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THIS WORK Id ^e^icateD to THE CAUSE OF TEMPERANCE, IN NO SPIRIT OF IRONY, BUT WITH FEELINGS OF DEEP CONVICTION THAT A BETTER KNOWLEDGE OF THE HISTORY OF WINE IN THIS COUNTRY WOULD PROMOTE AMONGST THE PUBLIC A GREATER APPRECIATION OF THE VIRTUES OF WINE, THE MORE GENERAL USE OF WHICH WOULD HELP TO CBECK BOTH DRUNKENNESS AND TEETOTALISM, EVILS WHICH EVERY FAIR-MINDED AND TEMPERATE MAN

CANNOT HELP DEPLORING. PREFACE. The spirit in wliich this work was conceived, and the aim I had in view when I undertook it, have been sufficiently explained in the first volume, published last autumn, and need not be repeated here. This second volume has been written on the same plan as the preceding one, and most of the facts it contains have been obtained from the same sources, such as the Fate?it RoUs^ the Cakndars of State Papers^ the Reports of the Royal Commission o?i His-torical Manuscripts, etc. Much interesting information, for the most part unpublished, has also been found in the manuscript Letter Books of the City of London. The share given in the first volume to the political events which affected the couree of commerce in this country has been considerably reduced in the present volume, whilst much more space has been devoted to facts and figures about the different wines imported into England. All Latin and French texts have been omitted and the number of footnotes has also been greatly reduced, whilst a few illustrations have been added in order to render this volume more attractive than the preceding one. Being, however, a work of reference, an important list of prices of wine and a few

— . PAGE Preface v CHAPTER I.— Henry VI.reference. Gardiner for reading my proofs over. the wine trade during his reign. R.—Insecurity of the sea.— Henry V. R. • CHAPTER II. 1907. and to Dr. The English mercantile marine at the accession of Henry IV. 24. My thanks are due to Mr. . L. whose learning and courtesy have been of gi'eat help to me. have been printed at the end of the book. an important list of prices of wine and a few charters and ordinances. A. Mark Lane. S.—Piracy.—Henry VIII.—Prohibitive measures of Edward TV. Henry VII. CONTENTS. and I am also greath' indebted to the Corporation of the City of London. Sharpe.C. S.—The wine fleets. for allowing me to search their valuable Records.—Licences to import wine.. in En^ish. May. E. A.

Ives. Customs. —Cambridge.23 CHAPTER III.—The right of trade search 70 CHAPTER V.—Correspondence between the Queen of Hungary and her Ambassador in London. — Gauge.—Duty on Malmsey.—Decay of the Navy during the reigns of Edward VI.—Minehead.— York. — The right to retail wine in London.—St.—Legislation beneficial to the wine trade .— .—Boston.—Plymouth.— Bridgewater. — Bristol.—Blending of wines prohibited. Legislative and mimicipal ordinances regulating the wine trade.—Adulteration.— Exeter.—Butlerage.— Norwich. and Queen Mary.—The reign of Queen Elizabeth. by whom enjoyed.—Subsidy.— Capacity of wine vessels 50 CHAPTER IV.—Salisbury.—Sussex.—Origin and rdle of the Vintners' Company.—^Yarmouth.— Farmers of the Customs.—^Lynn.—Ipswich.—Tunnage.— Hull.—Canterbury— Colchester. —The Assize price of wine. duties and taxes levied in England on wine.— Prisage.Rapid progress of the wine trade. — Southampton. PAGE The wine trade in the Provinces.

The Bordeaux wine trade 176 CHAPTER IX. Auxerre.—The Commons. The wines of Poitou. Quantity.— Beverley. — Lancaster. etc. Orleans. .— The taverns in London and in the provinces 129 CHAPTER VII. Earl of Shrewsbury. The consumption of wine in England. Earl of Northumberland.—German wines.—The King: the royal household.—Boston.—Spanish and Portuguese wines 194: CHAPTER X. castles and armies: grants and presents of wine.— York.— Jersey 101 CHAPTER VI. — Oxford. —Cambridge.— Hull. and cost of the wines imported in England during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries 160 CHAPTER VIII. — Berwick-on-Tweed. quality. Anjou.Norwich. — Liverpool. — Chester. style. mayor. Countess of Richmond. Burgundy and Paris.— Durham. — Newcastle-on-Tyne. Duke of Buckingham.—The nobility: Countess of Warwick. Earls of Rutland. aldermen. and sheriffs.

