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M.NAWAZ KAHN (Geologist)

Nov. 2008


Fig No. 1: Location map of North Waziristan Agency.

Fig No. 2: Geological map of North Waziristan.

Fig No. 3: Geological maps of Shinkai area.

Fig No. 4: Detail geological map of prospect No. 6.

Fig No. 5: Detail geological map of prospect No. 3.


The Waziristan ignous complex of North and South Waziristan Agencies
form an elongated belt of 1127 km2 nearly at Pak-Afghan border. It extends west
ward Northward up to khost in Afghanistan and south ward into Bela-Muslim
bagh of Baluchistan.

It is a typical ophiolite of ocean crust with diagnostic sequence of ocean
floor rock sequence. The rock sequence of the belt consists mostly of the ocean
floor environment including ultrabasics, volcanic rock and associated shallow to
deep marine sediments as remnants of the new Tethies ocean floor environment.
The WOC demarcates the suture zone that separate Indian plate from Eurasian
plate in the north and Afghanistan & Iran blocks in the west. It is Waziristan
ophiolite is the third largest among the six major ophiolite of Pakistan and is
associated with Jurassic cretaceous & early tertiary stratigraphic sequence and
locally covered by quaternary deposits. It is technically emplaced in indo-pak
plate in Paleocene to early Eocene where it occur in thrust slices over riding the
messozic rock sequence of Indian mass. The sequence is obducted onto the
Cretaceous shallow shelf sediments of the IndoPak plate in Paleocene to early
Eocene time.

The Waziristan ophiolite complex is structurally very disturbed. The rocks
are intensively folded, faulted, fractured & brecciated. Deformation has
dismembered the ophiolite in a stack of thrust slices and no example of complete
section in normal order is present in the area, but all the members of ophiolite are
scattered in different localities.

Geologically, it contain all the components of typical ophiolite (ultramafics,
gabbro sheeted dikes, plagio granite, volcanic rocks mainly basaltic pillow lava,
andesite, dacite and pelagic sediments i.e. Jesperite & limestone).

The ophiolite belt of Waziristan is economically potential for certain type of
ore deposits, consisting VMS type of copper deposits, podiform chromite &

banded manganese. The occurrences of these deposits in the ophiolite belt of
Waziristan was first reported by Asrarullah of GSP, Taher Kheli, Aftab Ahmed
(1959), Afzal (1970) and recommended the same for further detail exploration.

The defunct FATA Development Corporation in 1971 conducted the first
regional geological survey, geological mapping in different parts of North and
South Waziristan agencies and identified spotted findings of copper showing &
other metallic minerals in the ophiolite belt. Major occurrences were confined to
Shinkai, Degan Phakhel area North Waziristan and Spin Kammar, Makin, Shawal
etc. areas of south Waziristan.

FATA-DC conducted detail exploration for copper, manganese and
chromite. Major exploration for copper were confined to Shinkai and Degan
Pakhel localities around Tochi river in north Waziristan. The exploration activities
mainly consist of survey, mapping, grid sampling and shallow drilling for
delineation of prospective belts/ zones and as a result identified 15 prospects of
various aerial extents in these areas.

On priority basis, some of these prospects have been subjected into detail
exploration through detail geological mapping, geophysical survey (1P) and core
drilling and as result 35 million tones of copper ore with average 0.8% Cu has
been established in prospect 2 & 3 at Shinkai area. As a result of detailed
investigation including detailed survey, IP geophysical survey and probe drilling,
total of 35 million tonne of copper ore with an average grade of 0.8% have been
identified in Shinkai copper prospect.

Primary sulphide mineralization (pyrite, chalcopyrite, bornite) are confined
to the chloritized pillow breccia as stock work, fracture filling, cavity filling and
dissemination. Chromite mineralization in the form of stringer, lenses,
dissemination is widely spread in the ultramafic rock sequence of the ophiolite
belt in North & South Waziristan Agencies. The Mineralization is mostly
associated with peridolite & sheared serpentinite. Locals of the area are involved
extraction of chromite through application of very primitive mining methods.

Manganese occurrences have been reported from Saidgai and Barzai
areas. These deposits both banded & massive hosted by metachert/ jesperite.
Local are involved in mining of these deposits in Degan Pakhel & DataKhel area
of north Waziristan on small scale.

No economic deposits of magnesite, talc, soap and iron are found/
identified so far with in Waziristan igneous complex.

In pelagic rock component of ophiolite belt, transparent to translucent
zones/ layers of Jesperite are found at places. These are fine grained red to
brown in colour having smooth surface and homogenous texture which give
good look in the field. These zones of jesperite may be tried as decoration stones
& semi gemstone for ornamental purpose.

On the basis of geological environment, mineralogical study, chemical
analysis, geophysical & core drilling, the area contained enormous potential for
Cyprus type deposits of copper mineralization and have attracted different private
companies from Chins, Austrilia for joint venture but unfortunately the matter was
not materialized at higher level.

The exploration activities on north Waziristan copper remained suspended
for about 20 years period. However realizing the potential of Waziristan copper
deposits, FATA-DC has launched copper exploration/ development project at
North Waziristan through PMDC as executive Agency for a period of four years
w.e.f. 01.07.07.

Exploration activities on North Waziristan copper suspended for the last 15
years. The New administration of FATA Development Authority proposed
additional exploration studies on the known reserves. The studies aims at
preparing ground for pre-feasibility and proving additional reserves in the
immediate surrounding of the known copper occurrences in Shinkai area of North
Waziristan Agency.

The main objective of this project is to enhance the already established
reserves of copper at Shinkai area through additional detail exploration i.e.
surface mapping, geophysical survey, drilling & reserves calculation. Under this
project, a systematic database of copper & allied metals particularly gold, Zn, Ni
& Co will be generated and documented to prepare bankable documents of the
deposits for attracting national & multinational investment for further mining,
processing & development of Shinkai copper prospect. The project is under
implementation and hoping good results & positive response.


