CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.

1 Background of the Study School feeding is a well recognized safety net that alleviates hunger while supporting education, health and community development. Jukes, Drakes and Bundy (2007) said that School Feeding have impact on the attendance and learning. The interaction between hunger, poor nutrition status and diseases prevents children from going to school, or families from investing in their children education and children from learning once they are in school. School feeding promotes development through for example local purchase of food and support for agricultural production activities. School Feeding has been endorse in a number of international fare and has received government commitment. The United Nations millennium project recommended that school feeding be expanded to reach all children in hunger hot spots using locally available foods. It was included in the Comprehensive African Agricultural Development programmes (CAADP) adopted by the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) in 2003, later endorsed in the African Union Food security summit held in Abuja 2006. In Worldwide, 72 million of primary school age children are not in school of these; 95% are in developing countries, 57% are girls, 48 – 56% are stunted and up to 62% are underweight and 53% suffer from iron deficiency. (Sources; UNESCO 2007, WFP 2007). In Ghana, children danced to show appreciation to the almighty for providing them with food. The minister calls on stake holders to contribute their quota towards the successful implementation of Ghana School feeding programme (Alhassan, 2010). Northern part of Ghana has the lowest school enrolment (Gross enrolment ratio of 65% in 1998) and attendance rates of pupils of school going age in the country. The average attendance rate in SFP schools was 56%. This has increased to an average of 89% as of now. In 1997, 55 624 children were enrolled in 423 schools and received hot lunch. Currently 274 200 children in 1 096 primary schools and 50 200 children in 342 pre-schools attend school and receive the hot lunch each day (Albert 2010). In Tanzania, the SFP was jointly coordinated by the ministry of education and ministry of health funded by WFP with reference to WFP statistic for Singinda District SFP in 2009,

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WFP has supported food world 4.4 by to schools under this programme. Due to this, standard one enrolment rate increased from 4 763 pupils in 2000 to 8 548 children in 2010. From this, it is widely Accepted that SFP increase nutrition status of pupils as well as attendance and performance. (Feature article 2010). SFP in Kenya was launched in 1980 by the government, with assistance from the UN world Food Programme (WFP). Kenya s SFP covers 29 arid and semi-arid districts and two slum areas. WFP has provided school meals to children in Kenya for the last 28 years. In 2008, school meals were provided to about 1 210, 000 children in more than 3 800 schools in vulnerable areas within 63 districts and 6 Nairobi slums. The main objective of the programme was to increase school enrolment and attendance. Between 1997 and 2000 the district under SFP registered an overall increase in enrolment rates by about 4 000 pupils. (feature article, the guidance 2010). In Barut location, the SFP were introduced in various schools to alleviate hunger, promote health status of children and demolish child labour whereby female children were subjected to work as child minders and to meet family chores. Due to scarcity of food which was experienced in this area in 1999 and some year back, children were no longer attending school due to hunger. The government donated maize beans, and cooking fart to all public schools in the area, this brought back all children back to school. 1.2 Problem Statement ECDE Children grow quickly and become more active throughout the day. Their teeth and bones are still developing unlike adults; small children cannot depend on the breakfast taken in the morning up to lunch time where they will get another meal. They have \high energy requirement for their size. Their food need to be high in energy and also in nutrients. For then to remain active and stay at school, school feeding must be there to make them stay at school and be motivated to attend school. This study therefore

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was investigating how SFP affected children enrolment in ECDE centres in Barut Location. 1.3 Purpose of Study The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of school Feeding Programme on Enrolment of ECDE children in Barut location, Nakuru District. 1.4 Objectives of the Study The study was guided by the following objectives; i) ii) iii) iv) To analyze how the amount of food given in SFP enhance enrolment of ECDE children in Barut Location. To describe how the management of SFP has affected the enrolment of ECDE children in Barut location. To assess how the type of food given on SFP influences the enrolment of ECDE children in Barut location. To determine the effects of SFP on gender balance in enrolment of children in Barut location. 1.5 Research Questions The following research questions emanated from the objectives of the study. i) ii) iii) iv) Does the amount of food given in SFP enhance enrolment of ECDE children? To what extent has the management of SFP has affected the enrolment of ECDE children.? What is the influence of the type of food given in SFP on enrolment of children in ECDE centres? How has the gender balance been affected by the school feeding programmes.?

