of copper mineralization has been intersected in these holes at different levels and has been proved to a depth of 272 meters in BH No. 22. This prospect is bounded in the south by dolerite body along local thrust fault, to the north by alluvium/ agglomerate and to the east by alluvium. Dolerite dyke of about 2 meter wide & 20 meter long has been intruded nearly in the centre of prospect with in the yellowish capping of the body. The dolerite dyke has sheared contacts with brecciated oxidized volcanic. Another


dolorite dyke (4x100m) has also been found in between prospect No. 3 and local thrust fault/ ultrabasic on the southern side of the prospect. Local has driven an adit with in the malachite zone for extraction of the copper. At depth level with in the Adit, they have intersected rich zone of primary sulphide mineralization (chalcopyrite, with minor cuprite and bornite). In view of the above, further deep drilling is proposed in this prospect for intersection of mineralization at greater depth to enhance the already established reserves.

PROSPECT NO. 4: This is a small circular body of (10x3m) crapping out along Mada-Alghat nalla about 100 m to the North of prospect No. 3. Its lateral extension on all sides is covered by alluvium. This is a body of oxidized brecciated volcanic, brownish to yellow in colour, highly fractured/ jointed. No sulphide mineralization has been noted so far. This prospect needs geophysical survey to know its lateral as well down depth extension with any sulphide zone.

PROSPECT NO. 5: A small body of red-brown colour oxidized brecciated volcanic is found on left tributary of Madaghar nalla about 200m NE of prospect No. 3. Its lateral extension is covered by alluvium. Zones of pelagic sediments i.e. Jesperite & limestone are found at places. A small body of plago-granite (1x3 feet) is present with in Jesperite. Nosulphide mineralization has been found. The prospect at present is placed at low priority, however in future, it should be subjected to ground geophysical survey for knowing its lateral as well down depth extension along with any sort of sulphide mineralization.


PROSPECT NO. 6: This prospect is located along eastern alignment of P3 & P2 at distance of about 2 Km from prospect No. 3 at the nose of faulted bounded graben. The capping/ oxidized zone is redish to yellowish colour brecciated volcanic, consist of dominantly quartz with minor, pyrite, chalcopyrite in dessimination. The volcanic is vesicular in texture and andesite in composition. Goethite & lemonite zones are also found at places. It is less oxidized with few gossans as compared to prospect No. 3. Numerous small oxidized/altered zones are found which contained weak sulphide mineralization in the form of pyrite. These zones yellow to redish brown and occupied the central part of the prospect as isolated blocks/ paches. The becciated oxidized zones contained malachite showing and minor disseminated pyrite + chalcopyrite in the matrix. Malachite showing associated with sheared zones along fractures are also found. These altered/ oxidized bodies may be the extensional zones with possible sulphide mineralization. The prospect is bounded in south & east by local thrust fault/ Ultrabasic rock while on west & north side is covered by alluvium. The brown/ yellowish, massive, solid bodies may indicate stock work with less sulphide mineralization. A dolerite dyke of 1x10 m dimension is present on eastern slope of the prospect. Geophysical survey (1.p) is conducted at prospect No. 6 to locate any high rich zone of sulphide mineralization at depth. As result high positive anomalies have been recorded. Some of these anomalies have been drilled but failing to intersect the sulphide zone, possibly the mineralization may be present at greater depth or the angle of drill holes missed the positive anomaly.


The prospect need I.P geophysical survey again at close electrode spacing and deep drilling at grid pattern in a systematic way to know the actual position of the prospect. PROSPECT NO.7: It is located to the east of prospect No. 6. it is small circular to semi circular body, which are oxidized at places. The oxidized zone (Gossans) are yellowish to brownish in colour. The brown altred oxidized zones are brecciated, fractured, jointed and form stock work. The oxidized rocks on fresh surface are peridotites which are serpentinized at places. The zoilite, magnesite coating along with epidote alteration are common. Sulphide mineralization in the form of malachite & pyrite are found associated with sheared zone in the brecciated area. Disseminated fine grains of chromite are also found with in peridotite rocks. At the centre of the body, the peridotite with epidote alteration contained 1-foot zone of malachite with few fine grains of pyrite. The altered/oxidized rocks seems to be the extensional zones, which are leached to yellow – brown colour capping of gossans. The prospect No. 7 is lying with ultrabasic rocks, out side of the fault bounded graben. This prospect is not fully studied and explored. Therefore need appropriate geophysical survey for locating any hidden ore body and it further detail exploration through core drilling. PROSPECT NO. 8: It is located further to the east of prospect No. 7. It is lying just south of the faulted contact of vesicular andesite volcanic and serpentinite rock of ultra basic group. It is an elongated body of oxidized rock. The host rock is hard, massive herzbargite/ dunite, containing more quartz. The body is fractured/ jointed and sheared at places.