The Shinkai Copper Prospect is located on Tophosheet No 38 H/13 at
69°,50’,00" and 32°,51’,35". The area lies 30km west of Miranshah (The Head
Quarter of N.Waziristan Agency). Miranshah is located about 270 Km south of
Peshawar and about 60 km west of Bannu. Approach roads in the project site are
fair, weather and access to most of the prospects out crops is easy.


The topography is fair. The entire out crop is having a moderate degree of
slope. The elevation is generally in range of 1545 to 1845 meter above the sea
level. The annual range of temperature various from 35º - 40ºc in the summer
season and 10-20ºC in winter season. There is little rain fall in the summer
season while moderate rain fall with highest peaks received snow fall in the
winter season.


Since long Waziristan is known for various types of minerals like iron,
copper, chromite, manganese etc and great efforts had been made to explore,
develop and expoit the mineral wealth of this region. However, every efforts

made in this direction was hampered by the hostile attitude of the locals. Even
today the overall position in the area is not satisfactory and no working
environments exist.

Alcoulson (1935 & 1940) was the first while conducting geological survey
over an area along Jandola-Wana and Jandola-Rizmak lines, reported clays,
coal, copper, iron, nickel and oil, none being of any economic importance.

Asrarullah of GSP (1957) visited a number of localities for chromite,
copper, iron, coal, oil and gas etc. His work was too much of reconnaissance
type and therefore, he recommended further work. Tahir Kheli (verbal
converstion) traversed Spin Kamar and some other interior parts and located
veins of native copper, sulphide and chromite. He also visited Boya area and
recommended detail exploration work for copper mineralization at Shinkai.

Aftab Ahmed (1959) worked Nayi-Regha Manzer Khel area for chromite,
manganese, copper, iron and asbestos. His report, was more detailed than the
previous ones, carries a geological map of 350 sq miles area on 1:633 scale
Afzal (1970), in continuation of the geological investigation of Aftab Ahmed,
worked on copper and chromite and identified some new occurrences. Reserves
of 1774.9 tons of copper ore were estimated at Khai and Modar Algads.

WPIDC (1972) on behalf of FATA Development Corporation carried out
investigation on copper and chromite in Boya area. Twelve chromite occurrences
of disseminated, bands, stringes and veins were identified with a total reserves of
67.75 tones. Copper was concluded to have three modes of mineralization, vis
vein copper; occupying the shear or brecciated zones and dispersions of copper
minerals in altered caps or oxidation zones. Further work was recommended.
Since 1977. FATA Development Corporation took the task in hand and continued
their survey, investigation and exploration activities till 1995.

The FATA DC, first regional survey, consisting of base mapping and
mineral exploration in different parts of North and South Waziristan Agencies. As

result of the said preliminary survey & exploration work, occurrence of copper
and other minerals have been identified along the ophiolite belt in North and
South Waziristan agencies. The prospects of copper mineralization at Shinkai &
Degan Pakel area around Tochi river was picked up as potential targets and
identified 15 Nos mineralized bodies in roughly 5x2 km area.

The prospective areas with gossans of Shinkai and Degan Paikhel were
subjected into detail exploration and the initial studies established the fact that
Shinkai prospect is one of the promising target, having bright chances of
becoming feasible prospect.

The exploration activities carried out by FATA DC along Waziristan
ophiolite belt w.e.f. 1976 till 1995 is summarized as below.

a) Preparation of geological base map of Waziristan ophiolite belt & its
immediate surrounding on scale 1:50,000.

b) Preparation of geological map of copper bearing areas on scale 1: 20,000,
supplemented by surface grid sample analysis & ISO chem surface

c) Detailed survey & geological mapping of gossans on scle 1:10,000.

d) Enlarge maps of promosing prospects on 1:5000

e) Geophysical survey in Degan Pakhel & Shinkai area using electro
magnetic, gravity, magnetic & 1.P.

f) Core drilling of 1264 meters through 92 holes with an average depth of
150 meters in Degan Pakel & Shinkai area.

g) Chemical analysis of 9500 core samples at 3 meters interval, and 5500
surface grid samples.

h) Megoscopic study & logging of core at 1m interval.

i) Petrographic study of bore holes samples.

j) Cross check of copper & trace elements at Resource Development
Corporation, Louester University U.K.

Based on the aforementioned exploration work a total of 35 million tons of
copper ore was established at Shinkai prospect 2 & 3 with an average of 0.8%
Cu. Out of this 8 million tones has been proved, while 27 million tons is in
indicated category. Other associated metals including Au, Ag, Cu, Ni, Pb & Zn
are expected as by products.

On the basis of geological mapping at scale of 1:1000 meter, the fifteen
mineralized bodies of Shinkai & Deghan have an areal extension of 272706 Sq
meter. The reserves of the copper ore with 3 mean density and 150 m inferred
depth work out to 122.71 m/ tones (Main Sayed Badshah 1985).

During the years, 1996 a Chinese expert geologist professor Zhitian Wang
assess feasibility of the project. During his 3 months stay in office as well as at
project site, he critically reviewed all the exploration data pertaining to copper
exploration and was of the opinion that the Shinkai prospect, if further explored
with a systematic approach and technical lines, would become successful
venture. He also proposed certain addition exploration work & research study to
be conducted in order to establish additional reserves & enhance the present
reserves to attract investment for further development & exploration of Waziristan


The Waziristan ignous complex which covered about 5000 km2 in North and
South Waziristan Agencies, is the continuation of the Khost ophiolite of
Afghanistan while that of Zhob (Baluchistan) is considered part of it. The ophiolite
complex consist of structurally lower unit comprising pillow lava, chert &
limestone, while structurally upper unit consist of group of ultrabasic with
associated gabbro and dolorite sheets. The ophiolite is polygenetic in character.

