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NOTE FROM THE EDITOR
Dear Bhagavatas, We conclude our Series on ' Sources of Knowledge" with Annexure 2: "A NOTE ON MANTRAS" The next posting will be from the last three Adhikaras from the Rahasya Traya Sara which will conclude our postings on that work. We have deliberately withheld the three Adhikaras relating to Moola Mantram, Dvayam and Charamaslokam for a suitable occasion when they can be discussed in a PERSONAL INTERFACE, if possible. If this is not found feasible, We will try to publish them also but With the caution that the esoteric thereof would become intelligible And efficacious ONLY IF AND WHEN INITIATED by a Qualified Acharya to a Qualified Sishya in a face- to face interaction. Dasoham Anbil Ramaswamy
2. ANNEXURE 2
(Vide SECTION 3 OF CHAPTER 3) A NOTE ON MANTRAS `MANTRA' - `Mananath Thrayathe iti Mantraha' - That which protects by being remembered and recited. It consists of the silent recitation (japa) of a sacred formula repeated indefinitely. A mystic recitation that is believed to invoke the desired deities and establish a spiritual relationship with them. It has the effect of quieting the mind and integrating the gross bodies with the divine educing the latent spiritual experiences (sukshma) into the realm of the patent. ( stula) "Though `Mantra' is generally defined as a `formula comprising words and sounds which possess a magical or divine power' no single definition can adequately express its significance"1 -
It is a verbal instrument believed to possess power. A word or formula which represents a mental presence or energy; by it something is employed to denote this magic power possessed by words when they are brought together in a formula"2, May be the word `spell' partly explains the meaning of `mantra'. Sound as we know creates vibration. Mantras are believed to have been `recovered' from ether through vibrations set in motion by the meditation of Rishis. The utterance of `Mantras' unleash a force of nature vivid and vibrant, effective and efficacious. And, such `Mantra' came to be regarded as an entity by itself (e.g.) Gayatri mantra is regarded as a personification of Gayatri - the word means "Gayantam trayate iti gayatri" - the one who protects the one who sings (utters) the Mantra by exercising a unique effect on the person uttering the same. The Gayatri Mantra means as follows: "We meditate on the glorious effulgence of the resplendent Sun who is the creator and sustainer of the three worlds of bhu, bhuvah and suvah. May he kindle our intellect and illumine our wisdom for the good of all living beings"3 "The sounds of Mantras constituted a secret initiatory language to be uttered according to particular rules if this esoteric meaning and power were to be assimilated and the initiate fully awakened. Particular attention is directed to the dictum that the mantra imparted by his GURU to his SISHYA must never be divulged "even if SIVA himself should demand it"4 Swami Desikan declares in no uncertain terms - The wise man should bring his Guru to the light (renown) and should guard the sacred mantra with great care; from the omission to bring his Guru to light and by revealing the mantra, he declines in wealth (of knowledge) and in age (Spirtual standing).5 BHARATI defines "Mantra is a Quasi morpheme or a series of Quasi morphemes or a series of mixed genuine and Quasi morphemes arranged in conventional patterns, based on codified esoteric traditions and passed on from one preceptor to one disciple in the course of an initiation ritual".6 AGNI PURANA points out that a mantra softly uttered is more efficacious than if repeated loudly and that when its utterance can be discerned only by the movement of the lips, it is hundred fold more potent and when mentally repeated its power increases thousand fold".7 MANTRA JAPA of 14 kinds have been identified in JAPAYOGA- a treatise on the union through recitation of Mantras as follows: 1. Nitya-( Daily recitation) 2. Naimittika ( Circumstancial recitation) 3. Kaamya (for desired results) 4. Nishiddha (forbidden) 5. Praayaschitta (repentant) 6. Achala (Immobile) 7. Chala (Mobile) 8.Vaachika (Articulate) 9. Upaamsu ( Whispered) 10. Bramara
(Humming) 11. Manasa (Meditative) 12. Akhanda (Unceasing) 13. Ajapa (Inarticulate) 14. Pradakshina (Circumambulatory) "Mantra combines the old Vedic root `man' to think with the element `tra' to indicate `kra' a suffix meaning instrumentality. Both mantra and sandhyaabasa are cryptic, esoteric utterances deliberately unintelligible to the Un-initiated. Of the 70 million mantras, some contain bizarre and unintelligible phonemes like hrim', hram', `hrum', `phat' etc. But, OM' -is the most sacred of all belonging to a special class as `m' and `n' which unlike most consonants can be sustained as long drawn out humming sounds".8 "The Bijakshara"( the seed Mantra) bestows great benefits on being repeated. The Moolamantra ( the root Mantra) is a.k.a. Pranavam or OM or the Akshara or Ekakshara and is the most powerful and can bestow unimaginable benevolence on the person uttering it. There are a number of shorter Mantras. Even exclamations used during sacrificial rituals are regarded as Mantras though of less significancesvast: fortune; samyoh: all hail; svadha: oblation, svaha: offering; vashat: Bravo, phat: crack (a weapon used to drive off evil spirits)"9 The Sanskrit `O' is a `diphtong' and is a contraction of A and U when pronounced quickly result in the sound O. With `m' it gives the whole the sound of " OM" 10 There are also a number of specific Mantras which are believed to confer special benefits apart from the moolamantra (brahmabija) which alone leads to realization, to liberation from bondage and attainment of Moksha 1.'AIM"(Vak bija): for acquiring knowledge and wisdom, mastery over words, powers of speech 2.'HRIM'(Saktibija ) for conquest of the unmanifest, of the power of nature, going beyond the constraints of time and space 3.'SRIM" (Laksmi bija) for gaining worldly wealth, power, beauty, glory 4."KLIM" (Kama bija) for gaining transcendent knowledge, pleasure, victory, royal power etc., 5."KRIM" (Aadhya bija) for gaining detachment, power over death, transcendent knowledge
6."YAM"=Air 7"LAM"=Earth 8."RAM"=Fire 9"VAM"=Water 10."HAM"= Ether 11.PARASAKTI BIJA12.KHECHARI BIJAItems 6 to 10 are the sacred Mantras relating to the elements They are used in performing NYASA (Consecration of the various parts of the body to the deity presiding over the corresponding element - a kind of relating the HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY with the ELEMENTAL COSMOLOGY for acquiring supreme energy for flying through the void
The oral tradition was called `VAC' which means `language of speech' (i. mantra raja. A mantra properly delivered and repeated often enough can tear through the material sphere to derive power from the occult planes for the Sadaka . mantra should not be confused with Kavacha (protective formula) or with Yamala (a Mantra based on a certain text) or with Dharani (Mnemonic magic formula that are similar to Mantra but much longer) containing mantras which also sound as mere babbles and probably are so. Thus. WHETHER IT IS MANTRA( ESOTERIC CHANTS) OR TANTRA ( SECRETIVE MNYMONICS) OR YANTRA (DIAGRAMMATIC EXPOSITION)."17 How mantras came to acquire such enormous significance can be better understood by the fact that `oral' transmission was the ONLY means of communication in the early days of Vedic tradition. brahma mantra. IF MISUSED IT WILL RECOIL ON THE PRACTITIONER.KRODA SANTI BIJA. their real meanings are lost to the modern man.13. HE WHO DIGS A GRAVE FOR ANOTHERMAY INDEED HIMSELF FALL INTO IT.one who practices the mantra. IT LENDS ITSELF TO BOTH PURPOSES LIKE A DOUBLE EDGEDWEAPON. Mantra language is NOT a senseless prattle merely because it is not intelligible to us. PANCHADASIfor invoking Siva with his 5 lettered mantra the 15 syllabled Mantra of the primordial Goddess. But. arose the necessity not only for correct words but also for correct intonation and accent without which the mantral and sacrificial rituals would be ineffective.PANCHAKSHARA18. rudra mantra and special Mantras for preventing misfortune most of which are found in Atarva Veda.GAYATRI BIJA energies - for acquiring and protecting vital 14. . Lack of a written language in early Vedic times made ORAL transmission the ONLY way of communicating the sacred truths of the Veda `heard' by holy men.for calming of anger 15. The power of the mantra is in its effect on the INVISIBLE forces of nature.NIDRA STAMBANA BIJA.an apparently meaningless mantra handed down for generations are inherited. And. preserved and passed on in its `pristine' form and are never altered.IT SHOULD BE USED ONLY FOR GOOD AND NEVER FOR HARMING ANYONE. Naturally. many more like brahma Gayatri .e.) the sounds (Sabda) produced vocally as a means of communication. "`Mantras' are relics of an a eon old language. Thus.for preventing sleep 17.AGNI PRAJVALANA BIJA-for kindling fire 16. the value of mantra lies in its antiquity .
