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MOBILE OPERATING SYSTEM

1.INTRODUCTION:
A mobile operating system, also known as a mobile OS, mobile software platform or a handheld operating system, is the operating system that controls a mobile device or information appliancesimilar in principle to an operating system such as Windows, Mac OS X, or Linux distributions that controls a desktop computer or laptop. However, they are currently somewhat simpler, and deal more with the wireless versions of broadband and local connectivity, mobile multimedia formats, and different input methods. Like a computer operating system, a mobile operating system is the software platform on top of which other programs run. When you purchase a mobile device, the manufacturer will have chosen the operating system for that specific device. The operating system is responsible for determining the functions and features available on your device, such as thumbwheel, keyboards, WAP, synchronization with applications, e-mail, text messaging and more. The mobile operating system will also determine which third-party applications can be used on your device.

1.1POPULAR MOBILE OS:

1] Symbian OS

2] Android OS

3] iPhone OS (iOS )

4] BlackBerry OS

5] Windows Phone 7 ( Windows Mobile )

2.

2.1INTRODUCTION:
Symbian is a mobile operating system (OS) and computing platform designed for smartphones and currently maintained by Nokia. The Symbian platform is the successor to Symbian OS and Nokia Series 60; unlike Symbian OS, which needed an additional user interface system, Symbian includes a user interface component based on S60 5th Edition. The latest version, Symbian^3, was officially released in Q4 2010, first used in the Nokia N8. In May 2011 an update, Symbian Anna, was officially announced, followed by Symbian Belle in August 2011. Symbian OS was originally developed by Symbian Ltd. It is a descendant of Psion's EPOC and runs exclusively on ARM processors, although an unreleased x86 port existed. Some estimates indicate that the cumulative number of mobile devices shipped with the Symbian OS up to the end of Q2 2010 is 385 million. By April 5, 2011, Nokia released Symbian under a new license and converted to a proprietary shared-source model as opposed to an open source project. On February 11, 2011, Nokia announced that it would migrate away from Symbian to Windows Phone 7. In June 22, 2011 Nokia has made an agreement with Accenture as an outsourcing program.

2.2Network Connectivity
Which evolution in the various versions? Symbian OS 6.0 and 6.1 (also called ER6 ): Bluetooth was added for exchanging data over short distances from fixed and mobile devices. (2002) Symbian OS 7.0 and 7.0s: This version added EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution) support and IPV6. (2003) Symbian OS 8.0: There are not great evolution has shared some APIs to support 3G.

Symbian OS 9.1: Change of version 1.2 for the Bluetooth has version 2.0 where the difference is the introduction of an Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) for faster data transfer. Symbian OS 9.3: The WIFI 802.11 and the HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access) appear on Symbian OS. Symbian Os 9.5: This last version includes native-support for mobile digital television broadcasts in DVB-H and ISDB-T formats and also location services.

2.3 FEAUTURES User interface Symbian has had a native graphics toolkit since its inception, known as AVKON (formerly known as Series 60). S60 was designed to be manipulated by a keyboard-like interface metaphor, such as the ~15-key augmented telephone keypad, or the mini-QWERTY keyboards. AVKON-based software is binarycompatible with Symbian versions up to and including Symbian^3. Symbian^3 includes the Qt framework, which is now the recommended user interface toolkit for new applications. Qt can also be installed on older Symbian devices. Symbian^4 was planned to introduce a new GUI library framework specifically designed for a touch-based interface, known as "UI Extensions for Mobile" or UIEMO (internal project name "Orbit"), which was built on top of Qt; a preview was released in January 2010, however in October 2010 Nokia announced that Orbit/UIEMO has been cancelled. Browser Symbian^3 and earlier have a native WebKit based browser; indeed, Symbian was the first mobile platform to make use of WebKit (in June 2005). Some older Symbian models have Opera Mobileas their default browser. Nokia released a new browser with the release of Symbian Anna with improved speed and a improved user interface.

Application development From 2010, Symbian switched to using standard C++ with Qt as the SDK, which can be used with either Qt Creator or Carbide. Qt supports the older Symbian S60 3rd and 5th editions, as well as the new Symbian platform. It also supports Maemo and MeeGo, Windows, Linux and Mac OS X. Alternative application development can be done using Python (see Python for S60), Adobe Flash or Java ME. Symbian OS previously used a Symbian specific C++ version along with Carbide.c++ integrated development environment (IDE) as the native application development environment. Web Runtime (WRT) is a portable application framework that allows creating widgets on the S60 Platform; it is an extension to the S60 WebKit based browser that allows launching multiple browser instances as separate JavaScript applications.

