I N C O R P O R AT I N G f i s h far m ing t e c h no l og y

May | June 2013 EXPERT TOPIC - SHRIMP

International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058

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EXPERT T●PIC

SHRIMP
Welcome to Expert Topic. Each issue will take an in-depth look at a particular species and how its feed is managed.
42 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2013

EXPERT TOPIC

EXPERT T●PIC

1 6 3 2 4
1

5

Shrimp
Farmed shrimp was a $US10.6 billion industry in 2005 (WWF). The species is one of the fastest growing in aquaculture with an approximate rate of 10 percent annually. The production of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, formerly Penaeus vannamei) in particular, generated the highest value of major cultured species at $US11.3 billion. L. vannamei was first cultivated in Florida in 1973 from larvae spawned and shipped from a wild-caught mated female from Panama. In 1976, due to good pond results and adequate nutrition, the culture of L. vannamei began in South and Central America. By the early 1980s, through intensive breeding and rearing techniques, L. vannamei was being developed in the USA (including Hawaii), and much of Central and South America (FAO). L. vannamei is popular because of its high yield and short grow out period. The yield per hectare is up to three times that of the giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). The grow out period is also shorter for L. vannamei, 60-90 days, compared to 90-120 days for P. monodon. Overall, it costs about half as much to produce a kilo of L. vannamei as it does to produce a kilo of P. monodon.

China
production) in 2003 and hit 700,000 tonnes in 2004 (Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific). More
InforMatIon:

Although, L. vannamei was introduced into Asia in 1978-9, it was not until 1996 that the species was cultivated on a commercial scale. First in Mainland China and Taiwan and subsequently to the Philippines, Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia and India. The largest seafood producer and exporter in the world, China also boasts a large L. vannamei production industry, with Mainland China producing more than 270,000 metric tonnes in 2002. Production reached an estimated 300,000 metric tonnes (71% of the country’s total shrimp

www.enaca.org

by Marnie Snell

May-June 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 43

EXPERT T●PIC

2

India

3

Ecuador

In the 1990s, Indian shrimp aquaculture experienced rapid growth. Production increased from 30,000 tonnes in 1990 to 102,000 tonnes in 1999 (FAO). This expansion brought economic success for the country. By the start of the 21st century, the shrimp aquaculture sector accounted 1.6 percent of Indian export earnings and employed an estimated 200,000 people. Yet the development of shrimp aquaculture has become more controversial. The introduction of L. vannamei in 2009 has led to widespread illegal farming and posed the threat of disease. However, there are organisations dedicated to tackling the problem. One example is the Coastal Aquaculture Authority (CAA) which aims to shut down unregistered shrimp hatcheries and farms. The scale of the issue is rather large as out of 14,549 CAA registered farms, just 246 have permission to cultivate whiteleg shrimp. More
InforMatIon:

The 1970s set a president for the development of Ecuador’s shrimp farming industry. L. vannamei, captured from the beach surf was transferred into 20-hectare ponds that Ecuadorian producers built on mud flats. During the mid-1970s, animal feed and pet food company, Ralston Purina began conducting pond trials in Ecuador to demonstrate the benefits of feeding. As land and labour were cheap, disease was rare and wild seed was in abundance, the shrimp farming business was profitable and by 1977, approximately 3,000 hectares of extensive shrimp farms had been developed in Ecuador. As a result, shrimp feed mills were developed during the 1980s, marking the transition of Ecuadorian farms from extensive to semi-intensive production. More
InforMatIon:

2
T

www.fao.org/docrep/x8080e/x8080e08.htm www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Vijayawada/article2878953.ece

www.shrimpnews.com/FreeReportsFolder/ HistoryFolder/HistoryWorldShrimpFarming/ ChamberlainsHistoryOfShrimpFarming.html

4

Brazil
5

India’s indigenous shrimp
h e R a j i v G a n d h i C e n t r e fo r Aquaculture (RGCA) in Tamil Nadu, India has produced a specific pathogen free variety of shrimp. The new variety is set to help commercial shrimp farmers and boost India’s seafood exports. The selectively bred mother shrimps are capable of producing quality seeds that harness higher growth and survival rates. Until now, Indian shrimp hatcheries imported such brood stock from the USA, Thailand and Singapore, resulting in high shipping costs and big transit losses. The average cost of brood stock was estimated at Rs5,000. It is estimated that 80 percent of India’s shrimp farmers are small scale - the quality of seeds largely affects their crop success. Due to the high costs, some hatcheries have been sourcing brood stock from shrimp ponds, which ultimately results in the production of poor quality seeds and subsequent crop loss to farmers.