The power of Mantra similarly increases vibrations of an astral kind ( for good or bad) and impacts on the psyche of the person uttering it (favorably or adversely as the case may be). we recite them by rote without making any effort to consciously remembering the same. RISHI 3. Such a remembrance would make the mantras really efficacious.with the words connected in their isolated forms (Padapatha). magic doctrines (Upanishads) and the sciences (Vidyas) would have remained unknown. To ensure the correctness of recitation. varnakrama. the Vedas. considers `Vak' to be an aspect of the eternal principle (BRAHMAN) for only by means of language can sacred knowledge (or any knowledge) be apprehended. hymns were taught in several ways . Brihadaranyaka up.a thorn whose ignorance and carelessness assuredly cancel or obstruct the efficacy of the recital"19. This system of mnemonic checks combined with the admirable patience and razor sharp memory power of many generations of Guru Sishya tradition preserved the Vedas for posterity in the same pristine form in which they were `captured' by the ancient Rishis millions of years back. MANTRA 2. the right tone and right delivery by themselves would confer the desired effect. rekha etc. The following order has been adopted: 1.The words in prayers (mantra) have a magical power since the right form of words. mala. CHANDAS . chandas.kantaka' . ancient lore (Puranas). But. legends (Itihaasas). devata and viniyoga are uttered is given below : Knowingly or unknowingly. Without it. ratha. A few examples from . gana. Let us see how it works: A note created by a mere touch on the strings of an instrument may not be more than the sound of a monosyllable hardly audible. Anyone not knowing these and attempting to repeat a portion of the Vedas is called `mantra .18 SAYANACHARYA states: "Not only should anyone repeating a Vedic hymn know the name of the `Rishi' to whom it was revealed. BC. danda.our daily prayers in Morn. Noon and Evening when the Mantra. rishi. with the words interwoven as in AB. CD pattern (Krama patha) and other complicated ways like jata. sikha. a constant playing at a high pitch with certain specific decibel cadence can and have in reality been seen to generate vibrations say in a glass cubicle that a point is reached when the elasticity of the glass cannot bear any further vibration and actually breaks. the name of the God (Devata) to whom it was addressed but also be aware of the proper accents (Chandas) to be used and the correct interpretation (Viniyoga) of the mantra.
Savita Devata 5.Anustup Chandas 4.Prasana(sipping of water) at morn.Prayaschita Argya (for delay) 1.Prokshana (sprinkling) II.Devi Gayatri 4.(b) noon and (c)eve) 1(a)Suryascha Ityanuvaka. DEVATA 5.Sandipani Rishi 3.Sindudveepa Rishi 3.Visva mitra Rishi 3. ARGYA PRADAANA 1.Prayschitta Argya Pradana Mantra 2.DeviGayatri 4.PRACHANA( Sipping Water at (a)morn. PROKSHANA 1.Devi Gayatri 4.Aapohishta 2.Dadigravana 2. Prayaschitta Argya Pradaane Viniyogaha (oblation for delay) .Apah(water) 5.Vamadeva Rishi 3. noon & eve respectively III.Prokshana IV.Savita Devata 5.Argya Pradana 2. VINIYOGA (Employed in) I PROKSHANAM (Sprinkling) 1.4.Daigraava Devata 5.Argya Pradaane (oblation of water ) V. 1(b)Apah punanthu Ityanuvaka 1(c)Agnischa Ityanuvaka 2(a)Agni Rishi 2(b)Apah Rishi 2(c)Surya Rishi 3(a)Devi Gayatri Chandas 3(b)Anustup Chandas 3(c)Devi Gayatri Chandas 4(a)Surya Devata 4(b)Brahmanaspati Devata 4(c)Agni Devata 5.
Pranavasysa 2.VI.Devi Gayatri 4. Aasana (Sitting) 1.DeviGayatri 4.Agni Vayu Arka Vagisa Varuna Indra Visvedeva (c) 1.Gayatri Ushnik Anustup Brihati Pankthi Trustup Jagati 4.Savitrya 2.Pritviya Meruprushta Rishi 3.Paramaatma Devata (b) 1.Visva mitra Rishi 3.Booraathi Sapta Vyahritheenaam 2.Atri Brigu Kutsa Vasishta Goutama Kasyapa Angirasa 3. Aasana Mantrasya 2.Sutalam Chandas 4.Brahma Rishi 3.(a.Savita Devata (d) .Srikurma Devata 5.Aasane Viniyogaha (in sitting) VII.b. c and d)PRAANAAYAAMAM (all times) (a) 1.
Jagati. BuradiVyahritiTrayasya 2.Visvamitra Rishi 3.MADHYAHNIKA UPASTHAANE (in standing up at noon) 1.Gayatri.Aasatyena Iti Mantrasya 2.Aayatu Ity anuvakasya 2.Anustup 4.Vamadeva Rishi 3. Visvamitra.Pratas-Sandyo Upastane (in standing up at morning) XII. Kutsa.Trushtup Chandas 4.Imam Me Varuna 2.Gayatri.Gayatri Devata 5.Uttama Ity anvakasya 2.Gayatri.Arka Devataah 5.Devarata Rishi 3. GAYATRI JAPE( in reciting Gayatri) 1.Gayatri Jape(in reciting Gayatri) X.Adityo Devata 5.Jagati. Anushtup Chandas 4. Ushnik.Udvasane Viniyogaha XI.Brahma Rishi 3.Anustup 4.Vamadeva Rishi 3.Paramatma VIII.Ushnik. SAAYAM SANDHYA UPASTHAANE(in standing up in the evening) 1. Kutsa Rishi 3. Vashista Rishi 3. Mitro Devata 5.Madyahnika Upastane (in standing up at noon) XIII. Mitrasya 2.Anustup Chandas 4.Agni.1.Gayatrisiraso 2.Sayamsandya Upastane (in standing up at evening) .Trustup Chandas 4 .Aavaahane Viniyogaha IX.Vayu. Brigu.Atri. UDHVAASANE(in sending off Gayatri) 1.Gayatri Devata 5.Hiranyastupa. AAVAAHANE ( in invoking Gayatri) 1.Beerut Gayatri Chandas 4.Savita Devata 5.PRAATHAH SANDHYA UPASTHAANE(in standing up in the morning) 1.
10 " Om Bhur Buvas Suvah | Om Tat Savitur Varenyam | .In this context. NATKUDAKAM ( Curved one ) 19.14 and Rawson.RVS 3.. 8..USHNIK 3.GAYATRI 2.p. Though there are a number.VAITALEEYAM ( pertaining to ghost ) 31. the role of meter (Chandas) is considered to be very important. MALINI (the girl wearing a garland) 16.Zimmer.SRAGDARA (the girl with a garland) 27 SUTALA (the nether world of that name) 28. OUPA CHANDASIKAM ( Auxiliary prosody ) 20. RATODDATTA ( raised in the chariot ) 23.VIRAJ (Universality) NOTES ON ANNEXURE 2 1. Aghedananda . p.PANKTI : 5 Padas of 8 Syllables 5 x 8 = 40 6. SARDULA VIKRIDITHA (the sport of the tiger) 25.VASANTA TILAKA (the ornament of spring) 33. of other meters.HARINI (the doe) 13 INDRAVAMSA (Indra's lineage) 14. INDRA VAJRA (Indra's thunderbolt) 15..ANUSHTUP 3 Padas of 8 Syllables or 16 Syllables in Ist line + 8 in second line or 3 x 8 = 24 or 16 + 8 =24 4 Padas of 7 Syllables 4 x 7 = 28 4 Padas of 8 Syllables 4 x 8 = 32 or 2 lines of 16 2 x 16=32 4.TRUSHTUP 7. PUSHPITAGRA( Blossoming on top ) 22. We give below the names of some meters used in `Slokas' though over 100 different meters with fanciful names have been employed by writers 20.. ' Tantric traditions' 2. MANJU BASHINI ( Sweet talking ) 18. ARYA (The Lady) 9.UPAJATI ( Sub caste ) 29.VAMSASTHA (belonging to a lineage) 32. PRITHIVI (the earth) 21. DRUTA VILAMBITAM (Fast and slow ) 11.BRIHATI : 4 Padas of 9 Syllables 4 x 9 = 36 5. SALINEE ( bountiful ) 24.UPENDRA VAJRA (Secondary INDRAVAJRA) 30.MANDAKRANTA (the slow stepper) 17.19ff 3. DRUTIH CHANDAH ( Steady rhyming ) 12. the more important are : 1. DANDAKAM ( Staff ) 10.62.Bharati.SIKHARINI (the supreme lady) 26.JAGATI 4 Padas of 11 Syllables 4x11 = 44 4 Padas of 12 Syllables 4 x 12 = 48.
TT Up. 312. Bharati.3 Ms.TT Up.8 11.2 19. 1. p. This greatly reduced matrimonial choices. " Guru Parampara Saram" "Gurum prakasayeth dheeman / Mantram yatnena gopayeth Apprakasa prakasabhyam / Ksheeyate sampadayushi" 6. and VT 13.. KS. 2nd Edn. 20.Brih. Mahanirvana. 1970.1.Basham in Prosody . The Pravara set up a further ban on marriages of families carrying one or more of the names of the ancestors constituting the Pravara.p. 4.Srirama Desikachariar.No. 275. but also the names of certain other Rishis who were believed to constitute a Triumvirate or Pentagon or Septagon group of remote ancestors of his family. V.3. Up.2 and Taitt. R.18. 1728 18. Up.2. p.13.Up.8 and NUT Up. Walker.Sayanacharya Quoted by HDH.28 8.1.Bhargho Devasya Dheemahi | Dheeyo Yo Nah Prachdhayaaath || 4. p.1.75 12.ibid 15. ANGIRASA-BOWRUKUTSA-TRASTASYA SHADAMARSHANA 3. KS 3 and VT 16. KS 2 and VT 14.. In the Brahmins daily worship he mentions not only the name of the specific founder of his Gotra.S. Agni P.TT Up.T. and VT ( 11 to 16 quoted by Danielou ) 17.N. AATREYA -AARCHANANASA-SYAAVASASVA ATREYA 4.. p. of 3 3 3 3 . quoted in 3 Ms.21 5.Agni P. Sri Desika Stotra Mala ed.Up.TT Up.1728 10.1.Chan.103 9. ANGIRASA-BARHASPATYA-BARADWAJA BARADWAJA 2. Bharati. ( CONCLUDED) PRAVARA A further complication was introduced by Pravara.111 7. 293.23. BARGAVA-VAITHAHAVYA-SAAVEDASA VADOOLA No.Chan. PRAVARAM Rishis Gotram 1. Sl.
