You are on page 1of 16

Third

Quarter
Surge
August 2007
Gas Machinery Publications
c/o GMRC
3030 LBJ Freeway, Suite 1300
Dallas, TX 75234
PRSRT STD
US POSTAGE
PAID
DALLAS, TX
PERMIT 553
Table of Contents - Q3 2007
Exline Withstands the Test of Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
E Source Web Site Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
University Uses Landfll Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
People on the Move . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Business Briefs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
SURGE PREVENTION IN CENTRIFUGAL
COMPRESSOR SYSTEMS
Part 1 of a 2 Part Series
Rainer Kurz and Robert C. White
Solar Turbines Incorporated
San Diego, California
Centrifugal compressor surge
and its prevention have drawn
signifcant attention in the
literature. An important aspect
of surge avoidance lies in
the design of the compressor
station and, in particular,
the piping upstream and
downstream of the compressor.
Most anti-surge systems are
perfectly capable of avoiding
surge during normal operating
conditions.
However, unplanned
emergency shutdowns present
a signifcant challenge, and
surge avoidance in these cases
depends to a large degree on
the station layout, in particular
the volume of the piping
system downstream of
the compressor. Furthermore,
the concepts used in the anti
surge system (valves, piping,
coolers) also impact the
start-up of the station, or of
individual nits of the station.
Start-up considerations for
stations with and without
cooled recycle loops are
discussed.
Recently, there have
been attempts to increase
the stability margin of a
compressor by active
(Epstein et. al. [1], Blanchini
et. al. [2]) or passive means
(Arnulf et. al. [3]), or by
increasing the accuracy of
determining the surge margin
(McKee and Deffenbaugh [4]).
It is often overlooked that
meaningful gains can be made
by better understanding the
interaction between the
compressor, the anti-surge
devices (control system,
valves) and the station piping
layout (coolers, scrubbers, check
valves). This study focuses on
SEMI-ACTIVE COMPRESSOR VALVE
SELECTEd FOR R&d MAGAzINE AwARd
One of the 100 most techno-
logically signifcant products
introduced over the past year.
A long-life, semi-active plate
valve for reciprocating compres-
sors developed at Southwest
Research Institute (SwRI) has re-
ceived a 2007 R&D 100 Award.
R&D Magazine selected SwRIs
Semi-Active Compressor Valve
as one of the 100 most signifcant
technological achievements of
the past year.
The single largest maintenance
cost for a reciprocating com-
pressor is compressor valves.
Typically, reciprocating com-
pressors use passive compressor
valves. These valves experience
high plate impact velocities that
often result in fatigue failures
and a short operating life, leading
to frequent replacement. With
more than 12,000 reciprocating
compressors in use in the United
States alone, valve repair or
replacement and the downtime
associated with this maintenance
is a signifcant investment for the
natural gas industry.
The SwRI-developed Semi-Ac-
tive Compressor Valve increases
plate life by drastically reducing
plate impact velocities, said
Dr. Klaus Brun, manager of the
Rotating Machinery and Mea-
surement Technology Section in
SwRIs Mechanical and Materi-
als Engineering Division, and
principal developer of the valve.
Rather than springs, the design
uses electromagnets to actively
control impact velocities. The
valve plate starting motion (both
opening and closing) is sensed
using an electric inductive mo-
tion sensor controlled by the
electromagnets, thus
eliminating the need
for pressure transduc-
ers or shaft encoders to
control plate motion.
The Semi-Active Com-
pressor Valve decreases
valve replacement and
associated costs by
more than 90 percent
over conventional
valves. Because of the
higher effciency of the
valve, additional fuel
and process savings
can be achieved, thereby helping
the natural gas industry operate
its compressors more effciently,
more reliably and more cost-ef-
fectively.
The valve was one of several
technologies developed dur-
ing the Advanced Reciprocat-
ing Compression Technology
program, conducted at SwRI
and jointly funded by the Gas
Machinery Research Council, BP
and the U.S. Department of En-
ergy Offce of Fossil EnergyNa-
tional Energy Testing Laboratory
Delivery Reliability Program.
Cook-Manley Co. will be manu-
facturing the valve for industrial
oil and gas applications.
continued on p. 8
(/%2")'%2%NGINEERING3ERVICES
#OMPLETEENGINEERINGPROCUREMENTANDCONSTRUCTIONSERVICES
SPECIALIZINGINLANDBASEDNATURALGASCOMPRESSION
desgn engneerng
emsson reLrofLs
auLomaLon and conLro
compresson sysLem upraLes and reszng
pro|ecL managemenL
drafLng servces
HES breaLhes new fe nLo your vauabe compresson
asseLsLo fnd ouL how, conLacL us aL
(28T) 866-8883 or nfo-amercas@hoerbger.com
Gazette Ads.indd 1 2/14/2007 9:31:24 AM
G
M
Journal
The GMC Today is the
offcial, on-site news source for the
prestigious Gas Machinery Confer-
ence. It is published all three days
of the conference, and is something
the attendees look forward to reading
every morning. The GMC Today
is the preferred forum for companies
wanting to tell their successes to in-
dustry experts and energy company
executives at the biggest concentra-
tion of gas machinery talent and
technology in the world.
Comments and Questions should
be adddressed to:
GMJournal/GMC Today
Victoria Osborne, Publisher
6702 Dalrock Rd #126-235
Rowlett, TX 75089
469-450-8794
The GM Journal is published by
Striker Enterprises, LLC (dba Drama
Queen Design), an independent,
privately owned publishing company
based in Rowlett, Texas. Striker
Enterprises is not affliated with
any other industry organization, but
maintains cooperative partnerships
with energy industry associations
and groups.
The GM Journal is distributed to
3500 energy industry professionals
and top-level decision makers with
responsibility for gas machinery and
compressor station design, installa-
tion, operations and maintenance.
Through our strategic
alliance with GMRC, the GM Jour-
nal goes to every GMRC member
and attendees of GMRC short cours-
es, workshops or the Gas Machinery
Conference.
Get Your Own Copy of the GM Journal (Quarterly)
Simply fll this out and mail to
GM Journal, 6702 dalrock Rd, #126-235, Rowlett, TX 75089
or email gmjournal@striker-ent.com with your name and mailing address.
Name
Company Name
Address
City State zip
Yes! I would like to be informed of GM Journal and GMC Today editorial submission opportunities.
email _________________________________________________
Yes! I would like advertising information for the GM Journal and the GMC Today.
