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(Documentos relacionados: Glosario de términos japoneses, libros: listado, Breve historia de Japón, Mikiso Hane, Los diccionarios de las civilizaciones, Japón. Rossella Menegazzo. notas: periodos, apuntes)
縄文 じょうもん joumon [縄 cuerda] (Web de referencia) 弥生 やよい yayoi [creciente] 大和（嘡）@? やまと yamato 奈良 なら nara [奈: a wild apple] 平安 へいあん heian 鎌倉時代 かまくらじだい kamakura jidai [鎌: gancho, garfio ; 倉 depósito, bodega] Tokugawa 徳川: referencias [徳(とく): virtud] 明治 めいじ meiji [治: gobierno, remedio, cura] 大正 たいしょう taishou 昭和 しょうわ shouwa [昭 Brillante, claro] 平成 へいせい heisei El Kazoku 華族（かぞく）Nobleza japonesa [華: florido, brillante] 1. Príncipe o Duque (公爵 kōshaku) [爵: título nobiliario] 2. Marqués (侯爵 kōshaku) [侯: marques, señor feudal] 3. Conde (伯爵 hakushaku) 4. Vizconde (子爵 shishaku) 5. Barón (男爵 danshaku) 士族 (しぞく) familia de guerreros, y plebeyos 平民 へいみん Nichiren (日蓮, ) (16 de febrero de 1222 - 13 de octubre de 1282): referencias [蓮: Del lat. lotos, y este del gr. λωτός] Kokugaku (Kyūjitai: 國學/Shinjitai: 国学; lit. National study, aprendizaje nacional) (国 学 こくがく) referencia_1, referencia_2. [# kanji, 漢字] Sistema Hepburn: referencia de escritura
Gentes Tungúsicas: pueblos tunguses, lenguas tunguses, Lenguas altaicas: referencias, macizo de Altai Ainu: (palabra que significa "humano" en el idioma ainu) Northern Kyushu (北部九州 hokubu kyūshū?) is a subregion of Kyūshū: ref: PERSONAJES: HIMIKO (tb. Himeko, Pimiku): 卑弥呼, de Yamataikoku (邪馬台国, tb. 邪馬臺國, or Yamaichikoku 邪馬壹國) Yamato. [卑 vulgar, humilde, bajo; 弥 creciente ] AMATERASU (天照 ?), Amaterasu-ōmikami (天照大神／天照大御神 ?) or Ōhirumenomuchi-no-kami (大日孁貴神 ?) is in Japanese mythology a sun goddess, [照 brillar, iluminar] EMPEROR JIMMU (神武天皇, Jinmu-tennō?); also known as: Kamuyamato Iwarebiko; given name: Wakamikenu no Mikoto or Sano no Mikoto, was the mythical founder of Japan and is the first emperor named in the traditional lists of emperors [武 poderoso, bravo, marcial] EMPERADORES DE JAPÓN: aprender listado. Ninigi-no-Mikoto (瓊瓊杵尊) Ninigi (瓊瓊杵) Sobrino de Amaterasu y abuelo de Jimmu. [杵 mazo ; 尊 sagrado, preciado] MITOLOGÍA JAPONESA: página web. EMPEROR SUJIN (崇神天皇, ,Sujin-tennō?); also known as Mimakiiribikoinie no Sumeramikoto or Hatsukunishirasu Sumeramikoto; was the 10th emperor of Japan to appear on the traditional list of emperors. 崇(すう): noble, sublime EMPEROR ŌJIN (応神天皇, Ōjin-tennō?) was the 15th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Ōjin is his Chinese-style posthumous name. His real name was Homutawake or Hondawake (誉田別).[ 応 responder] KEITAI (継体天皇 Keitai-tennō), also known as Keitai okimi, was the 26th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. PRINCE SHŌTOKU (聖徳太子 ,Shōtoku Taishi?, 573–621), also known as Prince Umayado (厩戸皇子 ,Umayado no ōji?), was a regent and a politician of the Asuka period in Japan. His existence, however, is disputed [聖 santo, sagrado] The Seventeen-article constitution (十七条憲法 ,jūshichijō kenpō?) is, according to Nihon Shoki published in 720, a document authored by Prince Shōtoku in 602. It was adopted in the reign of Empress Suiko. [条 ジョウ: razón, lógica ; 憲法（けんぽう） / the constitution; 憲 regulación 法 ley] EMPEROR KAMMU (桓武天皇 ,Kanmu-tennō?) (737–806) was the 50th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession
EMPEROR SHIRAKAWA (白河天皇 Shirakawa-tennō) (July 7, 1053 – July 24, 1129) was the 72nd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. He reigned from January 18, 1073 to January 5, 1087. EMPEROR TEMMU (天武天皇 ,Tenmu-tennō?) (c. 631 - October 1, 686) was the 40th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. He ruled from 672 until his death in 686. The Fujiwara clan (藤原氏 Fujiwara-shi) Kabane (姓 ?) were hereditary titles used in ancient Japan to denote rank and political standing. The kabane were divided into two general classes: those who claimed they were descendants of the imperial line (kōbetsu (皇別 ?)), and those who claimed they were descendants