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Turhs wihd Iurbihe


Io Iace Ihe wihd
OcverHH@ getem
OIIseI mouhIihg oI Iurbihe oh iIs yaw
bearihg causes Iurbihe Io yaw
ouI oI Ihe wihd raIher Ihah overspeed
MrueHee
B lp MH@e
TrahsmiI elecIriciIy Ihrough Ihe
roIaIihg yaw bearihg
VW
MerH@
PermiIs Ihe
Iurbihe Io
roIaIe Io Iace
Ihe wihd
AIternator Stator:
ElecIrical currehI is ihduced
ih Ihe copper wihdihgs by Ihe
elecIromagheIic Iield Irom
Ihe roIaIihg magheIs
AIternator Rotor:
PermahehI magheIs roIaIe pasI
sIaIiohary wihdihgs ih Ihe sIaIor,
ihducihg elecIrical currehI
BIades:
Blade airIoil heeds Io have good
liII/drag raIio Io roIaIe aI speeds
IasIer Ihah Ihe wihd
Blade Padius, 6 II.
SwepI Area,
113 II.
2
Stub Tower:
AIIaches
Iurbihe
assembly
Io Iower Iop
PoIor DiameIer, 12 II.
Mctcr
AlterHtcr
Nose Cone:
Provides visual appeal
ahd some proIecIioh
Ior alIerhaIor
AIternator Bearings and
Front PIate not shown
Transmission
Wires
Shaft
Hcme pcWer 11G. UecerLer .OOC c jOrOOry .OO7
O
Ian Woofenden & Hugh Piggott
2006 ah WooIehdeh & Hugh PiggoII
Ior llousands of yoars, poopIo lavo boon larnossing llo onorgy of llo vind.
A fascinalion for vind onorgy las drivon boll of us lo buiId, buy, inslaII, and
mainlain our ovn maclinos for llo Iasl llroo docados. Clancos aro llal llo firsl
vind-onorgy usors voro drivon by llo samo maniacaI gIoo llal vo oxporionco
vlon vo grab onorgy oul of llin air.
Tlo dosign of lomo-scaIo vind-oIoclric gonoralors las boon llrougl many
pormulalions and varialions, vill Iols of circIos and doad onds. Bul mosl of
loday's modorn vind-oIoclric gonoralors aro surprisingIy simiIar. Tlis arlicIo
viII loIp you undorsland oacl parl of a lypicaI vind gonoralor, and lov il
funclions in llo ovoraII dosign.
n t n te:aac: naai
"PoIor" is |usI a Iahcy word Ior a wihd Iurbihe's blade assembly-Ihe parI IhaI
roIaIes. (There are acIually Iwo roIors-Ihe blade roIor, ahd Ihe magheI roIor
ih Ihe alIerhaIor or geheraIor, which is driveh by Ihe blade roIor.) The wihd
geheraIor's blades are Ihe ehergy collecIors. AIIer Ihe wihd iIselI, Ihe circular
area IhaI Ihe roIor sweeps is Ihe mosI imporIahI IacIor ih deIermihihg how much
power Ihe machihe cah geheraIe. The swepI area oI Ihe roIor depehds oh Ihe
square oI Ihe diameIer. Compared Io a 5-IooI-diameIer roIor, a 10-IooI ohe will be
Iwice as wide, ahd Iwice as high. Doublihg Ihe diameIer gives access Io Iour Iimes
as much wihd, ahd usually resulIs ih Iour Iimes as much power.
MosI moderh wihd Iurbihes have Ihree blades. Blades are usually made oI
plasIic, oIIeh ih a composiIe wiIh Iiberglass, or someIimes ouI oI wood. PoIors
wiIh more Ihah Ihree blades have more sIarI-up Iorque, buI acIually produce
less power aI high speeds. Two-bladed roIors cah work aI eveh higher speeds
Ihah Iheir Ihree-bladed couhIerparIs, buI cah be hoisy ahd also vibraIe wheh
Ihe wihd chahges.
Mechahical power is a combihaIioh oI speed ahd Iorque. Wihd-elecIric
geheraIors heed Io spih aI relaIively high rpm ahd aI low Iorque, uhlike waIer-
pumpihg wihd machihes, which heed low rpm ahd high Iorque.
For home-scale wihd geheraIors, Ihe blade roIor drives Ihe magheI roIor
direcIly. This desigh is Ihe simplesI ahd mosI eIIiciehI way Io collecI Ihe wihd's
ehergy. Addihg belIs, pulleys, gearihg, or ahy oIher ihdirecI Irahsmissioh will
ihcur losses, as well as require more maihIehahce.
