This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
May | June 2013 Niacin: one of the key B vitamins for sustaining healthy fish growth and production
International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058
The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
Providing proficient tools to achieve costeffective and sustainable aquaculture practices
FUNGINAT AQUA ECOBIOL AQUA
GLYMET MIX AQUA
GUSTOR AQUA AQUANOX
Central Office and Orders Jesús Aprendiz, 19. 1º A-B 28007 Madrid
T. +34 915 014 041 firstname.lastname@example.org www.norel.es
Niacin: one of the key B vitamins for sustaining healthy fish growth and production
by Simon J Davies and Mark Rawling, Aquaculture Nutrition & Health Group, Plymouth University, United Kingdom
fish nutrition. In mammals, there is a recognised and documented conversion pathway from tryptophan to niacin, thus allowing tryptophan, and proteins rich in tryptophan, to be an important reservoir for niacin biosynthesis. Although the essential amino acid tryptophan is a precursor of niacin, this endogenous synthesis, comprising 13 steps in a metabolic sequence is not deemed efficient. Studies in man have shown that approximately 60 mg of tryptophan are required to produce 1 mg of niacin and this ratio varies considerWith such an ‘ideal’ diet, vitamins could ably within different vertebrate groups. easily be assayed by using this vitamin test Fish, however, may even lack this converdiet, consisting of ‘vitamin free’ carbohydrate sion capacity or have very a poor efficacy for and protein sources i.e. casein, purified gelatin, this metabolic pathway. By supplementing potato starch, hydrogenated cotton seed oil, both a niacin deficient and niacin complete alpha-cellulose flour, minerals, cod liver oil, diet with varying amounts of tryptophan, it combined with crystalline vitamins. Each vitawas previously determined that tryptophan min could then be systematically assessed by levels have no effect on niacin accumulation. selective exclusion from this advanced basal Serrano and Nagayama (1991) found that the diet formulation. The water soluble vitamins 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA) to picolinic such as the B-complex and especially vitamin acid carbolase (PC) activity ratio in rainbow C (ascorbate) were all found to be essential trout suggested an ineffective conversion from in fish as in other terrestrial animals of comtryptophan to niacin. This finding will help mercial importance and indeed having the Metabolic considerations same basic functions as in humans. Exogenous proteins within the diet supply explain higher niacin requirements for some The role of niacin (vitamin B3) is no the metabolic pool with essential and non- fish, as others do carry the capacity in some less important within aquatic species; as fish essential amino acids. Among these is tryp- degree but this cannot be an insurance against farming became more prevalent, the health tophan which has considerable importance in providing a separate dietary supply. Niacin and niacinamide status of stocks fluctuare required by ated due to the wide Figure 1: Niacin in its two biologically active forms as presented to fish for assimilation all living cells spectrum of feed forand their chemimulations at that time. cal structure A number of negais depicted in tive symptoms were Figure 1. attributed to niacin They are deficiency and steps essential comwere taken to protect ponents of two against them based on coenzymes, early evidence. niacinamide In the 1940s and Nicotinic Acid Nicotinamide adenine dinucle1950s fish were found
20 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2013
n 1951 Dr John E Halver of the School of Fisheries Science, University of Washington, USA presented the ‘model semi-purified fish diet’ to the aquatic nutrition research community. This innovation allowed for the proliferation of deficiency studies with mainly salmonid fish such as rainbow trout and Pacific salmon to evaluate the significance of vitamins in complete diets for cultured fish.
to have a loss of appetite and poor food conversion (food intake to body weight ratio) that progressed into a darker skin colour, anorexia, posterior gut lesions, oedema of the stomach and intestine, erratic motion and at-rest muscle spasms. In the late 1950s and 1960s, a predilection to sunburn in fish was discovered and, in carp, subcutaneous haemorrhages developed under chronic and acute niacin deficiency. In the 1970s, eels were found to develop skin lesions and display erratic swimming, while lesions, deformed jaws, and anaemia were discovered in catfish, Ictalarus punctatus. The period from 1980 to date encompassed a series of investigations that augments earlier knowledge, but there have been relatively few studies in the early 21st century except for the work of Shaik Mohammed et al. (2001) where pathological effects of niacin deficiency similar to this described above were reported from studies with Indian catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis).
THE SPECIAL WORLD OF
“Made Germanin y”
REAL BRE WER S YEAST ’
For Leiber`s specialty yeast products, “Made in Germany” is a seal of quality.
Multibiotic effect of Leiber yeast - vitality, health and performance for fish.