Malachite showing are common along sheared zones. The sheared zones are soft, yellow to brown colour gossan with more lemonite, goethite & Jerosite minerals assemblage of alteration. Layering of limestone with dirty brown surface are noted with in the prospect at places, which are silicified and contained fine grains of pyrite. Quartz, zoelite, calcite with subordinate chlorite are the alteration phases. A part from the massive body, various small oxidized zone are found along contact with in the ultrabasic rock, mostly serpentinite. The serpentinites are sheared, deformed/ fractured. These oxidized zones are caped by yellowish to brownish colour gossans, with limonite and goethite mineral assemblages. These zones are ranging in thickness from 2 – 5m and mostly associated with fracture filling or sheared zones. The common alteration in these subsidiary zones are calcite, chlorite, zoelite and quartz. Malachite showing are common in these zones. After exposing of these sheared zones with malachite, limonite & goethite assemblage for about 2 – 3 feet, massive zone of primary sulphide i.e. chalcopyrite, pyrite with subordinate bornite and Cuprite mineralization are found. Chalcopyrite is rich in the area of Qtz, calcite enrichment/ alteration. At one place massive zone of magnetite associated with quartz veinlets are found with in the oxidized zone. These oxidized zone of primary/ secondary sulphide mineralization seems to be the off shoots of massive body injected along fractures/ sheared zones. A private party has started mining activites for extraction of copper (Chalcopyrite, Pyrite with subordinate Bornite + Cuprite) along fractured/ sheared zones. He has extracted massive copper of about 30 tones with an average assay of Cu upto 20%. These sheared/ fracture filled zones of copper mineralization are lensoid form with limited lateral extension. Their width & length depend on the volume of the fractured/ sheared zones. The prospect need geophysical survey for its further assessment.


PROSPECT NO. 9: Located to the south of prospect No. 6 at higher allitude/ elevation. It is an elongated body of about 5 – 10 m wide & more than 40 meter long. It is an altered/ oxidized body of maroon/ red colour with limonitic gossan at places. The host rock is volcanic, probably of rhyolitic compostion or andesite volcanic with pulses of rhyolites. The body is highly weathered, oxidized with pronounce argilic alteration. The clay minerals are mostly Kaoline, alunite & red clay. The body contain red-brown oxidized zones on the western side with less argillic alteration. This portion is so weathered/ oxidized to greater depth that no fresh surface is available for sampling and rock description. The upper part, eastern side of the body is redish to dirty green in colour with more argilic alteration and silicification. The western portion contained feldspar, free Quartz (brecciated). No. sulphide is found in west side of the body. The whole prospect is highly sheared, fractured with weathered surface, while on fresh surface it is fine grained silicified volcanic with grey colour. Common alteration is argilic, silicification, Quartz, breccia. Fine grains of pyrite, marcasite/phyrotite are found in dissemination as well as along fracture filling. The high silicified zones, contained more pyrite. The prospect is bounded on north & south side by pelagic sediments i.e. Limestone, Jesperite and barren volcanic. The prospect seems to be an extensional zones, with sulphide mineralization. Needs further detail exploration (Geophysical Survey & Core drilling) for its economic evaluation. PROSPECT NO. 10: It is located east of Prospect No. 9 at Kandol mela (Jomatia area) and lying on left side of the road with nearly steep slopes. The centre part of the body


is unaccessible. The prospect is semi circular to elongated body with huge gasson, mostly in the central part. It is an altered/ oxidized body with dark-brown colour on surface and grey colour on fresh surface. The massive dark brown colour part of the body is brecciated. The host rock is silicified andesite or rhyolitic volcanic. Lemonite, Jarosite & goethite bearing gasson with yellow to redish colour are found as patches & layers. However the central part of the body is highly weathered, soft, contained yellowish-red gossan zone with number of pits or caves, may indicating weathering phenomena. The chloritic alteration is common with subordinate qtrz breccia. Some mixed chloritic and argilic alteration horizons are also found. To ward west, isolated oxidized bodies as extensional zones are also found with in the andesite volcanic. One no chip sample collected from this prospect contained 1.5% Cu with subordinate Zn, Pb & Au. Although no sulphide mineralization has been noted so far, however basis on the geology, alteration and presence of huge gossan, the prospect seems to be prospective and need geophysical survey for any hidden sulphide ore body. PROSPECT NO. 11: The prospect No. 11 is located to the south of prospect No. 10. It is an circular body of oxidized / altered volcanic with dirty brownish to yellowish colour. The host rock is soft, fractured & jointed andesite or rhyolite volcanic. On fresh surface, the goethite and limonite zones are brecciated. The quartz fragments of the breccia contained pyrite. Quartz veinlets are also common in the brecciated zones which contained chalcopyrite ± chalcocite. The quartz are whitish to greyish, contained rich pyrite & phyrotite. The volcanic are greyish to whitish silicified volcanic on fresh surface contained disseminated pyrite, chalcophyrite, bornite and blebs of chalcophyrite. 28