There are six ophiolite complexes in Pakistan, three of these is ocean
crust related, while others are of island arc affinity/ subduction related. Among
these, the Waziristan is third most largest after Zhob and Bela ophiolites. The
Waziristan separate the Indian plate from Eurasian plate and the Gondwanic
micro contents such as Afghanistan Iran blocks in north & west respectively and
represent typical ophiolite of oceanic crust. The sedimentary rock associated
Waziristan ophiolite are Mesozoic & Early Tertiary in age and locally covered by
quaternary deposits. The ophiolite occur as thrust slicies overriding Jurassic to
cretaceous sediments of the Tethyan Shelf Sequence. At places, rocks of the
ophiolite are overlain unconformably by limestone and Shale of Eocen age (Khan
etal 1983 Badshah 1985). On the basis of such sequential arrangements, Jan et-
al 1985 suggested that the slices of Neo-Telhyan oceanic lithosphere along
suture zone obducted on to the deltic sedimentary wedge of the Indian plate
margin in response to the north ward drifting of indo-pak plate and thus it lies
close to an important suture zone.

The entire Waziristan ophiolite belt display a complex structure. The rocks
are generally intensively, thrusted, folded, faulted and in places fractured,
brecciated & granulated. Deformation has dismembered the ophiolite which now
consist of Chaotically arranged stack of thrust slices and hence a complete
normal order sequence is no here preserved. However all the members of typical
ophiolite (ultramafic, gabbro, pillow, lava, sheated dikes, pelagic dediments &
plagic qranite) are present in different localities.

Regional tectonics on plate scale, the counter clock wise rotation and
obduction of ophiolite further added to the deformation of the prospective areas.

Skinkai area & its immediate surrounding show moderate to high degree
of structure deformation in response to regional tectonics resulting in S1 type
folding, subsequent thrust & strike slip displacement is some what obliterated by
regional tectonics during closure of Neo-Tehys & subsequent obduction.
Recurrent milanges and dismembered sequence present a complex stratigraphy
and structure of Shinkai area.

The copper in Waziristan area represent a volcanogenic massive sulphide
deposits genetic model, originated at divergent plate boundary and then
obducted over indo-pak. U Pb isotope on Zircon from plagio granite of khuzdar
ophiolite (Baluchistan) gave an age of 65 ma (Ahmad 1992). The thrusting of
ultramafic from the west and north over the pillow breccia produced two main
anticlinal structure (Mian Ihsan & Ihsan Afridi) one at prospect No. 3 & the other
at prospect No. 2. The axes of these anticlinal folds intersect one another at high
angle as result of the combined effect of the compressional stresses from the
west and north. The overall structures present a complex post mineralization
deformation of stock work zone and may have been responsible for the
displacement of the massive sulphide to the north east of prospects 2 and 3.


The Geology of the area typically represent the oceanic crust ophiolite
rock assemblage related to divergent plate boundaries, where igneous activities
take place along the mid oceanic ridge at sea floor spreading centre. The local
geology of the Shinkai and surrounding area comprising of the following rock


The volcanic rock sequence of the area consists of basalts, andesite,
dacite, rhyollite, tuffs and agglomerate. The basalt & andesite are voluminous
rock, while the other are found as subordinate.


Basalt is generally pillow structure, but may also occurs in the form of
massive beds. The phenocrysts of clinophyroxene and plagioclase with little
olivine magnetite are found in the ground mass of basalts. These are generally
brown to dark grey and light green. It also varies in style, size and in degree of
alteration. The pillow are mostly elongated in form, however circuler and oval
shape pillow are also noted in places. The pillow is generally jointed, fractured,
crushed & brecciated at places. The material in between two pillows are highly
deformed, weathered, glassy/ cemented, which indicate later sub aerial or
shallow volcanism. Turtal lava, volcanic bom/ Agglomerate are found as irregular
masses just North of prospect No.3. This sows shearing phenomena & sub aerial

The pillow lava in the Shinkai area is common in the surrounding of
prospect 3 and 2 as well as overlying the ultrabasic rock in this site. Chlorite,
epidote, zoelite and calcite are their common alteration phases.


These are the voluminous rocks of volcanic group in the area. These are
fine to medium grained, porpphyritic to vesicular in texture. The plagioclase and
phyroxene forms the phenocrysts. The domenent constituent minerals are
plagioclase, phyroxene. Chlorite, fibrous amphibole & phyroxene forms most of
the ground mass. Pulses of diorite to granodiorite composition and small lenses
of carbonate (limestone, marble) are also found in these rocks.


Rhyolite and dacite are found as minor or subordinate volcanic rock in the
area. They occur mostly in the form of pactches of few meter thick. They are
hard, compact and white to grey in colour. These are fine grained, light green to
whitish green volcanic, mostly occurred in the form of dykes/ sills and composed
of quarts and feldspar with chlorite, epidote and sercite as accessories.

Dacite exhibit porphyritic texture with plagioclase as main phenocryst
phase and feldspar, quartz and muscovite formed the ground mass, while alkali
feldspar and qtrz both as phenocrysts are found in the ground mass of Rhyolite.


The tuffs and agglomerate are very fine grained with chlorislized glassy
matrix and show very obvious flow structure. Turtle eye structure are also
common in the agglomerate/ bom volcanic, locally named Turtle lava.


Roughly running in a north east – south west direction, the ultramafics
occupy the central part of the north-south Waziristan Agencies. These include
peridotites, Harzbergite, phroxenite and dunite which are generally serpentinized.


The peridotite are dark coloured and medium to coarse grained. These
are mainly composed of clinophyroxene with subordinate orthophyroxene and
olivine which are slightly altered into serpentine at places. Stringes, veins and
pockets of chromite are rarely present. In few places cross fibers of asbestose
has taken place.


Dunite is mostly found in the form of lenses, pockets and paches in
Herzbergite. It is coarse grained, duly green to olive green and brownish grey
rocks, mainly composed of olivine & phyroxene. Chormite occurrence in the form
of stringes, dessimination and vein are sporadically found. The dunite is altered
into serpentinite at places.


