I N C O R P O R AT I N G f i s h far m ing t e c h no l og y

May | June 2013 Natural sources of cholesterol, phospholipids and proteins

International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058

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Innovations for a better world.


Natural sources of cholesterol, phospholipids and proteins
by Geert van der Velden, Carine van Vuure and Anke van Doremalen, Sonac BV, The Netherlands

quaculture is one of the fastest growing industries in food production. However, the future of this growth will depend largely on availability of raw materials and development of new nutrient sources from vegetable or animal origin. One of the essential nutrients for shrimp is cholesterol. Driven by the increasing scarcity of conventional sources of cholesterol, Sonac recently developed Phosterol. This hydrolyzed protein of animal origin is produced in accordance with all relevant EU regulations and is readily available from renewable natural sources. The uniqueness of Phosterol lies in the natural combination of cholesterol and phospholipids. Trials on shrimp have shown a strong synergy between cholesterol and phospholipids, the two main components of Phosterol. Phosterol is a unique protein hydrolysate with high content of cholesterol and phospholipids like phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl serine and phosphatidyl inositol. Cholesterol and phospholipids are essential building blocks in cellular membranes and are part of several biological processes. Together with the high amount of fat, Phosterol is a good ingredient in aquafeeds, especially shrimp feeds. Shrimps rely upon a dietary source of cholesterol for optimal molting. The origin of Phosterol is porcine tissue which has been collected in dedicated European slaughterhouses and after enzymatic hydrolysis further processed to a beige brownish and heat stable powder. Gelko Powder is a new hydrolysed animal-based product that contains highly digestible proteins for fish and shrimp. It hosts a combination of important amino acids, making aqua feed attractive and palatable. Naturally present nucleotides,


phospholipids and minerals increase its nutritional value.

table 1: Composition of Phosterol and Gelko Composition Moisture Crude Protein Crude fat Crude ash Cholesterol total phospholipids Phosphatidyl choline Phosphatidyl inositol DHa Phosterol 4% 48% 34% 9% 10% 24% 7.80% 0.90% 2.30% Gelko 4% 68% 18% 11% 0.10% 9% -

EU Feed law
According to EU Feed law, Phosterol and Gelko are permitted for use for all animal species. No limitations are imposed on production facilities, transport systems or use at farm level. No additional labeling texts are required.

Growth trial with Phosterol and Gelko
Three diets were formulated to contain equal amounts of cholesterol. The reference diet contained crystalline cholesterol. One diet contained 0.9% Phosterol and the third diet contained 2% Gelko, a protein soluble (see Table 2). Feeds were produced with a pellet mill on a 2 mm die, using preconditioning with steam (>90°C) and post-conditioning (>90°C) for 20 minutes.

table 2: experimental diets - Diets were formulated to contain 38 % proteins and 8 % lipids. reF Gelko Phosterol

Corn gluten

5 26 2 16.9 25 15 2 2 4 2 0.1

5 24 2 16.9 25 15 2 2 4 2 0.1

5 26 2 16.9 25 14.2 2 2 4 2

Shrimp trial
The trial was performed at the AFTCreveTec research centre. Forty shrimp of 1-1.4 g were put in 12 nets of 150 litres. All nets were placed in a bigger tank, so all nets had the same water quality. Water quality in the big tanks was maintained with bioflocs. Each net was equipped with a feeder. The feed gift was adjusted daily according to an expected growth curve and average weight from initial and last measurement.

Fish meal Squid meal Wheat Wheat flour Soybean meal Soyalecithin Fish oil Wheat Gluten Premix Cholesterol Phosterol Gelko total

Growth (average weight) We can not observe a statistical difference in growth between the different feeds. Gelko seemed to be doing a little better in the middle of the experiment, but towards the end the Reference diet was the best.
28 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2013

0.9 2 100 100 100

table 3: Growth of shrimp (g/week) on diets containing Phosterol and Gelko Week 1 2 3 4 5 6 average

Phosterol is a valuable alternative source of cholesterol and gives similar results in growth and lower FCR than the pure source. It also shows lower mortality. Gelko can replace high quality fish meal with a minimum of 2% with no growth loss, and results in a lower mortality. Due to the composition, Phosterol has many benefits in aquafeeds: • Fat and protein mixture • Rich in cholesterol (10%) • Rich in phospholipids (24%) • Good suspension • Good emulsifier • Attractant and palatant in shrimp diets • Improved growth rates, molting frequency and survival in farmed shrimp • Cholesterol is heat stable (3 hours 133°C) Algae concentrate (Reed Mariculture Tetraselmis 3600) The advantages of Gelko: • Fat and protein mixture • Rich in phospholipids (9%) subject to clumping when dispersed into • Good suspension water for feeding. But probably the most criti• Attractant and palatant in shrimp diets cal shortcoming of dry feeds is rapid leaching • Soluble proteins with extreme high of water-soluble nutrients; the smaller the pardigestibility ticle, the faster nutrients are leached out. Not only are leached nutrients unavailable to the M ore InforMatIon : live feeds, they can cause fouling of the water. Website: www.sonac.biz

reference Phosterol Gelko

0.89 0.83 0.82

0.41 0.43 0.52

1.16 1.41 1.55

2.00 1.63 1.75

2.65 2.62 2.22

2.39 2.15 2.44

1.58 1.51 1.55

overall, the observed growth was good, given the fact that shrimp were relatively small at the start of the experiment. once they reached 3-4 g, they grow above 2g/week. table 4: FCr of shrimp on diets containing Phosterol and Gelko Week 1 2 3 4 5 6 total

reF Phosterol Gelko

0.81 1.09 0.70

2.02 1.81 1.71

1.18 0.69 0.76

1.39 0.87 0.98

0.99 0.86 1.61

1.36 1.41 1.17

1.18 b 0.99 a 1.07 b

Rotifer Brachionus The feed with Phosterol showed the best FCR, and was statistically better than the other diets plicatilis table 5: Summary of results

Limitations of formulated feeds Initial Final for live feed production weight weight

Brachionus [Baer et al. 2008, Vadstein et al. Growth % Growth Mortality FCr 1993], and from bacteria to 28 µm, with the (g/week)

Formulated feeds offer low cost and con- optimum about 8-16 µm for Artemia [Makridis venience, but they have fundamental short- and Vadstein 1999, Fernández 2001]). It is a b % 9.53 % that 1.18 reference 1.31including 10.81 difficult 826 to produce dry feeds provide comings. Zooplankton, rotifers and 1.58 a Phosterol 1.17 on micro 10.25 872 % 5.94 % 0.99 a uniform particle sizes, and even when uniform Artemia, can feed only particles of 1.51 dry particles can be produced they can be appropriate size (from bacteria to 10 µm for Gelko 1.26 10.56 a 1.55 838 % 6.41 % 1.07 b

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May-June 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 13 May-June 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 29

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They are what they eat
Enhancing the nutritional value of live feeds with microalgae

Controlling mycotoxins with binders Niacin
– one of the key B vitamins for sustaining healthy fish growth and production

Ultraviolet water disinfection for fish farms and hatcheries

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