The silicified zones with limonite, geothile, Qtz, Chlorite, argilic & breccia alteration contained chalcophyrite. Argilic alteration consist of Kaoline, alunite and red clay. The body is bounded on north by dark grey volcanics while it has southern contact with ultrabasic rock. On the basis of geology, mineralogy and alteration assemblages, this prospect may have pottantial of epithermal Cu-Au gold mineralization, which is mostly associated with porphyry system. One no sample collected from the prospect is sent to MTL & its result is awaited. However, based on geological characteristics, this prospect is kept on high priority for further detail exploration including geophysical survey and core drilling.


After establishment of project office at Hayatabad, recruitment of staff and procurement of office equipment etc, full concentration was given to field work. In this connection an agreement was made with locals of Muhammad Khel (land owner of Shinkai area) though local administration to cover security risk for smooth operation of field activities for copper exploration at Shinkai area. Since commencement of the field work in July, 2008, the following have been achieved. 1. All the old data regarding geological reports, core drilling, geophysical work, laboratory study, feasibility study and other technical report concerning the Boya Copper were searched & collected and kept in safe custody for future references. 2. Various reconnaissance visits were made to different parts of the Shinkai copper site for orientation survey to undertake the geology and mineralization and studied/ assessed for future proposed work of the project. 3. During reconnaissance field work, 02 more huge bodies of oxidized gossan with copper showing arc found to south of prospect No. 9, numbered as prospect No. 10 & 11 respectively. 4. These newly identified prospects are sampled and analysed which contained significant amount of copper with subordinate gold. 5. Grid survey on regional scale with 100 meter electrode spacing of the Shinkai area (Faults bounded graben) was conducted to prepare base lines for geophysical survey work.


6. Similarly grid survey on detail scale with closed electrode spacing of 50 m interval of prospect No. 2, 3 and 6 was also conducted and base lines laid down on ground for the proposed I.P geophysical work. 7. Detail geological map of prospect No. 6 and prospect No. 3 was prepared, showing mineralized zones & drill holes point. These maps with geophysical data layer will be used as base map for proposed drilling work. 8. Contouring of Shinkai prospects and its surrounding was carried out in detail to be used as master plan for future exploration workings. 9. The cores of previously drilling holes of prospect No. 2 & 3 stored at site colony were studied and few were logged to know the depth wise position of geology, alteration & mineralization. 10. Pre-qualification tenders have been invited for hiring of local consultant and for core drilling work. The tenders have been received, which is under process at project as well as at head office level. 11. Based on the old geophysical core drilling, geology and chemical data a master plan is being prepared for future strategy of the project work. 12. The data collected during the field work was interpreted, digitized and compiled in shape of maps/ reports.


CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 1. On the basis of the so far generated exploration data, geological environment, study and research, the genetic model established for Waziristan copper is of typical volcanogenic massive Sulphide deposits (Cyprus Type), where this type of copper deposits give workable potential for copper and associated base metals else where in the world. 2. Occurrences of copper mineralization is found as isolated bodies of yellowish oxidation gossans of irregular outlines which shows a common leaching of copper and iron pyrites. The copper mineralization is generally confined to brecciated pillow Basalt and found in the form of stock work, cavities filling, fracture filling and fine dissemination. 3. Enriched chlorite, epidote, quartz, calcite and zeolite are the common alteration phases. The mineralization is mostly associated with pronounce chlorite alteration. 4. The ophiolite belt, the host of copper mineralization is technically emplaced on to Indian mass, thus subjected to savior structurall complexity in shape of faulting, folding, brecciation & granulation. The rocks of ophiolite belt are found in the form of stock of slices and no normal sequence of oceanic crust rocks is preserved. However, no uplifting & erosional phenomena during regional scale tectonic has taken places in the area, thus the associated mineralization is remained intac but displaced due to structural complicity & deformation. 5. The Shinkai prospects locally at Shinkai/ Modaghar area is found in faulted bound graben structure generally along the southern faulted contacts as isolated out crops in the form of oxidized gossans.