OUTHALA VISVAMITRA 8.lettered ' Namo Narayanaya' and the twelvelettered " Namo Bhagavate Vasudevaya' with the 'OM' prefixed to them. More than 80% of them relate to Bhagavan.GARGYA 18. three Mantras are considered very important because they emphasize the omnipresence of the Lord. AANGIRASA-GOWRAVITA-SAANKRUTYA (OR)SAADHYA3 SANKRITI GOWRAVITA. the eight. They are the sixlettered 'Namo Vishnave'.SAANKRUTYA 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 It is strange to find how the distinctions were sought to be perpetuated by proscribing intercaste marriage. inter caste dining and many other forms of social contacts. VAASISHTA-MAITRAAVARUNA-KOUNDINYA KOUNDINYA 9. AANGIRASA-AJAMIDA-KAANVA (OR)AANGIRASA-KAURA-KAANVA KANVA 15. the highest and most . Tanno Vishnu Prachotayath'. AGASTYA-DARTYACHYUTA-SOUMAVAHA AGASTYA 17. Vishnu Gayatri combines the three thus: " Narayanaya Vidmahe. Even among these three. AANGIRASA-AMBARISHA-YUVANASAVA HARITHA 10.5. KASYAPA-AAVATSARA-NAITRUVA NAITRUVAKAASYAPA 13. ANGIRASA-BARHASPATYA-BARADWAIA. Of these. VISVAMITRA-AGAMARSHANA-KOUSIKA KOUSIKA 7. AANGIRASA-MAANDATRA-KAUTSA KUTSA 14. VASISHTA-SAAKTYA-PAARASARYA PARASARA 16. BARGAVA-SYAAVANA-AAPNAVANA-OURVA-JAAMADAGNYA SRIVATSA 6. KAASYAPA-AAVATSARA-DAIVALA KAASYAPA 19. AANGIRASA-PARSHADASVA-RATHEETARA BADARAYANA 20.ORAANGIRASA GARGI -SAINYA. Jawaharlal Nehru was tempted to refer to India as 'the least tolerant nation in social reforms while the most tolerant in the realm of ideas'. VISVAMITRA-DEVARATHA . Vasudevaya Dhimahe. THE THREE GREAT MANTRAS There are about 70 million Mantras. They are called 'Vyapaka Mantras'. In fact. AANGIRSA-PARMYASVA-MOUDGALYA (OR)DAARKSHYAMOUDGALYA BARMYASVA-MOUDGALA (OR)ANGIRASA-DHAAVYA MOUDGALAYA 11. KASYAPA-AAVATSARA-CHANDILYA (OR)KASYAPA-AAVATSARA CHANDILYA DAIVALA 12.
the locality (Stana) . That is why they are called the three great secrets. Their effect and efficacy can be fully experienced only if and when they are duly transmitted by a qualified preceptor to a qualified disciple. the color (Varna). The Sastras caution clearly that such a transmission should not be resorted to indiscriminately by anybody to anybody. Moola Mantra. Since the Moolamantra bestows real spiritual existence to the Jeeva it is said 'to maintain' (Dharaka).. the essential nature of Paramatma. The Charamasloka is the command of the Lord requiring the Jeeva to take recourse to the way and follow the procedure laid down and contains the unconditional promise to grant what the Jeeva aspires for. the potency (Sakti). It will be an added advantage to know and recite also the germ (Bija) .important is the eight.k. confirms what qualifies the Jeevatma to secure what it longs for.Rahasya Traya. SECTION 1 : MOOLA MANTRA ( THE ROOT MANTRA ) . Tiru Mantra etc. in the proper manner. Our effort here is only to provide a ' sneak preview' in broad outline but faithfully following the manner of presentation by the great master. The Dvaya indicates the way and the procedure to be adopted by the Jeeva in its efforts to attain Paramatma. We hope that this will induce those interested to seek 'Upadesa' (initiation) at the feet of a qualified Acharya who will instruct on the esoteric aspects as also the Seer (Rishi) to whom they were revealed.the application (Viniyoga). This Ashtakshara together with the Dvaya Mantra and the Charama Sloka are the three greatest Mantras. The essence of these have been lucidly explained by the undisputed master. the Charamasloka is the final word providing the means omitting nothing that should be learnt. Swami Sri Vedanta Desika in his 'Rahasya Traya Sara'.a.lettered Mantra known as Ashtakshara a. The Moolamantra clarifies the essential nature of the Jeevatma. the Dvaya mantra is the immediate cause of attainment of the supreme goal by a single utterance of it (of course. the metre (Chandas) to be employed. the God (Devata)to whom they are addressed. And. it is an 'object of enjoyment' ( Bhogya). the dedication (Nyasa) etc. creates a longing on the part of the former to attain the latter. it is the 'nourisher' ( Poshaka ).
M refers to the Jeeva as Sesha and U emphasizes the relationship between them to the exclusion of other entities. When you pronounce this properly. U and M plus the Anuswara representing the Rik. in one. the Paramatma is the ( Vachaka). Consonants are here regarded as interruptions of the essential vowel sound.U. Just as A is the first letter ( Vakya) of the alphabet. Without these. AUM. celestial and finally Paramatma himself respectively. Sama and Atharvana respectively in terms of Vedas. three and three and a half matras (seconds). there is no mantra greater than Moola mantra"2 The Moola mantra is both Vedic and Tantric. It is Vedic when uttered with the Pranava prefixed and the dative suffixed to the word Narayana. You fill the mouth and 'mmm' closes the mouth. from him to other disciples through the lineage of Gurus. and which undelivers it" -2A THE LETTER A : The letter A refers to Paramatma as Seshi. PRANAVA : The Pranava consists of three letters A. You start in the back of the mouth 'ahh' and then 'ooh'.ADHIKARA 27 : MOOLA MANTRA ADHIKARA OF RAHASYA TRAYA SARA Moolamantra was revealed by Badri Narayana himself to his disciples Nara and Narada who taught it to Sri Pundareeka.M and what is the 4th element?. Yajur. atmospheric . Depending upon the duration of the utterance of the syllables. AUM is a symbolic sound that puts you in touch with the resounding being that is the Universe. all vowel sounds are included in the pronunciation. AUM is called the four element syllable. A. The saint Tiruvalluvar also says much the same thing in his Tirukkural . the best among secrets and the most purificatory"1 It also confirms "Just as there is no God greater than Narayana. two. the effect will be the same.3 : . All words are thus fragments of the form of forms. "AUM" is a word that represents to our ears that sound of the energy of the Universe of which all things are manifestations. it is a Tantric mantra that can be uttered by anyone without restriction of caste or sex. The silence out of which AUM arises and back into which it goes.the primordial of all that is represented by words. In either case. they confer enjoyments pertaining to the terrestrial. NARADEEYA KALPAM says: " This Mantra which is beginningless is the greatest.
5. A represents Vishnu and M representing the Jeeva who is the Sesha and Dasa for both. But. ' Ma' = the jeevatma as the 25 th letter. 'Mas '-to measure' as seen from BRAHMASUTRA ( 2. the divine consort. The .3. ' Ba' = the Universal mind ( Mahat) iv. Katasruti however interprets U as representing Sri Lakshmi. ii. THE LETTER M : The letter M ( which is short for the Sanskrit Ma ) represents Jeevatma.) other deities and their followers. Etymologically. ' Bha' = the primordial matter (Prakriti) and v. it gets derived from ' Mana Gnane' and ' Mana Parimane' which means that the jeeva's essential nature is knowledge and being atomic in size. As no limiting condition is attached to the root. being Sesha to Bhagavatas ( devotees of Bhagavan) does not vitiate the Seshatvam of M to the divine couple as explained in Purushartha Kashta Adhikara in the Chapter on Prapatti. Just as in 'Agnisoma' sacrifice in which both Agni and Soma are invoked to receive the oblations.4 As A itself represents both Vishnu and Lakshmi. 'Pha' = the Individuality ( Ahankara) iii. U will carry the other meaning viz. it means that Paramatma is the unconditional protector of all.' Ka 'group = the five elements (Bhutas). the Jeeva is different from the other 24 Tattvas as also Iswara..19). in A rest the inseparable divine couple.e. the 26th who is the ultimate cause of everything. By employing U. (i. ' Pa ' = the mind (Manas). (Gnanaswarupa and Anuswarupa). Sri Mahalakshmi. 3. the Pranavam excludes the 'Seshatvam' of M to anyone other than the divine couple. The five Gutterals of . 2. THE LETTER U : As radiance cannot be separated from the Sun. The expression 'Ma' is also derived from 'Mana' to know. TATTVA SAGARA SAMHITA lays down that the five groups ( vargas) of Consonants each denoting the different verities are as follows:1.The letter A is derived from the root 'AVA' which means 'to protect'. ONLY. 4. The five Palatals of ' Cha' group = the five motor organs (Karmendriyas ) The five Linguals of ' Ta' group '= the five sense organs (Gnanendriyas) The five Dentals of ' Tha' group = the five evolving principles (Tanmatras) Of the five Labials of "Pa' group 'i. when A is mentioned it is said to represent implicitly Bhagavati . Thus.