3.

3.1What is Android? A software platform and operating system for mobile devices Based on the Linux kernel Developed by Google and later the Open Handset Alliance (OHA) Allows writing managed code in the Java language Possibility to write applications in other languages and compiling it to ARM native code (support of Google? No) Unveiling of the Android platform was announced on 5 November 2007 with the founding of OHA 3.2Operating System(s)

Android uses Linux for its device drivers, memory management, process management, and networking.

The next level up contains the Android native libraries. They are all written in C/C++ internally, but youll be calling them through Java interfaces. In this layer you can find the Surface Manager, 2D and 3D graphics, Media codecs, the SQL database (SQLite), and a native web browser engine (WebKit).

Dalvik Virtual Machine. Dalvik runs dex files, which are coverted at compile time from standard class and jar files.

3.3 FEATURES Handset layouts The platform is adaptable to larger, VGA, 2D graphics library, 3D graphics library based on OpenGL ES 2.0 specifications, and traditional smartphone layouts. Storage SQLite, a lightweight relational database, is used for data storage purposes. Messaging SMS and MMS are available forms of messaging, including threaded text messaging and now Android Cloud To Device Messaging Framework(C2DM) is also a part of Android Push Messaging service. Multiple language support Android supports multiple human languages. The number of languages more than doubled for the platform 2.3 Gingerbread.

Java support While most Android applications are written in Java, there is no Java Virtual Machine in the platform and Java byte code is not executed. Java classes are compiled into Dalvik executables and run on Dalvik, a specialized virtual machine designed specifically for Android and optimized for batterypowered mobile devices with limited memory and CPU. J2ME support can be provided via third-party applications.

Streaming media support RTP/RTSP streaming (3GPP PSS, ISMA), HTML progressive download (HTML5 <video> tag). Adobe Flash Streaming (RTMP) and HTTP Dynamic Streaming are supported by the Flash plugin. Apple HTTP Live Streaming is supported by RealPlayer for Mobile, and by the operating system in Android 3.0 (Honeycomb). Bluetooth Supports A2DP, AVRCP, sending files (OPP), accessing the phone book (PBAP), voice dialing and sending contacts between phones. Keyboard, mouse and joystick (HID) support is available in Android 3.1+, and in earlier versions through manufacturer customizations and third-party applications.

4.IPhone OS(iOS)

4.1 INTRODUCTION:
iOS (known as iPhone OS prior to June 2010) is Apple's mobile operating system. Apple is company who developed iPhone Operating System (iOS). This OS is released on June 29, 2007. This OS is also used in iPad, iPhone and iPod touch. The latest mobile of Apple is iOS 4.3 Golden Master. In this mobile phone iOS 4.3 operating System is used.

4.2Features:
Game center: Game Center is an online multiplayer "social gaming network" released by Apple. It allows users to "invite friends to play a game, start a multiplayer game through matchmaking, track their achievements, and compare their high scores on a leader board. Multitasking: Before iOS 4, multitasking was limited to a selection of the applications Apple included on the devices. Apple worried that running multiple third-party applications simultaneously would drain batteries too quickly. Starting with iOS 4, on 3rd-generation and newer iOS devices, multitasking is supported through seven background APIs: 1. Background audio 2. Voice over IP 3. Background location 4. Push notifications 5. Local notifications 6. Task finishing 7. Fast app switching Switching applications: Double-pressing the home button activates the application switcher. A scrollable dock-like interface appears from the bottom, moving the contents of the screen up. Choosing an icon switches to an application. To the far left are icons which function as music controls, and a rotation lock.

Jail breaking: iOS has been subject to a variety of different hacks centered on adding functionality not supported by Apple. Before the 2008 debut of the App Store, the primary reason for jailbreaking was to install third-party native applications. Apple said it would not design software updates specifically to break these native apps (other than applications that perform SIM unlocking); however, with each iOS update the jailbreak appears to no longer work. Since the arrival of the App Store and third-party applications, the focus of the jailbreaking community has shifted. A major focus of jailbreaking is allowing theming, using emulators and community-made tweaks like multitasking, Adobe Flash player, accessing the iPhone file system, and customizing the SpringBoard further. Multitasking is only natively supported on 3rd-generation and newer iOS devices, and applications on the official App Store are not allowed to modify the look of the OS, hence the need for jailbreaking.