The harzbergite are the voluminous rocks among other ultrabasic rocks.
These are greenish dark to back in colour and coarse grained. Individual crystal
exhibit mica shine. Olivine and orthophyroxene are the main constituents with
subordinate clinophyroxene. The olivine and phroxene is commonly altered into
serpentinite, talc, chlorite, kaoline. Dark-redish-brown materials are also noted
with in these rocks.


It is dark green and coarsely rock, mainly composed of clinophyroxene,
plagioclase with subordinate orthophroxene which are altered into serpentinite,
talc and or chlorite. Magnesite veins mostly fracture filled are found along the
fault zones or tightly tectonised sheared zones.



These rocks generally occupy the extreme southern side of the Shinkai
site upsteam in nalla intruded into ultrabasic rocks. These are medium to coarse
grained with grey to whitish and brown colour, on fresh surface. These are
intensely fractured & jointed. In hand specimen under pocket microscope,
consists of plagioclase, phyroxene, hornblende & opaque minerals. The
alteration of sericite, epidote, chlorite, clay and amphibole minerals are common.
The rocks also contained thick fractures with serpentine and talc infill.


Plagio-granite occur as small plugs and intruded the ultra basic rock to the
south of prospect No.6 at Shinkai area. Several bodies of plagio granite has been
found with in the ultrasic in the premises of prospect No.6. These are coarse
grained, circular to enlogated bodies with large crystal/ laths of plagio clase.
These are grey to whitish grey, equigranulor to sub equigranular & consist of
plagioclase, quarts, feldspar with accessories of chlorite, muscovite, amphibole
and opaque minerals. One small elongated body is found just on the faulted
contact of volcanic & ultra basic with in the serpentinite/ hurzbergite rocks.
Another large semicircular body is found on top of the ridge, south of prospect

No. 6. In this area more such bodies of very limited extent has been found with in
the ultra basic rocks. These have sharp contact with the enclosing rocks.

Granite is weathered on surface and greyish on fresh surface. Paches of
ultra basic rock (Serpentinite) are also noted with in the plagio-granite.

At some places, the plagiogranite is so intermixed with ultra basic rocks
that constituted rock of intermediate composition. This intrusion indicate the last
stage of magmatic activity, usually dry i.e. lacking any mineralization.


These sediments mostly overlies the volcanic rock (pillow lava) in the
project area and have a tectonic contacts. They comprises predominantly
jesperite with chertly shales and limestone. Jesperite is maroon and greenish
grey in hand specimen and is thin to medium bedded with fine grained matrix.

Cherty shale is red-brown and is very hard. These are host rock for
manganese, lenses of which have been reported from Deghan & Data Khel area.
These are composed of chert, quartz with calcite as subordinate. Calcite
veins mostly form a network/ cross cutting the meta chert/ Jesperite. Cherty
bands of variable length are also found.

The limestone is grey to reddish in colour, massive, medium to thick
bedded, jointed, cracked & folded at places. Unidentified fossils has also been
found with in the limestone. At one place just above south of prospect No. 3, the
limestone is being mined for extraction of blocks as a dimension stone.

The limestone is found as lenses or isolated blocks within rock sequence
of pelagic sediments. Lenses of pelagic sediments (Jesperite, limestone) are also
found within the basalt volcanic which indicate late phase of volcanic activity. This

phenomena is common just south of prospect No. 3 and prospect No. 2, where
basalt pillow lava is in contact with pelagic sediments.


Basic to intermediate and acidic dykes of very limited extension has been
found with in the ophiolite complexes at places. These include dolerite, diorite,
rhyolite and diabase dykes / sills.


Dolerite are fine to medium grained with granular texture, greyish in colour
and also weathered on surface. Mostly consist of plagioclase, chlorite, hornblend,
phyroxene & opaque mineral, plagioclase some time altered into epidote. These
rocks are found as dykes/ sills, sporadically injected into the country rocks i.e. the
rocks of ophiolite belt. Plagioclase & clinophyroxene are the major constituent
minerals with hornblende and Biotite are the subordinate. Chlorite, serpentine,
epidote are the common alteration phases.


Medium to coarse grained, mostly composed of feldspar, quartz,
amphisbole & opaque minerals. These dykes/ sills are very small in size &
variable in shape, whitish to light grey in colour. In some places sheets of diorite
(west-south of prospect No. 2) associated with pelagic sediments (jesperite +
limestone) and volcanic rocks.


Later intrusion in the form of volcanic pulses (rhyolitic, in composition) are
also found with in ultra basic, south of prospect No.6. These volcanic are very

fined grained, greyish in colour and silicified in composition. Consists
plagiochase, chlorite and quartz.

Numerous dykes/ sills of dolerite, diorite & rhyolite of very limited
extension have been found with in the Ultra basic rocks in the area of prospect


Since long the Waziristan area is known for various minerals like iron,
manganese, copper and chromite etc. The area had been visited by a number of
local and foreign geologists. A.L. Coulson (1935-1940) covered area along
Jandola-Wana and Jandula-Razmik lines and reported clay, coal, copper, iron,
nickol & oil, non being of economic importance. Asrarullah 1957 visited a number
of localities for copper, chromite, iron, coal etc and recommend further work.

However, the Defunct FATA DC, 1971 conducted the first regional
geological survey and mineral exploration in parts of North and South Waziristan
Agencies. As result they have identified sporaodic showing of copper
mineralization in the Waziristan ophiolite complex. Several gossan have been
identified and studied in Shinkai Mohammad Khel area, confined to 10 km 2 area.
These yellowish to redish colour gossans form North-East to South trending belt
in Shinkai area. Copper mineralization is associated with these leached /
oxidized zones in the form of primary and secondary sulplrides.

These yellow leached and oxidized gossans are found in the form of
irregular bodies of various size and shape and are delineated as prospects with
Nos to make easy their identification in the field and also for further geological
interpretation. After detail survey, the Shinkai and Degan Paikhel area of North
Waziristan was found of significant importance for copper mineralization. Both of
these areas were subjected to detail exploration including geological mapping,
sampling, geophysical survey and core drilling and established these areas
prospective for the further detail exploration/ development.