cap.— Vernage.255 Appendix B.The Levant \s*ines : Malmseys. to the Vintners' Company of London.218 PAGE CHAPTER XI. 8. 1363 292 Ordinance of 1419 against the adulteration of wine295 Charter of Henry VI.. Distillation: its origin.—Romeney.—Prices of wine in England during the fifteenth and the sixteenth centuries . —Charters and ordinances:— Charter of King Edward III. Henry VII. July I5th. For Operacions of the Navee 297 ..— Liqueurs 244 Appendix A. August 23rd..—Muscadell and Muscadine . 1437 296 Statute 1..—Tyre. to the Vintners' Company of London. its introduction in England.

334 CHAPTER I The rule of the Lancastrian and Yorkist Princes..Ordinance of 1583 for the Vintners of London. The little care bestowed by Richard II. of the still more wasteful calamity of domestic discord. who was hailed by the .. as it was. since r. respecting the grant of a monopoly of sweet wines 317 Appendix C. proved very detrimental to the interests of the national industry and commerce.298 Charter of Philip and Mary. as soon as these were ended. July 30th. 1558 . —An alphabetical list of London taverns 321 List of Authorities 327 Index -----. productive. upon the maritime defences of the kingdom not only alienated from his cause the commercial classes.* The usurper. and. in the first instance.306 Petition of the Mayor and Burgesses of Southampton. of long and expensive foreign wars. bloodshed and confusion. but ultimately cost him his crown and his liberty. small fleet might easily have prevented the landing of Henry of Bolingbroke.

whom God Almighty. subsisted only in name.* The usurper. 415. Vol. as a " wise and discreet man." t found himself in a very critical position. in the Parliament which met in October. but they secretly approved if they did not encourage them. and maritime commerce entirely paralysed. p.. prisoners taken. Both monarchs pretended to forbid the belligerent proceedings of their subjects.Bolingbroke. with Richard II. The King of France refused to acknowledge him. had been broken by those who deposed him. who was hailed by the Archbishop of Canterbury. 610. This threat was never carried into effect. . vessels captured. although he had no other means of providing for the safety of the realm. alleging that the truce concluded 1 Mao|)herson. the ships and the shores of the two countries were continually attacked. the people plundered. 1399. III.. but the truce which had been sworn between the Kings of France and England. Annals of Com f Rot. I. he dared not inaugurate his reign by the imposition of new taxes. and threatened to invade England. p. protect the coasts and redress abuses. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. merce. Pari. of His grace and mercy.. though not denounced. Vol. had chosen to govern England. obliged to court popularity.

Acts of piracy and rapine became so common that the seas were no longer safe. The Comte de St. their efforts.. and his immediate successors tried a variety of expedients for giving protection to English shipping and to the English coasts. and the carrying out of all legitimate foreign trade became almost an impossibility. the greater part of the public revenue being spent in the upkeep of the numerous soldiery necessary for the foreign and civil wars of the new dynasty.* Such a state of things caused so great a prejudice to the commerce and well-being of the nation. oditod by the Rev. 1. Early an*! Middle Ages. Vol.f Royal and Historical Lt'ttt'rs 'liirinKthe ReiKn of Henry IV. Tntrotiuction. Pol and other French noblemen committed the most daring outrages upon the English.. and was the occasion of such continual and bitter complaints by injured or ruined subjects. however. that the King's desire to remedy these crying evils must have been as sincere as it was difficult to carry into effect.entirely paralysed. were never productive of much good on account of the slender means at their disposal. F. Henry IV. . who were not slow in retaliating. IStW. (\ Hiii^'ostou. (Jmwtli of En^Iisli Inrlustry niil ('uiunierce.rliiiin. t '^''t ('iiiiiiin.