of the gods (shinbetsu (神別 ?)). The Soga clan (蘇我氏 ,Soga no uji?) was one of the most powerful clans in Yamato Japan and played a major role in the spread of Buddhism in that country from Korea. The Taika Reforms (大化の改新 ,Taika no Kaishin?) were a set of doctrines established by Emperor Kōtoku in the year 646. They were written shortly after the death of Prince Shōtoku, and the defeat of the Soga clan, which united Japan. Crown Prince Naka no Ōe (who would later reign as Emperor Tenji), Nakatomi no Kamatari, and Emperor Kōtoku jointly embarked on the details of the Reforms. Emperor Kōtoku then took the name "Taika" (大化), or "Great Reform". The Taihō Code or Code of Taihō (大宝律令 ,Taihō-ritsuryō?) was an administrative reorganization enacted in 701 in Japan, at the end of the Asuka period. A shōen (荘園 or 庄園 ,shōen?) was a field or manor in Japan. The Japanese term comes from the Tang dynasty Chinese term zhuangyuan. Norito (祝詞) es la oración o palabras dirigidas a deidades en el Sintoísmo. Nori-goto significa "palabras pronunciadas". Kotodama (言霊) es la creencia de que las palabras pueden acceder a la esfera espiritual y que la pronunciación de las palabras influyen en la humanidad. The Taira clan (平氏 ,Taira-shi?) was a major Japanese clan in historical Japan. The Taira clan is often referred to as Heishi (平氏, literally "Taira clan") or Heike (平家, literally House of Taira ), using the character's Chinese reading hei. Minamoto (源 ?) was one of the honorary surnames bestowed by the Emperors of Japan of the Heian Period (794–1185 AD) on those of their sons and grandsons who were not considered eligible for the throne. The Taira were another such offshoot of the imperial dynasty. The Minamoto clan was also called the Genji Clan (源氏 ?), using the alternate pronunciation of the Chinese characters for Minamoto (gen) and uji, or family (ji).
Los Haniwa (埴輪, Haniwa?) son figuras de terracota que fueron elaboradas para su uso en rituales y enterradas como objetos funerarios durante el período Kofun de la historia de Japón, periodo durante el cual se desarrolló una clase aristócrata de gobernantes militares, los cuales quedaron representados en los haniwa. 埴輪（はにわ） / a clay image, a burial mound figurine 埴 clay. 輪 anillo, círculo. Genji Monogatari (源氏物語, Genji Monogatari?), generalmente traducido como Novela de Genji, Romance de Genji o Historia de Genji. Realmente la obra no tiene título, por lo que ha recibido numerosas denominaciones, siendo la más común y aceptada Genji Monogatari ( 源氏物語, El de Genji?). Murasaki Shikibu (紫 式部, Murasaki Shikibu? c. 978? - c. 1014?) fue una escritora japonesa, creadora de uno de los íconos más importantes y reconocidos de la literatura oriental: Genji Monogatari (La Novela de Genji). Wani (Japanese: Wani, Wani Kishi (王仁, 和邇吉師 ?); Korean: Wang In (왕인)) is a semi-legendary scholar dispatched by the Kingdom of Baekje (Paekche)in southwestern Korea to the Japanese Islands during the reign of Emperor Ōjin, bringing with him the knowledge of Confucianism and the Chinese writing system. He is mentioned in the ancient Japanese chronicles of Nihon Shoki and Kojiki. He was regarded as the founder of the Kawachi-no-Fumi (西文) clan. Kojiki (古事記 ,also known as Furukotofumi and known in English as The Records of Ancient Matters?), is the oldest surviving book in Japan. The body of the Kojiki is written in Chinese, but it includes numerous Japanese names and some phrases. The songs included in the Kojiki are in archaic Japanese written phonetically with Chinese characters, known as Man'yōgana A document claiming to be an older work, the Kujiki (which the Kojiki dates to 620 AD), also exists, but its authenticity is questioned. Man'yōgana (万葉仮名 ?) is an ancient writing system that employs Chinese characters to represent the Japanese language. The date of the earliest usage of this type of kana is not clear, but it was in use since at least the mid seventh century. The name "man'yōgana" is from