Although shrimp farming was already operational during the 1980s, it was the introduction of L. vannamei in 1992 that allowed for a swift expansion in Brazil’s shrimp farming industry. Shrimp culture is now one of the most organised sectors within Brazilian aquaculture. In 2003, the total production of L. vannamei reached 90,190 tonnes produced from 14,824 ha of shrimp ponds. In some states, productivity reached 8,700 kg/ha/year with the best yields obtained in the northeast region. With exports reaching 60,000 tonnes in 2003, representing 60.5% of the total Brazilian fishery export and generating US $230 million for the Brazilian economy, shrimp culture is now one of the most important economic activities in the Northeast region. Most of the shrimp farms are small scale (75 %), followed by medium (9.6%) and large scale (5.52%). The average yield increased from 1 015 kg/ha/year in 1997 to 6,084 kg/ ha/year in 2003, compared to an international average of 958 kg/ha/year (FAO). More
InforMatIon:

Thailand

Shrimp farming has been practised in Thailand for more than 30 years, with its development expanding rapidly during the mid-1980s. This expansion was supported by advances in shrimp feed and the successful production of larvae in 1986. The most popular shrimp cultivated in the country is the giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) which accounts for 98 percent of shrimp production and around 40 percent of total brackish water aquaculture production (FAO). L. vannamei was first introduced to Thailand in the late 1990s as an alternative to the native P. monodon. The production of L. vannamei in Thailand rapidly increased from 10,000 metric tons in 2002 (Briggs et al. 2004) to approximately 300,000 metric tons in 2004, which comprised 80 percent of total marine shrimp production. More
InforMatIon:

www.fao.org/fishery/countrysector/naso_brazil/en
44 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2013

www.fao.org/fishery/countrysector/naso_thailand/en

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6
Cause of EMS detected
he pathogen which causes early mortality syndrome (EMS) has been identified by researchers at the University of Arizona, USA. A research team led by Donald Lighter found that EMS, or more technically known as acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome (AHPNS), is caused by a bacterial agent, which is transmitted orally, colonizes the shrimp gastrointestinal tract and produces a toxin that causes tis-

T

sue destruction and dysfunction of the shrimp digestive organ known as the hepatopancreas. The disease was first recorded in China in 2009 and has since spread to Vietnam (2011), Thailand (2012) and Malaysia (2012). EMS kills shrimp between 10-40 days after the post-larval stage with mortalities of up to 70 percent. Shrimp that survive suffer from stunted growth and tale twice as long to achieve significant grow out. The economic impact of EMS is perhaps yet to be fully felt. However, the disease is one of the most significant reasons in the fall in Thai shrimp production. In 2010, the country produced 600,000 toms of shrimp but by 2012, this figure has fallen to 500,000 tons, a drop of around 18 percent. Lightner’s team identified the EMS pathogen as a unique strain

of a relatively common bacterium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, that is infected by a virus known as a phage, which causes it to release a potent toxin. A similar phenomenon occurs in the human disease cholera, where a phage makes the Vibrio cholerae bacterium capable of producing a toxin that causes cholera’s lifethreatening diarrhea. EMS however, is not a danger to people. Research continues on the development of diagnostic tests for rapid detection of the EMS pathogen that will enable improved management of hatcheries and ponds, and help lead to a long-term solution for the disease. It will also enable a better evaluation of risks associated with importation of frozen shrimp or other products from countries affected by EMS. Some countries have implemented policies that restrict the importation of frozen shrimp

or other products from EMSaffected countries. Lightner said frozen shrimp likely pose a low risk for contamination of wild shrimp or the environment because EMS-infected shrimp are typically very small and do not enter international commerce. Also, his repeated attempts to transmit the disease using frozen tissue were unsuccessful. In an effort to learn from past epidemics and improve future policy, the World Bank and the Responsible Aquaculture Foundation, a charitable education and training organisation founded by the Global Aquaculture Alliance, initiated a case study on EMS in Vietnam in July 2012. Its purpose was to investigate the introduction, transmission and impacts of EMS, and recommend management measures for the public and private sectors.