Are you a member of (circle one)
GMRC SGA GCA AGA other ____________________________________
*we will not share your information with any third party.
Available parts:
Piston rings/rider bands
Bearings/bushings
O-rings
Gaskets
Packing: pressure/wiper
Pistons/piston rods
Poppets
Discs
Springs
Cylinder liners and much more...
CECO provides OEM
Superior
SM
parts for your gas,
air and process compressors.
CECO is a registered trademark of Compressor Engineering Corporation.
All other company names and models listed
are registered trademarks of their respective owners.
Most parts ship immediately
-24 hours a day!
MORE THAN VALVES!
CECO provides OEM
Superior
SM
parts for your gas,
air and process compressors.
GMC Today - the offcial,
on-site news resource
for the Gas Machinery
Conference
Limited editorial space
available - call Victoria
ASAP for more
information.
Q4 - Year in Review
/ 2008 Preview
Pub. Date: Nov 15, 2007
Editorial Deadline:
October 26, 2007
Advertising Deadlines:
Space Reservation:
Oct. 19, 2007
Art: Nov. 1, 2007
Editorial Calendar
- Be a Contributor
to your GM Journal
G
M
Journal
Michele Degani,
special to the GM Journal
A blacksmith starts a business
underneath a shade tree, a 17
year old patents a sharpening
tool, three brothers modernize
a business, a young man triples
the size of a company its all
in a days work for the Exlines, a
family of entrepreneurs who are
determined to carry on a family
tradition.
Their company, Exline Inc., was
started in 1872 by Robert Warren
Exline and has grown into a
leader in service, manufacturing
and repair of large industrial
equipment in the natural gas
transmission industry even
though the odds were against
them as a family-owned business.
Statistics show that less
than 1/3 of family businesses
are successful at passing the
company to the next generation,
says Ron Christy, consulting
director for sales and marketing
for Exline. And only about three
percent of all family businesses
operate into the fourth generation
or beyond.
SPANNING ThREE CENTURIES
Exline is bucking the system
with 135 years under its belt and
the ffth generation at the helm.
Located in Salina, Kansas, the
companys focus is in the natural
gas transmission industry, but
they also support a diverse group
of industries including printing,
aircraft, plastics, agriculture,
engineering, automotive plus
the mining of coal, salt, gold, and
many other industries. Theyve
developed a name for themselves,
and customers are responding
positively to them. Not to mention
that they are one of the 10 oldest
corporations in Kansas.
When asked to reveal their
success secret, President Rob
William Exline Jr. responds,
Theres no magic ingredient. But
weve had a lot of luck and weve
been able to develop a wide range
of capabilities that no one else
in the US offers today. We bring
talent in many different
areas to the customer,
and we work hard to
be a full service, single
source company.
Beyond luck, the
company has chosen
leaders wisely from
the beginning. Founder
Robert Warren Exline
turned the company
over to his sons,
William George and Fred. It
was a smart move considering
William invented and patented
a sharpening tool for disc plows
and perfected a system for boring
and sleeving worn cylinders for
steam engines, a concept that is
still used today for larger, more
intricate machines.
An actual Exline shop was
constructed in 1915. Field
mechanics were hired to perform
onsite services and repairs. In
the 1920s, Exline entered the
Oil & Gas Industry. In 1929, the
business was passed to William
George Exline Jr, who proved
his tenacity by rebuilding the
company not once but twice, frst
after an explosion and then again
after a tornado.
By the late 1950s and early
1960s, the fourth generation of
Exlines, brothers Jerry, Robert
and Douglas Exline came aboard
adding to the legacy with a new
machine shop and chrome plating
plant. After the triple retirement
of the Exline brothers in 1994,
the company was passed onto a
ffth generation Exline, Robert
William Exline Jr., who has been
successfully running the company
for the past 13 years.
Although Robert Jr. had worked
at Exline summers during college,
his Father and two Uncles
wouldnt allow him to return to
the company immediately after
graduation. They wanted him to
pursue his own interests frst and
then return if he possessed the
skills it took to run the business
preferably fve years later, a
timeframe considered to be Best
Practice from the family business
perspective.
ThE FIFTh GENERATION COMES hOME
After completing two
degrees, one in Mechanical
Engineering and one in Business
Administration, Robert Jr. went
into the construction industry,
running a division for a Denver-
based company and also working
in Los Angeles. The skills he
learned in the construction
industry mirrored the skills
needed to run Exline. So a little
past the fve year mark, Robert Jr.
returned to the company 11 years
later.
I saw a lot of potential at Exline
and thought it was going to be
a great opportunity for me,
say Robert Jr. Id always had
an interest in owning my own
business and I knew Exline had a
great reputation in the industries
that it served.
Robert has worked to make the
company market driven. We
look at and understand what the
markets need and determine how
to fll that need. We restructured
billable rates to become
more competitive, we hired
all inside reps, which has
worked well to serve our
customers.
Around the time Robert
came back to Exline, the
industry was starting to
approach maintenance
differently, doing less in-
house and contracting out
major projects. So Exline
added a Mechanical Services
Division, and assembled a feld
mechanics crew in 1993. Since
that time, he has added an Ignition
and Automation division, and the
company has become an Altronic
distributor for a fve state area.
Most recently, the companys
acquisition of Tejas Maintenance
increased the number of Exline
employees to over 220. During
his tenure, sales have also
increased from about $5.5 million
EXLINE wIThSTANdS ThE TEST OF TIME
to a projected 27 million in 2007.
Exline has seen a lot of growth in
a very short time and according to
Robert, they arent done yet.
This ffth generation has no
intention of being the demise of
something that has been around
as long as Exline, say Robert Jr.
The motivation is to keep this
family tradition going. We have a
lot of instilled pride.
Exline is one of the larger
employers in Salinas 50,000
population city. And while
Robert Jr. hopes one or both of
his children will someday want
to continue the family business
tradition as the sixth generation
of Exlines running the company,
for now, hes making sure he
has strong management in place,
and hes working to maintain a
family-oriented culture and serve
their customers.
First Exline shop in Salina Exline Today
Robert Exline, Jr.
Robert Warren Exline
p. 4 Third Quarter GM Journal
GM Journal Third Quarter p. 5
G
M
Journal
E Source reported its latest
benchmark results for the perfor-
mance of North American elec-
tric and gas company web sites.