Leiber GmbH · Hafenstraße 24, 49565 Bramsche, Germany · Tel +49 (0) 5461 9303-0 · Fax +49 (0) 5461 9303-28 · www.leibergmbh.de · email@example.com
FEATURE feed conversion ratios must be optimised in order for production costs to be minimised. Greater efficiency present throughout culturing conditions will lead to shorter growing time and a greater demand for micronutrients such as vitamins. Surplus nutrients, such as vitamins supplied above levels useful to the species, can be removed from the diet if exact requirements are met. In the past, many vitamins have been included in excess of recommended levels to be Figure 2: Niacin requirements for selected aquatic certain that the requirements animal species (from compiled literature sources) were fully complied (NRC 2011). However, studies have reported excess niacin can inhibit growth otide (NAD), and niacinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) that are involved (Poston & Lorenzo, 1973; Poston & Combs, in numerous enzymatic pathways especially 1980); conversely, sub-optimal absorption of those involving energy mediation and protein nutrients can be avoided if requirements are synthesis and degradation. More than 40 correctly defined and adequately presented biochemical reactions have been identified in feed. For maximal efficiency of production, as being dependent on these coenzymes as target provisions of all essential nutrients, as co-factors. Their major function is the removal specified through research, must be provided of hydrogen from specific substrates and the through additional mineral and vitamin suptransfer of hydrogen to another coenzyme. plementation. If levels are unknown, further Reactions in which NAD and NADP are research is needed to clarify the degree of involved include the metabolism of carbohy- vitamin fortification necessary to maintain drates, lipids and proteins at the cross roads health and production for all phases of rearing of metabolism and vital for energy production and conditions. In relation to the other water-soluble from these nutrients and protein turnover. With respect to genomic stability, the vitamins, niacin requirements in fish procure need for niacin seems most imminent when a ranking amongst the highest needs, with the organism is under genotoxic or oxida- the exception of choline (NRC, 2011). While tive stress, with particular reference to UV many other vitamins are synthesised from exposure of the animal (Hageman & Stierum, precursor compounds obtained through feed 2001). A deficiency of niacin will result in an ingredients, in aquatic animals, niacin is usually increase or disrepair of DNA nicks within obtained solely through niacin presented in chromosomes, and consequent increase in the diet. chromosomal breakage, and a heightened sensitivity to mutagens (Fenech, 2002). In Niacin requirements general, fish with niacin deficiencies displayed Caution must be expressed due to the an increased risk of sunburn when under even variety of methodological approaches used natural UV radiation. in ascertaining vitamin requirement levels. In In the expanding aquaculture industry, many cases, age and genetic strain of the species varies together with the pre-nutritional history of the aquatic animal under investigation. In particular, the nature of the carbohydrate component employed in experimental diets is not fully reported in the scientific literature. For example, it is well known that the carbohydrate level and complexity may influence the requirement of niacin in terms of processing of dietary energy (Shiau & Suen, 1992). This may be evident when raw materials are subjected to extrusion processing in which carbohydrates such as starch in cereals may undergo gelatinisation yielding dextrin and thereby increasing the digestible energy value of the carbohydrate fraction. It was found that for hybrid tilapia that the niacin requirements for fish fed glucose or dextrin as the carbohydrate energy source was 26 and 125 mg/Kg diet respectively. Previous formulations of fish diets often failed to address the true bioavailability of micronutrients present in fish feed ingredients pursuant to a limited common database describing this knowledge. The general niacin requirements for different species are shown in Figure 2 and these vary considerably depending on many factors. Dietary requirements have been reported to range from just 1-5 mg per kg of feed for rainbow trout to 150-200 mg for pacific salmon and 14 mg per kg for channel catfish. Clearly much will depend on the carnivorous, omnivorous or herbivorous nature of the fish species in question and rearing conditions. Investigations on Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) by Morris and Davies (1995) and by Morris et al. (1995), where the qualitative and quantitative requirements for this important marine fish were first established using semi-purified diet ingredients similar to the Halver concept. The minimum nicotinic acid requirement for sea bream was determined to be 52 mg/ Kg to achieve optimum growth performance and 25 mg/kg for normal haematological balance and liver to body weight ratio. In 1997, Shiau reported parallelism between the niacin requirement of warm water fish and a varying source of dietary
Instant Algae® single species, blends and custom feeds RotiGrow® grow-out, enrichment and greenwater feeds Shell sh Diet® for all stages from D-Larvae to
broodstock Parvocalanus copepod cultures
Factory direct and distributor sales. Experts in international logistics.