to consider the state of affairs. and their cargoes seized even when it could be proved that they belonged to English merchants. 1400. and under the immediate control of the owner of each vessel or his " master.f This permission soon became to be interpreted as equivalent to lettres de marywe." To stimulate the zeal of the inhabitants of the principal seaports. Henry often gave them authority to retain for their own use whatever they might capture from the enemy. in spite of safe-conducts granted by Henry. whilst some of the most wealthy temporal lords undertook each to find a ship with twenty men at arms and forty archers besides the crew. With a very commendable generosity. Early an*! Middle Ages. became privateers scouring the Channel in search of prey. barges. and those vessels which had been equipped solely for the defence of the realm.('uiunierce.* Most of the seaports also contributed to the Royal Navy by placing under the command of one of the Royal Admirals their available ships. each of the spiritual lords agreed that a tenth should be levied upon his property. manned and armed by their compatriots. Complaints of such arbitrary seizures were frequently made to the . A great Council met on February 9th. Many a wine-laden vessel was thus captured. and balingers.

and that.. was seized and taken to Kingston-uponHulL* On June 27th. 104. Bretons. it was then emphatically declared that all persons. and which. Portuguese or Venetians. Proceedings and Ordinances of the Privy Council. it was agreed between the Kings of France and England to renew the truce . 103. The injured merchants usually obtained a royal mandate directing that the offenders should give them full satisfaction. 1402. Flemings. in Brittany.such arbitrary seizures were frequently made to the King and his Council. In 1399. 1 Hen. when sailing at sea. a mandate was sent to the Mayor of Kingston-upon-HuU to deliver to William Pietru. Vol. vessels and property should be mutually and freely restored. Part II. for the safety . 6. a merchant of Brittany. especially by neutrals or allies. aaus. L pp.. for instance. a barge laden with eighty-five pipes of wine and twelve dozen lampreys which he had freighted in the Port of Nantes. IV. but it is doubtful whether they were often in a position to exact it. m. that merchants and others might go about their business in either kingdom without any hindrance and without needing letters of safe conduct. t Rot. to take to the Port of Lescluse. in Flanders.. A2.

in July. two other ships bound for • Calen.'^\ llul«us to Hvmor'* Fivilo* i HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND.ioi'!u'r<i«ii. a vessel boinul for Flanders. Portugal and Flanders.^ as stated in a complaint of the Aldermen of the Hanse merchants. all armed vessels should be called into port.. 1402. was seized bv some English ships. The following month.* On December 13th. the King ordered the restitution of a barge laden with wine belonging to . IVUfiit Kolis Roiulus. in spite of the renewed truce : at about the same time. a Prussian vessel laden with wine was captured by some Enir-lish mariners. :. 1402. .f These stipulations for the freedom of trade were also entered into with Castile. Anna!* of I'om § .l. In that same year.of navigation. im. \\. but the mere fact of the frequency with which they were renewed J is a sufficient proof of their inefficiency.VIII. 5 Sluys and Skidam with 136 tuns of Rochelle wine were also captured off the Isle of Wight. with 61 tuns and o pipes of lu>chelle wine.i-» + ^M. J KniUra.l.

on her way thither she was attacked by " four balingers. 7d. Part I. was at about the same time seized by men of Galway.. IV.§ The Seinte Anne de Guerraundy laden at Rochelle with wines. a vessel belonging to one Dominic Gunsaldus. captain of the Earl of ArundeLf In March. 1403. Patent Rolls. who also took possession. master. of the Port of Portugal (Oporto).^f In 1403.. on April 7th of that year. in the name and to the use of some London merchants. 89 tuns of Poitou wine belonging to some merchants of Flanders were illegally captured by mariners of Rye.|| A ship which was conveying the wines of another London merchant to Athenry. master.restitution of a barge laden with wine belonging to Cherbourg which had been captured by one William Prince. full of Calend. m. having reached Southampton in safety and unloaded her cargo. . the Seint Marie. were captured by English mariners. of 49 tuns and 1 pipe of Rochelle wine belonging to some other Flemish merchants. and the Seinte Rateline de Vertnew^ John Garcy. in Connaught. 4 Hen. both laden with wine and other merchandise. was chartered to convey 42 tuns of Gascon wine to London. the barge called Seint John de San Sebastian^ Domingo de Lugades. had a similar fate.^ During that same year.