Based on the latest E Source
fndings, many more utilities
now offer self-service functions
designed to support the needs of
customers who prefer to interact
with their utility online. For ex-
ample, over 70 percent of utility
web sites now allow customers
to check their account balance,
compared to less than 50 percent
in 2005.
The E Source 2007 Review of
North American Electric and
Gas Company Web Sites as-
sesses 111 U.S. and Canadian
utility web sites. This compre-
hensive report includes detailed
benchmarking information that
illuminates the state of utility
web sites. To gauge how success-
ful electric and gas company web
sites are in serving residential
customers, E Source research-
ers assessed the companies web
sites from the customers point
of view. Many of the utilities
University of New Hampshire
will power its campus with
renewable landfll gas from the
Turnkey Recycling and Environ-
mental Enterprise facility owned
by Waste Management
The University of New Hamp-
shire, in cooperation with Waste
Management of New Hampshire,
Inc., has launched EcoLine, a
landfll gas project that will pipe
enriched and purifed gas from
Waste Managements landfll
in Rochester to the Durham
campus, UNH President Mark
Huddleston announced today.
UNH is the frst university in the
nation to undertake a project of
this magnitude.
The renewable, carbon-neutral
landfll gas, from Waste Man-
agements Turnkey Recycling
and Environmental Enterprise
(TREE) facility in Rochester,
N.H., will replace commercial
included in the study gave the E
Source research team temporary
account access to enable a full
assessment of their secure online
services.
Between December 2006 and
March 2007, several review-
ers-typical residential energy
customers-visited the selected
utility web sites. Each site was
visited by multiple reviewers,
a different methodology than
in earlier surveys E Source has
undertaken. While there, they
looked for and rated 27 tasks and
functions that had been identifed
by E Source research as the op-
tions residential customers most
expect to fnd and use when they
interact with a utilitys web site.
This year, the top-rated electric
and gas web sites belong to
Pacifc Gas and Electric, Florida
Power & Light, Wisconsin Public
Service, NW Natural, and Prog-
ress Energy (Carolinas). This
new study -- the fourth such web
site review E Source has com-
piled -- is the largest, most de-
tailed benchmark of electric and
gas web sites available. The frst
study was completed in 2002; E
Source found that between that
study and this one, most of the
utility web sites reviewed have
changed signifcantly in their at-
tempt to keep up with increasing
customer expectations.
Ethan Brown, a research analyst
at E Source, said, As online
customer care becomes more
mainstream and competitive,
utilities have to work harder than
ever to meet their online custom-
ers needs. Customers expecta-
tions are increasing alongside
their familiarity with the rising
standards of bank, e-commerce,
and transportation web sites,
so offering them the ability to
perform more transactions on a
responsive, highly usable web
site has become more impor-
tant. E Source Senior Research
Associate Florence Connally
added, During this review, we
clearly saw that companies with
web sites that were substantially
unchanged from our last review
received noticeably lower ratings
from our reviewers.
E SOURCE RANkS ELECTRIC ANd GAS COMPANY wEB SITES
natural gas as the primary fuel
in UNHs cogeneration plant,
enabling UNH to receive 80-85
percent of its energy from a
renewable source.
By reducing the universitys
dependence on fossil fuels and
reducing our greenhouse gas
emissions, EcoLine is an envi-
ronmentally and fscally respon-
sible initiative, said Huddleston.
UNH is proud to lead the nation
and our peer institutions in this
landmark step toward sustain-
ability.
Construction is set to begin
immediately on a landfll gas
processing plant in Rochester
which will purify the gas, and the
12.7 mile underground pipeline
which will transport the gas from
the plant to the universitys Dur-
ham campus. UNH is expected to
fuel its cogeneration plant with
landfll gas by the fall of 2008.
FIRST UNIVERSITY IN NATION TO USE LANdFILL GAS AS PRIMARY ENERGY SOURCE
Estimated cost of the project,
including the construction of a
second generator at UNH, is $45
million.
Waste Management is very
pleased to work with UNH on
this signifcant and innovative
landfll gas-to-energy initiative,
said Alan L. Davis, district man-
ager of TREE for Waste Man-
agement. This project will add
to the growing roster of landfll
gas-to-energy projects operated
by Waste Management across the
country, and it will help us re-
sponsibly allocate the companys
resources while providing renew-
able power to the communities
we serve.
Waste Management recently an-
nounced a major landfll gas-to-
energy initiative that will result
in the creation of an additional
60 renewable energy facilities.
In total, Waste Management will
Some utilities have made
multimillion-dollar investments
in their web sites and associ-
ated online self service options,
added Andrew Heath, director of
the E Source E-Business Service.
These companies are getting
benefts in terms of increased
customer satisfaction from cus-
tomers wanting to interact online.
Getting more traditional custom-
ers to use the web site instead of
the telephone is still a challenge,
but as more and more people
become comfortable using online
services, the utility web site is
fast becoming just one more
channel customers choose when
they need to contact their utility.
Eastern Region (U.S.). Long Is-
land Power Authority, Pepco, and
KeySpan Energy have the best
three web sites in the Eastern
region.
Midwestern Region (U.S.). Wis-
consin Public Service, Vectren,
and Alliant Energy have the three
best web sites in the Midwest. In
addition, the web sites provided
by Duke Energy (Midwest), Kan-
sas City Power & Light, Ohio
Edison, MidAmerican Energy,
and We Energies all performed
well.
Southern Region (U.S.). Florida
Power & Light, Progress Energy
(Carolinas), and Alabama Power
offer the three best web sites
in the Southern region. Austin
Energy, Dominion Power, Duke
Energy (South), Progress Energy
(Florida), CPS Energy, Georgia
Power, and Oklahoma Gas &
Electric also offer good web
sites.
Western Region (U.S.). In the
Western region, Pacifc Gas and
Electric, NW Natural, and Ari-
zona Public Service provide the
three best web sites. San Diego
Gas & Electric, Southern Califor-
nia Gas, Sacramento Municipal
Utilities District, Idaho Power,
and Portland General Electric
also provide good web sites.
Canada. The three best Canadian
web sites are provided by BC
Hydro, Terasen Gas, and Hydro-
Quebec.
generate more than 700 mega-
watts of clean renewable energy
-- enough to power 700,000
homes or replace over eight mil-
lion barrels of oil. Waste Man-
agement designed and operated
its frst such facility in the U.S.
over 20 years ago. The company
currently has two landfll gas-to-
electric plants at TREE produc-
ing green power for over 9,000
homes which will continue to
operate, while excess gas will be
sent to UNHs new and innova-
tive renewable energy project.
