You are on page 1of 17
ELSEVIER Earth and Planetary Science Letters 169 (1999) 189–205 Helium and lead isotope geochemistry of

ELSEVIER

Earth and Planetary Science Letters 169 (1999) 189–205

Earth and Planetary Science Letters 169 (1999) 189–205 Helium and lead isotope geochemistry of the Azores

Helium and lead isotope geochemistry of the Azores Archipelago

Manuel Moreira a,b,Ł , Re´gis Doucelance a , Mark D. Kurz b , Bernard Dupre´ a,c , Claude Jean Alle`gre a

a Laboratoire de Ge´ochimie et Cosmochimie, URA CNRS 1758, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Universite´ Denis Diderot Paris 7, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252, Paris Cedex 05, France b Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 360 Woods Hole Road, MS25, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA c Laboratoire de Geochimie, OMP, UMR-CNRS 5563, 38 rue des 36 ponts, 31400, Toulouse, France

Received 21 April 1998; revised version received 10 March 1999; accepted 11 March 1999

Abstract

New helium and lead isotopic data for basalts from the Azores archipelago (North Atlantic) show that the Azores have 4 He= 3 He ratios both higher and lower than MORB values. Good covariations of helium and lead isotopes are observed at the scale of the archipelago, and suggest the coexistence of two mantle components in the Azores which are identified by data from Sa˜o Miguel and Terceira. The eastern part of Sa˜o Miguel island displays radiogenic helium

( 4 He= 3 He > 140,000, R=R a < 5:1) and lead (20.00, 15.75 and 40.33 for 206 Pb= 204 Pb, 207 Pb= 204 Pb and 208 Pb= 204 Pb). The

207 Pb= 204 Pb and 208 Pb= 204 Pb ratios for

relatively unradiogenic=primitive 4 He= 3 He ratios, with a minimum value of 64,000 (R=R a D 11:3), and relatively high lead

the Terceira source

has a composition produced by a mixing between recycled oceanic crust (high 206 Pb= 204 Pb) and entrained lower mantle (high 3 He) material. The Sa˜o Miguel island isotopic signature may be due to sampling of local (km-size) heterogeneity located at relatively shallow depth. The preferred origin of this heterogeneity is the Jurassic delamination of subcontinental lithosphere, which occurred during rifting and opening of the North Atlantic. The primitive helium ratios were also observed on the Mid Atlantic ridge at 38.5ºN, reflecting plume–ridge interaction, whereas radiogenic ratios (>100,000) were observed at latitude higher than 40ºN and may reflect the influence of the Sa˜o Miguel component at the ridge. 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

isotopic ratios ( 206 Pb= 204 Pb D 20.02, 207 Pb= 204 Pb D 15.64 and 208 Pb= 204 Pb D 39.35). We propose that

Sa˜o Miguel are unusually radiogenic for oceanic basalts. Terceira basalts contain

Keywords: helium; lead; isotope ratios; Azores; magmas; mixing

1. Introduction

Helium isotopic ratios measured on Oceanic Is- land Basalts (OIB) display very large variations

Ł Corresponding author. Fax: C1 508 457 2193; E-mail:

mmoreira@whoi.edu

compared to Mid Oceanic Ridge Basalts (MORB). The relatively homogeneous MORB source reser- voir has a 4 He= 3 He mean value of 88,000 š 5000 (R=R a D 8) [1] whereas the 4 He= 3 He isotopic ratios observed in OIB range from 25,000 (R=R a D 30) for Loihi seamount samples [2] to values higher than 150,000 (R=R a D 4:8) for the Gough–Tristan da

0012-821X/99/$ – see front matter PII: S 0 0 1 2 - 8 2 1 X ( 9 9 ) 0 0 0 7 1 - 0

1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

190

M. Moreira et al. / Earth and Planetary Science Letters 169 (1999) 189–205

Cunha–St Helena island group [3–5]. A two-layered mantle best explains these results, where the upper mantle represents the MORB source, which is highly degassed and well mixed by convection [1], whereas the primordial signal observed in Loihi seamount basalts is attributed to the presence of a less de- gassed reservoir, which is probably located in the lower mantle [2,6]. The significance of the radiogenic helium signa- tures observed in the Gough–Tristan da Cunha–St Helena island group remains controversial. These signatures have been attributed to the injection, through subduction, of oceanic crust and sediments into the upper mantle, which will present high (U C Th)= 3 He ratios and be stored for some time at the 670 km boundary layer, prior to eruption [3,5,7]. An alternate view attributing the high 4 He= 3 He ratios to shallow, magma chamber contamination processes (unrelated to the mantle), originally discussed by Condomines et al. [8] and Zindler and Hart [9,10], was more recently defended by Hilton et al. [11]. Based on results from Heard island (Indian Ocean), where both primitive and radiogenic helium isotopic ratios have been measured, Hilton and co-work- ers propose that most the hotspots are in fact ‘low 4 He= 3 He’ hotspots, and the observed radiogenic he- lium signature may reflect shallow depth contamina- tion, either by interaction of the plume with oceanic crust or radiogenic 4 He production in a degassed magma chamber. Lead isotopes also display different histograms for MORB and OIB. Ocean island samples usually present more radiogenic signatures and, again, ex- hibit more variability, than lavas from spreading cen- ters [10,12,13]. Differences in lead isotopic composi- tions between oceanic islands are still debated. They could reflect plume source heterogeneities [14,15], material entrainment during plume ascent [16,17] or interaction between plumes and lithospheric mantle [18]. Due to the different decay constants, lead iso- topes are less sensitive to in situ production, and cannot be related to magma chamber outgassing. This study focusses on the Azores archipelago, which is considered to belong to the ‘high 4 He= 3 He’ hotspot category [19–21], and presents new he- lium and lead isotopic results for six islands from the Azores archipelago: Faial, Graciosa, Pico, Sa˜o Miguel, Santa Maria and Terceira. Good covaria-

tions between helium and lead isotopes are observed at the scale of the archipelago, and suggest the coexistence of two components in the Azores; the two end members are best identified by data from Sa˜o Miguel and Terceira islands. The Eastern part of Sa˜o Miguel island displays radiogenic helium ( 4 He= 3 He > 140,000) and lead (20.00, 15.75 and

40.33 for 206 Pb= 204 Pb, 207 Pb= 204 Pb and 208 Pb= 204 Pb)

signatures, whereas Terceira basalts present primi-

tive 4 He= 3 He ratios, with a minimum value around

similar 206 Pb= 204 Pb ratio

64,000 (R=R a D 11:3),

(20.02), but significantly lower 207 Pb= 204 Pb (15.64) and 208 Pb= 204 Pb (39.35). All other island results are interpreted in terms of binary mixing between the local MORB mantle source and these two plume components.

2. Geographical situation and sample locations

The Azores archipelago is composed of nine is- lands (Corvo, Faial, Flores, Graciosa, Pico, Santa Maria, Sa˜o Jorge, Sa˜o Miguel and Terceira), which represent the emerged part of a large oceanic plat- form (Fig. 1). Located at the triple junction be- tween the Eurasian, African and American plates, the plateau is crossed over by the Mid-Atlantic ridge; seven islands (Faial, Graciosa, Pico, Santa Maria, Sa˜o Jorge, Sa˜o Miguel and Terceira) stand at the East of the ridge, two (Corvo and Flores) are located to the west, on the American plate. The oldest rocks are observed on Santa Maria (8 Myr) and Sa˜o Miguel (4 Myr for the Eastern part) islands [22–25]. Other volcanics, including the central part of Sa˜o Miguel, were erupted during the Pleistocene and Holocene. Historic lavas have been found in most areas of the archipelago (in- cluding Sa˜o Miguel island), and the most recent volcanism occurred on Faial in 1957=58 (Capelinhos site). The lava compositions range from basalts to trachy-andesites and some peridotitic nodules have been observed on Pico, Faial and Terceira islands

[26,27].

Samples from the islands of Santa Maria, Sa˜o Miguel, Terceira, Pico, Graciosa and Faial, were analyzed. Sample locations are given on Fig. 2 and in Appendix A.