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The SFP will provide market for communities’ agricultural produce and mobilize the community on production and usage of locally available food both in school and at home. 13 parents out of 300 were included also. The community works hand in hand with the ECDE teachers to sustain the SFP. some respondents were not willing to give the required information. 4 . 19 teachers out of 30.8 Scope of the Study The study was conducted within Barut location. 9 ECDE centres were included out of 15 schools. The implementation of SFP in Barut location will make children to be healthy and receptive to learning. 1. 1.7 Limitations Some factors hindered effective research.6 Significance of the Study This study is very important in Barut location because there are no children failing to attend school because of hunger.1. and the researcher needed to process other copies of questionnaires to give other different respondent to replace them. The schools were far apart and a lot of time was spent. 30 children out of 529. Health of children is enhanced and there are no malnutrition cases. Nakuru municipality division. These include. Nakuru district.

Food which have little or no nutritional value. 5 .9 Definition of Significant Terms Child: Care giver: Alleviate: Challenges: Holistic: Public schools: Private schools: Vulnerable: Stake holders: Implement: Manager: Junk food: Gender: Any body below 18 years Any person who provides care. biological make up of being a male or female. education and protection to the child. Put into action Person in charge of the institution. people. Schools owned and managed by individuals.1. Get rid of Difficulties All aspects of development Schools owned by the government. Those living under difficult circumstances. groups or organizations which are concerned with the development of children.

Challenges encountered in managing SFP. 2. The source of food is small scale agriculture which neither could nor produce enough food to sustain them until the next harvest. Junk Food Avoided.0 Introduction Related literature in this chapter is reviewed under the following headings. Balanced Diet. Learning Environment. 6 .1.1 How the Amount of Food Given in SFP enhance Enrolment of Children 2. The programme succeeded and improvement reported in children attention and participation in class.CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2. St Paul Mundindi (2006) added the problem by running a basic feeding programme o provide children with porridge supplement with Soya beans.. how the amount of food given in SFP enhance enrolment of children. The feature article of Ugunjan Community Resource centre (2006) indicates that nutrition is a particular problem of children as most families lack the income and food security to provide balance diet. Influence of Type of Food Given in SFP ON Enrolment of Children and Gender Balance in Enrolment of ECDE Children. How the Management of SFP Affects the Enrolment of Children.1 Balanced Diet The school meals are planned such that all meals provided is balanced and has the required nutrients necessary for children. Ways of Overcoming Challenges.

1. Almost a third of their pocket money goes on snacks eaten while traveling to and from school. This will affect teaching and record keeping. Increased work load is experienced by the teachers due to increased enrolment. The funds to buy food are either payments from the parents or from sponsors which include NGOs community can be traced due to lack of clarity in roles and ownership on the new program making it to collapse on funding other hand the private partnership funding the programme may delay due to lack of clear terms of difference and experience (UNICEF.2.. 2010). they are able to socialize in a secure environment school feeding can help to build social cohesion and restore a sense of normality for children coping with stress of conflicts.1. the classrooms are full and the spaces cannot accommodate the increased number. 1996). aspect of sharing a meal with classmate I a social benefit of the programme (WFP. record keeping and store capacity. The social. 2. 2005). School feeding prevents children from eating Junk Food. In Ghana there was a challenge in paying the cooks to an extent that the food money was used to pay their salaries which eventually left insufficient funds for the procurement of food stuff for children. Also monitoring accounting for food. 2007).1 Billion a year on food. (Alhassan. 7 .3 Junk Food Avoidance Parents prefer school meals rather than packed or food sold in the shops. 84% says that they enjoy eating at school.2 Learning Environment When children attend school and share meals.2 Effects of management of SFP on the Enrolment of Children 2. 2. The social benefit was also observed in Sri Lanka North East where children affected by many years of conflict.2.1 Challenges Encountered in Managing SFP Uneven flow of funds is one of the challenges which are faced by managers in managing SFP. And civil war given opportunity to share meals of at school. For those who eat school meals. Cooking of food is done more once hence requires a lot of fuel for cooking (Kate. The survey made by the catering company sodexco (200) indicates that school children in the UK are spending 6.