Once construction on EcoLine
is completed, the pipeline will
not be visible, running four feet
underground along Rochester
roads, the Spaulding Turnpike,
and the Pan Am Railways right-
of-way onto UNH property. At
UNH, landfll gas will replace
commercial natural gas in UNHs
cogeneration (co- gen) plant,
the primary source of heat and
electricity for the fve million
square-foot Durham campus.
The co-gen plant, which began
operations in 2006, captures
waste heat normally lost during
the production of electricity and
uses this energy to heat campus
buildings, making more effcient
use of energy resources.
More importantly, the landfll
gas will stabilize the universitys
fuctuating energy costs, which
have doubled in the last fve
years and grown at an annual rate
of 18.9 percent.
EcoLine will also have a major
impact on UNHs carbon dioxide
emissions. It will reduce the
universitys greenhouse gas
emissions an estimated 67 per-
cent below 2005 levels and 57
percent below 1990 levels.
Precision Engine Controls Corporation
11661 Sorrento Valley Rd.
San Diego, CA 92121
Tel: (800) 200-4404
Fax: (858) 792-3200
sales@PrecisionEng.com
XVG
Gas Fuel Control &
Flow Measurement
in one small package
C
hoose the ideal valve for fuel flow
metering and flow measurement for
natural gas fired reciprocating engines.
Fuel Flow Measurement
Integrated pressure and temperature sensors
Patented algorithms for greater accuracy
200:1 turn down ratio
Improve air/fuel ratio control resulting in
lower emissions
Speed Governing
Stable, fast, and accurate fuel flow control
Excellent for low pressure starts
Lower Cost Of Ownership
Eliminates redundant instrumentation such as:
RTDs, flow meters, transmitters and orifice
plates
Replaces problematic hydraulic and
pneumatic fuel valves
Lower installation and maintenance costs
Get the details today
Call 858.792.3247
www.PrecisionEng.com
p. 8 Third Quarter GM Journal
G
M
Journal
The deceleration of the
compressor as a result of
inertia and dissipation are
decisive factors. The speed
at which the pressure can
be relieved not only depends on
the reaction time of the valve,
but also on the time constants
imposed by the piping system.
The transient behavior of the
piping system depends largely on
the volumes of gas enclosed
by the various components of
the piping system, which may
include, besides the piping itself,
various scrubbers, knockout
drums, and coolers. The system
boundaries for this study are the
frst downstream check valve,
while the upstream boundary
may be either a check valve or
an infnite plenum (at constant
pressure, Figure 3).
The requirements of the anti-
surge system for such situations
as ESD or other massive system
disturbances are distinctly
different from the usual process
control case.
The former is a massive, fast
change in conditions that frst and
foremost requires fast system
reaction. This requires, among
others, extremely fast opening
valves with suffciently large fow
areas. The latter requires the
capability to precisely control
slow changes in the process,
such that no oscillations occur,
which can be accomplished with
precisely positioned valves.
Surge control valves are primarily
sized to ft the compressor. During
steady-state recycling, the
required capacity of the recycle
valve can be directly derived from
the compressor map. To handle
transient conditions, the required
capacity must be greater to
allow for the volumes on either
side of the compressor. With
the initiation of a shutdown, the
compressor can be expected to
decelerate approximately 30% in
the frst second. With a 30% loss
in speed, the head the compressor
can develop at its surge limit
will drop by approximately 50%.
The recycle control valve must,
therefore, reduce the pressure
ratio across the compressor by
one-half in that frst second to
avoid surge.
The following guidelines pertain
to a typical one valve, one
compressor
arrangement.
More
complex systems
of cascaded
valves or valves
around multiple
compressors
require a more
detailed analysis.
To facilitate both
precise throttling
at partial
recycle and the
need to reduce
the pressure
difference across
the compressor
quickly during
a shutdown,
surge control
valves with an equal percentage
characteristic are advantageous
(Figure 4). The equal percentage
characteristic spreads the frst
half of the valves fully open
capacity over the frst 2/3 of the
valves travel for a globe valve,
and about one third of the valves
fully open capacity over the frst
2/3 of the valves travel for a
ball valve. This greatly improves
controllability at partial recycle
throttling. In order to avoid surge
during a shutdown, the valve must
open to the required capacity in
signifcantly less than one second.
Surge control systems must
be sized to meet two diverse
centrifugal compressors driven by
two-shaft gas turbines
(Figure 1).
The possible operating points of
a centrifugal gas compressor are
limited by maximum and
minimum operating speed,
maximum available power, choke
fow, and stability (surge) limit
(Figure 2). Surge, which is the
fow reversal within the
compressor, accompanied by high
fuctuating load on the
compressor bearings, has to be
avoided to protect the compressor.
The usual method for surge
avoidance (anti-surge-control)
consists of a recycle loop that
can be activated by a fast acting
valve (anti-surge valve) when
the control system detects that the
compressor approaches its surge
limit. Typical control systems use
suction and discharge pressures
and temperatures, together with
the fow through the compressor
to calculate the relative distance
(surge margin) of the present
operating point to the predicted or
measured surge line of the
compressor (Figure 2). The surge
margin is defned by:
If the surge margin reaches a
preset value (often 10%), the anti-
surge valve starts to open, thereby
reducing the pressure ratio of the
compressor and increasing the
fow through the compressor.
The situation is complicated by
the fact that the surge valve also
has to be capable of precisely
controlling fow. Additionally,
some manufacturers place
limits on how far into choke
(or overload) they allow their
compressors to operate.
A very critical situation arises
upon emergency shutdown
(ESD). Here, the fuel supply to
the gas turbine driver is cut off
instantly, thus eliminating the
power to the driven compressor
1
.
The inertia of compressor,
coupling and power turbine
have to balance the compressor
absorbed power, causing a
rapid deceleration. Because the
head-making capability of the
compressor is reduced by the
square of its running speed, while
the pressure ratio across the
machine is imposed by the
upstream and downstream piping
system, the compressor will
surge if the surge valve cannot
provide fast relief of the pressure.