The gossans are generally accompanied pillow breccia which contained
sulphide mineralization in the form of stock work, fine dissemination and laminea.
The exposed out crop, commonly shows leaching of copper & iron pyrites, giving
yellowish, reddish and greenish tent to the immediate surrounding rocks. The

talus materials noted around the prospects indicate heavy weathering and
leaching out of the contained sulplride mineralization.

Sulphide mineralization is confined to the stock work zones in the form of
dissemination, fracture and cavity filling as well as blebs or laminea in the ground
mass. The sulphide mineralization is mostly in the form of chalopyrite, pyrite,
bornite, sphallerite, pyrrhotite along with its associated secondary oxidary oxides
including malaclrite, goethite, Jarrosite & limonite. Sulphide mineralization is
commonly associated with pronounce alteration zones of chlorite, epidote,
Quartz, calcite & zeolite.

Most of the prospects in the Shinkai area are associated with fault
bounded graben, particularly along the southern limb of the graben closed to the
faulted contact. On the northern limb of the graben, the faulted contact is mostly
covered by alluvium, however where exposed small paches of gossans have
been encountered. Moreover, major portion of the graben is alluvium covered,
which may have some hidden prospects of the sulphide mineralization.

The prospects identified with in the fault bounded graben at Shinkai area,
are named prospect No. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. From P1 to P5, these are found
along southern limb/fault of the graben, while prospect No.6 is lying at its nose.

It has also been noticed that few prospects are located out side of the
graben with in the rock sequence of ultrabasic & andesite volcanic. These
prospects are named as prospect No. 7, 8, 9, 10 & 11 respectively.
The geological description of these prospects are summarized below.

Project – 1: No yet located and studied.

Prospect No. 2: An elongated body of gossan/ oxiolized zone with yellowish
to red-brownish capping, lying at the month of Mada-Algnut nalla and extend in

east direction toward ward prospect No. 3. Minor secondary sulphide i.e.
malachite, lemonite and goethite are noted in places. The host rock is brecciated
volcanic, andesite to basalt in composition. The gossan/ oxidized body of the
brecciated volcanic are yellow to brownish in colour, soft, crushed/ sheared with
contamination of pelagic sediments (jesperite). This indicate that the brecciated
volcanic are the later phase of volcanism.

Stock work/ brecciated zone is massive, jointed/ fractured and is
surrounded by yellowish colour gossan caping. Chlorite and Zeolite alteration are
noted at places with in the oxidized/ gossan body.

The volcanic rock at the northern contact of prospect is epidotized at
places. To the west of the prospect brecciated volcanic is slightly oxidized.
Further west ward oxidization is decreases while epidotization is common.
Toward east is lying prospect No. 3 while the area in between two prospects are
alluvium covered.

Geophysical survey of the prospect also give weak positive anomalies
along certain profiles.

No primary sulphide mineralization is observed so far. However, this
prospect was subjected by FATA-DC to core drilling, wherein few drill holes have
intersected the primary sulphide mineralization in the form of disseminated pyrite
and chalcopyrite.

The geological characteristics of the prospect is very interesting, however,
the prospect need closed electrode spacing 1.p geophysical survey to locate any
hidden sulphide orc body as well as core drilling of the positive geophysical


The prospect No. 3, a semi circular body of oxidized rock with gossan,
caping covering an area of about 1sq km. The brecciated stock work zone is
occupied the centre part of the prospect. The stock work zone is highly fractured,
jointed & cracked, giving rise to cress cross structure. Malachite showing are
dominant on the southern side of the prospect. Primary sulphide mineralization in
the form of disseminated pyrite, chalcopyrite and blebs of chalcopyrite are
confined to stock work zones. The mineralization is mostly associated with
fractures, crackes and cavities as well as in the ground mass of the brecciated
volcanic. Disseminated pyrite + chalcopyrite are also found with in oxidized
brecciated volcanic beyond the stock work zone with in the prospect area.
Chlorite alteration is common mostly associated with sulphide mineralization.
Quartz, calcite, zeolite and epidote alteration are also noted at places. Jarosite,
limonite and goethite mineralization are common. Potential wise the best
prospect identified so far in Shinkai area. This prospect is extensively subjected
into detail exploration by FATA DC in shape of geological/ mineralogical study,
sampling, geophysical and core drilling.

Geophysical survey indicated various positive anomalies in range of 40 –
50. These positive geophysical anomalies were drilled, randomly through
No. of drill holes at very close spacing. However, the results of some of
these drill holes are quite encouraging and the massive zone of copper
mineralization has been intersected in these holes at different levels and has
been proved to a depth of 272 meters in BH No. 22.

This prospect is bounded in the south by dolerite body along local thrust
fault, to the north by alluvium/ agglomerate and to the east by alluvium.

Dolerite dyke of about 2 meter wide & 20 meter long has been intruded
nearly in the centre of prospect with in the yellowish capping of the body. The
dolerite dyke has sheared contacts with brecciated oxidized volcanic. Another

dolorite dyke (4x100m) has also been found in between prospect No. 3 and local
thrust fault/ ultrabasic on the southern side of the prospect.

Local has driven an adit with in the malachite zone for extraction of the
copper. At depth level with in the Adit, they have intersected rich zone of primary
sulphide mineralization (chalcopyrite, with minor cuprite and bornite). In view of
the above, further deep drilling is proposed in this prospect for intersection of
mineralization at greater depth to enhance the already established reserves.


This is a small circular body of (10x3m) crapping out along Mada-Alghat
nalla about 100 m to the North of prospect No. 3. Its lateral extension on all sides
is covered by alluvium. This is a body of oxidized brecciated volcanic, brownish
to yellow in colour, highly fractured/ jointed. No sulphide mineralization has been
noted so far. This prospect needs geophysical survey to know its lateral as well
down depth extension with any sulphide zone.


