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A PROJECT STUDY REPORT ON Training undertaken at

Titled RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION

Submitted in partial fulfillment for the Award of degree of Masters of Human Resource Management

Submitted By: Bhawana Sharma MHRM IV SEMESTER

2012-13

CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the project report titled An analytical study of Recruitment & Selection is based on an Original Project Study conducted by Bhawana Sharma of IV semester MHRM Programme under the Guidance of Prof. V.K. Joshi.

This project is based on original Research and has not formed basis for the award of any other Degree/Diploma By Rajasthan University.

(name) Dean-MHRM

CERTIFICATE STUDENT DECLARATION I hereby declare that the Project Report or the Dissertation entitled An analytical study of Recruitment And Selection Process Undertaken at Samarpana private ltd. Under the Guidance of Mr. Assysh Sharma General Manager Samarpana Pvt. Ltd Jaipur. Prof. Faculty Guide MHRM

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the Requirement for the award of the Degree of Master of Business Administration, to Rajasthan University Is the result of my own effort and has not been submitted to any other institution for the award of any degree Place JAIPUR

College name Jaipur CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the Dissertation entitled An analytical study of Recruitment And Selection Process in Samarpana Pvt Ltd submitted by Bhawana Sharma in fulfillment to requirements for the Degree of Masters of Human Resource Management is based on the results carried out by her under my guidance and supervision.

JAIPUR Date:

Signature

Prof name Faculty MHRM

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am pleased to record my gratitude and sincere thanks to my guide Prof. V.K. Joshi ,faculty guide, RU,JAIPUR for his sincere guidance and valuable assistance for completing this report. I also take this moment to express my gratitude to Mr.Assysh Sharma , Samarpana Pvt Ltd..

I am also indebted to my parents and friends for their support for completing this project successfully.

Chapter No.

Particulars Certificate from the Organization

Page No.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 2 3 4 5 6

Certificate from the College Declaration Acknowledgement Introduction Company Profile Data Analysis Findings From the Study Suggestions and Recommendations CONCLUSION

Introduction to HRM Evolution of HRM Earlier references: In western countries HRM had its

primitive beginning in 1930s. Not much thought was given on this subject in particular and no written records or documents interesting to note HRM concepts was available, in ancient philosophies of Greek, Indian and Chinese. This is not to

suggest that industrial establishment and factories system, as it is known today, existed in ancient Greece, India or china. The philosophy of managing human being, as a concept was found developed in ancient literatures in general and in Indian philosophy in particular. Personnel functions: Till 1930s, it was not felt necessary to have a separate discipline of management called Personnel management. In fact, this job was assigned as part of the factory manager. Adam Smiths concept of factory was that it consists of three resources, land, labour and capital. This factory manager is expected to procure, Process and peddle labour as one of the resources. The first time when such a specialist person was used; it was to maintain a buffer between employer and employee to meet the legitimate need of employees. However, it is the employer who decided what is legitimate need of employees. In fact, the specialist person was more needed to prevent unionization of employees. This was the case before 1930-s all over the world. Environmental Influences on HRM: Since 1930s, certain developments took place, which greatly contributed, to the evolution and growth of Human Resources Management (HRM). These developments are given below: Scientific Management

Labour Movements Government Regulations.

Need for the Study : Shortage of skills. Skills and knowledge people are always on short supply. Alternatively they are too costly to hire from outside. The best alternative is to improve skill and knowledge of existing employees. Technological Obsolescence. Growth of technology takes places very fast. This will render current technology obsolete in the future. There is a great need to upgrade technology. This needs suitable training. Personal Obsolescence. At the time recruitment employees possess a certain of knowledge and skill. As time passes knowledge becomes obsolete, unless it is updated by proper training. This happens because of changes taking place in product technology, production methods, procurement of better machines, setting up of modern production lines, introduction of modern method of supervision and information processing through MIS and EDO.. Organization Obsolescence.

Modern management has introduced a number of innovative steps in functions of management like planning, organizing, controlling, coordinating and directing. Organization which is impervious to such changes is bound to fail and become obsolete. Upgrading Ability of Threshold workers. Public policy provides reservation to disadvantaged sections of the society like handicapped, minorities and dependents of deceased workers etc. All these are threshold workers having less than minimum prescribed level of knowledge and skill. They require extensive training to bring them up to the minimum level of performance standard.