Figure 1. Compressor Station
Figure 2. Typical compressor map
Figure 3: Anti-surge and recycle system
Figure 4. Typical valve characteristics for globe and ball valves
1 Some installations maintain fuel fow to the turbine for 1 to 2 seconds while the recycle valve opens. However, this can generate a safety hazard.
See Surge, p. 10
Contd from p.1
Meet your new IT department.
No, really.
Its not a product. Its a strategy.
Success in your business means maximum
throughput. That means leveraging your critical
resources, your people as well as your com-
pression equipment, both of which are spread
out over Timbuktu.
Enginuity imbeds in-depth knowledge, yours and
ours, in every automation package that we design.
Weve designed our HMIs with user-friendly
red-alert and green-ok functionality so that
the focus is on the problem, not the symptoms,
saving time and increasing productivity.
Now your IT guys uh, mechanics are
effcient and that makes them more valuable than
ever. Visit enginuityinc.com to fnd out how we
can leverage your infrastructure. Or call us at
800.228.2818 to talk with us about how we can
help you leverage your assets.
Finally, an IT department that knows your assets.
objectives: During steady-state
recycling, the required capacity of
the recycle valve can be directly
derived from the compressor
map: the smaller the valve, the
smoother the control. During
transient conditions, the required
capacity increases due to the
volumes on either side of the
compressor. Therefore, to avoid
surge during a shutdown, the
bigger the valve, the better. To
facilitate both smooth throttling
at partial recycle and the need to
reduce the pressure differential
(DP) across the compressor
quickly during a shutdown,
control valves with an equal
percentage characteristic are
recommended. With an equal
percentage characteristic, the
more the valve is opened, the
greater the increase in fow
for the same travel. We
recommend two types of valves
for surge control: globe valves
and noise-attenuating ball valves.
The globe valves capacity
(Cv) varies with the square
of the percentage travel. The
noiseattenuating ball valves
capacity (Cv) varies with the
cube of the percentage travel.
Both valves are sized to be
throttling at about two-thirds
open at surge conditions. As such,
the noiseattenuating ball valve
will have 50% more capacity
to depressurize the discharge
volume than the globe valve.
This additional capacity makes
the noise-attenuating ball valve
the better choice in installations
where there is a single surge
control valve (i.e. there is no hot
bypass) and the discharge
volumes are large (e.g., the
discharge system includes an
aftercooler). The valve is matched
to the compressor (Figure 5).
Surge Phenomenon
Day [5] has provided very
detailed measurements
of compressor surge
cycles, pointing out the
dominating infuence of
the discharge volume.
Figure 6 shows the head-
versus-fow characteristic
of a typical centrifugal
compressor at constant
speed, including the areas
of unstable operation.
At fows lower than the
stability limit (surge
line), the compressor
initially shows a reduced
capability to generate head
with reduced
fow, until it experiences reverse
fow, that is, the gas now fows
from the discharge to the suction
side of the compressor. Once fow
reversal occurs, the amount of
fow depends on the pressure
ratio across the
compressor,
since in this
situation the
compressors
acts more or
less like an
orifce. The
fow reversal
means that
the pressure
downstream of
the compressor
is gradually
reduced.
The speed
of pressure
reduction
depends largely
on the size of
the volume
downstream
of the
compressor.
Once the
pressure
is reduced
suffciently,
the compressor
will recover
and fow gas
again from
the suction to the discharge side.
Unless action is taken, the events
repeat again. Ongoing surge can
damage thrust bearings (due to the
massive change of thrust loads),
seals, and eventually overheat the
compressor.
Coming in the next issue
of the GM Journal:
Modeling the Piping Surge
Control Interaction & Application
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to
acknowledge the contributions
of Daryl D. Legrand and Roland
Kaiser,both with Solar Turbines
Incorporated.
References
[1] Epstein, A.H., Ffowcs Williams,
J.E., and Greitzer, E.M., Active
Suppression of Compressor
Instabilities, AIAA-86-1994, 1994.
[2] Blanchini, F., Giannatasio, P.,
Micheli, D., and Pinamonti, P.,
Experimental Evaluation of a
High-Gain Control for Compressor
Surge Suppression, ASME 2001-
GT-0570, 2001.
[3] Arnulf, G.L., Giannatasio, P.,
Micheli, D., and Pinamonti, P., An
Innovative Control of
Surge in Industrial Compression
Systems, ASME 2000-GT-352,
2000.
[4] McKee, R.J., and Deffenbaugh,
D., Factors that Affect Surge
Precursors in Centrifugal
Compressors, Proc. GMRC Gas
Machinery Conference, Salt Lake
City, Utah, 2003.
[5] Day, I.J., Axial Compressor
Performance During Surge,
Proc.10th International Symposium
on Air Breathing Engines,
Nottingham, UK,1991, pp. 927-934.
1-800-341-0030
p. 10 Third Quarter GM Journal
G
M
Journal
Figure 5: Matching of Valve and Compressor. The valve characteristic for a number of opening
positions (60%,70% and 100%) is superimposed to the compressor performance map.
Figure 6: Simplifed surge cycle
SURGE PREVENTION IN CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR SYSTEMS
Contd from p.8
p. 12 Third Quarter GM Journal
People on the Move
Industry Profle:
Rich joined Enginuity
on May 1, 1997
after spending 2
years working at the
Technology Center
for Tenneco Gas / El
Paso Energy, prior to
which Rich earned
both his bachelors
and masters degrees
in Mechanical
Engineering from
Colorado State
University.
Rich is part of the
infamous three
graduate students
who built CSUs
engine lab, which the
gas pipeline industry
enthusiastically
supported. It is
here that Rich made a name for
himself by knowing how to get
things done, regardless of whether
that required doing engineering
design work or putting on a
Walker has been with Cameron
since 2006, working in the
Business Development
department of the corporate
offce and led various
strategic activities. He has an
undergraduate degree from the
University of Texas and an MBA
from Harvard Business School.
Also announced is the
appointment of Mike Gerzina to
the position as General Manager,
Ajax Products.
In this position Gerzina will be
responsible leading all aspects of
the Ajax product line to include
design, development, application,
sourcing, manufacture and
support on a global basis.
Gerzina assumes P&L and
balance sheet responsibility. He
reports to Richard Stegall, V-P
Reciprocating and is based at the
Ajax headquarters in Oklahoma
City, Oklahoma.