1996). Also the school garden will provide job opportunity to more so women cooperatives and this will avoid child labour. workers union (GAWU) in Ghana urged the government to make attractions for it to support and sustain the Ghana school feeding programme (George 2005). improving school attendance and results contributing to the health and booting local food production (Alhassan 2010). (UNICEF. The table below shows the meal daily per capital energy requirement and safe protein intake. Some factors such as local food habits. maize and cassava to supply them to SFP rather than buying food. Dutch ambassador to Ghana stated that by supporting GSFP is like killing 3 birds with one stone. logistical consideration influence the selection of the rations. A substantial ration is recommended to ensure overcompensating so that parents do not with more food at home than the child receives at school. The community can be involved in revenue generating activities in order to buy land from land owners where boreholes can be drilled (Kate 2005). The Ngo sector is competent and willing to develop human resources in rural areas. especially mobilization and empowerment of women. The general agricultural. 8 . The school garden will also supplement materials resources available to the community under school programme. That is.2.2 Ways of Overcoming Challenges The school garden will enable site management to produce or access resources (from garden or sale of produce) to manage their own SFP. 2. (Redriue 2009). In the middle of the day.3 Influence of Type of food Given in SFP on Enrolment of Children. The school can also set a plot for cultivating beans. concentration and achievement.2. children are served with large meals which not only serve as nutrition programme but also as social welfare programmes providing a substantial economic benefits to families pot. School meals provided in the school day to alleviate hunger before or during classes should help to improve children’s attention.

12 yrs Boys 11.Table 2. AGE Pre-primary (1-6 yrs) Primary 7 – 10 yrs Adolescents 10.4 Gender Balance in Enrolment of ECDE Children 9 . Iron and Iodine.1 Mean daily per capita energy requirement and safe protein intake Energy (kg Protein (grams Pre-primary 3.5 years 1 7000 32 PRIMARY 6 – 12 YEARS 1 900 40 Sources: Energy and protein Requirement WHO. WHO AND ICCIDD (1997). 2.2 – Recommended means daily intakes for vitamin A. Rations that will the actual micronutrients gaps in the diets of school age children are higher n nutritional quality and can be expected to have greater impacts on learning. GENEVA 1985). Table 2. (Argentina) 400/1330 400/1330 500/1665 Iron (mg)I 10 10 Iodine (ug) 90 120 150 Sources: WHO / FAU (1988).14 yrs Girls 11-14 yrs 12 15 Vit A.

School feeding. 2007) WFP has traditionally supported school feeding to reach poor and hungry children in particular girls enabling them to attend school and learn (WFP 2007). school feeding retain them in school are less likely to be sent to work hence discouraging child labour. Girls were added to stay at home to cater for their siblings while boys sent to school. Where by absolute enrolment increased by 28% for girls and 22% for boys. In places where children are sent to work.School Feeding reduced gender and social inequality. (Adelman Gilligah and Lehrer. feeding new the need to send the children more the girls to school. CHAPTER THREE 10 . According to monitoring done by WFP (2008) an increment in enrolment was seen in WFP assisted schools in the first year of assistance. reduced this as parents through the school.

2 Study Location The study was carried out in Barut location. 3. Table 3. Nakuru municipality division in Nakuru District. 3. 3.1 ECDE Centres in Barut Location 11 .3 Target Population Barut location has a total of 15 ECDE centres with a population of 700 children and 36 teachers. The researcher used questionnaires which were administered to respondents through hand giving.1 Research Design The researcher used survey design to gather and collect information and determine correct status or conditions and practice to make intelligent plans for improving the status and conditions.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.0 Introduction This chapter explains how the study has been carried out in steps and why particular methods and techniques were used.