Coercive training by government. In order to provide better employability chances of unemployed youth, certain governments taken initiative to mobilize resources available at pubic/government and private sectors to outside candidates. One such example is the Apprentice Training conducted by govt. of India. A part of expenditure incurred for this by private sectors are reimbursed by government. Human capital

The latest thinking is to treat employees as human capital. The expenditure involved is training and developments are now being considered as an investment.

Scope of Human Resource Management The Scope of HRM is in deed fast. All major activities in the working life of worker from time of his entry in an organization until he / she leaves, come under the preview of HRM. Specifically, the activities included are Human Resource planning, Job analysis and design, Recruitment, Selection, Orientation and placement, Training and development,

Performance appraisal and Job evaluation, employee and executive remuneration and communication, employee welfare, safety and health, industrial relations and the like. HRM is becoming a specialized branch giving rise to a number of specialized areas like : Staffing Welfare and Safety Wages and Salary Administration Training and Development

Labour Relations
Nature of Human Resource Management

Prospects of HRM

Employee hiring

Industrial Relations

Human Resource Management

Employee and executive Remuneration

Employee Maintenance

Employee Motivation

Scope of HRM

Human Resource Management in PCS : Personnel/Human Resource of an undertaking is its important constituent. Efficiency, Profitability and in fact the very existence of the undertaking will depend on this constituents. Co-operation and dedication in performance on the part of its personnel ends in the accomplishment of its objectives. Therefore human resource is of immense importance since it involves matters such as identifying, placing, evaluating, and developing individuals at work and maintaining effective multilateral communication

systems. Human resources along with financial and material resources contribute to production of goods and services in an organization.. In short HRM may be defined as the art of procuring, developing and maintaining competent workforce to achieve the goals of an organization in an effective and efficient manner.

Objectives of the HRM are to secure the following: 1. Industrial peace: This is secured by excellent union

management relations, healthy inter-personal relationships, and promoting participative management style and good industrial and labour relations. 2. Achieve High Productivity: The underlying objective brings to increase the quantity or volume of the product or service for a given input, productivity improvement programme is very significant in a competitive environment. 3. Better quality of working life of employees: This involves both intrinsic and extrinsic factors connected with work. 4. Obtain and sustain competitive advantage through

empowerment : continuous improvement and innovative steps being the two essential ingredients to achieve and sustain competitive advantage, todays industries are knowledge based and skill intensive. 5. Cordial relationship between the employer and employees.

6. Personnel research functions. 7. Proper orientation and introduction to the new employees. BACKGROUND SCENARIO William James of Harvard University estimated that employees could retain their jobs by working at a mere 20-30 percent of their potential. His research led him to believe that if these same employees were properly motivated, they could work at 80-90% of their capabilities. Behavioral science concepts like motivation and enhanced productivity could well be used for such improvements in employee output. Training could be one of the means used to achieve such improvements through the effective and efficient use of learning resources.

Training and development has been considered an integral part of any organization since the industrial revolution era. From training imparted to improve mass production to now training employees on soft skills and attitudinal change, training industry has come a long way today. In fact most training companies are expecting the market to double by the year 2007, which just means that the Indian training industry seems to have come of age.

Organization and individual should develop and progress simultaneously for the their survival and attainment of mutual

goals. So, every modern management has to develop the organization through human resource development. Employee training is the most important sub-system of human resources development. Training is a specialized function and one of the fundamental management. operative functions for human resources

The market is unofficially estimated to be anywhere between Rs 3000 crores and Rs 6000 crores. What is surprising is that the Indian companies. Perception regarding corporate training seems to have undergone a sea-change in the past two years, with most companies realizing it to be an integral part of enhancing productivity of its personnel. While MNC.s with their global standards of training are the harbingers of corporate training culture in India, the bug seems to have bitten most companies aiming at increasing their efficiency.