SUKSHMA ARTHA: Subtle meaning as seen in 'Nirukta' when it refers to bowing in thought . Even Krishna admitted his Daasyam of his own accord to the elderly kith and kin. 2.) without the help of God. In other words. Similarly. it can also arise on account of an innate natural desire on the part of the Sesha to serve the great. even the adoption of the Upaya or the doership is stimulated by the protectorship of Paramatma as stated in BRAHMASUTRA 5 This dependence. Bowing the body is acceptance of the greatness of the one bowed to. When it relates to Bhagavan. when done with the eight angas ( limbs). it becomes agreeable 'Abhimatameva'.expression is also derived from the root 'Asmat' where the prefix 'As' and the suffix 't' are dropped in accordance with Vedic usage . word and deed with an understanding of the bowing to be a Sadhyopaya ( means).which gives the meaning of ' Aham' or 'I.e.. In fact.meaning 'Not mine'. Similarly. In AHIRBUDNYA SAMHITA. Why' Na' comes before' Mama'? It is like Anjaneya reporting to Sri Rama "Seen Sita""Drishta Sita" hastening to communicate the fact of having seen her lest a different conclusion should be inferred. Sometimes. It also seeks to dissociate the Jeeva from the notion of being a 'Seshi' to its own form (Swarupa). Lakshmana did Daasyam to Sri Rama on his own. Siva explains the meaning of Namah in three ways: 1.'Na Mama Swaatantrya". here the purpose is to hasten to assure that the Jeeva is not a Sesha or Dasa even to itself as much as to anyone else other than the divine couple. It seeks to emphasize that it has no independence (i. THE WORD NAMO The word 'Namo' can be split into 'Na' + 'Mama' . STULA ARTHA: Gross etymological derivation referring to the inherent nature of the Jeeva as Sesha. This Aham-kara is different from the one denoted by the labial 'Pha' mentioned earlier..("Paratantriyam' ) and this servitude ( Dasatvam) are indeed unpleasant in this world because they arise out of Karma-'Karma vasaat' and rendered to unworthy entities. it seeks to dispel conceit (Aham-kara) by asserting 'Nothing is mine'. it is 'Sashtanga' and is the perfect Namas.which are all given to it by the will of God. The very fact of the Jeeva becoming Sesha and Daasa is also due to the will of Bhagavan (Sankalpa). . its own body (Sarira) or its own attributes( Svabhava).
This is because in Pranava ( OM ). According to Sastras. and the Paramatma share this quality. a question arises why it has to be employed when already the letter ma in aum refers to the Jeeva?. it includes all the reals (tattvas) that exist. R+A. 2) Naranam + Ayanam := The resting place of the Naras This is called 'Tatpurusha Samasam' which emphasizes the TRANSCENDENCE of Bhagavan (Bahir Vyapti). he is called Narayana.' na' is the negation. the Siddhopaya. 'Nara' is generally used to denote a collection of all imperishable beings . the Jeevatma. If Nara were to refer to the Jeeva. Narayana is also called nara because the root 'nru" means 'to lead'. MA indicating its importance and S indicating Bhagavan. So. Y+A. When prefixed. The word Narayana is derived in two ways thus :1) Narah + Ayanam + Yasya := He to whom Naras are the abode. They only manifest and disappear as per the will of God.3.( goal ) THE WORD NARAYANAYA If the number of the vowels and consonants in the word NARAYANA are taken separately. As he is the real World leader. THIS MEANS IT CANNOT BE SAID THAT HE IS NOT WHERE THEY ARE. it means 'that which is imperishable'. the very name would become 8 lettered and resemble Ashtakshara thus N+A. This is explained in the Sloka: which says " whatever there is in the world that can be seen or heard Lord Narayana indwells in all of them and surrounds all of them '6 THE WORD NARA The word Nara is derived thus:-' Ru' means 'perish'. PARA ARTHA: Supreme meaning derived from the Sastras thus: NA indicating the Upaya. the emphasis is on the JEEVA BEING THE 'SESHA' while in the word Narayana emphasizes that PARAMATMA BEING THE 'SESHI'. THE WORD AYANA The word Ayana is derived variously as follows:1) 2) 'Iyate Idam Iti Iyate Asmin Iti = That which is pervaded = That in which it rests . N+A. there is nothing that is destroyed. This is called 'Bahuvrihi Samasa' which emphasizes the IMMANENCE of the Lord Antar Vyapti). Thus. THIS MEANS 'HE IS WHERE EVEN THEY ARE NOT'.
Following the pattern of BRAHMA SUTRAM.pervader. the means and the goal respectively. DETAILED EXPLANATIONS OF THESE ESOTERIC MEANINGS CAN BE HAD ONLY FROM THE ACHARYA WHO INITIATES THE ASPIRANT. . being Unconditioned ( Abadatvam). the resting place. The Moolamantra has been variously explained to have 10 different esoteric meanings: 1) As one sentence having two meanings indicating (i) the essential nature of the Jeeva and (ii) its activity as Sesha As two sentences having three meanings :indicating(iii) the essential nature of the self (iv) surrender of the self by a positive and a negative statement (v) prayer for the Purusharta As three sentences with five meanings indicating(vi) the first two words denoting the essential and the third. the indweller and the all. the eternal guide. it refers to Causation (Karanatvam). (Anishta Nivritti) and attainment of the goal desired prapti) (viii) the Pranava denoting the essential nature and other two the means (Upaya) (ix) the first word denoting the surrender and the two prayer for the attainment of the desired goal (x) the three words denoting respectively the Upaya and the Purusharta. the protector. the means (Upayatvam) and the goal (Upeyatvam) of Bhagavan. it would suffice to understand that the words A. and Narayana indicate Lord Vishnu and Lord Vishnu only as the sole cause.. Namah. Pranava. NARA and AYANA represent Bhagavan being the cause. the prayer (vii) the Pranava denoting the essential nature and other two prayer for the removal of undesirable 2) 3) nature the elements ( Ishta the other Tattva. As for now.3) Iyate Anena Iti goes 4) Iyate Asou Iti = That by which or with which it = That which is reached. Thus. the three words in the Ashtakshara Mantra viz.
This Mantra is found in two separate contexts in KATAVALLI and found joined together. It is a Tantric Mantra and therefore could be recited by anyone irrespective of caste or sex and is not conditioned by any restrictions like time.' the king of Mantras' and 'Mantra Ratna'-' the Gem of Mantras'. All that is needed is that it should be got administered by a qualified Acharya in whom the disciple should have absolute faith. It is called Dvaya because it explicitly states both the surrender of the soul ( Svarupa Samarpana) and surrender of responsibility ( Bhara Samarpana). It is the most valued one from which the Prapanna would derive the greatest delight here and in the hereafter. It is the immediate.For the one who has attained a clear knowledge of the Ashtakshara. This is the Mantra that is imparted by such an Acharya to the Sishya at the time of performance of 'Bharanyasa' ( literally. a single utterance thereof is equal to reciting all the Vedas and such a one can never be shaken by heretics. Mantrajapa etc. In matters of divine mystery rationalization is futile. Hence. Excerpts from Chapter 20 of "Hinduism Rediscovered" dealing with "Dvaya Mantra . readily accessible Mantra which guarantees the attainment of Bhagavan at one stroke of utterance and therefore held dearest and most enjoyable to one desirous of Moksha. bath in holy rivers. Homa ( offering in fire). .all implicit in Moolamantra. Its potency is such that a single utterance with absolute faith is enough to destroy 'all sins that could ever be committed by anyone' It is like a lion in the forest where all animals flee from him.. all sins flee away from one who recites this Mantra with total unconditional faith. place. In short. One should have implicit faith and dependence like one who is deaf and blind placing oneself under the guidance of a trusted person. To Continue with "Dvaya Mantra" in our next posting 2.The Surrender Mantra" SECTION 2 DVAYA MANTRA ( THE SURRENDER MANTRA ) ADHIKARA 28 : DVAYA ADHIKARA OF RAHASYA TRAYA SARA The Dvaya Mantra is called 'Mantra Raja'. this Mantra bestows everything one desires. This Mantra explicitly reveals the Upaya and the Upeya contained only implicitly in Namah and Narayana respectively in the Moolamantra. laying down the burden) as it holds the key to Paramapada. it is called 'Bhogya'.
She listens to the cry of the suffering of those who have sought her refuge 4) Sravayati :.This also is derived etymologically meaning ' One who removes all faults'. 3) Srunoti : .11 explain the meaning of Dvaya in very clear terms. The SUPREME LOVE that the Lord has for his consort combined with his own SOLEMN VOW which he cannot give up. THE WORD SRIMAN At the outset. 6. she removes all obstacles in the way of those who have adopted 'Prapatti' . 2)Srayate :. We have to take pity on them.'One who causes to listen'. the Lord says that this Mantra should be sought from the Guru like a poor man begging for a treasure. even at the cost of his own life'. WHO IN THE WORLD HAS NOT SINNED?"7 She helps to mitigate the anger of the Lord who wields the rod of punishment for the sake of promoting the welfare of the offender. By her intervention.'One who resorts to' -the Supreme lord of all in order to secure for the Jeeva the Moksha desired.'One who listens'. The word SRI has the following meanings:1)Sreeyate:. 4) Srunaati :.10 and 7.10. This aspect of the mother is Called 'Purushakara' (Recommendatory mediator). The quality of mercy of the divine mother forbids the displeasure of the lord and turns it into grace.Sri is resorted to by those who desire Moksha. She pleads to the lord on their behalf by reminding him of his vow ' to protect those who surrender.1. The Mantra reads as follows:"SRIMAN NARAYANA CHARANOU SARANAM PRAPADYESRIMATE NARAYANAYA NAMAH" Let us analyze the significance of the words contained in the mantra.Saranagati Gadya of Sri Ramanujacharya and Nammalwar's Tiruvoimozhi 4.'One who is resorted to' . according to me . Lakshmi is an inseparable attribute of Bhagavan. the Mantra requires the Jeeva to understand that the divine mother.2. When Anjaneya offers to punish the Rakshasis (demonesses) who tortured Sri Sita in the Asoka forest. This is her natural disposition as well pointed out by Swami Sri Desika in his ' Daya Satakam'. This is the etymological meaning. In SATYAKI TANTRA. compel him to save the refugee despite all his sins out of sheer compassion. she replies: " Even if these Rakshasis are guilty fit to be killed as you think.1.