M. Moreira et al. / Earth and Planetary Science Letters 169 (1999) 189–205

191

AZORES o 42 N Terceira rift 2000m o 40 N C Fl ? G Triple
AZORES
o
42
N
Terceira rift
2000m
o
40
N
C
Fl
?
G
Triple
junction
F
T
o
P
38
N
SMi
SMa
east Azores fracture zone
32
o W
28
o W
M.A.R

Fig. 1. Location map of the Azores archipelago (modified after Turner et al. [34]). Triple junction has been proposed to be located at 38.5ºN [41,57], rather than in the straight continuity of the Terceira rift. Abbreviations for the island names: Santa Maria (SMa), Sa˜o Miguel (SMi), Terceira (T), Graciosa (G), Pico (P), Faial (F), Flores (Fl) and Corvo (C).

3. Analytical procedure

Helium analyses were performed on millimeter sized olivine and pyroxene phenocrysts separated from fresh lavas. Samples from the Eastern side of Sa˜o Miguel island were ankaramites with large olivine and pyroxene crystals, up to 2 cm in size; most of the other lavas were alkali-basalts. Measure- ments were preferentially done by crushing, in order to avoid possible in-situ radioactive decay or produc- tion of 3 He cosmogenic and to obtain the inherited helium trapped in inclusions [3,28]. The powder of the crushed olivines and pyroxenes from sample ACO95-68 (ankaramite from Sa˜o Miguel) were also melted in vacuo to release the gases located in the matrix, which allows an evaluation of the contribu- tion from radiogenic and cosmogenic helium. Most of the helium measurements were per- formed in Paris using a glass mass spectrometer and extraction line. Due to diffusion, prior mea- surements with two purifications using hot titanium getters and trapping on a cold head in our KO-

VAR glass ARESIBO II mass spectrometer yielded significant 4 He blanks for very low helium con- centration samples such as phenocrysts (olivines, pyroxenes) from oceanic basalts [29,30]. Thus, we developed a shorter crushing procedure which now yields a 4 He blank of 5 ð 10 10 š0.5 cm 3 STP, a significant improvement to previous blank values of 1:5 š 0:5 ð 10 8 cm 3 STP. A charcoal trap was installed close to the crusher which retains all ac- tive gases, except He and Ne, during 30 minutes of cryo-pumping at liquid nitrogen temperature. 3 He is analysed on an electron multiplier and 4 He, depend- ing of the absolute amount of gas, on a Faraday cup, or on the electron multiplier. Using only 30 minutes of purification in a very small volume, the helium in- troduced into the extraction line by diffusion is very small, leading to low blanks. This procedure makes possible the measurement on this mass spectrometer of very low level samples using 1 or 2 g of olivine or pyroxene. This new procedure was tested by repeated analy- sis of a oceanite sample from Re´union island (Indian

192

M. Moreira et al. / Earth and Planetary Science Letters 169 (1999) 189–205

Faial Island 5km ACO95-49 ACO95-47 FA12 ACO95-s FA3 FA10 Capelinhos FA7 ACO95-53 FA6 FA44 FA2
Faial Island
5km
ACO95-49
ACO95-47
FA12
ACO95-s
FA3
FA10
Capelinhos
FA7
ACO95-53
FA6
FA44
FA2
ACO95-52
FA1
ACO95-55
ACO95-20 Pico Island 1718-1720 5km Pico ACO95-26 -40 ACO95-33 ACO95-30
ACO95-20
Pico Island
1718-1720
5km
Pico
ACO95-26
-40
ACO95-33
ACO95-30
Santa Maria Island S6 S9 S14 5km São Miguel Island ACO95-66 ACO95-62 SM7 SM319 SM169
Santa Maria Island
S6
S9
S14
5km
São Miguel Island
ACO95-66
ACO95-62
SM7
SM319
SM169
nordeste
SM150
1563
SM139
ACO95-56
ACO95-3
ACO95-68
5km

ocean), whose olivines are known to have a very

isotopic ratio of 56,000 š

homogeneous 4 He= 3 He

1000 (R=R a D 12:9 š 0:2) [31,32]. Using different amounts of olivines (0.5, 0.8 and 1.3 g, respectively), we obtained reproducible 4 He= 3 He results of 55,296 š 3254, 55,918 š 4152 and 55,591 š 2740. Some helium analyses were also performed in the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution where the blank is typically 3 to 5 ð 10 11 cm 3 STP [33]; these data are italicized in Table 1. There is a good agreement between the data obtained in the two lab- oratories. Sample ACO95-3, which was collected at the 1563 lava flow from Queimado peak eruption, have given 4 He= 3 He ratios of 149,600 and 133,830 similar to the ratio of 133,800 of one sample from the same lava flow analyzed by M.D. Kurz (sam- ple #SM88-45, unpublished results) indicating good inter-laboratory agreement. Lead chemical separation was performed on ¾0.5 g of powdered samples using the procedure of Man- he`s et al. [34], in a clean room under controlled at- mosphere. This permits one to maintain the total Pb blank below 0.35 ng. Lead isotopic ratios were mea- sured on a Thomson THN 206 mass spectrometer and calibrated against SRM981 NBS [35] standard measurements, with a statistical mass discrimination factor of 1 š 0:3‰ per amu. The total precision, tested by duplicate analysis, is better than 0.05% (2¦ ) per mass unit difference in the isotopic ratio.

4. Results

Results are given in

obtained

concentrations

Tables 1

by

and 2.

Helium

from

crushing

range

Terceira Island 1761 ACO95-12 ACO95-9 ACO95-10 T28 ACO95-11 ACO95-16 T2 T9 ACO95-14 T7 5km
Terceira Island
1761
ACO95-12
ACO95-9
ACO95-10
T28
ACO95-11
ACO95-16
T2
T9
ACO95-14
T7
5km

Fig. 2. Faial, Pico, Santa Maria, Sa˜o Miguel and Terceira island sampling maps, modified after Forjaz et al. [67].

Footnote to Table 1: R=R a is the 3 He= 4 He ratio normalized to

the AIR value of 1:384 ð 10 6 . ¦ is the uncertainty. Uncertainty in the helium concentrations is approximately 5%. The last col- umn gives the percentage of 4 He blank contribution (which was 4 He ³ 5 ð 10 10 cm 3 STP in Paris and 3 to 5 ð 10 11 at WHOI). Data in italics were analyzed in the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution isotope facilities. Measurements were conducted on olivine (Ol.) and clinopyroxene (CPX). Re-crush means that samples were crushed a second time, sequentially, in an attempt to insure complete extraction, and also to resolve any contri- butions from radiogenic helium. The experiments conducted by melting of powder remaining after crushing are abbreviated mp.

 

M. Moreira et al. / Earth and Planetary Science Letters 169 (1999) 189–205

 

193

Table 1 Helium concentration (in 10 8 cm 3 STP=g) and isotopic ratios (corrected for blank) for Azores samples

 

Sample

Mineral

Weight

4 He

R=R a

4 He= 3 He

Blank

 

(g)

(ð10 8 )

(%)

Faial

ACO95-sand

Ol.

1.04

4.9

7.5 š 0.5 8.0 š 0.2 8.3 š 1.2 8.7 š 0.1 7.2 š 0.4 8.4 š 0.1 5.6 š 1.7 7.8 š 0.5 8.0 š 0.1

95960 š 6630 90890 š 1930 87160 š 12090 86320 š 1210 99940 š 5940 85970 š 700 129720 š 40520 92280 š 5780 89601 š 2378

1

Ol.

1.33

6.8

14

ACO95-47

Ol.

1.79

0.53

4

ACO95-49

Ol.

1.58

43

3

ACO95-52

Ol.

1.08

4.5

1

ACO95-53

Ol.

0.38

1.2

1

ACO95-55

Ol.

1.01

0.54

11

FA10

Ol.

1.13

2.0

3

FA12

Ol.

0.19

1.2

2

Pico

ACO95-20

Ol.

0.35

1.7

10.0 š 0.1 10.0 š 0.2 10.0 š 0.3 8.8 š 0.1 10.3 š 0.1 9.7 š .0.1 8.9 š 0.5 7.5 š 0.9

72545 š 415 72110 š 1730 72550 š 2480 81820 š 870 70150 š 890 74320 š 1070 80910 š 4620 95960 š 10830

2

ACO95-20

CPX

1.84

3.6

1

ACO95-26

Ol.