According to Ms Pallavi Jha, Managing Director, Walchand Capital and Dale Carnegi Training India, "The Indian training industry is estimated at approximately Rs 3,000 crores per annum. The NFO study states that over a third of this is in the area of behavior and soft skills development. With the exponential boom in the services sector and the emergence of a full-fledged consumer-driven market, human resources have

become the key assets, which organizations cannot ignore. With soft skills training gaining so much momentum, it.s imperative to understand if it serving the right purpose or not. With this background, I plan to research if training indeed is proving to be effective in the behavioral area.

The following steps must form the basis of any training activity: Determine the training needs and objectives. Translate them into programs that meet the needs of the selected trainees. Evaluate the results.

There are few generalizations about training that can help the practitioner. Training should be seen as a long term investment in human resources using the equation given below: Performance = ability (x) motivation Training can have an impact on both these factors. It can heighten the skills and abilities of the employees and their motivation by increasing their sense of commitment and encouraging them to develop and use new skills. It is a powerful tool that can have a major impact on both employee productivity and morale, if properly used.

1. RECRUITMENT

1.1 INTRODUCTION

People are integral part of any organization today. No organization can run without its human resources. In todays highly complex and competitive situation, choice of right person at the right place has far reaching implications for an

organizations functioning. Employee well selected and well placed would not only contribute to the efficient running of the organization but offer significant potential for future replacement. This hiring is an important function. The process of hiring begins with human resource planning (HRP) which helps to determine the number and type of people on organization needs. Job analysis and job design enables to specify the task and duties of hobs and qualification expected from prospective job HRP, job analysis, hob design helps to identify the kind of people required in an organization and hence hiring. It should be noted that hiring is an ongoing process and not confined to formative stages of an organization. Employees leave the organization in search of greener pastures, some retire and some die in the saddle. More importantly an enterprises grows, diversifies, take over the other units all necessitating hiring of new men and women. In fact the hiring function stops only when the organization ceases to exist.

Hiring involves two board activities:i) Recruitment ii) Selection

RECRUITMENT The word recruitment has many meaning and plays an important role. Employees leave the organization in search of greener pastures- some retire some die in saddle. The most important thing is that enterprise grows, diversifies, and takes over other units-all necessitating hiring of new men and women. In fact recruitment functions stop only when the organization ceases to exist. To understand recruitment in simple terms it is understood as process of searching for obtaining applications of job from among from whom the right people can be selected. To define recruitment we can define it formally as it is a process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment. The process begins when new recruit are sought and ends when their application are submitted. The result is a pool of applicants from which new employees are selected. Theoretically, recruitment process is said to end with receipt of application in practice the activity extends to the screening applicants as to eliminate those who are not qualified for job.

1.2 PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE The general purpose of recruitment is to provide a pool of potentially qualified job candidates.

Specifically, the purposes are to:

1. Determine the present and future requirement of the organization in conjunction with its personnel planning and job analysis activities;

2. Increase the job pool of job candidates at minimum cost;

3. Help increase the success rate of the selection process by reducing the number visibly under qualified or job application;

4. Help reduce the probability that job applicants, once recruited selected, will leave the organization only after a short period of time;

5. Meet the organizations legal and social obligation regarding the composition of its workforce;

6. Being identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate candidates;

7. Increase organization individual effectiveness in the short term and long term;

8. Evaluate the effectiveness of various recruiting technique and sources for all types of job applicants.

1.3 FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT There are a number of factors that affect recruitment. These are broadly classified into two categories:

1. Internal factors 2. External factors

INTERNAL FACTORS The internal factors also called as endogenous factors are the factors within the organization that affect recruiting personnel in the organization.

Some of these are:-

Size of the organization The size of the organization affects the recruitment process. Larger organization finds recruitment less problematic than organization with smaller in size.

Recruiting policy The recruitment policy of the organization i.e. recruiting from internal sources and external sources also affect the recruitment process. Generally, recruitment through internal sources is preferred, because own employees know the organization and they can well fit in to the organization culture. Image of the organization Image of the organization is another factor having its influence on the recruitment process of the organization. Good image of the organization earned by the number of overt and covert action by management helps attract potential and complete candidates. Managerial actions like good public relations, rendering public service like building roads, public parks, hospitals and schools help earn image or goodwill for organization. That is why chip companies attract the larger numbers of application.