A small body of red-brown colour oxidized brecciated volcanic is found on
left tributary of Madaghar nalla about 200m NE of prospect No. 3. Its lateral
extension is covered by alluvium. Zones of pelagic sediments i.e. Jesperite &
limestone are found at places.

A small body of plago-granite (1x3 feet) is present with in Jesperite. No-
sulphide mineralization has been found. The prospect at present is placed at low
priority, however in future, it should be subjected to ground geophysical survey
for knowing its lateral as well down depth extension along with any sort of
sulphide mineralization.


This prospect is located along eastern alignment of P3 & P2 at distance of
about 2 Km from prospect No. 3 at the nose of faulted bounded graben.

The capping/ oxidized zone is redish to yellowish colour brecciated
volcanic, consist of dominantly quartz with minor, pyrite, chalcopyrite in
dessimination. The volcanic is vesicular in texture and andesite in composition.
Goethite & lemonite zones are also found at places.

It is less oxidized with few gossans as compared to prospect No. 3.
Numerous small oxidized/altered zones are found which contained weak
sulphide mineralization in the form of pyrite. These zones yellow to redish brown
and occupied the central part of the prospect as isolated blocks/ paches.

The becciated oxidized zones contained malachite showing and minor
disseminated pyrite + chalcopyrite in the matrix. Malachite showing associated
with sheared zones along fractures are also found. These altered/ oxidized
bodies may be the extensional zones with possible sulphide mineralization.

The prospect is bounded in south & east by local thrust fault/ Ultrabasic
rock while on west & north side is covered by alluvium.

The brown/ yellowish, massive, solid bodies may indicate stock work with
less sulphide mineralization. A dolerite dyke of 1x10 m dimension is present on
eastern slope of the prospect.

Geophysical survey (1.p) is conducted at prospect No. 6 to locate any high
rich zone of sulphide mineralization at depth. As result high positive anomalies
have been recorded. Some of these anomalies have been drilled but failing to
intersect the sulphide zone, possibly the mineralization may be present at greater
depth or the angle of drill holes missed the positive anomaly.

The prospect need I.P geophysical survey again at close electrode
spacing and deep drilling at grid pattern in a systematic way to know the actual
position of the prospect.


It is located to the east of prospect No. 6. it is small circular to semi
circular body, which are oxidized at places. The oxidized zone (Gossans) are
yellowish to brownish in colour. The brown altred oxidized zones are brecciated,
fractured, jointed and form stock work. The oxidized rocks on fresh surface are
peridotites which are serpentinized at places. The zoilite, magnesite coating
along with epidote alteration are common.

Sulphide mineralization in the form of malachite & pyrite are found
associated with sheared zone in the brecciated area. Disseminated fine grains of
chromite are also found with in peridotite rocks. At the centre of the body, the
peridotite with epidote alteration contained 1-foot zone of malachite with few fine
grains of pyrite. The altered/oxidized rocks seems to be the extensional zones,
which are leached to yellow – brown colour capping of gossans.

The prospect No. 7 is lying with ultrabasic rocks, out side of the fault
bounded graben. This prospect is not fully studied and explored. Therefore need
appropriate geophysical survey for locating any hidden ore body and it further
detail exploration through core drilling.


It is located further to the east of prospect No. 7. It is lying just south of the
faulted contact of vesicular andesite volcanic and serpentinite rock of ultra basic
group. It is an elongated body of oxidized rock. The host rock is hard, massive
herzbargite/ dunite, containing more quartz. The body is fractured/ jointed and
sheared at places.

Malachite showing are common along sheared zones. The sheared zones
are soft, yellow to brown colour gossan with more lemonite, goethite & Jerosite
minerals assemblage of alteration.

Layering of limestone with dirty brown surface are noted with in the
prospect at places, which are silicified and contained fine grains of pyrite. Quartz,
zoelite, calcite with subordinate chlorite are the alteration phases.

A part from the massive body, various small oxidized zone are found along
contact with in the ultrabasic rock, mostly serpentinite. The serpentinites are
sheared, deformed/ fractured. These oxidized zones are caped by yellowish to
brownish colour gossans, with limonite and goethite mineral assemblages. These
zones are ranging in thickness from 2 – 5m and mostly associated with fracture
filling or sheared zones. The common alteration in these subsidiary zones are
calcite, chlorite, zoelite and quartz. Malachite showing are common in these
zones. After exposing of these sheared zones with malachite, limonite & goethite
assemblage for about 2 – 3 feet, massive zone of primary sulphide i.e.
chalcopyrite, pyrite with subordinate bornite and Cuprite mineralization are found.
Chalcopyrite is rich in the area of Qtz, calcite enrichment/ alteration. At one place
massive zone of magnetite associated with quartz veinlets are found with in the
oxidized zone. These oxidized zone of primary/ secondary sulphide
mineralization seems to be the off shoots of massive body injected along
fractures/ sheared zones.

A private party has started mining activites for extraction of copper
(Chalcopyrite, Pyrite with subordinate Bornite + Cuprite) along fractured/ sheared
zones. He has extracted massive copper of about 30 tones with an average
assay of Cu upto 20%. These sheared/ fracture filled zones of copper
mineralization are lensoid form with limited lateral extension. Their width & length
depend on the volume of the fractured/ sheared zones. The prospect need
geophysical survey for its further assessment.


Located to the south of prospect No. 6 at higher allitude/ elevation. It is an
elongated body of about 5 – 10 m wide & more than 40 meter long. It is an
altered/ oxidized body of maroon/ red colour with limonitic gossan at places. The
host rock is volcanic, probably of rhyolitic compostion or andesite volcanic with
pulses of rhyolites. The body is highly weathered, oxidized with pronounce argilic
alteration. The clay minerals are mostly Kaoline, alunite & red clay.

The body contain red-brown oxidized zones on the western side with less
argillic alteration. This portion is so weathered/ oxidized to greater depth that no
fresh surface is available for sampling and rock description.