6. The








environment with diagnostic sequence of ocean floor rocks comprising of ultramafic, pillow baslts, sheeted dykes and deep marine sediments (pelagic sediment). The ophiolite sequence is intruded by plagio granite diorite to grano diorite and later pulses of rhyolite volcanic. 7. On the basis of geological survey & core drilling, the FATA DC have estimated the potential of prospect No. 2 and 3 of Shinkai to be of 35 million tones of 0.8% Cu, including 8 millions tone in proved while 27 millions tones in indicated category. The geophysical survey conducted by FATA DC on prospect No. 6 at Shinkai area also give encouraging results. Thus through additional geophysical survey and core drilling, the estimated reserves of 35 million tones can be increased many folds. In addition, Badshah 1985, based on geological maps at scale 1:5000 reported 102 million tones of Cu in between Deghan Phakel and Shinkai area. 8. The so far exploration activities are confined only to Deghan Phakel & Shinkai, which over limited area of 16 square km, which indicate only a small part of the Waziristan complex. Generally, the Waziristan ophiolite belt covering an area of 1127 Sq Km in North and South Waziristan Agencies. Therefore similar & even more significant mineralization are expected in other parts of North and South Waziristan Agencies along ophiolite belt. 9. Along this belt, copper showing are already reported by previous workers in the vicinity of preghel, Spin Kamar in South Waziristan and Mazer Khel, Ismail Khel, Khadar Khel in North Waziristan.


These areas have similar geological environments, therefore work in there areas yet to conducted. However, once the area become clear from security of view, chances of finding of more prospect are bright. 10. infrastructure facilities in shape of road, electric power, water and main power which also play an important rule in mineral development sector are far better/ fair at Shinkai. 11. Chromite, magnese mineralization are also reported & mined in different parts along ophiolite belt in North & South Waziristan. These deposits have great potential along these belts.

In the light of the aforementioned conclusion, the following is recommended to exploit the mineral wealth of this region. 1. Additional geophysical survey appropriate to the nature of mineralization & condition of the area to be conducted in Skinkai prospects and with immediate surrounding area about 10-15 Sq km for locating other potential targets. 2. Based on the geophysical survey, systematic core drilling has to be carried out in Shinkai area for enhancement of the known reserves and identification of additional resources. 3. The entire ophiolite belt has great potential for copper & associated base metals and other minerals i.e. chromite, iron, magnese of economic importance needs systematic exploration i.e. geological mapping, investigation, sampling


4. The entire ophiolite belt in Waziristan agencies may be subjected to a systematic geochemical, stream sediments sampling (Pan Con, - 80 #) and mineralized float to generate systematic and reliable mineral data for gold & base metal to identify regional, prospects & deposit scale targets. These targets should be offered for further detail exploration, development and exploitation to national & multinational mining companies. 5. Aerial photographs & satellite imageries studies of the Waziristan Agencies may also be conducted for any anomalous feature, a clue for mineral investigation. 6. Services of an expert economic/ exploration geologist of international repute has to acquired for systematic assessment/ evaluation of Shinkai prospects as well as appraisal of mineral potential of the entire ophiolite belt in Waziristan Agencies. 7. Efforts should be made for a potential joint venture partner in the international market for further investment in development of Shinkai prospects, as well as in detail exploration to cover the entire ophiolite belt in Waziristan Agencies. 8. All national and multinational mining companies may be approached/ contacted for investment in the region. 9. In addition to copper & allied base metal, the Waziristan ignous complex may also be studied and explored for chromite, magnese, iron, soapstone & talc deposits.




Dr. Ihsanullah Mian Associate Professor And Muhammad Ihsan Afridi Project Geologist, FATA DC, Peshawar. Sulphide occurrence in Shinkai area of North Waziristan Agency By Department of Geology University of Peshawar.


Badshah. M/s, 1985. Development potential of Waziristan copper, record of FATA Development Corporation, Peshawar.


Jan. M.Q. Windley. B. F. and Khan. A.S, 1985 The Waziristan ophiolite Pakistan General Geology and Chemistry of Chromite and Assoicated phases. Economic geology vol. 80.P 294-306


Copper Exploration and Evaluation Project North Waziristan Agency of Federally Administered Tribal areas Development Corporation.


Muhammad Asim, Muhammad Majid, Muhammad Tahir Shah Geology, geochemistry and tectonic setting of ophiolite rocks from ophiolite complex, N.W. Pakistan.


Zhitian Wang, Professor consulting Economic Strategic Report on Potential evalutaiton, exploration model and suggestion for Waziristan copper


Mr. Ashfaq Sajjad, Project Director is thanked for his guidance, suggestion, coordination, cooperation & review of the report. Mr. Ihsan Afridi, Project Geologist is thanked for his valuable discussion regarding geology, exploration history, mineralization and on time to time field visit to the Shinkai copper site. He is also thanked for critical review of the report. Mr. Tariq Aziz acknowledged for composing of the report.