Image of the job

Better remuneration and working conditions are considered the characteristics of good image of a job. Besides, promotion and carrier development policies of organization also attract potential candidates.

EXTERNAL FACTORS Like internal factors, there are some factors external to organization, which have their influence on recruitment process. Some of these are given below:-

Demographic factors As demographics factors are intimately related to human beings, i.e. employees, these have profound influence on recruitment process. Demographic factors include age, sex, Literacy, economics status etc . Labor market Labor market condition I.e. supply and demand of labor is of particular importance in affecting recruitment process. E.g. if the demand for specific skill is high relative to its supply is

more than for particular skill, recruitment will be relatively easier.

Unemployment situation The rate of unemployment is yet another external factor its influence on the recruitment process. When the employment rate in an area is high, the recruitment process tends to simpler. The reason is not difficult to seek. The number of application is expectedly very high which makes easier to attract the bestqualified applications. The reserve is also true. With low rate of unemployment, recruiting process tend to become difficult . Labor laws There are several labor laws and regulations passed by the central and state governments that govern different type of employment. These cover working condition, compensation, retirement benefits, safety and health of employee in industrial undertakings.

The child Labour Act,1986; for example prohibits employment of children in certain employments. Similarly several other acts such as the Employment Exchange Act,1958; The Apprentice Act, 1961; the Factory Act,1948; and The Mines Act, 1952 deal with recruitment.

Legal consideration Another external factor is legal consideration with regard to employment reservation of jobs for schedule tribes, and other backward class (OBC) is the popular examples of such legal consideration. The supreme court of India has given its verdict in favor of 50 per cent of jobs and seats. This is so in case admission in the educational institutions also.

1.4 INTERNAL SOURCES Present employees: Promotions and transfer from among the present employees can be good sources of recruitment. Promotion implies upgrading of an employee to a higher position carrying higher status, pay and responsibilities. Promotion from among the present employees is advantageous because the employees promoted are well acquainted with the

organization culture, they get motivated and it is cheaper also. Promotion from among the person employees also reduces the requirement of job training. However, the disadvantage lies in limiting the choice of the few people and

denying hiring of outsiders who may be better qualified and skilled. Furthermore, promotion from among present employees also results in inbreeding, which creates frustration among those not promoted. Transfer refers to shifting an employee from one job to another without any change in the position/post, status and responsibilities. The need for transfer is felt to provide employees a broader and carried base, which is considered necessary for promotion. Job rotation involves transfer of employees from one job to another job on the lateral basis.

Former employees: Former employees are another source of applicant for vacancies to be filled up in the organization. Retired or retrenched employees may be interested to e come back the company to work on the part time basis. Similarly, some former employees who had left the organization for any reason, any come back to work. This source has the advantages of hiring people whose performance is already known to the organization.

Employee referrals: This is yet another internal source of recruitment. The existing employees refer to the family members, friends and

relatives to the company potential candidates for the vacancies to be filled up in the organization. This source serves as the most effective methods of recruiting people in the organizations because refer to those potential candidates who meet the company requirement known to them from their own experience. The referred individuals are expected to be similar in type in the of race and sex, for example, to those who are already working in the organization

Previous applicant: This is considered as internal source in the sense that applications from the potential candidates are already lying with organization. Sometimes the organization contacts though mail or messengers these applicants to fill up the vacancies particularly for unskilled or semiskilled jobs. EVALUATION OF INTERNAL SOURCES: Let us, evaluate the internal source of recruitment. Obviously, it can be done in terms of its advantage and disadvantage the same are spelled out as follows: ADVANTAGES: The advantages of the internal source of recruitment include the following:

Familiarity with own employees: The organization has more knowledge and familiarity with the strengths and weaknesses of its own employees than of

strange on unknown outsiders. Better use of the talent: The policy of internal recruitment also provides an opportunity to the organization to make a better use of talents internally available and to develop them further and further. Economical recruitment: In case of internal recruitment, the organization does not need to spend much money, time and effort to locate and attract the potential candidates. Thus, internal recruitment proves to be economical, or say, inexpensive. Improves morale: This method makes employees sure that they would be preferred over the outsiders as and when they filled up in the organization vacancies. A motivator: The promotion through internal recruitment serves as a source of motivation for the employees to improve their

carrier and income. The employees feel that organization feel that organization is a place where they can build up their lifelong career. Besides, internal recruitment also serves as a means of attracting and retaining employees in the organization.