Gerzina has been with Cameron
for over 25 years in various
sales, marketing and operations
ARROw INdUSTRIES, INC
ANNOUNCES NEw TEAM MEMBERS
IS PLEASEd TO ANNOUNCE ThE
FOLLOwING AddITIONS TO OUR
TEAM
Arrow Industries, Inc announces
new team members is pleased to
announce the following additions
to our team.
In the Mechanical Services
division, Gary Sanders has
joined the Company as a project
Manager. Gary has over 20
years of experience with integral
engine repair.
Nick Fury and David Guillot
have also joined Arrow and are
running the New Parts division.
David comes from an OEM
where he specialized in integral
engine parts. Nick Fury, who
began his career with Clark
Bros., has over 50 years in the
integral engine parts industry and
we are very pleased to have him.
Lastly, David Grant has joined
Arrow and will be responsible
welders hood and welding piping
and physical structures.
Richs contributions to
Enginuitys success are both
many in number and of great
strategic signifcance. Perhaps
the most notable is Richs
leadership of Enginuitys highly
successful HPFi technology. He
led the development, design,
pilot testing and commercial
release of Enginuitys market
offering, concurrently developing
Enginuitys relationship with its
partner Woodward Governor.
Rich was challenged upon his
arrival at Enginuity to pick an
area of interest and make it
his own. He did just that with
HPFi and has continued to do
so in many areas throughout the
company.
Other signifcant contributions
Rich has made to Enginuity
include:
Impact System Rich led
the development of Enginuitys
Impact pressure monitoring
system, including signifcant
work bringing pressure sensor
technology to a level of perfor-
mance and reliability required for
successful commercial application
in the natural gas industry.
Enginuity Celebrates Rich Schoonovers 10 Years
of Leadership and Service
Enginuity University Rich
developed Enginuity University
(EU) from concept to rollout.
EU is Enginuitys internal train-
ing and development program,
which has also served to rollout
programs to Enginuitys
customers.
Enginuity Infrastructure Rich
has led the defnition, develop-
ment and deployment of the
majority of Enginuitys oper-
ations systems, processes and
toolsets. Further, Rich has led
the development of much of
Enginuitys business infrastruc-
ture ranging from Enginuitys
forecasting tool and Enginuitys
current website.
Knowledge Infrastructure
Rich has led Enginuitys efforts
to conceptualize, defne and
engage the gas industry in this
evolving area. His whitepapers
and presentations regarding
workforce and knowledge
challenges continue to be a
highlight of many industry
conferences. They reach well
beyond the initial audience at the
GMRC to include the INGAA
Foundation and several
committees of SGA.
Today, Rich serves as vice
president of Enginuity, having
responsibility for managing
Enginuitys turnkey project
business in the areas of both
emissions retroft and automation
solutions. Rich continues to
provide leadership within
Enginuity and to the industry;
teaching short courses and
presenting whitepapers in a
number of key areas with recent
focus on knowledge
infrastructure.
On the personal side, Rich is
a great craftsman and hobby
fanatic. His interests range from
snowboarding to paintballing;
from fying remote control
airplanes to turning beautiful and
ornate pieces of art from exotic
wood; the list is quite extensive.
Richs passion for Halloween
decorations, devices and
structures is out there for all to
see on his personal website www.
abbynormalslab.com.
for surplus engine acquisitions,
removal and transportation.
CAMERONS COMPRESSION
SYSTEMS dIVISION ANNOUNCES
ORGANIzATIONAL ChANGES
The
Compression
Systems
division of
Cameron has
announced
the
appointment
of Lane
Walker to the position as General
Manager, Superior Products.
In this position Walker will
be responsible for leading
all aspects of the Superior
product lines development,
design, application, sourcing,
manufacture, and support
on a global basis. Walker
assumes P&L and balance sheet
responsibility for the product
line. He reports to Richard
Stegall, V-P Reciprocating and is
based in Houston, Texas.
roles. Most recently he has been
Director, Sales for Camerons
reciprocating new unit products.
The Compression Systems
division of Cameron is also
pleased to announce the
appointment of Richard Stegall
to the position of Vice-President,
Reciprocating.
In this role
Stegall will
be the senior
executive
responsible
for all
reciprocating
operations.
Reporting
to Stegall will be the newly-
appointed general managers of
the Superior (Lane Walker) and
Ajax (Mike Gerzina) product
lines. Additionally, he will
provide leadership to other
functional areas of Quality,
Distribution and Facilities.
Stegall reports to Bob Rajeski,
President of Compression
Systems and resides at
the Compression Systems
headquarters in Houston, Texas.
Stegall has been employed by
Cameron for 25 years in various
capacities. Most recently he
has been V-P Operations for
the Compression Systems
reciprocating and centrifugal
businesses.
Mike ONeil
has joined
Camerons
Compression
Systems
division as
Vice President
of Engineering
and Product
Development. He replaces
John Bartos who has moved to
a corporate role. Mike will be
responsible for Compression
Systems Engineering, Six
Sigma, Information Technology,
Product Development and
technical training. Mike was
formerly with Dresser-Rand
and had roles in engineering,
Contd next page
GM Journal Third Quarter p. 13
Business Briefs
Conoco Phillips Subsidiary to
Pay United States $97.5 Million
for Fraudulent Underpayment of
Natural Gas Royalties
Burlington Resources Inc. has
agreed to pay the United States
$97.5 million to resolve claims
that it underpaid royalties owed
on natural gas produced from
federal and Indian leases, the
Justice Department announced
today. Last year, Burlington
became a wholly owned sub-
sidiary of Conoco Phillips, the
third largest integrated energy
company in the United States.
The settlement resolves allega-
tions under the False Claims
Act that Burlington systemati-
cally under-reported the value of
natural gas that it produced from
onshore federal and Indian leases
from March 1, 1988, to March
31, 2005, and consequently, paid
less royalties than it owed to the
United States and various Indian
tribes.
The Minerals Management
Service (MMS) of the U.S.
Department of the Interior is
responsible for overseeing the
collection of royalties on federal
and Indian leases. Each month,
companies are required to report
to MMS the value of the natural
gas produced from their federal
and Indian leases and to pay a
percentage of the reported value
as royalties. The United States
alleged that Burlington used
transactions with affliated enti-
ties to claim excessive deduc-
tions for the cost of transport-
ing and treating its gas, and to
otherwise understate the value
it reported each month for its
natural gas production.