5.BlackBerry OS

5.1 INTRODUCTION

BlackBerry OS is a proprietary mobile operating system, developed by Research In Motion for its BlackBerry line of smartphone handheld devices. The operating system provides multitasking and supports specialized input devices that have been adopted by RIM for use in its handhelds, particularly the trackwheel, trackball, and most recently, the trackpad and touchscreen. The BlackBerry platform is perhaps best known for its native support for corporate email, through MIDP 1.0 and, more recently, a subset of MIDP 2.0, which allows complete wireless activation and synchronization with Microsoft Exchange, Lotus Domino, or Novell GroupWise email, calendar, tasks, notes, and contacts, when used with BlackBerry Enterprise Server. The operating system also supports WAP 1.2. Updates to the operating system may be automatically available from wireless carriers that support the BlackBerry over the air software loading (OTASL) service. Third-party developers can write software using the available BlackBerry API classes, although applications that make use of certain functionality must be digitally signed. A June 2011 research indicates that approximately 45% of mobile developers were using the platform at the time of publication.

5.2Network Connectivity It supports wireless communications using: GSM mobile-phone technology 3G CDMA Wi-Fi networks

5.3Programming Language(s) This OS is designed in c++ language only. No other language is used for design Blackberry.

Blackberry also support JAVA language but not widely.

6. Windows mobile OS

6.1INTRODUCTION:
Windows Mobile is a mobile operating system developed by Microsoft that was used in smartphones and mobile devices, but is being currently phased out to specialized markets. It is superseded by Windows Phone 7. The current and last version is "Windows Mobile 6.5". It is based on the Windows CE 5.2 kernel

6.2 FEATURES:
Web browser

Windows Phone 7.5 features a version of Internet Explorer Mobile with a rendering engine that is based on Internet Explorer 9. Internet Explorer on Windows Phone allows the user to maintain a list of favorite web pages and tiles linking to web pages on the Start screen. The browser supports up to 6 tabs, which can all load in parallel. Contacts Contacts are organized via the "People hub". Contacts can be manually entered into contacts or imported from Facebook, Windows Live Contacts, Twitter, and LinkedIn. A "What's New" section show news feed and a "Pictures" section show pictures from those social networks made by the contacts. A "Me" section show the phone user's own social networks status and wall, allow the user to update his status, and check-in to Bing and Facebook Places. Contacts can be added to the home screen by pinning them to the start. The contact's "Live Tile" displays his social network status and profile picture on the homescreen and the contact's hub displays his Facebook wall as well as all of the rest of his contact information and information from his other social networks. E-mail Windows Phone supports Hotmail, Exchange, Yahoo! Mail, Gmail natively and supports many other services via the POP and IMAP protocols. For the native account types, contacts and calendars may be synced as well. Users can also search through their e-mail by searching in the subject, body, senders, and receivers.

Multimedia Zune for Windows Phone is an application providing entertainment and synchronization capabilities between PC and Phone.[36] Windows Phone multimedia experience is divided in to two distinct hubs, Music + Videos hub and Pictures hub, both of which are similar in appearance and functionality to that of the Zune HD.

Media support According to Brandon Miniman's test review for pocketnow.com, he stated "if Zune can play it, your Windows Phone 7 device can play it" - this refers to the supported playback of files. The audio file formats, supported, include WAV, MP3, WMA, AMR, AAC/MP4/M4A/M4B and 3GP/3G2 as standards. The video file formats, supported, include WMV, AVI, MP4/M4V, 3GP/3G2 and MOV (QuickTime) standards. These supported audio and video formats would be dependent on the codecs contained inside them. It has also been previously reported that the DivX and Xvid codecs within AVI are also playable on the system. Unlike the previous Windows Mobile operating system, there are currently no third-party applications for handling other video formats. The image file formats that are supported include JPG/JPEG, PNG, GIF, TIF and Bitmap (BMP).