. II Idem. In the Channel. 3Id."* Earlier that year. ^ Idem^ Part I. on the coast of Brittany. and taken by them into Harewych. § Idcitif m." together with the wines and merchandise therein. a pipe of olive oil and other merchandise. 646. Patent Rolls.t Syllabus to Rymcr's Foedera. 6 HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. called William Wilford. 4 Hen. some other Portuguese merchants had a remarkable experience. Part II. Harewych and other ports near Dover.f An esquire. To the consternation of the unfortunate Portuguese merchants. where it was kept as a prize by their " rescuers.. IV. Shrewsbury and Southampton. in 1403. distinguished himself in this profitable if little creditable kind of warfare . he captured on one occasion 40 vessels laden with a thousand tuns of wine and other goods. who commanded some ships belonging to the Western ports. m. p. m. men of Greenwich. their ship \vas taken to Southampton. They left Lisbon for England in their ship called La Kate-rinen laden with 74 tuns of divers wines.. m. 18d. English people from Goseford. and burnt 40 . they fell into the hands of some Norman mariners who were themselves attacked and routed near Falmouth by lieges of the King of England. t Calend. 30d.

more ships on his passage home. Even when he had succeeded in avoiding or repulsing tlie attacks of freebooters on tlie liigh seas. in spite of all such outrages. i)f I ho Royal Navv. Xantes and England should have been still in existence in those troubled times. p. t Walsm^hain. Official documents contain many proofs of the activity of the wine trade .* And yet. Patdit Rolls. 412. t Idem. the foreign vintner was not sure to find security and protection on CalfiKl. 1H<1. Hist. in Nicolas.. . \ol. some merchants of Bordeaux. having laden a barge with 79 tuns of white wine of La Rochelle to be taken to Weymouth and sold there and at Mel-combe. II 1>. in spite of the enormous risks to life and property which had to be incurred by merchants and mariners who engaged in it. they had safely reached port when one John Kygheley and other " evil-doers" forcibly entered their barge and carried it off with the said wine and other merchandise. foreigners still came to England with their wines. 350. reaching an English port. and English merchants regularly sailed to Gascony in the autumn to fetch those of the new vintage.. in the autumn of 1403. Rochelle. Thus. m. m. 21>«l. J It is indeed remarkable that the wine trade betw^een Bordeaux. 4 Hen. IV. Part II.

laden with wine destined for the ports of Normandy. many of the regulations concerning the English fleets of merchantmen going to Bordeaux have been preserved to this day. IV. IV.d... was p. 1403. a. on the other hand. 34d. 1. Des Ursins. III. aliens f and natives alike. Nicolas. numerous records of individuals. The first one sailed in November and returned soon afterwards. 113. Patent Rolls. whilst. of Genoa. 112. J Soon after the return of that first wine-fleet from Gascony. Vol. Rot. having made a very successful voyage.. m. In the autumn of 1403.. Vase. there are. ' . m. on the one hand. on December 26th. 5 Hen. but also bringing back many vessels captured there.. or to convey it from one English port to another.. two expeditions to Gascony are recorded. Part II. History of the {^ranted a licence to bring wines Royal Navy. p. not only purchasing much wine at Bordeaux. Denis.contain many proofs of the activity of the wine trade . for instance. Cf. from Bordeaux to Southampton. ' 1402. f Jacopo Doria. it was decided Calend. 3 Hen. \'ol. II. etc. pp. who sought and obtained licences and safe-conducts to import wine into England. 157. { Chroniqiie de St. 356.

to fit out a sufficient number of vessels. the King. to Sir William Faringdon. the sul^ject was brought imder its consideration : but as the business could not then be settled on account of the difficulty of arranging the conditions. . Admiral in the South and West. The traders and shipowners of the principal English seaports approached tlie King's Council. taking care. with a view to be granted certain customs. however. Plymouth. at the request of the Commons. and in return they promised to undertake the guard of the sea.by the King in Council that commands should be sent to Lord Berkeley. armed with soldiers and archers. on March 1st. to assure the safety of the coasts and of the nation's maritime commerce. to proceed to Bordeaux for wine. however. When Parliament met. causing considerable prejudice to the wine trade and proved bow ineffeotu'^l were Henry's orders and efforts to put down piracy. and to return as soon as possible to England. to John Hanley. and other ports. and because Parliament would soon be dissolved. in 1405. and to the other owners and masters ot ships and vessels at Dartmouth. appointed six of tlieir number to treat with the Council and to conclude the affair. 1406. to leave the best ships and barges in the home ports for the King's service.* The insecurity of the seaf and the enormous losses suffered as well as inflicted by Englishmen were.