The upper part, eastern side of the body is redish to dirty green in colour
with more argilic alteration and silicification. The western portion contained
feldspar, free Quartz (brecciated). No. sulphide is found in west side of the body.

The whole prospect is highly sheared, fractured with weathered surface,
while on fresh surface it is fine grained silicified volcanic with grey colour.
Common alteration is argilic, silicification, Quartz, breccia. Fine grains of pyrite,
marcasite/phyrotite are found in dissemination as well as along fracture filling.

The high silicified zones, contained more pyrite. The prospect is bounded
on north & south side by pelagic sediments i.e. Limestone, Jesperite and barren

The prospect seems to be an extensional zones, with sulphide
mineralization. Needs further detail exploration (Geophysical Survey & Core
drilling) for its economic evaluation.


It is located east of Prospect No. 9 at Kandol mela (Jomatia area) and
lying on left side of the road with nearly steep slopes. The centre part of the body

is unaccessible. The prospect is semi circular to elongated body with huge
gasson, mostly in the central part.

It is an altered/ oxidized body with dark-brown colour on surface and grey
colour on fresh surface. The massive dark brown colour part of the body is
brecciated. The host rock is silicified andesite or rhyolitic volcanic.

Lemonite, Jarosite & goethite bearing gasson with yellow to redish colour
are found as patches & layers. However the central part of the body is highly
weathered, soft, contained yellowish-red gossan zone with number of pits or
caves, may indicating weathering phenomena.

The chloritic alteration is common with subordinate qtrz breccia. Some
mixed chloritic and argilic alteration horizons are also found. To ward west,
isolated oxidized bodies as extensional zones are also found with in the andesite
volcanic. One no chip sample collected from this prospect contained 1.5% Cu
with subordinate Zn, Pb & Au.

Although no sulphide mineralization has been noted so far, however basis
on the geology, alteration and presence of huge gossan, the prospect seems to
be prospective and need geophysical survey for any hidden sulphide ore body.


The prospect No. 11 is located to the south of prospect No. 10. It is an
circular body of oxidized / altered volcanic with dirty brownish to yellowish colour.
The host rock is soft, fractured & jointed andesite or rhyolite volcanic.

On fresh surface, the goethite and limonite zones are brecciated. The
quartz fragments of the breccia contained pyrite. Quartz veinlets are also
common in the brecciated zones which contained chalcopyrite ± chalcocite. The
quartz are whitish to greyish, contained rich pyrite & phyrotite.

The volcanic are greyish to whitish silicified volcanic on fresh surface
contained disseminated pyrite, chalcophyrite, bornite and blebs of chalcophyrite.

The silicified zones with limonite, geothile, Qtz, Chlorite, argilic & breccia
alteration contained chalcophyrite. Argilic alteration consist of Kaoline, alunite
and red clay. The body is bounded on north by dark grey volcanics while it has
southern contact with ultrabasic rock.

On the basis of geology, mineralogy and alteration assemblages, this
prospect may have pottantial of epithermal Cu-Au gold mineralization, which is
mostly associated with porphyry system. One no sample collected from the
prospect is sent to MTL & its result is awaited.

However, based on geological characteristics, this prospect is kept on high
priority for further detail exploration including geophysical survey and core


After establishment of project office at Hayatabad, recruitment of staff and
procurement of office equipment etc, full concentration was given to field work. In
this connection an agreement was made with locals of Muhammad Khel (land
owner of Shinkai area) though local administration to cover security risk for
smooth operation of field activities for copper exploration at Shinkai area.

Since commencement of the field work in July, 2008, the following have been

1. All the old data regarding geological reports, core drilling, geophysical
work, laboratory study, feasibility study and other technical report
concerning the Boya Copper were searched & collected and kept in safe
custody for future references.

2. Various reconnaissance visits were made to different parts of the
Shinkai copper site for orientation survey to undertake the geology and
mineralization and studied/ assessed for future proposed work of the

3. During reconnaissance field work, 02 more huge bodies of oxidized
gossan with copper showing arc found to south of prospect No. 9,
numbered as prospect No. 10 & 11 respectively.

4. These newly identified prospects are sampled and analysed which
contained significant amount of copper with subordinate gold.

5. Grid survey on regional scale with 100 meter electrode spacing of the
Shinkai area (Faults bounded graben) was conducted to prepare base
lines for geophysical survey work.

6. Similarly grid survey on detail scale with closed electrode spacing of 50
m interval of prospect No. 2, 3 and 6 was also conducted and base lines
laid down on ground for the proposed I.P geophysical work.

7. Detail geological map of prospect No. 6 and prospect No. 3 was
prepared, showing mineralized zones & drill holes point. These maps
with geophysical data layer will be used as base map for proposed
drilling work.

8. Contouring of Shinkai prospects and its surrounding was carried out in
detail to be used as master plan for future exploration workings.

9. The cores of previously drilling holes of prospect No. 2 & 3 stored at site
colony were studied and few were logged to know the depth wise
position of geology, alteration & mineralization.

10. Pre-qualification tenders have been invited for hiring of local consultant
and for core drilling work. The tenders have been received, which is
under process at project as well as at head office level.

11. Based on the old geophysical core drilling, geology and chemical data a
master plan is being prepared for future strategy of the project work.

12. The data collected during the field work was interpreted, digitized and
compiled in shape of maps/ reports.


1. On the basis of the so far generated exploration data, geological
environment, study and research, the genetic model established for
Waziristan copper is of typical volcanogenic massive Sulphide deposits
(Cyprus Type), where this type of copper deposits give workable potential
for copper and associated base metals else where in the world.

2. Occurrences of copper mineralization is found as isolated bodies of
yellowish oxidation gossans of irregular outlines which shows a common
leaching of copper and iron pyrites. The copper mineralization is generally
confined to brecciated pillow Basalt and found in the form of stock work,
cavities filling, fracture filling and fine dissemination.