Parama Karunikatvam . Another aspect is that the Lord has an eternal Form.the one attained as fruit of the surrender ( Phala Samarpana) The qualities of Bhagavan to be remembered while reciting the word Narayana in the first half of Dvaya are:1.Steadiness. attributes and qualities of his own in Paramapada. Swami -the one who receives the self-surrender of the soul (Swarupa Samarpana) Upaya -the one who is the way for the soul in surrendering the burden ( Bhara Samarpana) Upeya .Benevolence in determination 8.All pervading Knowledge 6. Never forsaking the Bhaktas 11. Kritjnatvam . Vatsalyam. Seshitvam . Sarva saktitvam . Soulabyam . ii. Stiratvam .Incomparable bestower of felicity etc. The Charanou in DUAL also denotes both the divine couple. .Being all powerful 7. we find that the mother gives birth to the child's nature and emotions while the father gives birth to the child's intellectual development as to how he should function individually and in society by means of stern instruction and discipline.is a Nirukta meaning ' One who makes the world ripe by her qualities'.Excellence of disposition 4. THE WORD CHARANOU The Charanou or feet represent auspiciousness ('Subhatvam') and Accessibility ('Asrayatvam'). along with the Lord she is i. SRI is inseparable from the Lord in all circumstances. Sarvjnatvam .Gratitude towards even the smallest good acts 10. GenerosityWhile reciting the same in the second half. Swamitvam . Satya Sankalpatvam .Supreme mercy 9.. Souseelyam .Perfection 12.Easy accessibility 5. Even in the world. one should remember his 13.Lordship 3. Parama Udharatvam . Niratisaya bhogyatva .Saguna Brahmam with a divine form . The root SREE would mean that by her attributes like compassion.Love that ignores faults in others 2.Munificence. Paripunatvam . Sri Lakshmi represents the mother with her ' all inclusive love for her progeny '.6) Sreenaati:. The Bhagavan. In so far as the Prapanna is concerned. iii. the father is more a disciplinarian.Mastery and 14. she enables those who seek refuge in her to become ripe enough to have the qualifications necessary for rendering service to the Lord in Paramapada.
Nothing exists for me. and the fruit resulting therefrom. the word Narayanaya emphasizes the full and perfect enjoyment of the Lord ( Paripurna Brahmanubhavam) . Namah also discloses the severance of all connections between the Jeeva to his self. THE WORD NARAYANAYA Here.THE WORD SARANAM In this the Savior is placed in the position of Upaya so that the Prapanna may refrain from any effort on his part (other than surrendering) THE WORD PRAPADYE The preposition 'PRA' discloses the greatness or intensity of the faith. Thus.'To' THE WORD NAMAH As already seen in Moolamantra. 3. 4. 5. If one finds it enjoyable. it refers to her as the ' one who receives service'. Sesha not only exists for the Seshi (Bhaveyam) but also for doing service to Seshi as indicated in 'AYA'. THE WORD SRIMATE The word repeated in the second part shows that both Narayana and Sri Lakshmi are the 'recipients' of the offering (havis) of surrender. Bhagavan's eternal association with the divine mother as the mediator Sri being an Upaya along with Bhagavan Bhagavan being perfect in his qualities The relationship of the Jeeva as ensouled by Bhagavan Jeeva being Sesha and Dasa to Bhagavan Bhagavan having a divine and auspicious form . as it certainly does. BHAGAVAN WHO HAS BEGUN TO SHOWER HIS SPECIAL GRACE WILL MAKE IT FULL AND PERFECT. the Dvaya by words actually used and by meanings implied in them reveals the following: 1. 6. Again. The root is 'Sreenj Sevayam'. his protection. Though the word has several meanings.one who receives service'. Dvaya may be and in fact repeatedly uttered by the Prapannas.the culmination of the association of the Sesha with the Seshi. in this context. Prapadye in the present tense shows the faith AT THE TIME OF PERFORMING PRAPATTI. IT SHOULD BE NOTED THAT EVEN IF IT WERE WEAK AT THE TIME ( WHICH IT WILL NOT BE NORMALLY FOR A PRAPANNA). 2.I do not belong to me and 'Na Mama Kinchit Syat'. the word has to be understood as ' Na Mama Syam'. The first person singular implied ( I resolve) shows only a pretext (Vyaja) in Bhakti or Prapatti that wins the grace of the Lord.
The Jeeva enjoying complete bliss in Moksha equal to that of Bhagavan himself. How this form of the Lord is an Upaya 9. THE CHARAMA SLOKA READS AS FOLLOWS:"SARVA DHARMAN PARITYAJYA MAM EKAM SARANAM VRAJAAHAM TVA SARVA PAPEBYO MOKSHAYISHYAMI MA SUCHA" Let us analyze the meanings of the various words contained in this Mantra. .After dwelling at length on the efficacy of the indirect means of Raja yoga. He pointed out the difficulties and delays involved in adopting them . The attainment of all forms of service 16. THIS IS THE SHEET ANCHOR OF HINDU RELIGION IN GENERAL AND VAISHNAVISM IN PARTICULAR. The manner of acquiring the grace of Bhagavan 10. How the divine couple are the recipients of service 14.The Last verse Mantra SECTION 3 : CHARAMA SLOKA MANTRA (THE FINAL VERSE MANTRA ) ADHIKARA 29 : CHARAMA SLOKA ADHIKARA OF RAHASYA TRAYA SARA. kith and kin who stood arrayed against him on the battlefield.. To continue with posting on Charama Sloka . The Jeeva being the doer only subject to the will of Bhagavan 18. THIS EASIEST.7. Karma Yoga and Gnana Yoga. Under the guise of teaching Arjuna. In response to this request. How Bhagavan and Sri constitute the end to be attained 12. Arjuna was perplexed and he beseeched Lord Krishna to show him the way out of this 'catch. The complete removal of all that is undesirable 17. Lord Krishna ultimately propounded. the 'Acharya of Gitopanishad' explained this most secret Upaya of Prapatti in the Charamasloka 'to all of us'. THE QUICKEST AND THE SUREST MEANS TO GET OVER THE GRIEF AND DO WHAT OUGHT TO BE DONE. Their qualities and Vibhutis ( glories) 13. The qualifications for adopting the Upaya 11. and the direct means of Bhakti Yoga. This is the concluding portion of his teaching . The prayer for performing this service 15. The Jeeva's approach to the Lord in this divine form 8.22' situation. Bhagavad Gita was propounded by Lord Krishna to Arjuna in order to dispel his inopportune affection and misplaced sympathy towards his preceptors.
As we mentioned earlier.e. Karpanya and Goptrutva varana. When revealing his 'Avatara Rahasya' Krishna said that he reincarnates himself' at every age to save the virtuous.viz. We should look at the context and circumstances in which the expression has been used . what does Krishna mean by saying ' Give up all Dharmas' in the Charamasloka? THE WORDS SARVA DHARMAN We should first understand what is Dharma? Dharma in simplest terms means duties and includes such concepts as Ahimsa. Here the word has to be understood as referring to a person who has already given up the Dharmas. Lord Krishna has used a similar expression. Truth and many others we have already seen in our Chapters on Samanya Dharma and Sanatana Dharma and Varnashrama Dharma. Anukulya Sankalpa. Pratikula Varjana. If this were to be accepted. THE WORD "PARITYAJYA" The word Parityajya does not mean ' Give up'. He addresses Arjuna " You.performance of other Upasanas would reckon as an Anga for Prapatti. In this sense. it would mean that these other Upayas would constitute the essential part (Anga) of Prapatti Actually.) what has occurred before (Anuvada) Therefore. In other words.8 This 'giving up' is not to be construed as a command ( Vidhi ) but as referring to the 'fait accompli' (i. to destroy evil and 'to re-establish Dharma on earth'. to reassure Arjuna that ' having given up' as impossible the other Upayas Arjuna should surrender to the Lord. it would tantamount to saying that Bhaktimarga should be adopted in spite of the difficulties and only the 'thought' should not be there. however.THE WORDS SARVA DHARMAN PARITYAJYA A reasonable doubt is expressed here.. Some interpret that what is meant is the ' thought' of adopting any other Upaya. It is addressed to a person who had already reached this world and actually talking to Krishna. . neither the performance nor the non. Prapatti does not require any angas other than the five mentioned in 'Parikara Vibhaga Adhikara' in our Chapter on Prapatti. "Having reached this ephemeral and hapless world. who have already given up the Dharmas". Mahaviswasa. Arjuna 's confusion became worse confounded and he became so despondent that he would not be able to practice the various Vidyas and other Upasanas of Bhakti Yoga. you pray to me" says Krishna. After all the effort in coming down to earth personally to reestablish Dharma."Prapya" which in the context means " Having reached". The plural Dharman in this context refers to those Vidyas which he is unable to perform because of the difficulties and delays involved in them.
to be united with the Lord is delight. and senses .) -9 Though assured of moksha. one could recite other Mantras or do other rites involving other deities who can as well be deemed to be the body of Bhagavan since they too have Bhagavan as their inner self. It is argued that by stretching this concept a little further. DAKSHA SMRITI cautions 'One who does not perform Sandhya is always impure and unfit for performing any other rites. NITYA AND NAIMITTIKA KARMAS. This is a very intelligent poser but it fails to take note of the fact that those other Mantras . EVEN ASHTAKSHARA JAPA HAS TO BE PERFORMED AS DO NOT CONFLICT WITH THE PERFORMANCE OF RITES ORDAINED IN SRUTIS AND SMRITIS (I. the prapanna should not give up Varnashrama dharmas for it is said " DO THAT WHICH MAY NOT YIELD FRUIT WHEN PERFORMED BUT WHEN GIVEN UP WILL BRING EVIL" Also. the Prapanna takes delight in that which delights Bhagavan. Another question arises in this connection. will power. This is like a person taking delight in doing service to his near and dear beloved ones. he will not obtain the fruit thereof. why should anyone observe the compulsory and occasional duties like Sandhya vandanam etc which are Nitya and Naimittika karma? True. If the Prapanna were to be united with and do service to Sri Narayana only exclusively. These are not Angas for Prapatti but they have to be performed as prescribed for the different Varnas and Ashramas as they are enjoined as ordinances or commands in the Sastras.E. how come the names of other deities find place in the various Mantras and rites prescribed in the Sastras? We have already answered this in our Chapter on Prapatti. If one does not have to do the Karmas prescribed in the Sastras it would mean that one could do whatever it pleases him including even forbidden actions. His actions are performed with his life breath. It is Sastra that enables one to differentiate between what is reverential conduct and what is an offense. He does everything inspired solely by love but this does not mean that he should ignore Sastra which is nothing but the command of the very Lord whom he seeks to please. The Prapanna does not worship them but only Bhagavan who has them as his body and who have Bhagavan as their inner self. mind.all dedicated to the Lord in loving devotion. Whatever other rites he may perform.If this were so. to part from him is pain. For a Prapanna.