1.32

1.4

2

ACO95-30

Ol.

0.96

36

0.2

ACO95-30 b

Ol.

1.01

13

1

ACO95-30 b

CPX

1.08

7.6

1

ACO95-33

Ol.

1.17

3.2

1

ACO95-40

Ol.

0.97

1.0

3

Santa Maria

S6

Ol.

0.17

0.19

7.7 š 0.3

94376 š 3242

17

Sa˜o Miguel

ACO95-3

Ol.

1.19

1.4

4.8 š 0.6 5.4 š 0.5 4.5 š 1.2 6.1 š 1.9 3.0 š 1.1 5.9 š 2.0 4.1 š 0.1 3.8 š 0.4 4.4 š 0.1 2.6 š 0.1 4.0 š 0.3 4.4 š 0.7 4.06 š 0.03 4.3 š 0.8 1.6 š 0.1

149600 š 17650 133830 š 13490 162070 š 43520 118450 š 36900 240850 š 88310 121640 š 41160 174317 š 5047 189644 š 20408 163180 š 4310 276840 š 11670 180550 š 11910 163470 š 24600 178200 š 1360 170000 š 30520 461980 š 18610

2

Ol.

1.46

1.8

3

ACO95-56

Ol.

1.02

0.50

29

ACO95-62

Ol.

1.97

0.23

12

ACO95-62

CPX

1.07

0.60

9

ACO95-66

Ol.

1.42

0.33

16

ACO95-68

Ol.

0.33

0.20

7

 

Re-crush

0.06

25

 

mp

0.31

0.37

4

ACO95-68

CPX

1.61

3.3

1

CPX

2.82

3.4

1

ACO95-68 (melt)

CPX

3.02

3.3

ACO95-68

CPX

0.32

2.4

1

 

Re-crush

0.02

82

 

mp

0.18

0.48

6

Terceira

T2

Ol.

1.08

0.41

10.4 š 1.6 11.3 š 0.8 11.0 š 0.4 9.3 š 0.1 7.0 š 1.8 8.5 š 0.2 9.5 š 0.1 9.4 š 0.1 9.4 š 0.5 9.7 š 0.3 8.0 š 0.8 10.3 š 0.2

69530 š 10570 63780 š 4620 65510 š 2140 77550 š 430 103070 š 26910 85165 š 2350 75858 š 709 76965 š 680 77200 š 3710 74604 š 2326 90420 š 8520 70437 š 1415

11

Ol.

1.88

0.59

8

T7

Ol.

1.02

1.5

3

T9

Ol.

0.34

1.4

1

T28

Ol.

1.74

0.23

9

T28

Ol.

0.30

0.13

13

ACO95-9

Ol.

0.10

1.6

3

ACO95-10

Ol.

0.20

0.93

3

ACO95-11

Ol.

1.60

2.2

2

ACO95-12 š

Ol.

0.27

0.14

13

ACO95-14

Ol.

0.99

1.2

5

ACO95-16

Ol.

0.14

0.50

7

Graciosa

G1

Ol.

0.19

0.26

8.1 š 0.2

89600 š 2380

10

194

M. Moreira et al. / Earth and Planetary Science Letters 169 (1999) 189–205

Table 2 Lead isotopic compositions determined for some Azores samples

Sample

206 Pb= 204 Pb

207 Pb= 204 Pb

208 Pb= 204 Pb

Faial

FA1

19.332

15.555

38.796

19.318

15.541

38.746

FA2

19.607

15.574

38.943

FA3

19.137

15.601

38.814

19.130

15.605

38.816

FA6

19.471

15.619

39.123

FA7

19.607

15.642

39.314

FA10

19.707

15.635

39.296

FA12 a

19.20

15.60

38.89

FA44 a

19.60

15.59

39.10

Graciosa

G1

19.80

15.60

39.18

Pico

P1 a

19.96

15.61

39.37

Santa Maria

S6 a

19.14

15.56

39.07

S9 a

19.01

15.56

39.01

S14 a

19.28

15.58

39.30

Sa˜o Miguel

West

SM7 a

19.47

15.59

39.32

SM319 a

19.48

15.62

39.37

Nordeste

SM139 a

20.00

15.78

40.33

SM150 a

19.96

15.75

40.19

SM169 a

19.96

15.74

40.31

a Previously published by Dupre´ (PhD thesis).

1:7 ð 10 9 cm 3 STP=g for olivines from sample S6 (Santa Maria) to 4:3 ð 10 7 cm 3 STP=g for olivines analysed in a xenolith from Faial island (ACO95-49). Helium isotopic ratio vary between 63,780 (R=R a D 11:3) and 276,840 (R=R a D 2:6) in T2 (Terceira) and ACO95-68 (Sa˜o Miguel) samples respectively. Helium concentrations obtained for melting after crushing of sample ACO95-68 were 3:7 ð 10 9 cm 3 STP=g for the olivines, with a 4 He= 3 He ratio of

163,180 š 4310 (R=R a D 4:4 š 0:1) which is similar

to

the crushed ratio (4:1 š 0:1), and 4:8 ð 10 9

cm

3 STP=g for the pyroxenes with a helium ratio

of

461,980 š 18,610 (R=R a D 1:6 š 0:1). This

ratio is much more radiogenic than the crushed ratio (4:06 š 0:03). The agreement between 4 He= 3 He ratios obtained by crushing in this sample, despite

the presence of radiogenic 4 He in the clinopyroxene

strongly suggest, that the crushing data reflects the magmatic helium. This point is illustrated in Fig. 3c, where good agreement in 4 He= 3 He ratios is obtained for several different extractions and over a wide variation in 4 He concentrations. Three distinctive island groups have been dis- tinguished on the basis of helium isotopic results (Fig. 3):

(1) Sa˜o Miguel island, for which 4 samples have been analysed, has the most radiogenic 4 He= 3 He ra- tios. One sample (ACO95-3) was from a historical lava flow (Queimado peak eruption, 1563) whereas the 3 others are Pliocene ankaramites [23]. They

from

121,640 š 41,160 to 276,840 š 11,670, with a weighted mean value of 140,660 for the histori- cal sample ACO95-3 (crushed samples). These data agree with previous measurements from Sa˜o Miguel by Kurz (fig. 8.10 of [36]). (2) Faial, Graciosa and Santa Maria islands all ex- hibit a MORB-like helium signature, with 4 He= 3 He ratios ranging from 85,970 š 1210 to 94,380 š 3240 (Faial ACO95-55 sample displays an higher but uncertain value of 129,720 š 40,520). (3) Pico and Terceira islands have a more dis- persed helium signature and range from typical MORB ratios to relatively primitive values, such as 63,780 š 4620 for Terceira T2 basalt and 70,150 š 890 for Pico ACO95-30 sample. Lead isotopic results (Table 2) for the Azores islands are all relatively radiogenic in composition compared to local MORB. However, the respective positions of the five islands in Pb–Pb space suggests a similar grouping of Azores islands (Fig. 4), with good helium and lead covariations at the scale of the archipelago:

all display very radiogenic 4 He= 3 He ratios,

(1) Eastern Sa˜o Miguel samples have relatively high 206 Pb= 204 Pb ratios, around 20, and very ra- diogenic 207 Pb= 204 Pb and 208 Pb= 204 Pb values, up to 15.78 and 40.33 respectively, which are clearly different from those measured on other islands. (2) Faial and Santa Maria basalts represent the least radiogenic compositions of the archipelago, with a mean value of 19.50 for 206 Pb= 204 Pb, 15.60 for 207 Pb= 204 Pb and 39.00 for 208 Pb= 204 Pb. (3) Pico and Terceira samples exhibit lead isotope ratios ranging from Faial–Santa Maria values (19.50,