DISADVANTAGES: The main drawback associated with the internal recruitment is as follows: Limited choice: Internal recruitment limits its choice to the talents available within the organization. Thus, it denies the tapping of talents available in the vast labor market outside the organization. Moreover, internal recruitment serves as a means for inbreeding, which is never healthy for the future organizations.

Discourage competition: In this system, the internal candidates are protected from competition by not giving opportunity to otherwise competent candidates from outside the organization. This in turn, develops a tendency among the employees to take the promotion without showing extra performance.

Stagnation of skills: With the feeling that internal candidates will surely get promoted, their skill in the long run may become stagnant or obsolete. If so, productivity and sufficiency of the organization, in turn, decreases.

Creates conflicts: Conflicts and controversies surface among the internal candidates, whether or not they deserve promotion.

1.5 EXTERNAL SOURCES External sources of recruitment lie outside the organization. These outnumber internal sources. The main ones are listed as follows:

Employment exchanges: The national commission labor (1969) observed in its report that in the pre-independence era, the main source of labor war rural areas surrounding the industries. Immediately after independence, national employment services were established to bring employer and job seeker together. In response to it, the compulsory notification of vacancies act of 1959 (Commonly called employment exchange act) was instituted which become operative in 1960.the main functions of these employment exchanges with the branches in most cities are registration of job seeker and tier placement in the notified vacancies. It is obligatory for employer to inform about the outcome of selection within 15 days to the

employment exchange. Employment exchange is particularly useful in recruiting blue-collar, white- collar and technical workers.

Employment agencies: In addition to the government agencies, there are number of private agencies that register candidates for employment and

furnish a list of suitable candidates from the data bank as and when sought by the prospective employer. Generally, these agencies select personnel for supervisory and the higher levels. The main function of these agencies is to invite application and short-list the suitable candidates for the organization. Of course, the

representative of the organization takes the final decision on selection. The employer organizations derive several advantages through this source. The time saved in this method can be better utilized elsewhere by the organization. As the organizational identity remains unknown to the job speakers, it, thus, avoid receiving letters and attempts to influence.

Advertisement: This method of recruitment can be used for jobs like clerical, technical, and managerial. The higher the position in the organization, the more specialized the skills or the shorter the supply of that resources in the labour market, the more widely

dispersed the advertisement are likely to be. For instance, the search for a top executive might include advertisements in a national daily like the Hindu. Some employers/companies advertise their post by giving them post box number of the name of some recruiting agency. This is done to particular keep own identity secret to avoid unnecessary correspondence with the applicants. However the disadvantage of these blind advertisement, i.e., post box number is that the potential job seekers are the hesitant without unknowing the image of the organization, on the one hand, and the bad image/ reputation that the blind advertisement have received because of the organizations that placed such advertisements without position lying vacant just to know supply of labor/ workers in the labor market, on the other. While preparing advertisement, a lot of care has to be taken to make it clear and to the point. It must ensure that some self-selection among applicant take place and only qualified applicant responds the advertisement copy should be prepared by using a four-point guide called AIDA . The letters in the acronym denote that advertisement should attract Attention, gain Interest, arouse a Desire and result in action.

However, not many organizations mention complete detail about job positions in there advertisement. What happened is that ambiguously worded and broad-based advertisements may generate a lot irrelevant application, which would, by

necessity, increasing the cost of processing them.

Professional Associations Very often, recruitment for certain professional and technical positions is made through professionals association also called Headhunters. Institute of Engineers, All India Management Association, etc., provide placement service to the members. The professional associations prepare either list of jobseekers or publish or sponsor journal or magazines containing

advertisements for their member. It is particularly useful for attracting highly skilled and professional personnel. However, in India, this is not a very common practice and those few provide such kind service have not been able to generating a large number of application.