The merchants. Vol. barges and balingers as might be necessary.--bourn> also ri'|>ort» th. as well as the fourth part of the subsidy of wools. Patont Hi^lls. besides mariners.' 1*1 ivv Connii!. mariners and shipowners of England offered to exert their "loyal power" for the safeguard of the sea. W^D Otto. m.. soiruros of isolati'il nu-n-liaiit '<\\i]^ liatl takiMi lOaoo iSt' ralniil. and hides that had been granted in the last Parliament.. IV. Then came a clause which was destined to wreck the whole scheme : it was decreed that the said merchants and shipowners should retain whatever they might capture from the . in 14<»4. (i Hen. II. wool-fells.il the Far I remarkable events in the commercial history of this country. Part I.The whole proceeding forms one of the most • IViXfiHliiip* oi til. p. against all enemies. + A^ain. they were to maintain two thousand fighting men. with as many ships. from May 1st. SI. until September 29th. and three shillings for every tun of wine. It was agreed that the merchants and shipowners should be paid twelve pence in the pound. 1406.. 1407.

the merchants in charge of the police of the sea inflicted serious losses on the home and foreign maritime shipping. provided.000 as a gift and " reward. as the merchants only disposed of the . was. 383 et seg. notwithstanding any privilege or prerogative of the King. a complete failure. his admirals. as might have been expected. Vol. but the chronicler adds that the price of wine in England was in nowise aifected by such captures. predominate. On one occasion. the merchants requested the ready payment of £4. p... Furthermore.should retain whatever they might capture from the enemy in war.. which was daily increasing at sea. or others. pp. they captured fifteen ships laden wdth wine and wax. 569-571. Vo\ II. however. and Nicolas. his Majesty paying the captors a reasonable reward for them.* This delegation of the royal authority and national dignity to a number of men in whom private interests and the greed of lucre were bound to Rot. Pari. that the King should have all chieftains that might be taken." in consequence of the great power and hostility of the enemy. III. Although the experiment only lasted about six months. History of the Royal Navy. that all booty or prize money should be distributed among them in the usual manner. but the King informed them that there were no means of satisfying their last wish.

an attempt appears to have been made to settle definitely the numerous claims preferred by English merchants against foreigners and by these against English mariners for wine and other goods captured at sea. and the commissions granted to merchant mariners were cancelled. eera de meliori foro venlebatur. 419.such captures. in consequence of the repeated complaints of his subjects and allies that the sea had not been well kept by the merchants. Chronii^a. It was then evidently recognised by the commissioners appointed by both parties Johannis dv Trokflowo ot IXenrici do Blam-fortlo. doputiiti ad ntaris rust(Kliani. hoo tempore. sed nihil de vini pretio miniiebatur. but that robberies and aggressions had been committed. the Earl of Somerset was appointed Admiral of Enghind. potenti-bus illud rapientibud ad usos suos. ** MtTfUtoros. ceperunt naves (juindeeim omistas vino et eera." . and were likely to be continued. Qua propter. Henry directed the collectors of the subsidies which had been assigned to the merchants not to make any further payments to them.t On December 23rd. as the merchants only disposed of the wax and kept the wine to their own ends. In 1409. p.* On October 20th. 1406.

449-4. Vol. embodying the same principles. Glli. and that all Rochelle merchants would be likewise at liberty to come to England to sell their wine. 439. Castile.J Henry V.000 English nobles to the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. p. In case of any future outrages. Cotton's Abridgement. 11 that the English had been the principal offenders. He not . Annals of Commerce. 4:57. since Henry agreed to pay above 30. It was particularly stipulated that all English merchants could go in safety to Rochelle for wine. Macjiherson. Flanders. p.* New treaties were again concluded with the Hanse towns. the respective sovereigns bound themselves to make satisfaction for the aggressions of their subjects.")5. I. Portugal. 452.. Brittany and other powers. p. was proclaimed between the Kings of France and England. VIII. Nieolas.t Ryiner's Fa*dera. pp. History of the Royal Xavy.. Vol. who was let off on the payment of only 766 nobles to the English sufferers. began his reign by giving evidence of his disposition to favour and encourage commerce. on the basis of mutual freedom of trade and oblivion of past injuries. 39:f. Vol.f In the following year a truce. II..