ECDE AIC Barut Sosiot Mevisa Scholar Ingobor Isaac Otwori Gateway St.4 Sample size The researcher sampled out 9 schools using scientific random sampling in which was carried out in the study. Patrick Keben Kelelwet Kiptenden Good Shephard St. OF CHILDREN MALE FEMALE 20 25 27 33 41 39 34 26 23 25 14 11 42 44 12 15 13 17 18 15 30 45 10 13 16 17 17 18 20 20 336 364 NO OF TEACHERS TOTAL MALE FEMALE 45 0 3 60 1 2 80 1 3 60 1 2 48 0 2 25 0 2 86 0 3 27 0 1 30 0 3 33 0 2 75 0 3 23 0 2 33 0 2 35 0 2 40 0 2 700 3 33 TOTAL 3 3 4 3 2 2 3 1 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 36 3.2 – Sample size RESPONDENTS Children POPULATION 529 SAMPLE 30 12 . Gregory Mogoon Barut TOTAL NO. 19 teachers and 11 parents were sampled out Table 3. 30 children.

3. Also questionnaires were used to come up with findings because respondents had freedom to express their views. 13 . Also pie charts and bar graphs were used. Also children were interviewed on whether they like the SFP and data was collected. The tables showed the target population. sample size and also characteristics of respondents. The questionnaires were requesting the respondents to give the information of the effects of SFP on enrolment of children. The pie charts show the questionnaires return rate in degrees and the bar graphs illustrated the enrolment of children before and after introduction of SFP. 3.5 Research Instruments The researcher used interviews where by children were interviewed by being asked questions on whether they appreciate the SFP.8 Procedure of Data Analysis The data was analyzed by the use of tables. 3.4 Sampling Procedures The researcher used scientific random sampling by writing names of each subject in the paper and randomly picking the needed number of respondents.Parents Teachers TOTAL 300 24 853 11 19 60 3.7 Procedure of Data Collection The researcher prepared questionnaires and delivered them through hand giving due to her accessibility of the schools.

The information from questionnaires was presented in tabular forms and in figures. 4.1 Questionnaire Return Rate 14 .CHAPTER FOUR DATA ANALYSIS. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS 4.0 Introduction The analysis of the data was done according to the objectives of the study.

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Before Introducton of SFP After introduction of SFP KEY 15 SFP . The questionnaire return rate was 86. KEY Returned 86. Table 4.4% Figure 4.1: Characteristics of Respondents Respondent Head teachers Teachers Children Parents TOTAL Male 1 0 12 4 17 Female 6 12 18 7 23 Total 7 12 30 11 60 4.2 Demographic Characteristics of Respondents The respondents were characterized by their sex.1. they were as follows.6% Unreturned 13.3 How the Food Given enhance Enrolment of Children The enrolment of children increased after introduction of school feeding programmes.6% hence they were adequate for the research to continue. % Enrolment The figure below shows enrolment before and after introduction of SFP. Questionnaire Return Rate 4.52 questionnaires out of 60 were filled and returned on time.

% Enrolment Schools which offer breakfast and lunch in their feeding programme had high enrolment compared to schools which offer breakfast only. From the above figure. ECDE 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Meals offered KEY Breakfast Lunch + breakfast 16 . It is clear that the SFP made the enrolment to increase. the average enrolment of children before introduction of school feeding programme was 30% and after introduction of SFP was 70%. School Enrolment before and after introduction of SFP. The figure below shows meals offered in 90 centres verses enrolment of children.2.Figure 4.

another one is drought which makes the availability of food to be scarce. Schools which offer breakfast and lunch had an average enrolment of 75% and all of them were full day nursery schools. 4. Lack of funds 108 Drought 90 Physical facilities 90 Lack of staff 72 17 .3: Meals offered in ECDE Centres From the figure above the meals offered in SFP determine the enrolment of children in the ECDE centres.Figure 4. Schools which offer breakfast only in their meals had average enrolment of 25% and they were all half day ECDE centres. They are illustrated below. The biggest challenge is the lack of funds to sustain the programme.4 How the management of SFP Affects the Enrolment of Children The management encounters some challenges which affect the enrolment of children. Others are physical KEY facilities like kitchen. fuel and water.