7. Conculsion:
7.1 IOS: The iPhone
The iPhone has a very distinguishable design that has been followed since its introduction in 2007. On the front you are welcomed by a 3.5 touch screen and a single button that has a limited number of functions. On the top, you will find the on/off button (that also acts as a wake/sleep button), on the left, there is the volume rocker along with the mute button and down below you have the dock connector that can be used to connect the iPhone to a PC or external speaker/surround system. The iPhone comes with an internal memory of either 16 GB or 32 GB (old 3GS model has the 8 GB). The iPhones hardware at a glance: - Quad-band GSM and quad-band 3G support with 7.2 Mbps HSDPA and 5.76 Mbps HSUPA - 3.5 16M-color LED-backlit TFT capacitive touch screen of 640 x 960 px resolution - Scratch-resistant glass front and rear, with fingerprint-resistant coating - 1GHz Apple A4 SoC; 512MB of RAM - 5 MP auto-focus camera with LED flash and touch focus - Slim waistline at only 9.3mm - Secondary front-facing camera

7.2 Windows Phone 7


Once considered on top of its mobile game, Microsoft has been losing a major share in the Smartphone market along with a downfall in popularity due to the continuous delay in the release of its version 7 platform and the unpopularity of the previous Windows Mobile versions (6.1 and 6.5) which were considered, compared to the other OS, way behind the attractiveness and the modernity they offered. Enter Windows Phone 7, which was first announced in early 2010 and released to the public at the end of the same year. Microsoft was able to write the Windows Phone OS from scratch and introduce a modern one that seems to have a lot of potential. Unlike its Apple counterpart, Windows Phone 7 is provided by several manufacturers such as HTC, Samsung, LG and Dell. And in order to place itself on a high platform and maintain a consistent experience among all devices, Microsoft has imposed a specific and tough list of minimum hardware requirements on those manufacturers: Screen: Capacitive, 4-point multi-touch screen with WVGA (800480)

resolution Processor: Min 1 GHz or better processor Graphics: DirectX9 rendering-capable GPU Memory: 256 MB of RAM with at least 8 GB of Flash memory Camera: 5-megapixel camera with an LED flash

7.3 Android OS
Like Microsoft, Google has recently entered the market with Android, an OS that till date has proven to be highly competitive and very successful in gaining share and user admiration. It has been through several updates and being an open-source OS, it has been very well received among developers as well as end-users. Android can be found on several manufactures devices, such as HTC, Motorola, Sony Ericsson, Dell, Samsung, Alcatel and LG, where each one of them has given its own touch to the design and look of their devices as Google has given them a major amount of freedom to move around and be creative. Android phones can come in all shapes and specifications, with touch screens, keyboards and so on. However, most Android phones share a common denominator in terms of hardware buttons (whether they were capacitive buttons or just the plain old physical ones), where you will find: A Home button: As the name says, it takes you to the phones home screen.

Also, if held for a while, it opens up the multitasking menu to move around the different open apps A Menu button: Opens up a different menu depending on which applications

are currently being used, such as additional options, settings or general application information (version, details) A Back button: Closes an application or takes the user one step back A Find button: Can be used to either look for some specific information on

the phone (people, messages, files) or on the web. If held for a while, it opens up the voice command menu

7.4 Blackberry OS
Blackberry devices have had a distinguished look for almost a decade now: A screen of different dimensions (usually in the 2 2.8 range) A comfortable QWERTY keyboard (or others, depending on the region) A Call Button An End Button A Menu button that opens up the respective menu of the open application A Back button to move one step backwards A clickable Scrollball (replaced lately by a touch-sensitive optical trackpad)

scrolling in pages and menu selection A Camera button Two customizable side buttons (one on the left, the other on the right), which

can be programmed to do any specific function from voice commands to launching an application A 3.5mm Audio Jack Volume rocker

However, with the rise of popularity the touch screens among mobile phones, Blackberry has tried to enter the game with the Blackberry Storm 9500 (also the Storm2 9520), which introduced a 3.25 touch screen with the SurePress technology, where the screen click where pressed. This however did not prove to be a successful technology compared to all the other platforms on the market.

7.5 Symbian
Symbian^3 is now available on high end Nokia phones, like the N8 and the C7. By high end, we mean: a minimum processor power of 600 Mhz, a minimum RAM of 512 Mb, high end camera (of at least 5 MP, the N8 alone housing a camera sensor of 12 MP), a capacitive touchscreen which has nothing to envy from other touch devices. In the end, Symbian^3 means Nokia, and Nokia means fine build quality.

References:
1. 2. 3. 4.
http://www.gigalb.com/2011/02/special-report-the-ultimate-mobile-os-comparison/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_operating_system http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Android_(operating_system) http://www.thinkdigit.com/Mobiles-PDAs/Nokia-Symbian-Belle-NFC-phones-launchWhat_7654.html

5.

http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/industry-andeconomy/marketing/article2494339.ece?homepage=true&ref=wl_home

6.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BlackBerry_OS