Superio r ing
Instant Zooplankton® clean Mini-L160 rotifers and
10 Liter Cubitainer 1 kg Bag
Otohime® premium Japanese larval and weaning feeds; 17 sizes from 75 µm to 10 mm TDO™ top-dressed with Haematococcus, natural stimulants, and more! ClorAm-X ® detoxiﬁes and removes ammonia, chlorine and chloramines in fresh and salt water
Reed Mariculture Inc
TO L L - F R E E :
| The easiest to use, cleanest and most e ective feeds on the market
408-884-2322 | www.reed-mariculture.com
May-June 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 21
© 2012-2013 Reed Mariculture, Inc. All Rights reserved. Instant Algae, Instant Zooplankton, RotiGrow, Shellﬁsh Diet, and “Providing Superior Feeds for Superior Results”are trademarks or registered trademarks of Reed Mariculture Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
M I C R O A L G A L, L A R V A L & W E A N I N G F E E D S A N D P R O D U C T I O N P R O D U C T S
e ri o r R e
FEATURE carbohydrate. In general, certain warm water fish, namely carnivorous species, utilise dietary carbohydrate poorly and it is recognised that carbohydrate obtained from different sources may not be equally available to all fish of the same species. There is merit for consideration of the changes in protein level, quality, and protein to energy ratio for optimum vitamin levels to be recommended. Modern fish diets are much higher in energy, presented as oil for carnivorous fish, whilst carbohydrate in the form of starch is quite acceptable for omnivores such as tilapia and carp. Niacin is given special importance in this area due to its relevancy in the metabolism of protein and the release of energy from these nutrients as stated previously. However implications towards dietary requirement and variability, warrants a need to establish additional scientific information regarding the digestibility of niacin and subsequent availability coefficients within varying diets formulations based on practical ingredients. From the data of Ng et al. (1998), it was suggested that niacin supplementation can be reduced to a more efficient level due to the relatively high amount of biologically available niacin found in typical feed ingredients used in modern fish feed formulations. However, the provisions may not be adequate to meet current safety margins to guarantee production and health criteria for all species. Also, the inability to utilise particular fish feeds due to varying dietary constraints would justify continued supplementation and refinement. In addition, it was found that the bioavailability of niacin increased by some 57 percent when corn meal was extrusion cooked rather than administered in the diet in its native form. This suggests that processing technology is an important area for further investigation for determining the optimum inclusion levels of niacin for a range of aquatic species. fish under various conditions. Extrusion of diets has the tendency to reduce the activity of vitamins especially those within the water soluble class and the processing of raw materials may lead to serious losses. Generally this is in the order of 10-20 percent for most vitamins reported (Tacon, 1985, Gabaudan and Hardy, 2000). Further reductions are caused by storage of pelleted feed and this may result in impairment to fish health and production efficiency over extended time.
Indeed, the movement towards new fish species in aquaculture such as flounders; turbot, sole and halibut as well as sea bass and sea bream in Europe, cobia in the USA and Brazil have generated considerable interest in producing specific diets that can meet their individual requirements for growth, development and health. Much is known about the gross nutritional requirements of these emerging species but little on vitamins, especially niacin. Intensive rearing conditions (i.e. UV light exposure to outdoor pens) and husbandry related factors may adversely affect the physiological status of fish and induce metabolic stress causing tissue damage and impaired performance. The potential of niacin supplementation in reducing such effects could prove a valuable area for future investigation.
Stability and processing losses
Niacin is regarded as a highly stable vitamin in animal nutrition and is usually added to feed as nicotinic acid or nicotinamide within the vitamin premix formulations within a dry mixture with a carrier material along with other vitamins and possibly mineral supplements as well. The advent of high energy and nutrient dense feeds in many countries engaged in intensive fish farming operations has also placed a higher burden on maintaining the health of fish, whilst promoting faster growth rates and efficient feed utilisation. The use of expanded and extruded feeds offer more scope in feeding management but may greatly influence the levels of vitamins available to
22 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2013
FEATURE FEATURE It is evident that the vitamin requirements of fish are subject to numerous factors. Recent advances in our understanding of aquatic animal biochemistry and physiology together with aquafeed technology increase the advantageous value of a thorough reexamination of the vitamin requirements of fish. This is particularly pertinent for niacin given its role in aquatic animal nutrition. There is a paucity of information in the literature for niacin in fish compared to other vitamins, and this matter needs to be addressed in the light of new candidate species for aquaculture and changing feed formulations where plant by products are increasingly being incorporated.