The Department of Justice is
committed to ensuring that those
who remove valuable assets from
public or Indian lands pay a fair
price for those assets, said Peter
D. Keisler, Assistant Attorney
General for the Civil Division.
We will continue to pursue
claims against other companies
that seek to evade their royalty
payment obligations.
The settlement with Burlington
People on the Move
business management,
analytical sciences and product
development. He has relocated
to Houston and works in
the Compression Systems
headquarters. Mike reports
to Bob Rajeski, Compression
Systems president.
ALTRONIC ANNOUNCES
FACTORY ANd FIELd
PERSONNEL ChANGES
AS NEw dIVISION IS LAUNChEd
Richard P. (Dick) Schook has
retired after more than 27 years
at Altronic, Inc., most of them
as Vice President of Sales and
Service. Dick joined Altronic in
1979 as a Sales/Service Repre-
sentative, and quickly rose in the
organization, frst as Sales Man-
ager and fnally as Vice President
of Sales. He guided the sales,
service and marketing strategies
of the rapidly-growing supplier
of industrial ignition systems
and instruments to many sales
records, including the three most
recent years of his tenure.
Mr. Schook has authored and
contributed to countless technical
papers and has been published
extensively in the industry over
the course of his long and distin-
guished career.
In conjunction with Mr. Schooks
retirement, Altronic has an-
nounced several promotions
within the sales and service
departments.
David E. Bell has been named
Vice President, Aftermarket
Sales and Service. Dave started
his career at Altronic in the
engineering department in 1984,
working part-time while earning
arises from a lawsuit fled by
a private whistleblower under
the False Claims Act, which
alleges that a number of com-
panies systematically underpaid
royalties due for their federal and
Indian natural gas production.
The Justice Department partially
intervened against several defen-
dants in the lawsuit, and previ-
ously settled with Shell Oil Co.
for $56 million and Dominion
Exploration and Production Co.
for $2 million. The Department
is continuing to pursue claims
against Exxon-Mobil Corp.
The investigation of and settle-
ment with Burlington were
jointly handled by the U.S. At-
torney for the Eastern District of
Texas and the Civil Division of
the Department of Justice, with
the assistance of the Department
of the Interiors Offce of Inspec-
tor General; the Minerals Man-
agement Service; and the New
Mexico Taxation and Revenue
Department Oil and Gas Bureau.
Natural Gas Leads the Pack
with the Cleanest Engine
Garnering Both U.S. EPA and
CARB Certifcation to 2010
Emission Standards
The California Natural Gas
Vehicle Partnership(CNGVP)
announced today that one of
its most active industry mem-
bers Cummins Westport Inc.
received certifcation from both
the U.S. Environmental Protec-
tion Agency (U.S. EPA) and the
California Air Resources Board
(CARB) for its ISL G heavy-duty
natural gas engine. The certifca-
tion from these two agencies is
noteworthy as it designates this
engine as meeting 2010 stan-
dards of 0.2g/bhp-hr oxides of
nitrogen (NOx) and 0.01 g/bhp-
hr particulate matter (PM). The
emission standards set for 2010
are signifcantly more stringent
than those set in years past
due to the need to address the
reduction of harmful emissions
from heavy-duty vehicles which
contribute to greenhouse gases
and other pollutants.
Continued next page
undergrad-
uate and
graduate
degrees
from
Youngs-
town State
University.
Keith Brooks becomes Vice
President, OEM Sales. He has a
Bachelor of Engineering Science
degree in
Mechani-
cal Engi-
neering
from the
Univer-
sity of
Western
Ontario
and an
MBA from Youngstown State
University.
Thomas P. Smith has been
promoted
to Director
of Service
Operations.
Tom came
to Altronic
as a Sales
Represen-
tative in
1986.
Matthew A. Donham has
accepted a position as OEM
Sales
Represen-
tative. Matt
started in
the Altronic
Qual-
ity Control
department
in 1994 and
in 1996 he
was promoted to Sales/Service
Technician.
Barry Powell has been named
General
Manager of
the newly-
formed
Engineered
System
Services
(ESS)
Division
of Altronic
Controls, which was established
in order to offer an expanded
range of resources and solutions
exclusively to authorized Altron-
ic Distributors associated with
the promotion, sale, installation,
and service of advanced Altronic/
Altronic Controls systems.
Joining Barry on the ESS Divi-
sional staff are: Paul McHenry
Project Manager, Mark See
Field Service Manager and
Sandy Winans Logistics
Manager
Additionally, Mr. Powell has
been named Altronics Interna-
tional Area Manager for Asia.
Michael Porter has accepted the
position of
Altronic
Regional
Manager
for Sales
and Ser-
vice for the
east-central
United
States.
Timothy Ricker joins Altronic
in the
capacity of
Technical
Represen-
tative in
the inside
service
group at
headquar-
ters in
Girard, Ohio.
Jos Struker assumes the mantle
of Interna-
tional Area
Man-
ager for
Africa and
the Middle
East. Joe is
a veteran
of Altron-
ics Dutch
Distributor, Hatraco, and also of
Altronic Europe BV.
Bell
Brooks
Smith
Donham
Powell
Porter
Ricker
Struker
Dick Shook
p. 14 Third Quarter GM Journal
Business Briefs
will have a positive impact on
the market by, among other
things, reducing the need for
redundant fow and temperature
instrumentation, said Joe Mares,
PECCs engineering manager
for valves and actuators. With
several operational modes to
choose from, the eXVG provides
an integrated, cost-effective
migration path from traditional,
fxed-orifce solutions to better,
lower-emission performance
across the spectrum of larger
turbine and reciprocating engine
applications.
PECCs unique measured-fow
output provides an elegant
way to measure fow without
a sharp-edged orifce, turbine
meter, coriolis meter or other
independent direct-fow
device. This patented approach
employs a highly characterized
orifce, sensors to determine
the pressure across the orifce,
a gas temperature sensor, and
a carefully calibrated set of
calculations that factors out
sensor error to accurately
determine real-time mass fow
over a wide range of pressure,
temperature and fow rates.
Precise digital fow-
characterization data is logged
at the PECC test facility and
downloaded to the valve itself,
providing the eXVG with the
equivalent of an extremely
tight-tolerance orifce without
the costs typically associated
with high-accuracy machining.
The eXVGs onboard Digital
Signal Processor (DSP)
performs real-time mass fow
calculations and compares
the stored characterization
information to the continuous
measurement data supplied by
internal gas temperature and
pressure sensors, which in turn
provides the user with a live
analog feedback signal of mass
fow.