46 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2013

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The nutritional performance and digestibility of macroalgaederived meals have been tested in formulated diets for shrimp. One of the aspects requiring further research is represented by the loss of nutritional properties occurring when the macroalgal biomass is dried out as compared when the algal biomass is ingested as live Juvenile Pacific white shrimp feeding on U. clathrata biomass. macroalgal biomass. Long fecal Several nutritional methodstrands are frequently related ologies have been used to evaluto fast gut transit ate the performance of different ingredients used or proposed for aquaculture feeds. The use of stable isotopes years under a patented technology developed as tools to assess nutritional contributions of by Aonori Aquafarms Inc. By applying this specific ingredients to growth is one of many methodology, macroalgae biomass is rapidly emerging nutritional techniques applied in grown in ponds without eliciting detrimental effects to the environment. aquaculture. The chemical composition of macroalgae varies among species and environmental con- Evaluation of macroalgae in ditions; however, most are rich in non-starch shrimp nutrition studies polysaccharides, vitamins, and minerals. In Although it has been observed that use of particular, green macroalgae (Chlorophyceae) macroalgal biomass alone as feed does not often have higher protein content than brown fulfil the nutritional requirements for optimal by Julián Gamboa-Delgado seaweeds. Such nutritional properties, in con- growth in marine shrimp, co-culture of U. PhD, research officer, Programa junction with novel macroalgae production clathrata and Pacific white shrimp L. vannamei Maricultura, Universidad Autónoma methods, have increased the interest in their has been conducted with positive results in de Nuevo León, Mexico use as dietary ingredients for aquaculture terms of lower feed utilization and improveue to their nutritional prop- diets. Additionally, there are studies that have ment of the shrimp nutritional quality, flesh erties, several species of focused on their use as additives to enhance colour and texture. Recent nutritional studies have also shown macroalgae have been used as the immunological status of the farmed animals. dietary supplements for shrimps The green macroalgae Ulva (Enteromorpha) that when dry Ulva clathrata meal is fed and other marine species. Since macroalgae clathrata, also known as aonori in Asian to Pacific white shrimp as an ingredient in represent a natural source of nutrients in countries, has worldwide distribution and due practical diets, it has an apparent digestibility the shrimp’s natural environment, attempts to its nutritional profile, has been evaluated coefficient for dry matter of 83 percent, while have been done to co-culture macroalgae as a dietary supplement for aquatic species. the same value for protein is 90 percent. U. clathrata has been mass-cultured in recent However, the high ash content and the relaand shrimps. tively low protein content of this macroalgae Table 1: Growth, survival rate and estimated consumption of formulated feed and live species prevent its dietary inclusion at high macroalgae biomass (dry weight) by juvenile litopenaeus vannamei reared on five different levels when attempting to replace other feeding regimes for 28 days (n= 8-20, mean values ±SD) ingredients such as fishmeal.

Application of isotopic techniques to assess the nutritional performance of macroalgae in feeding regimes for shrimp

D

Feeding regime

Survival (%)

Final wet weight (mg)

Weight increase (%)

Consumed formulated feed (g) 0.94 0.81 0.43 0.14 -

Consumed U. clathrata (g) 0.40 0.44 0.65 1.32

100F 75F/25U 50F/50U 25F/75U 100U*

95 ± 13a 93 ± 11a 78 ± 11ab 60 ± 21b 23 ± 4c

995 ± 289a 1067 ± 364a 768 ± 273ab 424 ± 207b 221 ± 49c

429 467 308 125 18

Stable isotopes to assess the nutritional contribution of macroalgae
Over the last few decades, different isotopic methodologies have been adopted from the ecological sciences and have been applied to animal nutrition studies. Most elements in organic matter are present as two or more stable isotopes and heavier isotopes have a tendency to accumulate in animal tissue. For example, animal predators have higher isotopic values than their preys; therefore, a specific isotopic signature is conferred to each

Initial wet weight = 188 ±28 mg Different superscripts indicate significant differences at p<0.05 * Parameters in animals from feeding regime 100U were estimated on experimental day 21
48 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2013