R/Ra R/RaR/Ra

M. Moreira et al. / Earth and Planetary Science Letters 169 (1999) 189–205

10 -9 10 -8 10 -7 Kurz (unpublish) Pico Sao Miguel 150000 Terceira 100000 MORB
10 -9
10 -8
10 -7
Kurz (unpublish)
Pico
Sao Miguel
150000
Terceira
100000
MORB
4 He/ 3 He
Faial Santa Maria Graciosa 150000 100000 MORB 4 He/ 3 He
Faial
Santa Maria
Graciosa
150000
100000
MORB
4 He/ 3 He
radiogenic mp ACO95-68 Olivine CPX 400000 crush c rc re-crush mp melt powder 300000 rc
radiogenic
mp
ACO95-68
Olivine
CPX
400000
crush
c
rc
re-crush
mp
melt powder
300000
rc
200000
c
inherited helium
rc
c
mp
10 -9
10 -8
10 -7
4 He/ 3 He

4 He (ccSTP/g)

4.8

7.2

14.5

4.8

7.2

14.5

1.8

2.4

3.6

195

Fig. 3. 4 He= 3 He ratios vs. 4 He concentrations (in cm 3 STP=g)

mean value of ¾90,000 [1,68]. Top figure represents the Pico, Terceira and Sa˜o Miguel islands. Some Sa˜o Miguel data from Kurz (unpublished) were added. Middle figure shows Faial, Santa Maria and Graciosa basalts. One can see the isotopic ratios are exactly the same as the mean MORB ratio. Bottom figure represents two experiments on the ankaramite ACO95-68 from the Nordeste area on Sa˜o Miguel. Step crushing and powder melting extractions were performed on olivines and clinopyroxene to constrain the post eruption radioactive production of 4 He. The results show that the 4 He= 3 He ratios are always the same during crushing (olivine and CPX), but different for CPX melting due to the higher U content of CPX. This implies the 4 He= 3 He ratios obtained by crushing are representative of the magmatic values, and have not been altered by post-eruptive radiogenic helium (see text).

for Azores samples. Grey lines correspond to the MORB 4 He= 3 He

15.60 and 39.00) to radiogenic compositions simi- lar to Sa˜o Miguel basalts for 206 Pb= 204 Pb (20.02), lower for 207 Pb= 204 Pb (15.64) and 208 Pb= 204 Pb (39.35) [37,38]. Moreover, similarly to helium,

Pico–Terceira and Faial–Santa Maria associated fields are not totally distinctive. These three groups were also proposed by Turner et al. [38] based on trace element-isotope systematics

196

M. Moreira et al. / Earth and Planetary Science Letters 169 (1999) 189–205

17.5 18.5 19.5 20.5 21.5 a M SM 15.8 Tu 15.7 T 15.6 BE Graciosa
17.5 18.5
19.5
20.5
21.5
a
M
SM
15.8
Tu
15.7
T
15.6
BE
Graciosa
Faial
15.5
Pico
MORB
Santa Maria
36-40˚N
Sao Miguel
Previous studies
NHRL
Terceira
207 Pb/ 204 Pb
SM b M 40.5 Tu 40.0 39.5 T BE 39.0 38.5 MORB 38.0 36-40˚N Faial
SM
b
M
40.5
Tu
40.0
39.5
T
BE
39.0
38.5
MORB
38.0
36-40˚N
Faial
Pico
Santa Maria
37.5
Sao Miguel
Previous studies
NHRL
Terceira
17.5 18.5
19.5
20.5
21.5
208 Pb/ 204 Pb

206

Pb/ 204 Pb

17.5 18.5 19.5 20.5 21.5 c M SM Tu T ENA BE MORB o 36-40
17.5 18.5
19.5
20.5
21.5
c
M
SM
Tu
T
ENA
BE
MORB
o
36-40 N
NHRL
SM
d
M
Tu
T
BE
ENA
MORB
o
36-40 N
17.5 18.5
19.5
20.5
21.5

206

Pb/ 204 Pb

15.8

15.7

15.6

15.5

40.5

40.0

39.5

39.0

38.5

38.0

37.5

Fig. 4. Lead isotopic diagrams, showing end-member positions of Sa˜o Miguel and Terceira [37] islands. (a) 206 Pb= 204 Pb vs. 207 Pb= 204 Pb.

(b) 206 Pb= 204 Pb vs. 208 Pb= 204 Pb. Also

(NHRL, as defined in [69]), Bulk Earth average value (BE) [58], and representative fields for local MORB [70–73], Tubuaii and Mangaia islands [74–76]. SM and T points are postulated to be representative of the Azores plume compositions. (c) 206 Pb= 204 Pb vs. 207 Pb= 204 Pb.

reported are previous Sa˜o Miguel [38,48] results, the Northern Hemisphere Reference Line

(d) 206 Pb= 204 Pb vs. 208 Pb= 204 Pb. ENA fields (East North America tholeiitic samples [59]) can be interpreted as reflecting binary mixing

between a end-member with low lead isotopic ratios and Sa˜o Miguel end-member SM.

where for example, the Th=Nb is higher for Sa˜o Miguel island [38]. Fig. 5 shows the 4 He= 3 He ratio against the 206 Pb= 204 Pb ratios for the different Azores archipelago islands. The three groups can be easily distinguished on this figure.

5. Discussion

5.1. The Eastern Sa˜o Miguel radiogenic helium signature

Since Sa˜o Miguel island is one of the oldest is- lands in the archipelago (up to 4 Myr [23,25]), high

M. Moreira et al. / Earth and Planetary Science Letters 169 (1999) 189–205

R/Ra

197

14.5 7.2 4.8 3.6 Graciosa Recycled oceanic Faial crust Santa Maria Terceira 21 Sao Miguel
14.5
7.2
4.8
3.6
Graciosa
Recycled oceanic
Faial
crust
Santa Maria
Terceira
21
Sao Miguel (Kurz)
St Helena
20
Terceira
Sao Miguel
Faial - St Maria-Graciosa
19
MORB 35˚-40˚N
Reunion
Gough
Heard 1
Heard 2
18
Loihi
n-MORBs
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
206
Pb/ 204 Pb

4 He/ 3 He

Fig. 5. 4 He= 3 He ratios versus 206 Pb= 204 Pb ratios for Azores Archipelago basalts and some other islands. Some Sa˜o Miguel data from Kurz (unpublished) were added. Other data are from the literature.

4 He= 3 He ratios measured in some samples could be explained by post-eruptive decay of Th and U, particularly for samples with low helium and high U and Th contents. Sample crushing procedures are performed to liberate the inherited gases contained in fluid and melt inclusions, but 4 He production could occur in the matrix with subsequent diffusion into the inclusions, or partial release by crushing. However, both the low concentration Pliocene ankaramites (2.3 to 6:0 ð 10 9 cm 3 STP=g for ACO95-62, 66 and 68) and historical lava ACO95-3 (434 yr), whose olivines contain around 1:6 ð 10 8 cm 3 STP=g 4 He, display

radiogenic helium isotope ratios, which strongly sug- gests that the unique radiogenic signature of Sa˜o Miguel cannot totally result from such a decay process. Only old samples could have been mod- ified, starting from a minimum ACO95-3 olivines like radiogenic value (140,000, we will consider, in the following, as the Nordeste Sa˜o Miguel he- lium signature) to reach ratios as high as 276,840 (ACO95-68 CPX) as illustrated by the melting ex- periment (Fig. 3). The melt of the ACO95-68-CPX powder has given a 4 He= 3 He ratio of 461,980 š 18,610, much

198

M. Moreira et al. / Earth and Planetary Science Letters 169 (1999) 189–205

more radiogenic than the crushed value of 178,200. This can easily be explained by post-eruptive 4 He production since this sample has an age between 2 and 4 Ma [23]. Using a U concentration of 0.012 ppm and a Th=U ratio of 2.9 for CPX [39] we can obtain a U=He age of 1.2 Ma for sample ACO95-68. This age is in good agreement with the K=Ar age [23] considering the uncertainty on the U content and the Th=U ratio. However, for olivines, crushing and melting have given the same helium isotopic ratios (Fig. 3), indicating that 4 He production from U and Th decay is negligible for olivines. This shows that the radiogenic helium isotopic ratios observed in the samples from the Nordeste area do not represent post-eruptive decay of Th and U. Zindler and Hart [9,10] and Hilton et al. [11] have proposed that high 4 He= 3 He ratios measured in some OIB could reflect shallow depth contamination at high levels in the crust. The presence of ankaramite samples with low pressure pyroxenes (high total Al and low Al VI ) on Sa˜o Miguel island is consistent with the existence of shallow magma chambers be- neath the Azores archipelago [23]. Plume source contamination is modeled by a two-component mix- ing and the expression of the mass ratio between plume (M i ) and contaminant (oceanic crust) material (M c ) is then given by:

8

He SM 4 He

M

c

>

>

>

<

>

>

>

4 He

3

He i

3

M

i

:

He c 4 He

4 He

3

3

He SM

9

>

>

>

=

>

>

>

;

ð

ð 3 He Ł i

ð 3 He Ł c

where . 4 He= 3 He/ SM , . 4 He= 3 He/ i and . 4 He= 3 He/ c refers to the Sa˜o Miguel island, Sa˜o Miguel plume

and

and [ 3 He] c to the plume and contaminant concentra- tions (cm 3 STP=g). We used results obtained by Staudacher and Al- le`gre [40] on 22 My old oceanic crust (which corre- sponds to the approximate age of the nearby Azores crust [41]) as a contaminant material ([ 3 He] c D 5ð10 14 cm 3 STP=g and . 4 He= 3 He/ c D 2ð10 7 ), the value of 140,000 for Sa˜o Miguel island composition, and Terceira-like 4 He= 3 He ratio (60,000) for Sa˜o Miguel ‘plume’. The 3 He concentration in the plume material is thought to be intermediate between lower (2:5ð10 9 cm 3 STP=g) [42] and upper mantle (1:1ð

contaminant representative helium values, [ 3 He] i

10 10 cm 3 STP=g) [43,44] values because the helium

ratio we took is very different from the lower mantle ratio of 20,000. Let us take 5 ð 10 10 cm 3 STP=g for the 3 He content for the Terceira plume. The M c =M i result (4000%) suggests that important magma chamber outgassing, at least 99.9%, is required to be consistent with a plume contamination scenario. In the previous calculations, we do not consider the possibility of radiogenic decay in a degassed magma chamber. Using 3 He concentration estimated

above (5 ð 10 10 cm 3 STP=g) in the

following 4 He

radioactive production equation (t in Ma, U in ppm and He in cm 3 STP=g):

He ½ t D 4 He

4 He

3

3

He ½ 0

C

2:8 ð 10 8 ² 4:35 C Th

U ¦

[U]

[ 3 He] ð t

we can determine the time interval t necessary to increase the initial helium ratio ( 4 He= 3 He) 0 from 60,000 (Terceira less primitive value) to the present- day value . 4 He= 3 He/ t of 140,000. Assuming a Th=U ratio of 2.75 [38] and a U concentration of 0.040 ppm (we postulate Terceira plume uranium to be intermediate between lower mantle material [6] and recycled altered oceanic crust [15] based on lead iso- tope systematics, cf. Section 5.2), we need to invoke

very large outgassing (at least 99.999%) to obtain

magma chamber interval time consistent with classi-

cal estimates of magma residence time (between 10

and 10,000 yr [45,46]). Similar calculations can be done with lead iso- topes. However, using a Terceira-like isotopic com- position ( 207 Pb= 204 Pb D 15.64) for the Sa˜o Miguel plume and the most radiogenic value ( 207 Pb= 204 Pb D 15.64) measured in old oceanic crust (14–37 My)

near the Azores archipelago [47] as a contaminant does not allow to obtain 207 Pb= 204 Pb ratios that are as high as those determined on Sa˜o Miguel sam- ples ( 207 Pb= 204 Pb D 15.78). Contamination by recent Atlantic sediments is also unlikely, given the high 208 Pb= 204 Pb ratios [48]. There is no evidence for such an extensive out- gassing in the Sa˜o Miguel olivine samples, which show similar He content to olivines from other is- lands, in particular from Terceira. Kurz et al. [20]

have observed a variation of the 4 He= 3 He ratio

with

M. Moreira et al. / Earth and Planetary Science Letters 169 (1999) 189–205

199

the longitude on Sa˜o Miguel island (with a decrease

westward), similar to the 87 Sr= 86 Sr and 206 Pb= 204 Pb variations [20,48,49]. Because these variations and correlations are difficult to explain by shallow depth contamination, we propose a deeper origin for the high 4 He= 3 He ratios measured in Sa˜o Miguel basalts.

A source effect also appears to be consistent with the

helium–lead covariations observed at the scale of the

archipelago. Kurz et al. [3], Vance et al. [4], Graham

et al. [5], Hanan and Graham [16] and Hanyu and

Kaneoka [7] have postulated that the radiogenic helium measured in Gough, Tristan, St Helena and some Pacific islands can be explained by recycling into the mantle of oceanic crust or sediments, and reinjection of this material in plume sources. Sub- ducted plates should have high (U C Th)= 3 He ratios because helium is outgassed to the atmosphere dur-

ing ridge magmatism and during subduction. After storage for some time in the mantle, this will give high 4 He= 3 He ratios by U and Th α-decay. Lead and strontium isotope signatures are consistent with such

[38,49], especially the high 207 Pb= 204 Pb ra-

a scenario

tios which imply old U=Pb fractionation. Recycling of subducted altered oceanic crust and sediments allows to increase the U=Pb ratio [15,50], and then give very radiogenic 207 Pb= 204 Pb ratios with time.

5.2. The Terceira helium signature

Kurz et al. [19] first proposed the presence

4 He= 3 He” plume beneath the Azores

archipelago, based on helium isotopes measurements

in MORB glasses near the Azores platform. How-

ever, it turns out that the Azores hotspot is also

‘low 4 He= 3 He’, since primitive val-

ues ( 4 He= 3 He ³ 65,000) have been measured in this study in some Terceira and Pico samples. Produc-

tion of cosmogenic helium [28] in Terceira or Pico samples remains very unlikely, as all the analysed basalts are relatively young (some are historical, see Table 1 and Appendix A) and were sampled at low altitude, generally in freshly exposed sur- faces. Moreover, we have analyzed these samples by crushing which primarily releases the inherited helium trapped in inclusions; only a small fraction of the cosmogenic helium is released by crushing and should be negligible for these samples. There- fore, the primitive helium has to originate within

characterized by

of a “high

the source of the plume. It may come from the

lower mantle, source of primitive helium for most of oceanic islands (Hawaii, Iceland, Galapagos or Re´u-

The [ 3 He] LM =[ 3 He] UM concentration

ratio between the lower and upper mantle should be roughly 10 [6,51] so even a small amount of entrained lower mantle could transfer a primitive helium isotopic signal. A helium signature similar to Terceira was found on nearby Atlantic MORB glasses (Fig. 6, [52]) thereby confirming the plume– ridge interaction already observed for REE, Sr, Nd and Th=U systematics [53–56]. The somewhat dif- ferent helium observations by Kurz et al. [19], could simply be due to the different sampling scale of this study. For example, most of the MORB samples from 39ºN are very degassed, and may have been dredged off the ridge axis since the ridge is not well defined in this area. In fact, the helium signature recorded by MORB glasses displays very localized primitive values (around 38.5ºN; Moreira and Alle`- gre [52]) which seems to correspond to the location of the triple junction [41,57] (Fig. 6). Most primitive helium ratios measured on Ter- ceira samples could be explained by mixing be- tween primitive mantle having high 3 He ( 4 He= 3 He D 20,000) and two other discrete mantle sources:

nion islands).

MORB mantle ( 4 He= 3 He D 90,000) and a low 3 He plume best represented by data from Sa˜o Miguel ( 4 He= 3 He D 140,000). Helium alone cannot resolve between the two hypotheses. However, lead isotopic ratios (Fig. 4a,b) show that the Terceira signature cannot result from binary mixing between the Sa˜o Miguel plume and lower mantle material. The pre- sent-day composition of the lower mantle certainly corresponds to a binary mixing between Bulk Earth material and about 17% of depleted mantle [58], and then is few different from Bulk Earth composi- tion. The Terceira signature probably reflects mixing of ‘high ¼’ material, lower mantle material and entrained depleted asthenospheric material, whereas

the observed trend for Terceira island may represent shallow interaction between this specific material and the local MORB mantle source.