New Low Emission Packing
Reduces Gas Loss from
Compressors
In early tests, the system reduces
gas loss by about 83%
Compressor Engineering
Corporation is helping operators
address lost gas challenges with
a new low-emission packing.
Fugitive natural gas emissions
result in a signifcant loss of
revenue as well as contribute to
environmental concerns. Stricter
regulations and self-governing
are currently being implemented
to reduce methane release, a
greenhouse gas.
Studies conducted by the
Pipeline Research Committee at
numerous compressor
stations nationwide indicate an
average rod leakage rate of 0.9
to 1.86 cfm per compressor rod.
This fgure is almost double that
of the fndings of the EPA Gas
Research Institute. While this
was not considered an industry
problem several years ago,
with gas prices now well above
$5/Mcf, lost revenue as well as
greenhouse gas emissions now
compel companies to seek ways
to minimize leakage.
The technology to reduce
fugitive emissions has been
in place for many years in the
refning, petrochemical and air
separation industries. However,
the natural gas industry has
largely been ignored until now.
EPA Initiative
The U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) is
working with CECO and other
alliance partners to identify,
monitor and reduce methane
emissions at compressor
stations.
Using proven designs, unique
materials and engineering
expertise, CECO offers
customers technical training in
the feld, troubleshooting and
cost-effective solutions
based on corporate goals and
requirements. Several companies
are now working with CECO to
reduce and monitor emissions
from compressor packing
cases. CECO Low Emission
Packing (LEP) has proven to
help reduce lost gas
and save money.
Important Steps
CECO has identifed a number
of important leak reduction
steps. Proper maintenance is
critical as there are a number of
impediments to effective sealing.
There are numerous leak paths
within a packing case, any of
which can cause an unacceptable
emissions release.
Early test results look extremely
promising. At one compressor
station, initial leakage of over
30 scfh was detected before
installing CECO LEP.
After continuous monitoring, the
leakage rate stabilized at 5 scfh,
a reduction of about 83% in the
amount of lost gas.
Contd from previous page
PECCS eXVG
Precision Engine Controls
introduces the eXVG, a next-
generation gas fuel metering
valve designed for use with
large (up to10MW) turbines
and reciprocating engines
(up to 13,000 HP). The valve
combines a patented fuel-fow
measurement technique with
fast, accurate and repeatable
operation, resulting in better
fuel/air ratio control for lowering
emissions and improving engine
performance, especially in Dry
Low Emission (DLE / low
NOX) applications. The eXVGs
optional 4-20mA interface
allows complete closed-loop
fuel control, and the units
onboard 24Vdc electronics
provide improved health and
data monitoring via an isolated
RS-232 serial interface for
downloading real-time data to the
users laptop. Representing the
latest advances in measurement,
contamination resistance and
precision control capability
over a wide fow range, the
eXVGs two-inch diameter pipe
effectively delivers 20% more
fuel than the companys highly
successful XVG fuel valve,
making the new valve ideal for
larger engines or those operating
with lower supply pressures or
low BTU fuels.
Design-wise, the eXVG provides
a single direct-acting solenoid
actuator with no mechanical
linkages and only one moving
part. The valves balanced
fow tube provides superior
fow performance and assures
smooth, fast operation over a
wide pressure range. Featuring
a contamination-resistant self-
cleaning fow-through design,
the eXVG also provides a fail-
safe closing spring, with easy-
to-clean soft seats, to ensure a
positive shut-off. The eXVGs
standard 200:1 turn-down ratio
allows operation over a wide
fow range and low supply
pressure, providing a four-fold
improvement over the typical
50:1 turn down (max vs. min
fow) of many competitive
models.
Were confdent that the
eXVGs enhanced functionality
As the frst heavy duty engine
for urban bus applications to be
certifed to the 2010 U.S. EPA
and 2010 CARB standards,
Cummins Westport Inc. can now
claim the title Worlds Clean-
est Heavy Duty Engine, a long
sought after and highly antici-
pated feat. Gordon Exel, Vice
President America Sales of Cum-
mins Westport, touts that with
improved low end torque and
maintenance-free after-treatment,
the ISL G will deliver diesel-like
performance and reliability and
the opportunity for customers to
take advantage of the lower cost
of natural gas. With Californias
existing infrastructure of natural
gas fuelling stations combined
with regulations for feets to use
the cleanest vehicles available,
the switch from diesel to natural
gas heavy-duty vehicles is an
obvious choice.
In addition to the support
received from the CNGVP,
Cummins Westport received
assistance from the South Coast
Air Quality Management District
(AQMD), the agency respon-
sible for regulating emissions
from heavy-duty vehicles in one
of the most heavily traffcked
regions of California. Alterna-
tive fuel engines lead the way in
clean engine technology and we
encourage engine manufacturers
to strive beyond required engine
standards when developing zero
emission technologies, said
Chairman Dr. William Burke of
the AQMD. This achievement
continues to support the South
Coast regions commitment to
alternative fuels as one of the
cleanest technologies available.
Precision Engine Controls
New Gas Fuel Metering Valve
Offers 20% More Flow,
Improved health Monitoring
for Large Turbines &
Reciprocating Engines
Patented electronic valve
provides complete closed-loop
fuel control; fast,
accurate and repeatable
operation over a broad range
of operating conditions

918 317 4100 E-mail sales@fwmurphy.com
Visit us at GMRC - booth #307
www.murphy-pi.com
0610143-GMJ 7-07
BEEN THERE.
SOLVED THAT.
TM
Theres always been one way for your ignition system to work.
One timing setting, one way to reprogram and limited voltage options.
Its always been the manufacturers way, not your way.
Now you have alternatives with FW Murphy.
Murphy power ignition controls are fully flexible for your exact needs.
Send just the right amount of energy to your plugs at just the right time
for maximum plug life. Choose from five timing reference options,
including camless operation. You can even reprogram on the fly using
only the keypad no more replacing chips.
You have a problem with not enough ignition options? Not anymore
Murphy just solved it.
See how we can give you real ignition choices. Visit
www.murphy-pi.com/dealers to find your local Murphy power
ignition dealer.
You Own
Your Ignition System.
But Do You Control It?
Free
Yourself
0610143-GMJ ad 7-07 7/26/07 7:52 AM Page 1