Image courtsey of Alberto Pena©

EXPERT T●PIC trophic level (primary producers, herbivores, carnivores). In the case of plants and macroalgae, their carbon isotope values are strongly influenced by the type of photosynthesis they present. On the other hand, the nitrogen stable isotope values of plants and macroalgae can be easily manipulated by means of specific fertilisers, to eventually conduct nutritional studies. By using such techniques, it can be possible to determine the proportions of available dietary nutrients that have been selected, ingested and incorporated into animal tissue (Figure 1). As the average sample size required for stable isotope analysis (carbon and nitrogen) is only 1 mg of dry tissue or test diet, the technique has been very useful in larval nutrition studies. It has been employed to quantify the proportions of nutrients incorporated from live and formulated feeds in fish and crustacean larvae. Likewise, stable isotope analyses of different plant-derived ingredients (soy protein isolate, corn gluten and pea meal) have been carried out to explore the contribution of the dietary nitrogen supplied by these sources (as compared to fish meal) to shrimp growth. In the context of macroalgae as source of nutrients, isotopic techniques have been applied as nutritional tools to quantify the relative contributions of dietary carbon and nitrogen to the growth of Pacific white shrimp co-fed formulated feed and live macroalgal biomass of U. clathrata.

Experimental design
Taking advantage of the contrasting natural carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values measured in a commercial formulated feed and in live macroalgal biomass of U. clathrata, the study aimed to quantify the relative Figure 1: Carbon and nitrogen flow in shrimps produced contribution of nutriunder semi-intensive farming conditions. Bold arrows ents to the growth of indicate components that can be isotopically analyzed to Pacific white shrimp. determine their origin and fate Animals were allocated to duplicate tanks individually fitted with air lifts and connected Live macroalgae was supplied to shrimp by attaching the algal biomass to plastic to an artificial-seawater recirculation system. Feeding regimes consisted of a positive mesh units from which the algal filaments isotopic control (100% formulated feed, were constantly available and easily nibbled treatment 100F), a negative isotopic control upon by shrimp. Feeding rations and proportions were pro(100% macroalgae, treatment 100U) and three co-feeding regimes in which 75, 50, gressively adjusted in relation to the amount and 25 percent of the daily amount of con- of macroalgal biomass consumed, animal sursumed macroalgal biomass was substituted vival and sampling. Shrimp samples (whole by formulated feed (treatments 75F/25U, bodies and muscle tissue) and diet samples 50F/50U, and 25F/75U, respectively) on a were collected and pre-treated for isotopic analysis. dry weight basis. The digestibility of both feeding sources for L. vannamei has been previously Growth and survival assessed and is similarly high (>80%). There was a high variability in final wet

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May-June 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 49

EXPERT T●PIC nitrogen from U. clathrata biomass than from the formulated feed (Table 2). At the end of the experiment, shrimps in treatment 75F/25U incorporated 68 percent of carbon from the formulated feed and 32 percent from the macroalgae. Shrimps under feeding regimes 50F/50U and 25F/75U incorporated significantly higher amounts of dietary carbon from U. clathrata (49 and 80%, respectively) when compared to the expected dietary carbon proportions supplied by these the co-feeding regimes (34 and 70%, respectively). Shrimp grown in co-feeding regime 75F/25U incorporated 27 percent of nitrogen from the formulated feed and the remaining 73 percent from the macroalgal biomass, while animals reared on regimes 25F/75U and 50F/50U incorporated the majority of their dietary nitrogen (98 and 96%, respectively) from the macroalgae. The lower growth attained by these animals indicated that a very high proportion of the isotopic change was due to high nitrogen metabolic turnover and not to tissue accretion. Due to its lower carbon and nitrogen contents, the macroalgal biomass had to be consumed at higher amounts in order to supply the observed elemental contributions to shrimp whole bodies and muscle tissue.

Figure 2: Carbon and nitrogen dual isotope (‰) plot of whole bodies and muscle tissue of white shrimp L. vannamei reared on feeding regimes consisting of different proportions of formulated feed and live U. clathrata biomass. Muscle tissue values for treatment 100U were estimated for day 28 from values in whole bodies. n= 2-4, mean values ±SD

weight of shrimps under the different dietary treatments; however, a clear tendency for higher growth was observed in shrimps reared on regime 75F/25U (1,067 ±364 mg, final mean weight), followed by shrimps fed only on formulated feed (995 ±289 mg). Shrimps from both feeding regimes increased their weight more than 400 percent (Table 1).