Campus Recruitment This is another source of recruitment. Though campus recruitment is a common phenomenon particularly in the American

organizations, it has made rather recently. Of late, some organizations such as HLL, HCL, L&T, Citibank, Cadbury ANZ Grind lays, etc., in India have started visiting educational and training institute/ campuses for recruitment purposes. Many Institutes have regular placement cells / offices to serve liaison

between the employer and the students. Tezpur Central University has one Deputy Director (Training and Placement) for purpose of campus recruitment and placement.

The method of campus recruitment offers certain advantages to the employer organizations. First, the most of the candidates are available at one place; second, the interviews are arranged at short notice; third, the teaching is also met; fourth, it gives

them opportunity to sell the organization to a large students body who would be graduating subsequently. The disadvantages of this of recruitment are that organizations have to limit their selection to only entry positions and they interview the candidates who have similar education and experience, if at all.

Deputation

Another source of recruitment is deputation I.e., sending an employees to another organization for the short duration of two to three years. This method of recruitment is practice in a pretty manner, in the Government department and public sector

organization does not have to incurred the initial cast of induction and training. However, the disadvantages of this of

deputation is that deputation period of two/three year is not enough for the deputed employee to provide employee to prove his/her mettle, on the one hand, and develop commitment with organization to become part of it, on the other.

Word-of-mouth: Some organizations in India also practice the word-of-mouth method of recruitment. In this method , the word is passed around the vacancies or opening in the organization. Another from of word-of-mouth method of employee-pinching i.e., the employee working In another organization is offered by the rival organization. This method is economic, in terms of both time and money. Some of the organization maintain a file applications and sent a bio-data by a job seeker. These serve as a very handy as when there is vacancy in the organization. The advantage of this method is no cost involved in recruitment. However, the disadvantages of this method of

recruitment are non- availability of the candidates when needed choice of candidates is restricted to a too small number.

Raiding or Poaching:

This is another sources of recruitment whereby the rival firm by offering terms and conditions, try to attract qualified employees to join the. This raiding is a common feature in the Indian

organizations. For instance, service executive of HMT left to join Titan Watch Company, so also exodus of pilot from Indian Airlines to join the private air taxi operator. In fact, raiding has become challenge for the human resource manager.

Besides these, acquisitions

walk and

ins,

contractors, radio

and

television, sources of

merger, etc.,

art some other

recruitment used by organization.

EVALUATION OF EXTERNAL SOURCES: Like the internal source of recruitment, external sources are mixed of advantages and disadvantages ADVANTAGES:Open process Being a more open process, it is likely to attract a large number of applicants/application. The, in turn, widens it option of selection.

Availability of Talented Candidates:With the large pool of applicants, it becomes possible for organization to have talented candidates from the outside. Thus, it introduces new blood in the organization. Opportunity to Select the Best Candidate; With the large pool of applicants, selection process becomes competitive. This increases prospects for selection the best candidates.

Provides healthy competition: As the external members are supposed to be more trained and efficient. With such a background, they work with the positive

attitude and greater vigor. This helps create healthy competition and conductive work environment in the organization.

DISADVANTAGES: However, the external sources of recruitment suffer from certain disadvantages too, these are: Expensive and time consuming: This method of recruitment is both expensive and time consuming. There is no guarantee that organization will get good and suitable candidates.

Unfamiliarity with the Organization: As candidates some outside the organization, they are not familiar with tasks, job nature and the international scenario of the organization.

Discourage the Existing Employee: Existing employees are not sure to get promotion. This discourages them to do the hard work. This, in turn, boils down to decreasing productivity of the organization.