3. Enriched chlorite, epidote, quartz, calcite and zeolite are the common
alteration phases. The mineralization is mostly associated with pronounce
chlorite alteration.

4. The ophiolite belt, the host of copper mineralization is technically
emplaced on to Indian mass, thus subjected to savior structurall
complexity in shape of faulting, folding, brecciation & granulation. The
rocks of ophiolite belt are found in the form of stock of slices and no
normal sequence of oceanic crust rocks is preserved. However, no
uplifting & erosional phenomena during regional scale tectonic has taken
places in the area, thus the associated mineralization is remained intac
but displaced due to structural complicity & deformation.

5. The Shinkai prospects locally at Shinkai/ Modaghar area is found in
faulted bound graben structure generally along the southern faulted
contacts as isolated out crops in the form of oxidized gossans.

6. The Waziristan ignous complex representing a typical ophiolite
environment with diagnostic sequence of ocean floor rocks comprising of
ultramafic, pillow baslts, sheeted dykes and deep marine sediments
(pelagic sediment). The ophiolite sequence is intruded by plagio granite
diorite to grano diorite and later pulses of rhyolite volcanic.

7. On the basis of geological survey & core drilling, the FATA DC have
estimated the potential of prospect No. 2 and 3 of Shinkai to be of 35
million tones of 0.8% Cu, including 8 millions tone in proved while 27
millions tones in indicated category. The geophysical survey conducted by
FATA DC on prospect No. 6 at Shinkai area also give encouraging results.
Thus through additional geophysical survey and core drilling, the
estimated reserves of 35 million tones can be increased many folds.

In addition, Badshah 1985, based on geological maps at scale 1:5000
reported 102 million tones of Cu in between Deghan Phakel and Shinkai

8. The so far exploration activities are confined only to Deghan Phakel &
Shinkai, which over limited area of 16 square km, which indicate only a
small part of the Waziristan complex. Generally, the Waziristan ophiolite
belt covering an area of 1127 Sq Km in North and South Waziristan
Agencies. Therefore similar & even more significant mineralization are
expected in other parts of North and South Waziristan Agencies along
ophiolite belt.

9. Along this belt, copper showing are already reported by previous workers
in the vicinity of preghel, Spin Kamar in South Waziristan and Mazer Khel,
Ismail Khel, Khadar Khel in North Waziristan.

These areas have similar geological environments, therefore work in there
areas yet to conducted. However, once the area become clear from
security of view, chances of finding of more prospect are bright.

10. infrastructure facilities in shape of road, electric power, water and main
power which also play an important rule in mineral development sector are
far better/ fair at Shinkai.

11. Chromite, magnese mineralization are also reported & mined in different
parts along ophiolite belt in North & South Waziristan. These deposits
have great potential along these belts.


In the light of the aforementioned conclusion, the following is recommended to
exploit the mineral wealth of this region.

1. Additional geophysical survey appropriate to the nature of mineralization &
condition of the area to be conducted in Skinkai prospects and with
immediate surrounding area about 10-15 Sq km for locating other potential

2. Based on the geophysical survey, systematic core drilling has to be
carried out in Shinkai area for enhancement of the known reserves and
identification of additional resources.

3. The entire ophiolite belt has great potential for copper & associated base
metals and other minerals i.e. chromite, iron, magnese of economic
importance needs systematic exploration i.e. geological mapping,
investigation, sampling

4. The entire ophiolite belt in Waziristan agencies may be subjected to a
systematic geochemical, stream sediments sampling (Pan Con, - 80 #)
and mineralized float to generate systematic and reliable mineral data for
gold & base metal to identify regional, prospects & deposit scale targets.
These targets should be offered for further detail exploration, development
and exploitation to national & multinational mining companies.

5. Aerial photographs & satellite imageries studies of the Waziristan
Agencies may also be conducted for any anomalous feature, a clue for
mineral investigation.

6. Services of an expert economic/ exploration geologist of international
repute has to acquired for systematic assessment/ evaluation of Shinkai
prospects as well as appraisal of mineral potential of the entire ophiolite
belt in Waziristan Agencies.

7. Efforts should be made for a potential joint venture partner in the
international market for further investment in development of Shinkai
prospects, as well as in detail exploration to cover the entire ophiolite belt
in Waziristan Agencies.

8. All national and multinational mining companies may be approached/
contacted for investment in the region.

9. In addition to copper & allied base metal, the Waziristan ignous complex
may also be studied and explored for chromite, magnese, iron, soapstone
& talc deposits.

REFRENCES 1. Dr. Ihsanullah Mian
Associate Professor Department of Geology
University of Peshawar.
Muhammad Ihsan Afridi
Project Geologist, FATA DC, Peshawar.
Sulphide occurrence in Shinkai area of North
Waziristan Agency By

2. Badshah. M/s, 1985. Development potential of
Waziristan copper, record of FATA Development
Corporation, Peshawar.

3. Jan. M.Q. Windley. B. F. and Khan. A.S, 1985
The Waziristan ophiolite Pakistan General Geology
and Chemistry of Chromite and Assoicated phases.
Economic geology vol. 80.P 294-306

4. Copper Exploration and Evaluation Project
North Waziristan Agency of Federally Administered
Tribal areas Development Corporation.

5. Muhammad Asim, Muhammad Majid, Muhammad
Tahir Shah
Geology, geochemistry and tectonic setting of
ophiolite rocks from ophiolite complex, N.W. Pakistan.

6. Zhitian Wang, Professor consulting Economic
Strategic Report on Potential evalutaiton, exploration
model and suggestion for Waziristan copper


Mr. Ashfaq Sajjad, Project Director is thanked for his guidance, suggestion,
coordination, cooperation & review of the report. Mr. Ihsan Afridi, Project
Geologist is thanked for his valuable discussion regarding geology, exploration
history, mineralization and on time to time field visit to the Shinkai copper site. He
is also thanked for critical review of the report. Mr. Tariq Aziz acknowledged for
composing of the report.