Animals fed only on U. clathrata biomass showed very low growth (221 ±49 mg) and only 23 percent of the animals in this treatment survived by day 21. Higher survival rates (93-95%) were observed in shrimps reared on feeding regimes 100F and 75F/25U, while shrimps in dietary treatments 50F/50U and 25F/75U had respective mean survival rates of 78 and 60 percent. The positive effect Table 2: estimated contribution of dietary nitrogen supplied of supplying both, live feeds from formulated feed and live biomass of Ulva clathrata and and formulated diets has been incorporated in tissue of postlarval Pacific white shrimp L. vannamei as indicated by stable isotope analysis. recurrently observed in previous crustacean studies. expected* observed
Feeding regime Whole bodies Muscle tissue

The availability and incorporation of nutrients from formulated and live feeds
The higher than expected contributions of macroalgal carbon and nitrogen to shrimp growth are possibly related to the high digestibility of U. clathrata and its continuous availability for shrimp. Chemical analyses of U. clathrata have shown that it typically contains low to medium protein levels (20 - 30%) and very low lipid levels. The cell wall polysaccharides in macroalgae might represent more than half of dry algal matter, but a tentative role of the latter as energy source is unlikely as specific enzymatic activities for these polysaccharides (ulvanase, fucoidanase) have not been reported for Penaeid shrimps. Despite their lower nutrient concentration, live feed contains higher water content which contributes to higher digestibility. In contrast, formulated feed can contribute nutrients that are scarce or absent in live feed, but the incorporation of such nutrients is limited by low feed digestibility or unsuitable formulation. Previous co-feeding experiments conducted on postlarval shrimp and larval fish have shown that the supplied live feed frequently contributes higher proportions of nutrients to the growth of the consuming animals than those supplied by formulated feeds in co-feeding regimes.

75F/25U Formulated feed Ulva biomass 50F/50U Formulated feed Ulva biomass 25F/75U Formulated feed Ulva biomass 30.1a 69.9 1.0 b 99.0 3.2 b 96.8 66.1a 33.9 2.2 b 97.8 6.9 b 93.1 79.6a** 20.4 15.9 b 84.1 20.5 b 79.5

Dietary contributions from macroalgae and formulated feed
At the end of the experiment, isotopic values of shrimp tissue reared on co-feeding treatments were strongly biased towards the isotopic values of U. clathrata biomass. Figure 2 combines carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values measured in shrimps and provides a graphic indication of the total organic matter contributed by both, the formulated feed and macroalgae. Results from an isotopic mixing model indicated that shrimps in the three co-feeding regimes incorporated significantly higher amounts of dietary carbon and

*Expected proportions are estimated from the actual proportions of formulated feed and macroalgal biomass offered (on a dry weight basis) **Superscripts indicate significant differences between expected and observed dietary contributions

Conclusion
Although the live macroalgae by itself was not nutritionally complete for Pacific white shrimp, it supplied a very significant propor-