1.6 PHILOSOPHIES OF RECRUITMENT The traditional philosophy of recruiting has been to get as many people to apply for a job as possible. A large number of jobseekers waiting in queues would make the final selection difficult, often resulting in wrong selection. Job dissatisfaction and employee turnover are the consequence of this. A persuasive agreement can be made that matching the needs of the organization to the needs of the applicants will enhance the effectiveness of the recruitment process. The result will be a workforce which is likely to stay with the organization longer and performs at a higher level of effectiveness. Two approaches are available to bring about match. They are:

Realistic Job Preview (RJP) Job Compatibility Questionnaire (JCQ)

Realistic Job Previews: Realistic job preview provides complete job related

information , both positive and negative, to the applicants. The information provided will help job seekers to evaluate the compatibility among the jobs and their personal ends before hiring decisions are made. RJPs can result in self selection

process- job applicant

can

decide

where

to

attend

the

interviews and tests for final selection or withdraw them the initial stage. Research on realistic recruiting shows a lower rate of employee turnover incase of employee recruited through RJPs, particularly for more complex jobs and higher level of job satisfaction and performance, at the initial stage of employment. RJPs are more beneficial for organization hiring at entry level, when there are unemployment. Otherwise the approach may increase the cost of recruiting by increase the average time it takes to fill each job.

Job Compatibility QuestionnaireThe job compatibility questionnaire was developed to

determine whether applicant preferences for work match the characteristics of the job. The JCQ is designed to collect the information on aspect of a job, which has bearing on employee performance, absenteeism, and turnover and job satisfaction. The underlying assumption of the JQC is that greater the compatibility between an the jobseeker, the greater the profitability of employee effectiveness and longer the tenure. The JCQ is a 400- item instrument that measure job factors, which are related to performance, satisfaction,

turnover and absenteeism. Items cover the following job

factors:

task

requirement, peer

physical

environment, customer leader characteristics,

characteristics,

characteristics,

compensation preference, task variety, job autonomy, physical demands, and work schedule.

1.7 RECRUIMENT PROCESS

As stated earlier, recruitment is the process of location, identifying, and attracting capable applications for jobs available in an organization. Accordingly, the recruitment process comprises the following five steps: Recruitment planning; Strategy Development; Searching; Screening; Evaluation and Control.

Recruitment Planning: The first involved in the recruitment process is planning. Hire, planning involves to draft a comprehensive job specification for the vacant position, outline its major and minor responsibilities; the skills, experience and qualifications needed; grade and level of pay; starting date; whether temporary or permanent; and mention of special condition, if any, attached to the job to be filled.

Strategy Development:-

Once it is known how many with what qualification of candidates are required, the next step involved in this regard is to device a suitable strategy for recruitment the candidates in the organization. The strategic considerations to be

considered may include issues like whether to prepare the required candidates themselves or hire it from outside, what type of recruitment method to be used, what geographical area be considered, for searching the candidates, which source of recruitment to be practiced, and

what sequence of activities to be followed in recruiting candidates in the organization.

Searching:This step involves attracting job seeders to the organization. There are broadly two sources used to attract candidates. These are: Internal Sources External Sources.

Screening:Through some view screening as the starting point of selection, we have considered it as an integral part of

recruitment. The reason being the selection process starts only after the application have been screened and short listed. Let it be exemplified with an example. In the Universities, application is invited for filling the post of Professors. Application received in respond to invitation, i.e. advertisement are screened and short listed on the basis of eligibility and suitability. Then, only

the screened applicant are invited for seminar presentation and personal interview. The selection process starts from here, i.e., seminar presentation or interview. Job specification is invaluable n screening. Applications are screened against the qualification,

knowledge, skills, abilities, interest and experience mentioned in the job specification. Those who do not qualify are straightway eliminated from the selection process. The techniques used for screening candidates are vary depending on the source of supply and method used for recruiting. Preliminary applications, deselections tests and screening interviews are common techniques used for screening the candidates.

Evaluation and control:Given the considerable involved in the recruitment process, its evaluation and control is, therefore, imperative. The costs generally incurred in a recruitment process include:

Salary of recruiters; Cost of time spent for preparing job analysis,

advertisement, etc; Administrative expenses; Cost of outsourcing or overtime while vacancies remain unfilled; Cost incurred in recruiting unsuitable candidates.

In view of above, it is necessary for a prudent employed to try answering certain questions like: Whether the recruitment methods are appropriate and valid? Whether the recruitment process followed in the

organization is effective at all or not?