Water-soluble vitamin requirements of Chinook salmon.” Journal of Nutrition. vol. 62. pp. 225-43. Halver, J.E., (Halver, J.E. and Hardy, R.W. (Editors). Fish Nutrition. 3rd Edition. Oxford: Academic Press, 2002. Morris, P.C. and Davies, S.J. (1995) The requirement of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L). for nicotinic acid. Animal Science, 61: 437-443 Morris, P.C. Davies, S.J. and Lowe, D.M. (1995) Qualitative requirements for B vitamin in diets for the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) Animal Science, 61; 419-426. Ng, W.K, Serrini, G., Zhang, Z and Wilson, R.P. (1997) “Niacin requirement and inability of tryptophan to act as a precursor of NAD+ in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus” Aquaculture. vol. 154. nos. 1-4. pp 273-285. several species of trout of salmon,” Proceedings. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. vol. 163. pp. 452-454. Poston, H.A., and Wolfe, M.J. (1985). “Niacin requirement for optimum growth, feed conversion and protection of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri from ultraviolet-B irradiation” Journal of Fish Diseases. vol 8. no. 5. pp. 451-460. Serrano, A.E. and Nagayama, F. (1991). “Liver 3-hyroxyanthranilic acid oxygenase activity in rainbow-trout (Oncorhynchus-mykiss).” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B-Biochemistry & Molecular Biology. vol. 99. no. 2. pp. 275-280. Shaik Mohammed, and Ibrahim, A. (2001) Quantifying the niacin requirement of the Indian catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) (Bloch), fingerlings, Aquaculture Research, 32: 157-162. Shiau, S.Y., and Suen, G.S. (1992) “Estimation of the niacin requirements for tilapia fed diets containing glucose or dextrin.” Journal of Nutrition. vol .122. no. 10. pp. 2030-6. Tacon, A.G.J. (1985) Nutritional fish pathology: morphological signs of nutrient deficiency and toxicity in farmed fish.” Aquaculture Development and Coordination Programme. ADCP/REP/85/22.
at Novus Aquaculture
Our success in developing sustainable solutions evolves from a hands-on knowledge Selected References and understanding of the global aqua Fenech, M. (2002). “Genomic Stability: a new NRC (2011) “Nutrient Requirements of Fish,” industry. By focusing on the needs of the paradigm for recommended dietary allowances NAS/NRC, Academic Press, Washington D.C. (RDA’s).” Food and Chemical Toxicology. vol. 40. pp animals, our team of experts will design a Poston, H.A. (1969) “The effect of excess levels of niacin 1113-1117. on the lipid metabolism of fingerling brook trout.” In: solution for your operation. Gaubadan, J and Hardy R. W. (2000). Vitamin
sources for fish feeds pp, 961-965 In Encyclopaedia for Aquaculture, R. R. Stickney, Editor, New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Fisheries Research Bulletin, Albany, N.Y.: State of New York Conservation Department. no. 32. pp. 9-12.
Poston, H.A. and DiLorenzo, R.N. (1973) “Tryptophan conversion to niacin in the brook FEED COST REDUCTION | HEALTH THROUGH NUTRITION | OPTIMIZED RAW MATERIALS | FUNCTIONAL FEEDS | SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES Hageman, G.J. and Stierum, R.H. (2001). “Niacin, trout (Salvelinus pontinalis).” Proceedings. Society poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 and genomic More InforMatIon: for Experimental Biology and Medicine. vol. 140. stability.” Mutation Research. – Fundamental and pp. 110-12. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Molecular Mechanisms of Mutation. vol 475. nos Website: http://www.plymouth.ac.uk/pages/view. Poston, H.A. and Combs, G.F. (1980) “Nutritional 1-2. is pp 45-56. asp?page=32557 a trademark of Novus International, Inc., and is registered in the United States and other countries. TM SOLUTIONS SERVICE SUSTAINABILITY is a trademark of Novus International, Inc. ©2012 Novus International, Inc. All rights reserved. 2978 implications of tryptophan catabolising enzymes in Halver, J.E. (1957). “Nutrition of salmonid fishes: 3.
CALLING ALL PRODUCERS!
Apply now for the G.A.P. Awards 2013
Deadline: 31 July 2013 Visit our website for more details: www.globalgap.org
Even ﬁ sh farmers like ﬁ shing!
International Aquafeed has teamed up with www.lurestore.com to offer our readers a 15% discount
The world’s ﬁnest brass-based ﬁshing lures manufactured by hand in New Zealand
WE’RE ON OUR WAY TO YOU!
Your order will be processed and dispatched from our production unit within 24 hours
SPANISH LANGUAGE EDITION
Check out our website for events happening near you! www.tour2013.org
NEXT STOP: VIETVISH 2013
25-27 Jun 2013 | Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
A & AJ Gilbert Fishing Tackle, New Zealand
Place your order today at
May-June 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 41 May-June 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 23
This digital re-print is part of the May | June 2013 edition of International Aquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website. Please click here to view our other publications on www.docstoc.com.
I N C O R P O R AT I N G f I s h fA R m I N G T e C h N O l O G y
• See the full issue
• • • Visit the International Aquafeed website Contact the International Aquafeed Team Subscribe to International Aquafeed
They are what they eat
Enhancing the nutritional value of live feeds with microalgae
Controlling mycotoxins with binders Niacin
– one of the key B vitamins for sustaining healthy fish growth and production
Ultraviolet water disinfection for fish farms and hatcheries
Vo l u m e 1 6 I s s u e 3 2 0 1 3 -
m AY | J u N e
To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paper edition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the link above.
INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.