5.3. Terceira–Sa˜o Miguel: same hotspot?

Since we excluded a shallow contamination origin for explaining the He data in Sa˜o Miguel island, the

200

M. Moreira et al. / Earth and Planetary Science Letters 169 (1999) 189–205

120,000 100 000 N MORB 80,000 60,000 36 38 40 42 44 46 o LATITUDE
120,000
100 000
N MORB
80,000
60,000
36
38
40
42
44
46
o
LATITUDE ( N)
4
He/ 3 He

Fig. 6. 4 He= 3 He ratios measured in MORB as a function of the latitude along mid Atlantic ridge between 35 and 40ºN, modified after Kurz et al. [19] (crosses) and Moreira and Alle`gre [52] (diamonds). Note that the minimum of the 4 He= 3 He ratio is close to 38.5ºN, which is the supposed triple junction between African, American and European plates [41,57].

Azores archipelago helium signature, with coexis- tence of both radiogenic and primitive ratios, seems to be paradoxical. Identification of recycled terrige- nous sediments in the source of Sa˜o Miguel basalts does not give information about the depth of this specific material and there are two models for the generation of the Azores islands. The first one proposes the Azores plume deep source may be isotopically heterogeneous, contain- ing a mixture of recycled subducted terrigenous sediments, altered oceanic crust and lower mantle material. A low degree of melting has permitted to exhibit the sedimentary signature (radiogenic) of the source (the fertile part of the mixture, i.e. sed- iments melt preferentially) in Sa˜o Miguel basalts (Nordeste), whereas other islands result from higher extent of melting and reflect mixing of recycled oceanic crust, lower mantle and upper mantle mate- rials. The origin of this heterogeneous source may result of the entrainment by a plume coming from the lower mantle of material stored at the 670 km discontinuity or higher or reflects the heterogeneity of the source itself. The second model proposes the Azores plume deep source is isotopically homogeneous, with a Ter- ceira like signature (mixing of lower mantle mate- rial and ‘himu’ material). Sa˜o Miguel island basalts sample a very localized upper mantle heterogene-

ity, melted by the rising of the Terceira plume or blob. This heterogeneity could correspond to sub- ducted oceanic crust and sediments stored under the north america continent during the pre-Grenville subduction [59], recycled into the upper mantle by delamination occurring during the opening of the North Atlantic ocean (Fig. 4c,d and Fig. 7). Again, intermediate helium and lead compositions reflect in- teraction with the local MORB mantle source (Faial, Graciosa, Pico ::: ). Such a model can be validated by the fact that East North American basalts (ENA), that correspond to the nearest subcontinental mate- rial from the Azores, show linear trend in Pb–Pb

diagrams (Fig. 4b) which could reflect mixing be- tween a source with low 206 Pb= 204 Pb 207 Pb= 204 Pb

and 208 Pb= 204 Pb ratios, which could be

subconti-

nental mantle [60,61], and a component with Sa˜o Miguel-like signature which could be a mixing of sediments and recycled oceanic crust. We propose this component was stored below the North Amer- ica before injection in the North Atlantic mantle by delamination during the opening of the North Atlantic. This model is similar to the proposal of Widom et al. [48], involving shallow interaction of the plume source with delaminated subcontinental lithosphere enriched by metasomatism. Radiogenic helium ratios measured in some continental xeno- liths or continental basalts that sample the subcon-

M. Moreira et al. / Earth and Planetary Science Letters 169 (1999) 189–205

>1Ga

1Ga

200 Ma

200 -10 Ma

10 Ma

169 (1999) 189–205 >1Ga 1Ga 200 Ma 200 -10 Ma 10 Ma a Pre-Grenville subduction b

a

Pre-Grenville subduction

1Ga 200 Ma 200 -10 Ma 10 Ma a Pre-Grenville subduction b Grenville continent - continent

b Grenville continent - continent collision

subduction b Grenville continent - continent collision c Rifting ENA / High Atlas delamination d Sea

c

Rifting

ENA / High Atlas / High Atlas

continent - continent collision c Rifting ENA / High Atlas delamination d Sea floor spreading ENA
continent - continent collision c Rifting ENA / High Atlas delamination d Sea floor spreading ENA
delamination
delamination

d

Sea floor spreading ENA High Atlas MAR America Africa
Sea floor spreading
ENA
High Atlas
MAR
America
Africa

e

America Africa T SMi MAR "Terceira" plume or blob
America
Africa
T SMi
MAR
"Terceira"
plume or blob

201

Fig. 7. Schematic evolution of the North Atlantic to explain the Azores isotopic data (model 2). (a) Pre-Grenville subduction [59] brings some oceanic crust and sediments into the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. (b) End of the subduction with the Grenville collision. (c) and (d) Opening of the Atlantic ocean is accompanied by some delamination, which provides regional enrichment of the Azores mantle. (e) Sa˜o Miguel volcanism samples some localized km-size heterogeneity corresponding to old recycled material.

202

M. Moreira et al. / Earth and Planetary Science Letters 169 (1999) 189–205

tinental lithosphere can account for such a model

[62,63].

In both model 1 and model 2, we postulate a re- gional enrichment of the asthenosphere beneath the Azores. The observed radiogenic helium signature is not restricted to Sa˜o Miguel island. Kurz et al. [19] have measured 4 He= 3 He ratios higher than 100,000 in North Atlantic MORB glasses (for latitudes com- prised between 40ºN and 50ºN; Fig. 6), which are consistent with contamination of the local MORB mantle source by delaminated subcontinental litho- sphere (occurring during the opening of the Atlantic ocean). Such a hypothesis has been already proposed to explain specific Pb and Sr radiogenic signatures of the Oceanographer transform zone basalts [64] at 35ºN, and could also be proposed to explain simi- lar isotopic anomalies identified on the Mid Atlantic Ridge at 14ºN [43,65], 43ºN and 46ºN [56]. Recent discovery of very old zircons in the Mid Atlantic Ridge are also consistent with such a model [66].

6. Conclusions

The Azores archipelago corresponds to the sec- ond hotspot where three distinctive helium isotopic signatures have been observed: MORB values found at Santa Maria, Graciosa and Faial islands, primitive values for some Terceira and Pico basalts, and radio- genic values in Eastern Sa˜o Miguel. The only other oceanic island where 4 He= 3 He ratios both higher and lower than MORB are found is Heard Island [11]. The helium data are correlated with lead isotopic compositions observed on the same islands and are interpreted in terms of source variations. The exis- tence of such a multiple isotopic signature can be explained by two scenarios. The first model pro- poses that the heterogeneous Azores plume source has evolved from Sa˜o Miguel to Terceira composi- tion, by various degrees of melting of heterogeneous mantle. The second hypothesis is that the Azores plume is homogeneous with a Terceira like com- position. The origin of the Sa˜o Miguel signature would then correspond to sampling of very local km-size heterogeneities, resulting from the delami- nation of enriched subcontinental lithosphere, which occurred during the Jurassic opening of the North Atlantic.

Acknowledgements

M.M. would like to thank Pascale Louvat very much for his help during the mission in Azores and patience during rock sampling, and the team of the Earth Sciences department from Universidade dos Ac¸ores, in particular Pr. Victor Forjaz and J.C. Nunes for discussions and help during the Azores trip. B. Bourdon, J. Kunz and Th. Staudacher are thanked for discussion and improvement of the manuscript. D. Graham, I. Kaneoka and R. Poreda helped to im- prove the quality of the manuscript by their review comments. Josh Curtis is thanked for his help during analyses in the Woods Hole Oceanographic Insti- tution. This is IPGP contribution 1574 and WHOI contribution 9893. [CL]

Appendix A. Sample locations

Sample locations are also given on Fig. 2. Some location are in [37].

Faial ACO95-sand Olivine rich sand from the Capelinho place. Re- sults from projection of submarine eruption during the 1957 eruption.

ACO95-47

Collected on the chimney in the rim that separates

ACO95-49

the historical eruption of the Capelinho (1957=58) from the Complexe do Capelo (<800 yr). Xenolith taken on the beach of the Baia da Ribeira

ACO95-52

das Cabras. Unknown age. Sand with olivines and augites taken in the beach

ACO95-53

of Varadouro. Collected on the road leading to the caldera near

ACO95-55

the CabeodosTrinta Pic. Porto de Feiteira.