Those that are prescribed should be done because they are so prescribed. VIDURA AND OTHERS ARE REFERRED WITH REFERENCE TO THEIR CASTES NOT TO DECRY THEM BUT IN REGARDING THEM IN THEIR RESPECTIVE POSITIONS AS LAID DOWN IN SASTRAS AND RESPECTED ACCORDINGLY. TALKING ABOUT ONE'S DOING ONE'S VARNASHRAMA DHARMA. THERE IS NO HARM. TULADARA. It is not correct to say that if these other mantras are adopted or Sastric mantras violated or given up No harm will arise other than illwill of society etc. then revealing himself as ' Purusha' showing his omnipotence are significant. his quality of mercy is intent only in saving and gives the Prapanna the hope that despite his omnipotence and knowledge of Prapanna's defects. While his omnipotence and knowledge can be used for both saving and punishing. with no other aim than as a dedication to God..g. SWAMI DESIKA CAUTIONS THAT TO REFLECT ON THE CASTE (VARNA) OF DEVOTEES ONLY TO DECRY THEM WILL BE A GREAT SIN AND WILL BRING RUIN. IF IT IS REFERRED TO ONLY FOR UNDERSTANING THE RESTRICTIONS AND REQUIREMENTS ENJOINED IN SASTRAS.are meant for specific Adhikaris(persons specifically fit for the purpose) i. What is required to be given up is the vain effort to perform what one is not capable of ( e.) Bhakti. or continuing of the trivial desire to perform them. ONLY THOSE MANTRAS THAT ARE PRESCRIBED IN PANCHARATRA ARE TO BE ADOPTED (NOTWITHSTANDING THE NAMES OF OTHER DEITIES TO BE INTERPRETED AS EXPLAINED ABOVE). DHARMAVYADA. This would be like a drowning person catching hold of a brittle reed. THUS. the Lord's mercy would certainly save him. Even while carrying out one's Dharma. THE WORD ' MAM' Krishna's 'Saulabhyam' -easy accessibility seen in his obeying Arjuna's command as his charioteer. THE WORD 'EKAM' It may be questioned when the word 'Mam' shows him.e. other than Prapannas and are to be used in specific circumstances for specified results. why Krishna should use another word 'Ekam' again in referring to himself? . what is most valuable is that which is done with no ulterior purpose and for its own sake(Swayam Prayojana). FOR A PRAPANNA. No karma should be done just because one is capable and no acquisition of skills is needed to perform it. SABARI.
3. In BG 18/15 Lord Krishna says that in an action of Jeeva is only one of the five agents involved. The significance of the word 'Eka' may be summarized thus: 1. induced by Him. Karta. God has invested in the Jeeva Gnana Sakti. 5. Hence. 6.This is to show that he is himself the Upaya and the Phala. 4. the Jeeva is fit to be directed to do a thing or give up doing and 'Vraja' may justly enjoin the performance or giving up of an action. The Lord is the Karayita. Anumanta and Prerita ( all explained clearly in our Chapter on Karma). 2. Even the desire to do Prapatti arises from His grace. Therefore. with His help in performing and awaiting the reward to be granted by Him .Dvaya) THE WORD 'VRAJA' The word 'Vraja' is in the second person as it is addressed to a person facing Krishna. 'Ekam' also dispels any chance of the Prapanna imagining his 'Prapatti' being independently responsible for securing him Moksha. The identification of the object of attainment and the means therefor The denial of the importance of the individual self Prapatti being a mere pretext for the Lord to shower His mercy (Vyaja) The absence of any connection between Prapatti and other Upayas The absence of any connection between Prapatti and other Angas Prapatti as a single means of securing all desired ends without any distinction. .( See the explanation of the word under Section . following the way shown by Him. THE WORD 'SARANAM' The word 'Saranam' though advised to Arjuna is applicable to all those who desire Moksha.the aspirant performs Prapatti . It also confirms the fact that He alone stands in the place of the Upasanas which the Prapanna finds incompetent to perform. blessed by Him. the Jeeva's absolute dependence consists in bearing this burden of 'free will' also granted to him by God.10 'Eka' also dispels any chance of equating Prapatti as an Upaya along with Bhagavan. by using the senses given by Him. Icha Sakti and Kriya Sakti in exercise of which he becomes the ' doer' in a limited sense. Udasina. he is asked to give up the idea of this ' doership' also. how can he be ordered to do something which Vraja implies? Just as non-sentient things like ether and fire bear the attributes of sound and heat created by God. It may be questioned that when Jeeva is entirely dependent on God.
This is called 'Prayaschitta Prapatti' . It may be questioned when the word 'Papebyo' which is in plural and therefore denotes Papa and may be also Punya. .that he actually enjoys them 'like a husband relishing the dirt on the body of a beloved wife or in the case of a mother cow. In other words. THE WORD 'AHAM' This indicates the power of accomplishing what is impossible to others. Some argue that the sins of Prapanna are 'Bhogyam' to Bhagavan. Even this thought of resorting to this action can arise only by the grace of the Lord. the dirt of its calf '. the way to the goal and that lead to experiencing the results of undesirable actions. to atone for the same and perform expiatory rites.). the word 'Sarva' refers to removal of Prapti Virodhi. even Punya partakes the character of Papa because it would entail further life to enjoy the results thereof and for the one who desires not to return to life even Punya becomes an impediment. Ruchi ( taste for evil).e. 'You' who have taken the proper steps of self surrender. none of the forbidden actions in which he might indulge in will leave any stain on him. who have acquired the power of discrimination. all the obstacles that prevent the attainment of the goal. 'You ' who have become so eager to attain me. 'You' who have realized the triviality and transience of life.a surrender for the expiation of sins committed in the Post-Prapatti period.This does not approve of a conclusion that merely because a person knows that he is not the actual doer.all those that cause karma and the products of karma. . Vasana (past impressions). why the word 'Sarva' is used? It is to emphasize the host of other sins like Avidya ( Ignorance).Such a 'You' THE WORD ' SARVA PAPEBYO' In the case of a Prapanna . Upaya Virodhi and Pratikula Anubhava Hetu (i. The Lord's natural compassion makes Him so gracious as to overlook countless offenses in consideration of a mere Vyaja. and His independence and Omnipotence operate for the removal of all hindrances. The fact that the Lord will in any case remove all sins of the Prapanna does not preclude the Prapanna from avoiding commission of sins and if he happened to commit any out of ignorance or necessity. 'You' who have done what ought to be done. THE WORD 'TVA' This means 'You. Any such action done deliberately will certainly affect and invite punishments even at the mundane level. and Prakriti Sambanda(contact with the mundane world both in gross state and in the subtle state).
Therefore. Incorrigibles meet with punishments. Ravana himself . What are offenses? Offenses include those against the devotees of Bhagavan and being associated with those who commit such offenses.Prapatti offense left unatoned or unexpiated or due to a portion of Prarabda Karma that had begun to yield fruit over which he has no control. what the Lord says in Gita is not 'seemingly soothing' as held by these people. boycott by the virtuous. feel sorry for them and seek expiation. IF THIS VIEW IS ACCEPTED. BY OFFENDING DEVOTEES.whether it is Vibhishana or even if it be my arch enemy. This is quoted by some as contradicting the purport of Charamasloka. What the Lord says in Gita is the final word of assurance. 2 ) Those that are committed after Prapatti- . BY HATING THE OFFENDERS. being scorned by those he loves. It should be remembered that the Varaha Purana statement was made in a different context. THE WORD 'MOKSHAYISHYAMI' Elsewhere in Varaha Purana. The Prapanna has therefore be cautious to consciously avoid at least any Post. One cannot determine whether a Post-Prapatti suffering is due to a Post. suffering due to frustration of their ambitions. a promise. dullness of intelligence. the Lord sees to it that he does not go to hell and removes the sins by awarding some lighter punishments like blindness. Nanjeeyar avers that wise men who have performed Prapatti would never commit offenses deliberately. ONE TAKES UPON ONESELF THE BURDEN OF BHAGAVAN WHO ALONE IS COMPETENT TO PUNISH THEM. dimunition of pleasures and such other forms of sorrow.Prapatti offense or if committed. IT WOULD BE LIKE ISSUING A LICENSE TO THE PRAPANNA TO COMMIT WHATEVER SINS HE IS CAPABLE OF AND COMMIT THEM DELIBERATELY. the Lord says that he will ' never forgive one who touches blood'. loss of limbs. Even if deliberate offenses are committed by a Prapanna who does not atone for them or does not seek to expiate . ONE TAKES OVER THEIR SINS. loss of esteem in society." Bring him here! Sugriva! . Mediocre men might commit but repent. Therefore. in order to avoid any need for repenting or facing punishments one should guard against deliberate offenses. I have pledged my protection to him who has surrendered?"11 The manner in which this 'Mokshayishyami' operates is as follows: 1 ) Those that stood as hindrances to Upaya will vanish on adopting the Upaya except Prarabda. a reiteration of his commitment in Srimad Ramayana to save one who has sought refuge in him Did not Sri Rama say to Sugriva .THIS IS NOT CORRECT.