Challenges encountered in maintaining SFP.Figure 4.4. KEY Farming 180 Employing Skilled personnel 40 Donation 90 18 Constructing water tanks 50 . The ways of overcoming the challenge are illustrated below.

5 – Ways of overcoming challenges From the above respondents suggested that the best way to overcome the challenges is tilling the land where they can plan food like maize.Figure 4.3 – Types of food prepared in SFP Day Monday Tuesday Wednesday Breakfast Porridge Porridge Porridge Lunch Maize + beans + Potatoes Rice + beans + fruits Maize + Beans vegetables 19 .5 The type of food given in SFP School children enjoys eating food which are not found at home or not prepared frequently at home. Table 4. beans and vegetables which will be used in the programme and also to generate income. Others thought of building water tanks to ease the scarcity of water supply. Also ¼ of them suggested that they can involve private donors so that they can donate food or funds to sustain the programme. 4. The table below shows the type of food cooked in most schools visited.

Thursday Friday Porridge Porridge Ugali + Vegetables + Meat Rice + beans 4.56.6 Boys 158.4 20 .6 Gender Balance in enrolment of ECDE Children There is gender balance in enrolment of children. KEY Girls 201. The average ratio of boys to girls in schools visited is 44. Also the sitting arrangement in class showed that boy and girls interact freely without sex discrimination also gender balance was evident allocation of duties in the classroom and in the play ground.

CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY. 5. The second was to find out how the management of SFP affect the enrolment of children.0 Introduction In this chapter.Figure 4.1 Summary of Findings The findings of the study responded to the objectives of the study.6. 21 . the findings of the study will be discussed and summarized featuring the objectives of the study.Boys and Girls enrolment in ECDE. The first objective was to determine the amount of food given in SFP in enhancement of enrolment of children. The third objective was to determine how the type of given in SFP influence enrolment of children and the fourth objective was to find out how now gender balance is distributed in enrolment of children. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.

1.2 Management of SFP The research found that there are some challenges which are faced by the manager in implementing the programme most teachers respondents indicated that where they face problem is lack of enough funds to purchase the foods and other necessities which can make the programme to collapse.4 Gender balance in Enrolment of children The findings show that all school visited has nearly equal number of enrolment of boys and girls. 88% of children said that they like the food given in the programme and they don’t want to miss school because they don’t want to miss the food.1. 5.1. 5.3 Effects of the type of food given in SFP on enrolment of children. The research findings found that children enjoy eating socially no matter what kind of food provided to them unlike when alone at home.5. The research found that most parents prefer to take their children to schools which offer breakfast and lunch rather than those which offer breakfast only. 100% of the parents said that they appreciate the food provided in the SFP. children are happy with the food provided in the SFP. According to the findings.1 Amount of food given in SFP The food given in SFP determines the enrolment of children. The SFP made the parents to send their children to school even the below 3 years children because they will be catered for holistically. This shows that there is gender balance since all children have been enrolled including girls and the vulnerable in the society. 5. 22 . Parents said that their children don’t eat certain foods at home but they eat while at school. the respondent suggested the SFP be sponsored by NGOS and church organization and also the community by giving their agricultural products to the SFP.1. On the other hand.

there is need to feed the children in the ECDE centres hence SFP should be introduced in all centres. The following teacher child ratio is recommended by the ministry of education.5. Children Below 2 years – 1: 4 2.4 years (Pre-primary I) – 1: 15 4 – 5 years (pre.child ratio should be considered in enrolment of children for easier classroom management.3 years (Baby class) – 1: 10 3. The fourth objective on the gender balance on enrolment of children the conclusion was that all children right should be met regardless of sex of the children. Teacher. First the community should be mobilized on the importance of the school feeding programme so that they can bring their children for ECDE enrolment. church and NGOs.3 Recommendations This section provides recommendations to make SFP to be at the required standards. 5. 23 .primary II) – 1: 20 The management should involve the following guideline in management SFP i) Involving stakeholders like parents. School feeding attracts children to school. The second objective on the management of SFP The conclusion is that stakeholders should be involved in the management of ECDE – Feeding Programme.2 Conclusion ECDE Centres are growing day by day. The conclusion on the third objective was that children eat any food provided in the SFP so long as they eat together socially. Based on the first objectives of the study on how the amount of food given in SFP enhance enrolment of children the conclusion was that all ECDE Centres should provide lunch and breakfast in their meals so as to enroll more children.