Pico

ACO95-20

Olivine and pyroxene rich basalts from the

ACO95-26

1718-20 flow (Fase de Sta Luzia), collected near the airport. Basalt collected on the road between Sa˜o Roque do Pico and Lajes. Bottom of the Pic de Felipe

(complexe da Madalena). ACO95-30 Xenolith collected in the Misterio de Silveira (phase de Sta Luzia, 1718-20).

ACO95-33

Collected near Caelano (Ponta da Faca) (complexe

ACO95-40

da Madalena). Same location as 26.

Sa˜o Miguel

ACO95-3

1563 Queimado Pic lava flow.

ACO95-56

Collected on the road between Ribeira Grande and Ponta Delgada near the Dr Ferreira Pic.

M. Moreira et al. / Earth and Planetary Science Letters 169 (1999) 189–205

203

Nordeste

ACO95-62

Ankaramite collected near the Guihermo ou dos

ACO95-66

Moinhos river. South of Lomba da Fazenda. Ankaramite collected near the Mulher river. South

ACO95-68

of Santana. Ankaramite collected near Faial da Terra.

Terceira

ACO95-9

1761 lava flow at the bottom of the Pico do Fogo.

ACO95-10

Collected near the road between Biscoitos and

ACO95-11

Angra Do Heroismo (near the Pico do Fogo). Collected in the Guiherme Moniz Caldeira (north).

ACO95-12

Collected near Faieis in a river (Rib. das Pedras).

ACO95-14

Collected near the road between Sa˜o Sebastiao and

ACO95-16

Feteira (near Boavista). Collected near the road near Rossio de Sant Ana.

References

[1] C.J. Alle`gre, M. Moreira, T. Staudacher, 4 He= 3 He disper- sion and mantle convection, Geophys. Res. Lett. 22 (17) (1995) 2325–2328. [2] M.D. Kurz, W.J. Jenkins, S.R. Hart, D. Clague, Helium isotopic variations in volcanic rocks from Loihi Seamount

and the island of Hawaii, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 66 (1983)

388–406.

[3] M.D. Kurz, W.J. Jenkins, S.R. Hart, Helium isotopic sys- tematics of oceanic islands and mantle heterogeneity, Na- ture 297 (1982) 43–47. [4] D. Vance, J.O.H. Stone, R.K. O’Nions, He, Sr and Nd isotopes in xenoliths from Hawaii and other oceanic islands, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 96 (1989) 147–160. [5] D.W. Graham, S.E. Humphris, W.J. Jenkins, M.D. Kurz, Helium isotope geochemistry of some volcanic rocks from Saint Helena, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 110 (1993) 121–131. [6] C.J. Alle`gre, T. Staudacher, P. Sarda, Rare gas systematics:

formation of the atmosphere, evolution and structure of the earth’s mantle, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 81 (1986) 127–150. [7] T. Hanyu, I. Kaneoka, The uniform and low 3 He= 4 He ratios of HIMU basalts as evidence for their origin as recycled materials, Nature 390 (1997) 273–276. [8] M. Condomines, K. Gro¨nvold, P.J. Hooker, K. Muehlen- bachs, R.K. O’Nions, N. Oskarsson, E.R. Oxburgh, Helium, oxygen, strontium and neodymium isotopic relationships in Icelandic volcanic, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 66 (1983) 125–

136.

[9] A. Zindler, S. Hart, Helium: problematic primordial signals, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 79 (1986) 1–8. [10] A. Zindler, S.R. Hart, Chemical geodynamics, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 14 (1986) 493–571. [11] D.R. Hilton, J. Barling, G.E. Wheller, Effect of shallow- level contamination on the helium isotope systematics of ocean-island lavas, Nature 373 (1995) 330–333. [12] C.J. Alle`gre, Isotope geodynamics, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 86 (1987) 175–203.

[13] C.J. Alle`gre, E. Lewin, Isotopic systems and stirring times of the Earth’s mantle, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 136 (1995)

629–646.

[14] B.L. Weaver, The origin of ocean island basalt end-member compositions: trace element and isotopic constraints, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 104 (1991) 381–397. [15] C. Chauvel, A.W. Hofmann, P. Vidal, HIMU-EM: the French Polynesian connection, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 110 (1992) 99–119. [16] B.B. Hanan, D.W. Graham, Lead and Helium evidence from oceanic basalts for a common deep source of mantle plumes, Science 272 (1996) 991–995. [17] S.R. Hart, E.H. Hauri, L.A. Oschmann, J.A. Whitehead, Mantle plumes and entrainment: isotopic evidence, Science 256 (1992) 517–520. [18] C. Class, S.L. Goldstein, Plume–lithosphere interactions in the ocean basins: constraints from the source mineralogy, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 150 (1997) 245–260. [19] M.D. Kurz, W.J. Jenkins, J.-G. Schilling, S.R. Hart, Helium isotopic variation in the mantle beneath the central North Atlantic Ocean, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 58 (1982) 1–14. [20] M.D. Kurz, A. Gulessarian, R.B. Moore, Isotopic variations within oceanic islands: He, Sr and Pb isotopes in basalts from Sa˜o Miguel, Azores, Eos 71 (1990) 657. [21] R.H. Kingsley, J.G. Schilling, Carbon in Mid-Atlantic Ridge basalt glasses from 28º to 63ºN: evidence for a carbon-eriched Azores mantle plume, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 142 (1996) 175–189. [22] A.A. Abdel-Monem, L.A. Fernandez, G.M. Boone, K–Ar ages from the eastern Azores group (Santa Maria, Sa˜o Miguel and the Formigas Islands), Lithos 8 (1975) 247–

254.

[23] L.A. Fernandez, Geology and petrology of the Nordeste volcanic complex, Sa˜o Miguel, Azores: summary, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 91 (1980) 675–680. [24] G. Feraud, I. Kaneoka, C.J. Alle`gre, K=Ar ages and stress pattern in the Azores: geodynamic implications, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 46 (1980) 275–286. [25] R. Moore, Volcanic geology and eruption frequency, Sa˜o Miguel, Azores, Bull. Volcanol. 52 (1990) 602–614. [26] R.C. Mitchell-Thome´, Geology of the Middle Atlantic Is- lands, Gebruder Borntraeger, Berlin, Stuttgart, 1976, 382 pp. [27] Z. Franc¸a, M.H. Almeida, N. Wallenstein, Ocorrencia de xenolotos mantelicos numa lava da ilha do Pico (Ac¸ores), GAIA- Revista de Geociencias, Univ. Lisboa, 1995. [28] M.D. Kurz, Cosmogenic helium in a terrestrial igneous rock, Nature 320 (1986) 435–439. [29] T. Staudacher, C.J. Alle`gre, Terrestrial xenology, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 60 (1982) 389–406. [30] M. Moreira, T. Staudacher, P. Sarda, J.-G. Schilling, C.J. Alle`gre, A primitive plume neon component in MORB:

The Shona ridge-anomaly, South Atlantic (51–52ºS), Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 133 (1995) 367–377. [31] T. Staudacher, P. Sarda, C.J. Alle`gre, Noble gas systematics of Re´union Island, Indian Ocean, Chem. Geol. 89 (1990)

1–17.

204

M. Moreira et al. / Earth and Planetary Science Letters 169 (1999) 189–205

[32] D. Graham, J.G. Lupton, F. Albare`de, M. Condomines, Ex- treme temporale homogeneity of Helium isotopes at Piton de la Fournaise, Re´union Island, Nature 347 (1990) 545–

548.

[33] M.D. Kurz, T.C. Kenn, J.C. Lassiter, D.J. DePaolo, Helium

isotopic evolution of Mauna Kea volcano: first results from the 1 km drill core, J. Geophys. Res. 101 (1996) 11781–

11791.