infinite being.. ( 4 ) What is the meaning of ' liberation '? By His grace. 5 ) If any of the Post-Prapatti sins or Prarabda karma still remain. 3 ) Those that are done deliberately after Prapatti will vanish ( i ) (ii ) By atonement or expiation or By suffering light punishments 4 ) Prarabda Karma also will vanish or ( i ) By experiencing the fruits till the fall of the body ( ii ) By an intervening Prayaschitta Prapatti. ( Gnana Vikasa) ( 5 ) If removal of sins means restoration of the essential qualities of the eternal Jeeva viz. It only means that Punya of value equivalent to the obligations rendered to the Prapanna by those who were friendly to him and Papa of value equivalent to the offense flung at the Prapanna by those inimical to him. ( 3 ) Why should God wait till the death of the Prapanna for this distribution? This is to give time to see whether a friend turns a foe or a foe turns a friend by the time of death of the Prapanna.One desirous of Moksha and might be doing Prapatti in which case no karma could be transferred to him. Those that are not useful for strengthening the Upasana as also those relating to Prarabda will disappear as at 5 ( ii ) above.. expansion of intelligence and such other things. a friend or foe may himself be a Mumukshu . time etc. Some questions arising out of what has been stated above are posed and answered by Swami Desika as follows: ( 1 ) If all karmas get extinguished. unfavorable circumstances as to place. Also. God turns away from the thought of punishing sins.( i ) If done unknowingly or unwittingly and / or (ii ) If done due to unavoidable. they will not taint the Prapanna. which get distributed. ( 2 ) How can Punya or Papa of one be transferred to another especially Papa to one who has not done any evil? It is not that the Punya and Papa of the Prapanna are transferred as it is. infinite knowledge and infinite bliss does it not mean . they will disappear ( i ) By the potency of the Upaya of Prapatti at the time of death or ( ii ) By distribution among the friends and foes of the Prapanna as described later. It also means cessation of Avidya (ignorance). Everything can be decided only at the time of death of the Prapanna. deeds done deliberately either before or after Prapatti will disappear after yielding fruit till the fall of the body. As regards Punya. where is the question of distributing Punya and Papa among friends and foes? The Papas are those spoken of as not tainting the Prapanna and the Punya done after Prapatti that have not started to yield results by some stronger karma.
It promises to be the panacea that . and a person aspiring for Kaivalya does not go through the Archiradi Marga which is the exclusive privilege of the Prapanna. ( 6 ) In some places. THE WORDS ' MA SUCHAH' This expression is meant to confirm man's faith.. This is evident from the BG Sloka where Lord Krishna classifies his Bhaktas into four categories of which one desires wealth.which means 'Deathless'. Even they are subject to births and deaths.. It is said that if the Prapanna is so impatient as to feel that he cannot bear to live without attaining Moksha. Mukti is referred to as Kaivalya. such a thought would indeed be sin. the Lord would create a suitable circumstance to fulfill his desire.e. one desires return of lost wealth. The word 'Sarva' occurring in both the halves of Charamasloka suggest that the Lord would stand in the place of other Upayas and also stand as the fruit of such Upayas . This is something like referring to Devas as "Amaras'. when no sin was attached. Does it not sound like a case of Assisted Suicide or Euthanasia?. ( 7 ) The question arises in the case of a Prapanna who deems the rest of the present life an unbearable burden whether his desire to die immediately will not constitute a sin. but not that of the enjoyment of Bhagavan which what Moksha means.'Kaivalya . the Lord will at that very moment rid all Karmas and call him to his fold. In the case of a "Aartha Prapanna" who desires such an end.) without association with Chit and Achit. Why? It is only to show that since all upadhis ( hindrances or conditioning factors) have ceased. it is ' like Moksha '. Kaivalya which is the experience of the 'disembodied soul' is not eternal nor is it Moksha. But what we speak of is not suicide but only a prayer for immediate death to which no impropriety can be attributed. It is 'Kevala' (i.which is another name for this state? Is the happiness of Kaivalya and that of Paramapada the same or are they different? Kaivalya means the extinction of those Karmas responsible for old age. death etc. Compared to humans they live long enough to look like being deathless. There are some expiation rites 'Sarvasvara' in which a person cast his body down a precipice or consigned it to fire. In the case of the 'Tripta Prapanna'one who is willing and satisfied about waiting till the fall of his body in its due natural course. a third one desires Kaivalya and the last desires Moksha.
1 ) Whether one is eligible?. The grief can arise out of the following 10 reasons and the answers therefor are as indicated against each. grief is in not attaining the goal. and lack of fruit.. he dispels Arjuna's doubt as to his belonging to the class of Asuras "Ma Sucha'(BG16/6. 4 ) If any defects arise after Prapatti.can cure all ailments like lack of knowledge. It is at this juncture of Arjuna's grief that Krishna feels that Arjuna is in a state of fitness to receive the great secret of Prapatti. 5 ) Is there worry about sufferings for offenses after performing Prapatti? Not. 'Nanusochanti' (BG2/11) "Na Sochitum Arhasi' (BG/2'25. lack of longing (Tvara). 3 ) Whether Siddhopaya is reliable? Yes.'Sogam Theerkkum Srutip Porul' The Lord does this on 3 distinct occasions when he specifically uses the word 'Sucha' : Even at the beginning. 2 ) Whether any other Upaya has to be adopted? No. he dispels Arjuna's sorrow in having to kill his kinsmen. Yes. after death in respect of such offenses? . Swami Desika describes Lord Krishna of Bhagavad Gita as the ' great dispeller of sorrow'.26 and27)-12 In Chapter 16. fear that in future also he may not be able to attain the goal for he feels the road to be too long and his own life being too short. which he had learned to be not direct upayas 4 ) Not about Bhakti yoga which though direct is beset with insurmountable difficulties and inordinate delays 5 ) BUT. It is open to all irrespective of caste or sex. lack of Upaya. KRISHNA'S SAYING " DO WHATEVER YOU DEEM FIT TO DO" AS IF KRISHNA WERE INDIFFERENT. will they affect? No. What is now the grief of Arjuna that Krishna seeks to dispel? 1 ) Not killing of his relatives and Acharyas 2 ) Not what he should do if he belonged to the class of Asuras (about whose characteristics Krishna had been describing) 3 ) Not about Karma yoga. Gnana Yoga etc. Reliable.)-13 And finally in he dispels Arjuna's anguish by asking him to surrender without bothering about the various yogas which Arjuna feels unable to perform. 'Ma Sucha'( BG 18/66 )-14 The word Suchah implies an element of fear besides grief. if atoned 6 ) Is there any worry about Naraka etc.
. and .His Omnipotence was approachable .11 Mantraanaam Paramo mantrah guhyaanaam . . "MA SUCHAH" IS THE MOST IMPORTANT PART OF THE CHARAMASLOKA.His Omnipresence was accessible. the assurance of salvation. IT WAS A 'ONE-TO ONE' BOND OF HOPE BETWEEN THE INDIVIDUAL AND HIS SAVIOUR. the existential man.. 1. will the body continue? No. FAITH AND DEVOTION WERE ITS ONLY CONDITIONALITIES.It was ultimately His grace that provided beyond logic and reason. AS IT DISPELS ALL OUR DOUBTS REGARDING THE UPAYA AND ASSURES IN NO UNCERTAIN TERMS THE ATTAINMENT OF MOKSHA AND THE FULL AND PERFECT ENJOYMENT OF BHAGAVAN IN PARAMAPADA. another life on the journey towards Moksha. THIS GUARANTEE OF SALVATION WAS BEYOND FATIGUING RATIONALIZATIONS AND CONCEPTUALIZATIONS.No. 10) Whether 'Kaivalya' enjoyment will intervene to hinder Moksha? No. . " Krishna was a responsive savior. 8 ) Whether good deeds done will be extinguished by bad deeds in the PostPrapatti period? No..To him solace came not only because he learnt the beneficence of doing one's duty without thought of reward or gain.To Arjuna. THE BENEDICTION OF UNQUESTIONING FAITH" -15 NOTES 1. .To him deliverance came because Krishna said directly to him ' Surrender your all unto me and I will give you redemption'. .His Omniscience was attainable. 9 ) Whether due to reasons beyond Janmantara ( other than the current life)further births will take place? No.To him comfort came not only because he saw for himself the awesome infinity of the divine when Krishna revealed Himself to him giving him a ' divine eye' to see his glorious form. . A PRAGMATIC AND PRACTICABLE GUIDE ON HOW TO LIVE WITH MINIMUM STRIFE AND TENSION. Naradeeya Kalpam. 7 ) In the case of Aartha Prapatti. AND A GOSPEL OF PERSONALIZED DEVOTION OFFERING. . IN THE MOST UNEQUIVOCAL TERMS. THE GITA WAS THUS BOTH A MANUAL FOR LIFE. succor came not only because of the realization that there was beyond death.