A cross-section of an extruded carbon-fiber
bIade shows the airfoiI shape.
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Tl Mccm B VHe
Turhs wihd Iurbihe
Io Iace Ihe wihd
OcverHH@ getem
OIIseI mouhIihg oI Iurbihe oh iIs yaw
bearihg causes Iurbihe Io yaw
ouI oI Ihe wihd raIher Ihah overspeed
MrueHee
B lp MH@e
TrahsmiI elecIriciIy Ihrough Ihe
roIaIihg yaw bearihg
VW
MerH@
PermiIs Ihe
Iurbihe Io
roIaIe Io Iace
Ihe wihd
AIternator Stator:
ElecIrical currehI is ihduced
ih Ihe copper wihdihgs by Ihe
elecIromagheIic Iield Irom
Ihe roIaIihg magheIs
AIternator Rotor:
PermahehI magheIs roIaIe pasI
sIaIiohary wihdihgs ih Ihe sIaIor,
ihducihg elecIrical currehI
BIades:
Blade airIoil heeds Io have good
liII/drag raIio Io roIaIe aI speeds
IasIer Ihah Ihe wihd
Blade Padius, 6 II.
SwepI Area,
113 II.
2
Stub Tower:
AIIaches
Iurbihe
assembly
Io Iower Iop
PoIor DiameIer, 12 II.
Mctcr
AlterHtcr
Nose Cone:
Provides visual appeal
ahd some proIecIioh
Ior alIerhaIor
AIternator Bearings and
Front PIate not shown
Transmission
Wires
Shaft
WWW.HcmepcWer.ccr
OO
nttcnunt n
MosI moderh small-scale wihd Iurbihes employ permahehI magheI
alIerhaIors (PMAs). ElecIriciIy is geheraIed wheh a magheIic Iield
passes a wire. h a PMA, magheIs move relaIive Io coils oI wire
(wihdihgs). h ohe popular cohIiguraIioh (as
showh ih Ihe diagram above), Ihe magheI
roIor is a roIaIihg "cah" IhaI spihs ouIside Ihe
coils. The magheIs are oh Ihe ihside (Iacihg
Ihe coils) ahd Ihe blades aIIach direcIly Io Ihe
IrohI oI Ihe cah. These PMAs usually geheraIe
wild Ihree-phase AC, which is hoI usable by
appliahces direcIly. hsIead, Ihis ehergy is
recIiIied (cohverIed Io DC elecIriciIy). AIIer
IhaI, iI cah be used as DC or ihverIed Io AC
elecIriciIy Ior AC appliahces. TradiIiohally, Ihe
ehergy has beeh sIored ih baIIeries, buI ih
mahy moderh wihd-elecIric sysIems, iI is Ied
sIraighI ihIo Ihe household grid supply.
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The stator from a 10 KW Bergey ExceI showing
muItipIe windings. A bearing in the center supports
the rotor.
Rotor, stator, diode rectifier,
sIip rings, and bearings
exposed on a Bergey XL.1
1 KW generator.
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ennktuo rvrtcn
Brakihg, as disIihcI Irom goverhihg, is Ihe abiliIy Io sIop
Ihe Iurbihe wheh you choose Io. This cah be useIul wheh
Ihere is a problem wiIh Ihe machihe, wheh you heed Io
work oh iI, or wheh you simply doh'I heed Ihe ehergy.
Mahual brakihg is ideal, sihce iI allows you Io sIop Ihe
machihe ih all cohdiIiohs. Drum ahd disc brakes have
beeh used ih a Iew Iurbihe desighs, buI mosI Iurbihes
use dyhamic, or elecIrical, brakihg, where a big swiIch
opehs Ihe cohhecIioh Io Ihe grid or baIIeries, ahd shorIs
Ihe Ihree phases oI Ihe wihd Iurbihe IogeIher, makihg iI
very sIiII Io Iurh. Mahy wihd Iurbihes cahhoI be slowed by
a shorI circuiI ohce Ihey are already ruhhihg IasI ih high-
wihd cohdiIiohs. AhoIher meIhod oI cohIrol is mahual
Iurlihg-Ihe abiliIy Io mahually crahk Ihe Iail over Io Iurl
Ihe machihe ouI oI Ihe wihd.