the Man'yōshū, a Japanese poetry anthology from the Nara period written in man'yōgana. Man'yōshū (万葉集 ,man'yōshū?, "Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves") is the oldest existing collection of Japanese poetry, compiled sometime in the Nara or early Heian periods (about 759 A.D.). The Nihon Shoki (日本書紀 ?), sometimes translated as The Chronicles of Japan, is the second oldest book of classical Japanese history. It is more elaborate and detailed than the Kojiki, the oldest, and has proven to be an important tool for historians and archaeologists as it includes the most complete extant historical record of ancient Japan. The Nihon Shoki was finished in 720 under the editorial supervision of Prince Toneri and with the assistance of Ō no Yasumaro. The book is also called the Nihongi (日本 紀 ,lit. Japanese Chronicles?). 大乗仏教（だいじょうぶっきょう、Mahāyāna Buddhism）
Tendai (天台宗 ,Tendai-shū?) is a Japanese school of Mahayana Buddhism, a descendant of the Chinese Tiantai or Lotus Sutra school. The Lotus Sutra or Sutra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma is one of the most popular and influential Mahayana sutras in Asia and the basis on which the Tien Tai and Nichiren sects of Buddhism were established. 法華経（ほけきょう、ほっけきょう とも） Shingon Buddhism (眞言, 真言 "true words") is a major school of Japanese Buddhism, and is the other branch of Vajrayana Buddhism besides Tibetan Buddhism. It is often called "Japanese Esoteric Buddhism". The word shingon is the Japanese reading of the kanji for the Chinese word zhen yan, literally meaning "true words", which in turn is the Chinese translation of the Sanskrit word mantra. Kūkai (空海), also known posthumously as Kōbō-Daishi (弘法大師 ?), 774–835, was a Japanese monk, scholar, poet, and artist, founder of the Shingon or "True Word" school of Buddhism. Shingon followers usually refer to him by the honorific title of Odaishisama (お大師様 ?).
Mono no aware (物の哀れ ,mono no aware?, lit. "the pathos of things"), also translated as "an empathy toward things," or "a sensitivity of ephemera," is a Japanese term used to describe the awareness of mujo or the transience of things and a bittersweet sadness at their passing. The term was coined in the eighteenth century by the Edoperiod Japanese cultural scholar Motoori Norinaga, and was originally a concept used in his literary criticism of The Tale of Genji, and later applied to other seminal Japanese works including the Man'yōshū, becoming central to his philosophy of literature, and eventually to Japanese cultural tradition. Motoori Norinaga (Japanese: 本居宣長; 21 June 1730–5 November 1801) was a Japanese scholar of Kokugaku during the Edo period. He is probably the best known and most prominent of all scholars in this tradition. Sei Shōnagon (清少納言), (c. 966-1017) was a Japanese author and a court lady who served the Empress Teishi/Empress Sadako around the year 1000 during the middle Heian Period, and is best known as the author of The Pillow Book (枕草子 makura no sōshi).(El libro de la almohada) Waka (和歌 lit. "Japanese poem") or Yamato uta is a genre of classical Japanese verse and one of the major genres of Japanese literature. The term was coined during the Heian period, and was used to distinguish Japanese-language poetry from kanshi (poetry written in Chinese by Japanese poets), and later from renga. The Kokin Wakashū (古今和歌集 ?), commonly abbreviated as Kokinshū (古今集 ?), is an early Heian waka Imperial anthology, conceived by Emperor Uda (r. 887–897) and ordered by his son Emperor Daigo (r. 897–930) in approximately 905. Its finished form dates to c. 920, though according to several historical accounts the last poem was added to the collection in 914. The compilers of the anthology were four court poets, led by Ki no Tsurayuki and including Ki no Tomonori (who died before its completion), Ōshikōchi Mitsune, and Mibu no Tadamine. Its name means "Collected Japanese Poems of Ancient and Modern Times." Ise Shrine (Ise-jingū 伊勢神宮) is a Shinto shrine dedicated to goddess Amaterasu Ōmikami, located in the city of Ise in Mie prefecture, Japan. 