2 advance of his time. 1410. that he appointed Sir John Colville governor and captain for the voyage. t Marpherson. laden with wine. Annals of Commerce. 160. and particularly England. lieutenant of Guienne. the privileges granted by his father and preceding kings to foreign merchants. Vol L. that. I. which was to bear fruit in the near future. p. 623. History of British Commerce. 11 Hen.. t Rot. III. p. to bring some of his soldiers to England. Vol. coming from Rochelle . 1413. but he determined to repress the piratical proceedings which had so long disgraced most maritime countries. IV. and some merchants of Dartmouth and other places. owners of eight ships. stated that those vessels had been impressed at Bordeaux by the Duke of Clarence.. p. without stipulating that other governments should do the same. Vol. they fell in with two hulks of Prussia. on his accession to the throne. being desirous of ascertaining whether those hulks and their cargoes belonged to the enemy.. when they reached Belle Isle.disposition to favour and encourage commerce. Colville sent a boat with one of his esquires and .. and. col. He not only confirmed. 643. Parliament met in May. '' being satisfied with setting an example of humanity and justice to the nations of Europe "—an enlightened policy far in Craik. Pari.

whose hulks were then captured and brought to Southampton and Poole. 13 observe the truces. It was therefore enacted that such proceedings should be considered high treason. were to swear before the conservator.. and to punish the parties. balingers and other vessels. and that two lawyers should be joined in all commissions issued to that officer. i p.* . * these men were killed by the Prussians. and the Chancellor deplored that so many infractions of the late truces should have been committed on the high seas. they would bring it into their port. in the ports and on the coasts of the realm. and that. Other complaints and claims were preferred. previous to sailing. that a conservator of the truce should be appointed in each port. 12. whereby many persons who were protected by the truces. had been killed.. and against his dignity. Vol. to the great dishonour and scandal of the King." Rot. or robbed and pillaged. IV. to enquire into those offences. and others who had safeconducts. Colville sent a boat with one of his esquires and the masters of two of his ships to examine their bills of lading . 13. that they would • "Ohartres de lour affrettemenz. Masters of ships.enemy. if they captured any vessel. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. etc. and then make a full report to him before the goods were sold. Pari.

" The misgovernment and political misfortunes of the greater part of the reign of Henry VI. but to employ them in foreign expeditions. which. probably did not oppress and injure the commerce of the kingdom nearly so much as the successful wars of his great father. which was apt to breed intestine commotions. where he died in 1422. and carried off the whole current of the national feelings and energies in an opposite direction. dried up the spirit of mercantile industry and enterprise. to his son " not to allow the English to remain long in peace. Henry V. abroad. by which the prince might acquire honour. after having covered himself with glory at an enormous cost of men and treasure.make a full report to him before the goods were sold. by the very intoxication they produced in the public mind." In 1415. invaded France.* The prosperity which had been springing up during the several years of peace which mark a breathing time between the struggles of Henry IV. the wine trade alone . and all the restless spirits find occupation for their inquietude. acting upon his father's advice. It was the dying injunction of Henry IV. at home. was of but short duration. and the military exploits of his son.^f Of all branches of commerce.

I. t Craik.. were given that no vessels should proceed singly to Bordeaux. when. History of British Commerce. III. but at no time were the merchant-vintners ever prevented from going over sea to fetch wine. as many armed vessels of the enemy were at sea to intercept ships going to Guienne for the vintage.retained some of its former importance during the commercial crisis which characterised the reign of Henry V. laden with 240 tuns of wine. 1C6. Orders. 23.. V. 2 Hen. History of the Royal Navy. but with a sufficient number of others to defend themselves. II. cap. of Hull. Stat. pp.. wine was to be had at moderate prices in London and at most of the larger seaports. Rot. by election of all the . Pari. 6.* These fleets of merchantmen were under the command of an admiral of their own choosing. Every ship or barge was wanted by the King for the transport of his armies and the considerable stores he stood in need of during his conquest of Normandy. Thus. Vol. 405406.. was lying at Bordeaux and about to return home. a ship called the Christopher. p. Nicolas. Vol. however. However scarce other commodities might be. p. Vol. whom all agreed to obey during the voyage. in 1416..