Hcme pcWer 11G. UecerLer .OOC c jOrOOry .OO7
OA
WHU OrOtcry
unccttc
Some wihd Iurbihes use a plasIic cover (cowlihg) spaced
away Irom Ihe alIerhaIor, which proIecIs iI Irom raih
buI allows airIlow over Ihe alIerhaIor Ior coolihg. Mahy
Iurbihes have a separaIe hose cohe, which serves ah
aesIheIic purpose, as well as sIreamlihes Ihe Iurbihe.
cucnov tnnurntrrt u
Wirihg rouIed dowh Ihe Iower carries Ihe elecIriciIy
geheraIed by Ihe Iurbihe Io Ihe cohIrol room, usually as
wild (varyihg volIage) Ihree-phase AC. A Iew Iurbihes recIiIy
Ihe ouIpuI aI Ihe Iower Iop, ahd IrahsmiI iI as DC. Usihg
Ihick copper wire reduces Ihe risk oI Iire ahd limiIs power
losI as heaI. Where Ihe wire ruh is very lohg, high-volIage
AC Irahsmissioh Io a sIep-dowh IrahsIormer aI Ihe cohIrol
room cah be used Io save oh wire cosI ahd ehergy losses.
BaIIeryless grid-Iied ihverIers work wiIh higher volIages
Ihah mosI baIIery-
based sysIems, so
Ihey lose less ehergy
ih Irahsmissioh.
tntt e n vnuc
The Iail oI a wihd geheraIor oriehIs Ihe Iurbihe ihIo Ihe wihd.
Wheh Ihe wihd chahges direcIioh, iI pushes oh ohe side oI Ihe Iail,
swihgihg Ihe Iurbihe arouhd Io Iace ahd collecI wihd ehergy. h Iail-
Iurlihg desighs, Ihe Iail is also ihvolved ih proIecIihg Ihe Iurbihe Irom
high wihds (see Goverhihg SysIems), ahd Iail ahd boom lehgIh are
desighed careIully Ior weighI ahd area. Chahgihg Ihese parameIers
cah chahge Ihe way Ihe machihe operaIes-so doh'I do iI.
rnnrt ecnntuor
The shaII oI a wihd Iurbihe carries boIh roIors-Ihe
blades ahd Ihe roIaIihg parI oI Ihe alIerhaIor. The
shaII is suspehded ih bearihgs, which are usually
sealed permahehIly. They heed Io be desighed
Io wiIhsIahd all Ihe sIresses oI supporIihg Ihe
blade hub ahd ahy vibraIioh Irom Ihe alIerhaIor.
Bearihgs Iypically lasI Iive Io Ieh years.
rttr ntuor
enurncr
Wihd geheraIors yaw Io Iace Ihe wihd, buI Ihe
Irahsmissioh wirihg is Iixed Io Ihe grouhd. This
cah be a recipe Ior IwisIed wires, especially aI
IurbulehI siIes where Ihe yaw bearihg is very
Iree-movihg. MosI moderh Iurbihes use copper
alloy slip rihgs Io cohhecI Ihe Iurbihe wirihg Io Ihe
Iixed wirihg. The slip rihgs are usually mouhIed
ih Ihe parI oI Ihe Iurbihe IhaI is Iixed Io Ihe Iower
Iop. A seI oI graphiIe brushes is mouhIed oh
Ihe yawihg parI oI Ihe Iurbihe. The brushes ride
oh Ihe rihgs as Ihe Iurbihe yaws, ahd serve Io
cohhecI Ihe alIerhaIor Io Ihe Iixed wirihg.
vnw
ecnntuo
A wihd Iurbihe heeds Io be able
Io Iollow Ihe wihd, chahgihg
oriehIaIioh each Iime Ihe wihd
chahges direcIioh. The sealed
bearihg IhaI supporIs Ihe wihd
Iurbihe as iI swivels oh iIs Iower
is called Ihe yaw bearihg, ahd
Ihe swivelihg moIioh is called
yawihg.
SIip rings and brushes,
and yaw bearing assembIy
from an ARE wind turbine.
To Rectifiers
To Wind Turbine
Hot 1 Hot 2 Hot 3
Short
Circuit
TripIe-PoIe,
SingIe-Throw
Switch
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One feature of
Southwest Windpower's
controIIer is to rectify
the turbine's AC output
to DC for battery
charging.
WWW.HcmepcWer.ccr
WHU OrOtcry
OO
o vcnutuo rvrtcnr
To a hovice, high wihds seem like a bohus. BuI Io seasohed wihd-ehergy users ahd Iurbihe
desighers, ohce Ihe wihd Iurbihe is already goihg IlaI ouI, sIrohger wihds become a cause
Ior cohcerh. Doublihg Ihe wihd speed makes i}i as much power available, ahd also
ihcreases Ihe IhrusI Iorce oh Ihe Iurbihe ahd Iower by a IacIor oI Iour.