伊 イ fonético 勢 セイ いきお（い） poder 神 シン、ジン かみ dios, deidad 宮 キュウ、ク、グウ みや palacio Hōryū-ji (法隆寺 ,lit. Temple of the Flourishing Law?) is a Buddhist temple in Ikaruga, Nara Prefecture, Japan. Its full name is Hōryū Gakumonji (法隆学問寺), or Learning Temple of the Flourishing Law, named as such because the site serves as a seminary as well as a monastery. The temple is widely acknowledged to have one of the oldest wooden buildings existing in the world Tōdai-ji (東大寺 ,Tōdai-ji?, Eastern Great Temple), is a Buddhist temple complex located in the city of Nara, Japan. Its Great Buddha Hall (大仏殿 Daibutsuden), the largest wooden building in the world, houses the world's largest statue of the Buddha
Vairocana, known in Japanese simply as Daibutsu (大仏). The temple also serves as the Japanese headquarters of the Kegon school of Buddhism. Yamato-e (大和絵) is a style of Japanese painting inspired by Tang dynasty paintings and developed in the late Heian period. It is considered the classical Japanese style. From the Muromachi period(15th century), this term Yamato-e has been used to distinguish work from contemporary Chinese style paintings (kara-e), which were inspired by Sung and Yuan dynasty Zen Buddhism paintings. Emakimono (絵巻物 ,emakimono?, lit. 'picture scroll'), often simply called emaki (絵 巻 ?), is a horizontal, illustrated narrative form created during the 11th to 16th centuries in Japan. Emakimono combines both text and pictures, and is drawn, painted, or stamped on a handscroll. They depict battles, romance, religion, folk tales, and stories of the supernatural world.. It is seen as the origin of modern manga.
Guerras Genpei (源平合戦 , Genpei kassen, Genpei gassen?) es el nombre por el que se conoce a una serie de conflictos civiles que tuvieron lugar en el antiguo Japón, entre 1180 y 1185 (finales de la era Heian), y que enfrentó a los clanes Taira y Minamoto. La consecuencia directa de esta guerra civil fue la victoria del clan Minamoto y la consiguiente caída del Taira, lo que puso a los samuráis al mando político y militar de Japón, y permitió el establecimiento del primer shogunato en la historia japonesa, el Kamakura, encabezado por Minamoto no Yoritomo (1192). 合戦 （かっせん） / a battle 雪合戦（ゆきがっせん） / a snowball fight Taira Kiyomori 平 清盛(1118 - 21 de marzo, 1181, Kyoto) fue un líder del poderoso clan Taira y el primer miembro de la clase guerrera samurái del Japón. [盛: próspero] Emperador Suutoku (崇徳天皇 Sutoku-tennō) (7 July 1119 – 14 September 1164) was the 75th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1123 through 1142. [崇(すう): noble, sublime ; 徳(とく): virtud] Emperor Go-Shirakawa (後白河天皇 Go-Shirakawa-tennō) (October 18, 1127 – April 26, 1192) was the 77th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1155 through 1158. [後: Posterior, tardío.] Minamoto no Yoritomo (源 頼朝 ?, May 9, 1147—February 9, 1199) was the founder and the first shogun of the Kamakura Shogunate of Japan. He ruled from 1192 until 1199. [頼 soporte, fiable ;朝 mañana, amanecer] Hōjō Masako (北条 政子, 1156 – 1225) was the eldest child of Hōjō Tokimasa by his wife Hōjō no Maki, the first shikken, or regent, of the Kamakura shogunate. She was the sister of Hōjō Yoshitoki, and was married to Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura period. She was also the mother of Minamoto no Yoriie and Minamoto no Sanetomo, the second and third shoguns. [条 ジョウ: razón, lógica ; 政 gobierno] BAKUFU: A shogun's office or administration is known in English as a "shogunate" or in Japanese as a bakufu (幕府?), [幕 cortina, escena, acto; 府 prefecture urbana] Shogun (将軍 ,shōgun?) listen (help·info) ("Commander of the Forces") is a military rank and historical title for Hereditary Commanders in Chief of the Armed Forces of Japan.  The Japanese word for "general", it is made up of two kanji characters: shō, meaning "commander", "general", or "admiral", and gun meaning military troops or warriors. The modern rank is equivalent to a Generalissimo. As a title, it is the short form of Seii Taishōgun 征夷大将軍（せいいたいしょうぐん）the governing individual at various times in the history of Japan, ending when Tokugawa Yoshinobu relinquished the office to the Meiji Emperor in 1867. [征 atacar, conquistar; 夷 destruir ; 将 señor, lider, comandante ; 軍 armada, tropa]