sva datta.116. 6. Joseph Campbell with Bill Moyers. sva dheeya.34 'Anaya enam hari sreshta! Dattam asya abhayam maya Vibhishano va. 10.44 "Papanam va subanam va vadarhanam plavangama Karyam Karunamaryena na kaschit na aparadhyati? 8.. Verse 1 "akara mudala ezhuthellam aadhi bhagavan mudatre ulagu" 4. Up. Kata Sruti harih tata Akarena uchyate vishnuh sarva lokeswaro Udrutha vishnuna lakshmih ukarena uchyate Makarastu tayor dasah iti Pranava lakshanam. VR.286) 3. sva vasam.3." 5.2.40 "parath thu tat sruteh" 6.18. " The Power of Myth" (p. Svasmin Nyasyati Mam svayam" 11.. 1. Daks. Brahma Sutram 2.guhyam uttamam pavitram cha pavitraanaam mantrah 2. Yas cha kinchit jagat Yasmin drisyate sruyatepi va Antar bahis cha tat sarvam vyapya narayana stitah.BG 2 /11 Asochyaananva Sochastvam Prajnaavaadaamscha Bhashase Gathaasoon Agathaasoomscha naanusochanti Punditah BG 2/ 25 Avyaktoyam Achintyoyam Avikaryoyam Uchyate Tasmad Evam Viditvainam Naanu Sochitum Arhasi BG 2 /26 Atha Chainam Nityajaatam Nityam Va Manyase Mritam Tahaapi Tvam Mahaabaaho Naivam Sochitum Arhasi BG 2/ 27 Jatasya Hi Druvo Mrityuh Druvam Janma Mritasya Cha Tasmadaparihaaryerthe Na Tvam Sochitum Arhasi 13.BG 16/5 Deivee Sampad Vimokshyaaya Nibhana Aasuri Mathaa Maa Suchah Sampadam Deiveem Abhijathasi Paandava .. stanza 3 Swami. sm.27 Sandya heeno asuchir nityam anarhah sarvakarmasu Yad anyath kurute karma na tasya phalabhag bhaveth. VR. ha sarveshu deveshu na asti narayanath parah Tatha sarveshu mantreshu na asti ashtaksharath 2A.42 parah" Moola sanaatanah. sva sesham. 7. Swami Sri Vedanta Desika's 'Nyasa Dasakam'. ibid. Taitt. sugriva! Yadi va ravana svayam' 12. svartham. Tirukkural. BG 9 / 33 Kim punah brahmanah punyaa bhakta rajarshayas tatha Anityam asukam lokam imam prapya bajasva mam" 9. sva bharatvena nirbharam . 6.
synthesize them and develop a varied and mixed culture." We of the Occident are about to arrive at crossroads that was reached by the thinkers of India hundreds of years before Christ "8 . may draw corrective which is most wanted in order to make our inner life more perfect. Madras 4. the first Prime Minister of India writes in his "Discovery of India" "We can never forget the ideals that have moved our race.I should point to India. the buoyant energy and love of life and nature of our forefathers.Maa Suchah 15. a system that even now makes us giddy. more comprehensive.the Jewish. art and culture. the basic values that they set up. their love of truth and beauty and freedom. which well deserve the attention even of those who have studied PLATO and KANT . more universal. Pavan Varma-"Krishna. the daring of their thought. the wisdom of the ancients. And. if I were to ask myself from what literature we who have been nurtured almost exclusively on the thoughts of the Greeks and the Romans and of one Semitic race . but a transfigured and eternal life .14. their toleration of other ways than theirs. I should point to India" He observes further: " It is surely astounding that such a system as Vedanta should have been slowly established by the indefatigable and intrepid thinkers of India thousands of years ago.. as in the mounting the last steps of the swaying spire of the ancient Gothic Cathedral" JAWAHARLAL NEHRU."If I were asked under what sky the human mind has most deeply pondered over the greatest problems of life and has found solutions for some of them. nor can we forget the myriad experiences which have built up our ancient race and lie embedded in our subconscious minds" HENRICH ZIMMER declares. the dreams of the Indian people through the ages. their understanding of the life's mysterious ways. more truly human a life-not for this life only. BG 18/66 Sarva Dharmaan Parityajya Maamekam Saranam Vraja Aham Tva Sarva Papebhyo Mokshayishyaami.in fact.The playful divine" Excerpts from a Review in "The Hindu". their splendid achievement in literature.again. WHAT THE SCHOLARS SAY ABOUT HINDUISM? Even the Greeks who came to India were wonderstruck by this amalgam of Hindu philosophy which in the words of RENOU "Can still be of some efficacy again to our '`blase' culture and Hinduism can be better defined as Wisdom rather than the equivocal term `spirituality" MAX MULLER thunders . their capacity to absorb other peoples and their cultural accomplishments. their spirit of curiosity and mental adventure.
has sprung from this torrid land. It may well be that within the foreseeable future. It is already becoming clear that a chapter which had a Western beginning will have to have an Indian ending if it is not to end in self. it is possible that India the conquered will conquer the conqueror. the burning womb of the Gods. as religion captures the place of technology. it is India. with all its thousand branches and their millions of twigs." Access to the Vedas is the greatest privelege this century may claim over all previous centuries. another Nobel Laureate states " If there is one face on this earth where all the dreams of living men and women have found a home from the very earliest days when man and woman began to dream of existence. but in the 21st century. the great World Scientist who was responsible for the development of the atom bomb says:. the great German philosopher agrees: "India has created a special momentum in world history as a country to be searched for"12 OPPENHEIMER. the world would be under the hegemony of the U. For more than 30 centuries.S." The Hindu religion is the Only One of the World's great faiths dedicated to the idea that cosmos itself indergoes an immense.10 ASHBY PHILIP of Princeton University echoes: "The Hindu argument that all religions are equally valid may well sweep the world in the next 25 years.destruction of the human race.These do mix in India."9 ARNOLD TOYENBEE who surveyed the history of the human race predicts: " In 50 years.. Hinduism indeed has a new vitality not only suitable for defense but also adaptable for offense against Western religions" 11 HEGEL. It renews itself tirelessly showing no signs of decay" 16 .TROY WILSON ORGAN is wonderstruck at the strange amalgam that India is. Sun worship and atomic research. the famous Astro -physicist observes:. He observes: "Probably nowhere else do people live in so many centuries simultaneously. the Nobel Laureatepredicted " India is destined to be the teacher of all lands" 15 ROMAN ROLLAND. while our intelligence has recently provided us with awesome powers.. Ultra-modern multistoreyed buildings and mud huts-. If human race has to be saved. Ox carts and jet planes.. it has to embrace the Hindu way". it is not yet clear that we have the wisdom to avoid our own self-destruction". It has been the solace of my life.. it will be Hinduism which will be challenging Christianity not only in India but in the west as well. the tree of vision.. It will be the solace of my death"13 CARL SEGAN. Magic and modern medicine. And.. It is the only religion in which the time scales correspond to those of modern cosmology. There is no study so beneficial and so elevating as that of the Upanishads.14 RABINDRANATH TAGORE.A. Astrology and theoretical physics. indeed an infinite number of deaths and rebirths.
including those in the neighbourhood. Their preachings of human rights. Garden City. of philosophy. everlasting. even when many countries .1995 (p. The Philosophies of India by Heinrich Zimmer. Joseph Campbell. NY. said " India's heart still beats for justice.. The West has often judged Asian nations struggling to remove poverty. Pub: Barron's Educational Series Inc.2) by Ashby Philip of Princeton University Pub: LIFE Magazine 12. HARCHARAN SINGH JOSH. religion seeks to help you to keep your records straight in this world and in this life so that when the eschatological time arrives. PALKIWALA. liberty.-Discovery of India" ( p. Address delivered by Armold Toyenbee.Hegel 13. Ohio University.55) . Man to avert degenerating into a beast must have religious belief which regulates human behavior to be true to himself and to the world around him. have cast off democracy and assumed open or veiled dictatorship under the impact of religious fundamentalism. 187) by Jawaharlal Nehru. Her culture is ageless and is as relevant to this present 20th century as it was to the 20th century before Christ"18 MR. President of the Indian Council of World Affairs said in a recent seminar on " Ethical and moral values in business and professions" organized by the London borough of Croydon at Croydon College. Ohio.. NY. 17 and 18 : Quoted in News India Times dated December 8.. patent laws and other similar impositions on struggling developing nations.1995 (p. Pub. "Hinduism-its historical development" by Troy Wilson Organ . Prof. fraternity and tolerance. therefore sound hollow" 19 To conclude : Man to remain as human must have religious belief. she has the gift of perpetual youth.55) 14. hunger. xxxvi. 16.1974 9. And. ignorance by yardsticks which they themselves took a few centuries to evolve while they built their wealth and prosperity on ruthless exploitation of labor and enslaved nations.. Quoted in News India Times datedDecember 8.WILL DURANT declares " Nothing should more deeply shame the modern student than the recency and inadequacy of his acquaitance with India. you can look forward to stand before God for receiving a favorable final judgement. Edinburgh University in 1952 11 "Christian Century" (p. Athens. NY. Columbia University.Woodbury. 1974 10. referred to India's record of representative institutions. the eminent jurist says " India is eternal. 15. Bollingen Series.This the India that patient scholarship is now opening up like a new intellectual continent to that Western mind which only yesterday thought civilization an exclusive European thing" 17 N. Though the beginnings of her numerous civilizations go so far back in time that they are lost in the twilight of history.A.1960 8. Doubleday & Co. equality. Notes: 7.
19.1996 (P.6) . Quoted in The Hindu International Edition dated February 18.
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