1.8 METHODS OF RECRUITMENT Recruitment methods refer to the means by which an organization reaches to the potential job seeker. It is important to mention that the recruitment methods are different from the resources of recruitment. The major line of distinction between the two is that while the former is the means of establishing links with the prospective candidates, the latter is location where the

prospective employees are available. Dunn and Stephen have broadly classified methods of recruitment into three categories. These are;

Direct Method; Indirect Method; Third Party Method. Brief descriptions of these are follows:

Direct Method: In this method, the representatives of the organizations are sent to the potential candidates in the educational and training institutes. They establish contacts with the candidates seeking jobs. Person pursuing management, engineering, medical, etc. programmers are mostly picked up the manner.

Sometimes, some employer firm establishes with professors and solicits records. information Sending about student with excellent academic seminars,

the recruiter

to the conventions,

setting up exhibits at fairs and using mobile office to go to the desired centers are some other methods used establish direct contact with the job seekers.

Indirect Method;

Indirect methods include advertisements in the newspaper, on the radio and television, in professional journals, technical magazines, etc. this method is useful when Organization dose not find suitable candidates to be promoted to fill up the higher posts, When the organization want to reach out a vast territory, and When organization wants to fill up scientific, professional and technical posts. The experience suggests that the higher the position to be filled up in the organization, or the skill sought by the sophisticated one, the more widely dispersed advertisement is likely to be used to reach too many suitable candidates. Sometimes, many

organizations go for what referred to as blind advertisement in which only Box is No. is given and the identity of the

organization

not

disclosed.

However,

organizations with

regional or national repute do not usually use blind advertisements for obvious reasons. While placing an advertisement to reach to the potential candidates, the following three points need to borne in mind: To visualize the type of the applicant one is trying recruit; To write out a list of the advantages the job will offer; To decide where to run the advertisement , i.e., newspaper with local, state, nation-wide and international reach or circulation.

Third Party Method: These include the use of private employment agencies,

management consultants, professional bodies pr associations, employee referral or recommendation, voluntary organization, trade banks, labor contractors, etc., to establish contact with the job seekers.

Now, a question arises; which particular method is to be used to recruit employee in the organization? The answer to it is that it will depend on the policy of the particular firm, the position of the labor supply, the government regulations in this regard and agreements with labor organizations. Notwithstanding, the best recruitment method is to look first within the organization.

EFFECTIVENESS OF RECRUIITMENT PROGRAMME Though there has so far not been evolved any formula such that makes recruitment programme necessitates having certain attributes such as: A well defined recruitment policy. A proper organizational structure. A well jobseekers. laid down procedure for locating potential

A suitable method and technique for tapping and utilizing these candidates

A continuous assessment of effectiveness of recruitment programme and incorporation of suitable modifications from time to improve

the effectiveness of the programme. An ethically sound fool-proof telling an applicant all about the job and its position, the firm to enable the candidate to

judiciously decide whether or not to apply and join the firm, if selected.

2. SELECTION 2.1 MEANING AND DEFINATION Selection is the process of picking individuals (out of the pool of job applicants) with requisite qualifications and competence to fill jobs in the organization. A formal definition of Selection is: It is the process of differentiating between applicants in order to identify (and here) those with a greater likelihood of success in a job. Recruitment and selection are the two crucial in the HR process and are often used interchangeably. There I, however, a fine distinction between the two steps. While recruitment refers to the process of identifying and encouraging prospective employees to apply for jobs, selection is concerned with picking the right candidates from the pool of applicants. Recruitment is said to be positive in its approach as it seeks to attract as many candidates as possible. Selection, on the other hand, is negative in its application in as it seeks to eliminate as many unqualified applicants as possible in order to identify the right candidates.

2.2 ROLE OF SELECTION The role of selection in an organizations effectiveness is crucial for at least, two reasons; first, work performance depends on individuals. The best way to improve performance is to hire people who have the competence and the willingness to work. Arguing from the employees viewpoint, poor or inappropriate choice can be demoralizing to the individual concerned (who finds himself or herself in the wrong job) and de-motivating to the rest of the workforce. Effective selection, therefore, assumes greater relevance. Second, cost incurred in recruiting and hiring personnel speaks about volumes of the selection. Costs of wrong selection are greater.

2.3 STEPS IN SELECTION PROCESS

Company profile Products Summary findings and suggestions Questionnaire and bibliography.