50 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2013

FEATURE EXPERT T●PIC tion of structural carbon and nitrogen when also stimulate digestive enzyme production co-fed with formulated feed. (Cahu et al. 1998). However, the high amount of nutrients derived from of the live macroalgae biomass in Production microalgae co-feeding regimes supplying more than 50 Despite the many advantages of microalgae, percent of macroalgae, was not reflected in a their wider use is hampered by difficulties in fast growth increase. This was possibly due to culturing, storage, and high costs. Microalgae the restriction of other nutrients in this macculture can consume a significant fraction of the roalgae species. Interestingly, shrimp under resources of a hatchery, and requires special the co-feeding regime supplying 75 percent equipment, skilled labour, and a large allocaof of formulated feed and 25 percent of live tion space that is unproductive during the macroalgae biomass showed higher growth seasons when live feeds are not needed. rates than animals reared only on commercial Low-cost open-pond culture methods formulated feed, although the difference was carry high risks of contamination and culture not statistically significant. failure due to the impossiblity of tightly conThe low levels of energy, amino acids and trolling culture conditions, and the most highly fatty acids in the macroalgae Isochrysis biomass and availprized high-PUFA strains such as able to shrimp, were compensated through Pavlova require indoor culture. high ingestion rates, which caused a higher It is very difficult to synchronize microalgal incorporation of nutrients in shrimp tissue. production with live feed requirements to On the other hand, it is very likely that the prevent feed shortages or wasteful overprocarbohydrates and lipids by the duction, and it is difficult to supplied accurately dose formulated feed significantly contributed to algae cultures directly into live feed cultures. the energy requirements of shrimp under the If the algae are harvested and concentrated, three co-feeding regimes. the tightly-packed cells can deteriorate rapidly The importance of the natural productivity to in refrigerated storage. Some microalgae have shrimp grown in semi-intensively managed ponds been freeze- or spray-dried, but dried cells has been widely documented. The systematic are subject to protein denaturation, and when use of macroalgae in production ponds not only they are rehydrated the leaching of waterprovides a significant nutritional supply to cultured soluble substances can rapidly deplete their organisms, but also offers substrate for periphyton nutritional value, as with other dry feeds. growth and refuge for moulting shrimps. In addiMicroalgae concentrates
natural productivity and formulated feed in semiAlthough costs of liquid algae concenintensive shrimp farming as indicated by natural tion, it has been demonstrated that clathrata trates are higher than for dried algae or The best solution to these Ulva problems stable isotopes. Reviews in Aquaculture In press.

and other macroalgae species are efficient removcan be the use of commercially-available ers of the main dissolved inorganic nutrients, refrigerated or frozen algae concentrates hence maintaining good water quality in or ‘pastes’ (Guedes & Malcata levels 2012, aquaculture ponds and effluents. Shields & Lupatsch 2012). These products, Diverse isotopic techniques can be applied which are actually viscous liquids, have to elucidate the transfer of nutrients at the level proven to be effective feeds for rotifers, of amino acids and fatty acids; therefore, future Artemia , shellfish and other filter-feeders, experimental assays might reveal what specific as well as for greenwater applications. nutrients are contributed from the macroalgal In products formulated to provide a biomass (or any other component of the natulong shelf-life, the concentrated microalgae ral suspended biota) and from the supplied formulated are in buffer media that prefeeds. The loss of some nutritional properties serve cellular integrity and nutritional value, that occurs in dietary ingredients that undergo although the cells are non-viable. When drying (or freeze drying) has not been thorconcentrates with well-defined biomass oughly explained and future studies applying densities are employed, the algae can be stable isotopes might shed some light on the accurately dosed into live feed cultures differences observed when aquatic animals with a metering pump, and non-viability consume moist or dry dietary components. confers the advantage that the products pose no risk of introducing exotic algal References strains. The best refrigerated products typically have a shelf-life of 3-6 months, and Burtin, P. 2003. Nutritional value of seaweeds. frozen products several years. This means Electron. J. Environ. Agric. Food Chem. 2:498–503. that a reliable supply of algae can be kept Cruz-Suárez, L.E., A. León, A. Peña-Rodríguez, G. on hand, available for use in any season or B. Moll, D. Ricque-Marie. 2010. if Rodríguez-Peña, an unexpected need arises. Algae costs Shrimp/Ulva co-culture: a sustainable alternative to become predictable, and often prove to diminish the need for artificial feed and improve be less than on-site production when total shrimp quality. Aquaculture 301: 64–68. production costs and inefficiencies are Gamboa-Delgado, J. 2013. Nutritional role of accounted for.

Gamboa-Delgado, J., A. Peña-Rodríguez, L.E. CruzSuárez, D. Ricque D. 2011. Assessment of nutrient Outlook allocation and metabolic turnover rate in Pacific Live feeds remain vannamei indispensable for white shrimp Litopenaeus co-fed live larviculture of many fish. Although micromacroalgae Ulva clathrata and inert feed: dual algae are among the costliest food sources stable isotope analysis. J. Shellfish Res. 30: 1–10.

