OUTFLOW PERFORMANCE

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The outflow or tubing performance curve or vertical conduit performance shows the relationship between the total tubing pressure drop and a surface pressure value, with the total liquid flow rate. The tubing pressure drop is essentially the sum of the surface pressure, the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid column (composed of the liquid holdup or liquid accumulated in the tubing and the weight of the gas), and the frictional pressure loss resulting from the flow of the liquid out of the well. For very high flow rates there can be an additional "acceleration term" to add to the pressure drop but the acceleration term is usually negligible compared to the friction and hydrostatic components. The frictional and hydrostatic components are shown by the dotted lines in following Figure for a gas well producing liquids.

Notice that the TPC passes through a minimum. To the right of the minimum, the total tubing pressure loss increases due to increased friction losses at the higher flow rates. The flow to the right of the minimum is usually in the mist flow regime that effectively transports small droplets of liquids to the surface. At the far left of the TPC the flow rate is low and the total pressure loss is dominated by the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid column brought about by the liquid bold up, or that percent of the fluid column occupied by liquid. The flow regime exhibited in the l eft most portion of the curve is typically bubble flow, characteristically a flow regime that allows liquids to accumulate in the wellbore. Slightly to the left of the minimum in the TPC, the flow is often in the slug flow regime. In this regime liquid is transported to th e surface periodically in the form or

date reservoir performance data. however. to predict gas well liquid loading problems. It is common practice to use the TPC alone.e.large slugs. With reservoir performance data.to. in the absence of up. . The intersection of the two performance curves is called operating point. Conversely. Fall-back and relifting the liquids results in a higher producing bottomhole pressure. Therefore you can just select the flow rate you are measuring currently and see if it is in a favorably predicted portion of the TPC or not.i. this method is inexact but is useful to predict liquid loading problems in the absence of better reservoir performance data. Understandably. It is generally believed that flow rates to the left of the minimum in the curve are unstable and prone to liquid loading problems. it tells us the operating flow rate and pressure. Fluid transport remains inefficient in this unstable regime as portions of the slugs "fall-back" as they rise and must be lifted again by the next slug. flow rates to the right of the minimum of the tubing performance curve are considered to be stable and significantly high enough to effectively transport produced liquids to the surface facilities. intersections of the tubing outflow curve and the reservoir inflow curve allow a prediction of where the well is flowing now and into the future if reservoir future IPR curves can be generated. regardless of having the reservoir inflow curve.

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