home Food Ratio for orphans and vulnerable children in the community. Oxford University Press . REFERENCES Albert Sozzy (2010): Effectiveness of School Feeding Programmes on School Achievement.Katc Vovley (2005).Edstron J.ii) iii) iv) Cultivating the land to plant food crops. Zambia. Nairobi UNICEF Eastern and Southern Africa Region Office .education programmes. Employing skilled personnel in handling young children.Jukes. 24 . CABI Publishing. Central static Office. (2007): How effective are food.Adelman S. School Feeding.Granthan – MC Gregor (1998). School Health. MCHG. Evaluations of school programmes: America. Washington DC. Washington DC . . Drake and Bundy (2007). Government Printers. (2007): Overcomes of Take. .or. Constructing water tanks to trap rain water. Nutrition and Education for all. Publisher .

I am a resident of Barut location since birth. Oxford University Press.. Improving effectiveness and increasing the benefit of education. Answer the questions in the questionnaire by ticking the correct answer and also give the required information in the spaces provided. Thank you. . I am therefore requesting you to give me the information required in the questionnaire. I am undertaking research on the effects of school feeding programme on the enrolment of ECDE children in Barut location. 25 . USA Oxford University Press.WFP (2007). UK. Stanford University Press APPENDICES Appendix I: Questionnaire to the ECDE Teacher Dear Respondent My name is Linah Busienei.UNICEF (2005) Unmasking Malnutrition Progress of the nations. Stanford. Thematic evaluation of School Feeding in Emergency situations. The information given will be confidential and for examination purpose only. UNESCO (1999).

Enrolment before the starting of school feeding programmes. Enrolment after SFP Boys Girls Total 6. What are the possible ways of overcoming the challenges? 26 . 7. What challenges do you encounter in managing the programme? …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… ……… 8.. Boys Girls Total 5.. Full day Half day 2.1. Name of ECDE Centre …………………………………………………………………………………………… Is the centre a Full day or Half day. …………………………………………………………………………………………. Meals Offered Break fast Lunch Both 4. Do children appreciate the type of food offered?. Current enrolment No of Boys No of Girls Total 3. Feeding Programmes started on …………………………….

Do you encounter any challenges in implementing these programmes? Yes No If yes what are these challenges 27 .…………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… ……… Appendix II: Questionnaire for the Head Teacher 1. Is Feeding Programme Available? Yes No 3. Name of ECDE Centre ……………………………………………………………… 2.

…………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …… 4. How many children do you have in ECDE centre? 1 2. How has the feeding programmes affected children’s learning …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …… 6. What resources would you need to procure to ensure a functional school feeding programme? …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… ……… Appendix III: Questionnaire for the Parent 1. Which class Baby Middle Top 2 None 28 . Are parents involved? ……………………… How ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 5.

...... …………………………………………………………………………………………… Appendix IV: Interview Schedule for the Children 1. What effort have you made to sustain the school feeding programmes? 1……………………………………………………………………………………………... Do you enjoy eating at school? …………………………………………………………..... 2................. What type of ECDE Centre? Full day Half day 4........ What is your name?................ Do you appreciate what children take at school? ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 7........ …………………………………………………………………………………………… 3........3...................... Which meals do they offer? Breakfast Lunch Both 6.... Which class are you? …………………………………………………………………… 4........ 2.. Is there any feeding programmes? Yes No 5.. What is the name of your school? ……………………………………………………… 3. Do you eat at school? …………………………………………………………………… 5.. 29 ..........

What do you normally do before and after eating? …………………………………………………………………………………………….Why? ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 30 .. Which food do you like most? ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 7... 6.

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