Emperor Go-Toba (後鳥羽天皇 ,Go-Toba-tennō?) (August 6, 1180 – March 28, 1239) was the 82nd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1183 through 1198. Emperor Go-Daigo (後醍醐天皇 Go-Daigo-tennō) (November 26, 1288 – September 19, 1339) was the 96th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. [醍 licor ; 醐 productos diarios ] [醍醐味（だいごみ） / the real pleasure, the true charm] [醍醐味を味わう（だいごみをあじわう）experience the real pleasure] The Nanboku-chō period (南北朝時代（なんぼくちょうじだい）"South and North courts period", also known as the Northern and Southern Courts period), spanning from 1336 to 1392, was a period that occurred during the formative years of the Muromachi bakufu of Japan's history. During this period, there existed a Northern Imperial Court, established by Ashikaga Takauji in Kyoto, and a Southern Imperial Court, established by Emperor Go-Daigo in Yoshino. Yoshino (吉野郡; -gun) is a district located in Nara Prefecture, Japan [吉: Buena suerte ; 野 campo, silvestre; 郡 : campo, rural] The Kii Peninsula (紀伊半島 ,Kii Hantō?) is one of the largest peninsulas on the island of Honshū in Japan. [紀: periodo, registro] Ashikaga Takauji (足利 尊氏 ?, 1305—June 7, 1358) was the founder and 1st shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate. His rule began in 1338, beginning the Muromachi period of Japan, and ended with his death in 1358. He was a descendant of the samurai of the (Minamoto) Seiwa Genji line, descended from Emperor Seiwa, that had settled in Ashikaga area of Shimotsuke Province which is in present day Tochigi Prefecture. [利: beneficio, ganancia ; 尊: sagrado, valioso] The Genkō War (元弘の乱, げんこうのらん Genkō no Ran) (1331-1333) was a civil war in Japan which marked the fall of the Kamakura shogunate (鎌倉幕府) and end of the power of the Hōjō clan (北条氏). The war thus preceded the Nanboku-chō period (南北朝時代) and the rise of the Ashikaga shogunate (足利幕府 or 室町幕府). [元: inicio, origen ; 弘 vasto, inmenso ; 乱 rebelión, revuelta] Oda Nobunaga (織田 信長 ?) Oda Nobunaga (help·info) (June 23, 1534–June 21, 1582) was a major daimyo during the Sengoku period of Japanese history. He was the second son of Oda Nobuhide, a deputy shugo (military governor) with land holdings in Owari province. Nobunaga lived a life of continuous military conquest, eventually conquering a third of Japanese daimyo before his death in 1582. His successor, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, a loyal Oda supporter, would eventually become the first man to conquer all of Japan. [織 tejido, textura ; ] Toyotomi Hideyoshi (豊臣 秀吉 ?, February 2, 1536 – September 18, 1598) was a Sengoku period daimyo who unified Japan. He succeeded his former liege lord, Oda Nobunaga, and brought an end to the Sengoku period. The period of his rule is often called the Momoyama period, after Hideyoshi's castle. He is noted for a number of
cultural legacies, including the restriction that only members of the samurai class could bear arms. Hideyoshi is regarded as Japan's second "great unifier." [豊: rico, abundante ; 臣 envase, retén ; 秀 excelso ; 吉: Buena suerte ] Tokugawa Ieyasu (徳川 家康 ?, January 31, 1543 – June 1, 1616) was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan which ruled from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Ieyasu seized power in 1600, received appointment as shogun in 1603, abdicated from office in 1605, but remained in power until his death in 1616. His given name is sometimes spelled Iyeyasu, according to the historical pronunciation of we. [徳(とく): virtud ; 康: salud]
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