formulated feeds, they offer all the nutritional Gamboa-Delgado, J., M.G. Rojas-Casas, M.G. advantages of live cultures. The nutritional Nieto-López, L.E. Cruz-Suárez 2013. Simultaneous quality of live feeds can be no better than estimation of the nutritional contribution of the food sources used to produce them. fishmeal, soy protein isolate and corn gluten to Success of early larvae is so critical to the the growth of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus success of a hatchery that even a relatively vannamei) using dual stable isotope analysis. small improvement in survival or growth rate Aquaculture 380-383: 33-40. can yield great benefits.

used to produce live feeds, their many Moll, B. (Sinaloa Seafields International). 2004. advantages justify the cost for hatcheries Aquatic surface barriers and methods for culturing producing high-value fish. Research continseaweed. International patent (PCT) no. WO ues to better characterise the nutritional 2004/093525 A2. November 4, 2004. properties of various algae strains and to Villarreal-Cavazos D.A. 2011. Determinación optimise algae production technologies. de la digestibilidad aparente de aminoácidos de We can anticipate that introduction of ingredientes utilizados en alimentos comerciales novel algae strains and nutritionally-optipara camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei) en mised combinations of strains, along with México. PhD Thesis. Universidad Autónoma de improved feeding protocols, will ensure Nuevo León, Mexico. http://eprints.uanl.mx/2537 that microalgae remain the food of choice for production of the highest-quality live More InforMatIon: feeds.
Julián Gamboa-Delgado PhD Tel: +52 81 8352 6380 References Email: julian.gamboad@uanl.mx www.aquafeed.co.uk/referencesIAF1303

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r w a d w ca Le de the T of f de G Mau 200 Figure 2: Spotte Photo: Arian d Wolffish thes ne Savoie, Fisheries and in farming tank Oceans Cana hand Saltwater mari da culture-aquacu resea Quebec may lture in Université du soon welcome cond Québec à Rimo arrival: the a new the Quebec uski and Spotted Wolf those ministry of threatened and fish, a agriculture, fisheries and little-known speci food. opera tastes delicious. es that First of all, the compa Spotted Wolff In Quebec, fish that adap ish is a commercial and I ts well to the fish farms currently limit conditions it is kept in and themselves to have b is easy to dome freshwater fish, farming develops quick sticate. It while the maric comm industry has ly e ultur at very e focused until temperatures low years and very recently on molluscs. In other parts changes in the is not very sensitive to Mont-Jo of the saltwater fish salinity of the Spotted Wolff farms are locate world, water. slightly ish can be farme d right in the ocean. Doin d in high densities, some g so significant Norway thing that is ly reduces farming costs cruci the profitabili and makes consider ty of an aqua al for profitable. them operation (see In culture species; Figur aquaculture equip Quebec, installing though the Spott e 2). As well, even Mauricedicey prospect ment in the ocean is a reproduce spon ed Wolffish does not because of ice some roo taneously in winter. Previ cover in new generation ously, experimen captivity, s can be produ Feeding farming saltw ced every year using capti ater fish in tanks ts with challenges ve the need for not forget anoth broodstock. And let’s technical exper revealed in farme tise as well er important as the high quality this cost of produ fish possesses: commercia ction. Today, it tastes great however, resea . rch advances Aside from these intended fo are showing the potential obvious advan of the Spotted it is important tages , modified. T Wolffish. to find out This new maric species grow how this ulture candidate s in captivity wolffish tha first noticed was so that its in the early 2000 potential benef to it to Quebec’s time, team develo aquaculture s from the s. At the industry can Researchers be properly Lamontagne Mauriceassessed. For that reason, Denis Institute in offers enoug Mont-Joli, Quebec, collec Chabot, a resea the Maurice-L rcher ted their first at needs of the amontagne Instit Wolffish as part Spotted approached ute, was of the research the feed doe by the Socié they were projects développement conducting té de bottom of the with the de (SODIM) to carry l’industrie maricole when it com tests using water tanks. raised in high INTERNATIO
NAL AQUAFEE D DIRECTORY 2012/13

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They are what they eat
Enhancing the nutritional value of live feeds with microalgae

Controlling mycotoxins with binders Niacin
– one of the key B vitamins for sustaining healthy fish growth and production

Ultraviolet water disinfection for fish farms and hatcheries

Vo l u m e 1 6 I s s u e 3 2 0 1 3 -

m AY | J u N e

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