[34] G. Manhe`s, J.-F. Minster, C.J. Alle`gre, Comparative U–Th– Pb and Rb–Sr study of the St Severin amphoterites: conse- quence for early solar system chronology, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 39 (1978) 14–24. [35] E.J. Cantanzaro, T.J. Murphy, W.R. Shields, E.L. Garner, Absolute isotopic abundance ratios of common, equal-atom, and radiogenic lead isotopic standards, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 72A (1968) 261–267. [36] M.D. Kurz, Noble gas isotopes in oceanic basalts: contro- versial constraints on mantle models, Miner. Assoc. Can. Short Course 19 (1991) 259–286. [37] B. Dupre´, B. Lambret, C.J. Alle`gre, Isotopic variations within a single oceanic island: the Terceira case, Nature 299 (1982) 620–622. [38] S. Turner, C. Hawkesworth, N. Rogers, P. King, U–Th isotope disequilibria and ocean island basalt generation in the Azores, Chem. Geol. 139 (1997) 145–164. [39] E.H. Hauri, T.P. Wagner, T.L. Grove, S.F. Foley, S.R. van

der Laan, Experimental and natural partitioning of Th, U, Pb and other trace elements between garnet, clinopyroxene and basaltic melts, Chem. Geol. 117 (1234) (1994) 149–

166.

[40] T. Staudacher, C.J. Alle`gre, Recycling of oceanic crust and

sediments: the noble gas subduction barrier, Earth Planet.

Sci. Lett. 89 (1988) 173–183. [41] R. Searle, Tectonic pattern of the Azores spreading centre and triple junction, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 51 (1980) 415–

434.

[42] C.J. Alle`gre, T. Staudacher, P. Sarda, Rare gas systematics, formation of the atmosphere, evolution and structure of the Earth’s mantle, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 81 (1986) 127–150. [43] T. Staudacher, P. Sarda, S.H. Richardson, C.J. Alle`gre, I. Sagna, L.V. Dmitriev, Noble gases in basalt glasses from a Mid-Atlantic ridge topographic high at 14ºN: geodynamic consequences, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 96 (1989) 119–133. [44] M. Moreira, J. Kunz, C.J. Alle`gre, Rare gas systematics on popping rock: estimates of isotopic and elemental com- positions in the upper mantle, Science 279 (1998) 1178–

1181.

[45] M. Condomines, C. Hemond, C.J. Alle`gre, U–Th–Ra radioactive disequilibria and magmatic processes, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 90 (1988) 243–262. [46] D.M. Pyle, The volume and residence time of magma beneath active volcanoes determined by decay-series dise-

quilibria methods, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 112 (1992) 61–

73.

[47] B. Dupre´, C. Go¨pel, H. Bougault, Lead isotopic variations in old ocean crust near the Azores, Init. Reports DSDP 82 (1985) 497–500.

[48] E. Widom, R.W. Carlson, J.B. Gill, H.U. Schmincke, Th– Sr–Nd–Pb isotope and trace element evidence for the origin of the Sa˜o Miguel, Azores, enriched mantle source, Chem. Geol. 140 (1997) 49–68. [49] C.J. Hawkesworth, M.J. Norry, J.C. Roddick, R. Vollmer, 143Nd=144Nd and 87Sr=86Sr ratios from the Azores and their significance in LIL-element enriched mantle, Nature 280 (1979) 28–31. [50] A.W. Hofmann, W.M. White, Mantle plumes from ancient oceanic crust, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 57 (1982) 21–436. [51] C.J. Alle`gre, T. Staudacher, P. Sarda, M.D. Kurz, Con- straints on evolution of Earth’s mantle from rare gas sys- tematics, Nature 303 (1983) 762–766. [52] M. Moreira, C.J. Alle`gre, Rare gases in Mid Atlantic Ridge basalts near the Azores: injection of atmospheric rare gases in the mantle?, in prep. [53] J.G. Schilling, Azores mantle blob: rare earth evidence, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 25 (1975) 103–115. [54] W.M. White, J.G. Schilling, S.R. Hart, Evidence for the Azores mantle plume from strontium isotopes geochemistry of the Central North Atlantic, Nature 263 (1976) 659–663. [55] B. Bourdon, C. Langmuir, A. Zindler, Ridge–hotspot in- teraction along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between 37º30 0 and 40º30 0 N: the U–Th disequilibrium evidence, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 142 (1996) 175–189. [56] D. Yu, D. Fontignie, J.-G. Schilling, Mantle plume–ridge interaction in the Central North Atlantic: A Nd isotope study of Mid-Atlantic Ridge basalts from 30º to 50ºN, 146 (1997) 256–272. [57] J. Freire Luis, J.M. Miranda, A. Galdeano, P. Patriat, J.C. Rossignol, L.A. Mendes Victor, The Azores triple junction evolution since 10 Ma from an aeromagnetic survey of the Mid Atlantic Ridge, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 125 (1994)

439–459.

[58] C.J. Alle`gre, E. Lewin, Chemical structure and history of the Earth: evidence from global non-linear inversion of isotopic data in a three box model, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 96 (1989) 61–88. [59] W. Pegram, Development of continental lithospheric mantle as reflected in the chemistry of the Mesozoic Appalachian Tholeites, USA, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 97 (1990) 316–331. [60] C.J. Hawkesworth, P.D. Kempton, N.W. Rogers, R.M. El- lam, P.W. Van Calsteren, Continental mantle lithosphere, and shallow level enrichment processes in the Earth’s man- tle, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 96 (1990) 256–268. [61] J. Mahoney, A.P. LeRoex, Z. Peng, R.L. Fisher, J.H. Nat- land, Southwestern Limits of Indian Ocean Ridge Mantle and the Origin of Low 206Pb=204Pb Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt: Isotope Systematics of the Central Southwest Indian Ridge (17º–50ºE), J. Geophys. Res. 97 (13) (1992) 19771–

19790.

[62] T. Dunai, H. Baur, Helium, neon and argon systematics of the European subcontinental mantle: implications for its geochemical evolution, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 59 (1992) 2767–2784. [63] M.R. Reid, D.W. Graham, Resolving lithospheric and sub- lithospheric contributions to helium isotope variations in

M. Moreira et al. / Earth and Planetary Science Letters 169 (1999) 189–205

205

basalts from the Southwestern US, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.

144 (12) (1996) 213–222.

[64] S.B. Shirey, J.F. Bender, C.H. Langmuir, Three-component isotopic heterogeneity near the Oceanographer transform, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Nature 325 (1987) 217–223.

[65] L. Dosso, H. Bougault, J.-L. Joron, Geochemical morphol- ogy of the North Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 10º–24ºN: Trace element-isotope complementarity, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.

120 (1993) 443–462.

[66] J. Pilot, C.-D. Werner, F. Haubrich, N. Baumann, Paleo- zoic and Proterozoic zircons from the Mid Atlantic Ridge, Nature 393 (1998) 676–679. [67] V. Forjaz, A. Serralheiro, J.C. Nunes, Carta Vulcanologica dos Ac¸ores, Grupo Central, Universidade Dos Ac¸ores, 1st ed., Ponta Delgada, 1990. [68] T. Staudacher, M. Moreira, C.J. Alle`gre, Heterogeneity and scatter of helium isotopic ratios in MORB, Mineral. Mag. 58A (1994) 874. [69] S.R. Hart, A large-scale isotope anomaly in the Southern Hemisphere mantle, Nature 309 (1984) 753–757. [70] B. Dupre´, C.J. Alle`gre, Pb–Sr–Nd isotopic correlation and

the chemistry of the north atlantic mantle, Nature 286 (1980) 17–22. [71] B. Dupre´, B. Lambret, D. Rousseau, C.J. Alle`gre, Limita- tions on the scale of mantle heterogeneities under oceanic ridges, Nature 294 (5841) (1981) 552–554. [72] B. Hamelin, B. Dupre´, C.J. Alle`gre, Lead–strontium iso- topic variations along the East Pacific rise and the Mid- Atlantic Ridge: a comparative study, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 67 (1984) 340–350. [73] E. Ito, W. White, C. Go¨pel, The O, Sr, Nd and Pb isotope geochemistry of MORB, Chem. Geol. 62 (1987) 157–176. [74] P. Vidal, C. Chauvel, R. Brousse, Large mantle heterogene- ity beneath French Polynesia, Nature 307 (1984) 536–538. [75] E.H. Hauri, S.R. Hart, Re–Os isotope systematics of HIMU and EMII oceanic island basalts from the south Pacific Ocean, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 114 (1993) 353–371. [76] J.D. Woodhead, Extreme HIMU in an oceanic setting: the geochemistry of Mangaia Island (Polynesia), and tempo- ral evolution of the Cook-Austral hotspot, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 72 (1996) 1–19.