A Iurbihe should be able
Io shed excess Iorce, or iI
will overspeed, burh ouI, or
selI-desIrucI ih some way.
ProIecIioh Irom sIrohg
wihds, called goverhihg,
cah be accomplished eiIher by Iurlihg or by blade piIch-cohIrol.
The mosI commoh goverhihg sysIem is a Iurlihg Iail IhaI sIeers
Ihe roIor ouI oI Ihe wihd. Some machihes IwisI Ihe ahgle (piIch)
oI Iheir blades Ioward sIallihg, which decreases Iheir eIIiciehcy
ahd prevehIs overload. BoIh oI Ihese sysIems are passive, ih
Ihe sehse IhaI Ihey are driveh by Ihe Iorce oI Ihe wihd, or by Ihe
speed oI Ihe blade roIor. Very recehIly, elecIrical brakihg also
has beeh ihIroduced Io auIomaIically cohIrol a Iurbihe's speed.
FOttirg |t AII TcgetIer
In an offoclivo vind gonoralor dosign, aII of lloso sysloms and
compononls aro carofuIIy malclod lo oacl ollor. Ior oxampIo,
llo aIlornalor musl produco povor al llo bosl rolalionaI
spood (rpm) lo gol llo mosl povor from llo bIado rolor. Too
sIov and llo rolor viII slaII, loo fasl and llo maclino viII bo
noisy and inoffocluaI in Iov-spood vinds.
Of courso, a compIolo vind-oIoclric syslom is mucl
moro llan jusl llo lurbino. Ollor major compononls aro llo
lovor, roclifior, clargo conlroIIor and dump Ioad, ballory
bank (if noodod), invorlor, and moloring. SovoraI of lloso
compononls can bo moro oxponsivo llan llo lurbino, and
aII of llom nood lo bo considorod as you dosign a compIolo
syslom.
Tlo bollom Iino is lo buy a lurbino llal is robusl, simpIo,
Iov spood, and roIiabIo. TaIk vill oxporioncod vind-onorgy
usors lo find oul vlicl lurbinos sland llo losl of limo.
Hoavior vind lurbinos vill Iargor svopl aroas aro usuaIIy
moro oxponsivo, bul moro durabIo.
Iocus on llo onorgy llo lurbino makos, nol ils poak
povor. Tlo onorgy viII dopond on llo svopl aroa and llo
avorago vind spood al llo lovor lop. A smaII rolor on a slorl
lovor viII nol gonoralo mucl onorgy. Romombor llal Iov and
modium vind spoods aro llo mosl froquonl, and lloroforo
llo mosl imporlanl. Do il rigll and you can slaro our gIoo in
vind onorgy.
Access
Ian Woofondon, IO Box 1OO1, Anacorlos, WA 98221 -
ian.voofondonlomopovor.com
Hugl Iiggoll, Scoraig Wind LIoclric, DundonnoII, Ross
Sliro, ScolIand, IV23 2RL - 44-O18-54-633-286 -
Iax: 44-O18-54-633-233 - luglscoraigvind.co.uk -
vvv.scoraigvind.com
-AJOR 53 4URBINE -ANUFACTURERS)MPORTERS
Abundanl RonovabIo Lnorgy - 5O3-538-8298 -
vvv.abundanlro.com
Borgoy WindIovor Co. - 4O5-364-4212 - vvv.borgoy.com
DC Iovor Sysloms - 8OO-967-6917 -
vvv.dcpovor-sysloms.com
Iino Ridgo Iroducls IIC - 4O6-738-4283 -
vvv.pinoridgoproducls.com
Soullvosl Windpovor - 866-8O7-9463 -
vvv.vindonorgy.com
Wind Turbino Induslrios Corp. - 952-447-6O64 -
vvv.vindlurbino.nol
!DDITIONAL 2EADING
AppIos & Orangos: Cloosing a Homo-Sizod Wind
Gonoralor, by Mick SagriIIo in HP0
Wind Gonoralor Tovor Basics, by Ian Woofondon in
HP105
Wind-LIoclric Sysloms, SimpIifiod, by Ian Woofondon in
HP110
Win! Pcucr. Rcncuc||c |ncrg |cr Hcnc, Icrn, cn! 8usincss,
by IauI Gipo, 2OO4, Iaporback, 496 pagos, ISBN 1-931498-14-
1, $5O from CloIsoa Groon IubIisling Co. - 8OO-639-4O99 or
8O2-295-63OO - vvv.cloIsoagroon.com
As the wind approaches this turbine's rated speed
for maximum power, the rotor begins to swiveI
out of the wind to prevent overspeed.
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