all lier companions ran away. JX. for the security and protection of the whole fleet. who was to take such measures as he might think fit. p.th. 47.. masters and mariners swore before the Constable of Bordeaux. and power was given them. at the time of which election the chief merchants. that they would not depart from their admiral until they arrived in England.* and prayed that the owners of the other ships might be made responsible to them for her value. Vol. and that vessel was conserjucjntly taken. the said Christopher was chosen to be one of the admirals of all the fleet. instead of supporting their admiral. according to the ancient custom at all times used. not only to compel these cowardly merchants and masters to make good the losses of the petitioners—but to punish them by imprisonment. . on the voyage to England. AuKiist 2r. Tlie owners therefore repnjsented that tiie ca})ture of tlieir ship was Kynn-rN K(imIiih. masters and mariners of England there. On their passage.merchants. 14i:».! The efforts of Henry V. ruinous to them and disgraceful to the whole Navy of England. with the advice of three or four of the judges. to put down piracy and to protect neutrals at sea were not altogether successful. The King commanded that all who were present in that fleet should be summoned before the Chancellor. the fleet met some carracks which attacked the Christophf^r when.

had been seized on November 1st. 1424. VI. II. in 1424. complaining that one of their ships which they had freighted at Lisbon with fruit. 1416. who. Part III. Julv 11th. IV.. m. tout la Xaveye d'Engleterre. in 1423. 89. by some men of Southampton. near St. Patent Rolls." t Rot..|| Again. merchants of Dartmouth and of Bristol also complained of the losses they had sustained at the hands of the Bretons. p. Nicolas. p. Pol de Leon. II. p. p. t /cfern. with a cargo of 100 pipes of wines of Nantes and Orleans. had captured their ships and their wines in spite of the truce. 2 Hen. Brittany merchants petitioned the Council.. two balingers and one barge of Fowey and Plymouth captured another Breton merchant vessel. History of the Royal Navy. during that same year. a **A p^aunt anientisement des ditz Buppliantz et velany h. 1423. Plymouth and Bridgewater. they said. wax and bastard wine. History of the Royal Navy.since. 415.J A few years later. Nicolas... Vol. Pari. on her way to Pont-bulemer. 1422.§ On February 22nd. . Vol. 86. Vol. lOd. § Calend.. 416.

'' arrested a certain ship loaded with wines of Poitou to the number of 96 tuns and one pipe and other merchandise. on the testimonials of other London vintners. m. II Idem. were seized by the people of Elizabeth de Gourby.. which ship touched at the Abbot's island of Thanet. as compensation for the damage caused by . The Abbot claimed that the ship and goods belonged to Spanish enemies of the King. 1424. was seized by some Englishmen.Julv 11th.. 1 Hen. and the wine sold by the captors.* One of the most extraordinary complaints of this kind occurred in 1425. Canterbury. with a fellow monk. 1427. and other " malefactors. The said " malefactors " took out and carried away 74 tuns and one pipe of the wine and still detained under arrest the ship and the rest of the cargo. on Conception Day. a vintner of London. called Belle. Part IV. ship of Brittany with a cargo of Rochelle wines. VI. Augustine. who was only persuaded to restore the stolen property after a long correspondence. in the County of Kent.f Another remarkable instance of a seizure of wine took place in London itself on January 5th. Some of the King's French subjects stated that the Abbot of St. and obtained £36 16s. 12d. 8d. when Simon claimed. on her way to England. arrayed in manner of war. although such was not the case. The wines of one Simon Seman.

3 Hen. 1424. where it was seized with all its cargo by some Cornish pirates. as compensation for the damage caused by the detention of his wines. As these provinces had. in 1461. December 17th. through a spiteful ordinance prohibiting the import of wine from those of the French provinces which had once belonged to England.* Ten years later. 1451.^ Later again. some merchants of Gascony bringing wines to England. lid. under safe conduct of Henry VI. on December 24th. inaugurated his reign by placing further difficulties in the path of the vintners. and by creating new causes for arbitrary seizures of wines. 1427. and anchored at Seyntyes (probably St. Tves)^ in Cornwall. up to that . at the time of the seizure. March 20tli... laden at Bordeaux with fortyseven tuns of wine and other goods.. 4 Hen. t M'w. m Vl. VI. | 19d.£36 16s. 1.. + ^^*'"^' ^ ^^^". 8d. ni. Part II... were seized by Hugh Courtenay. and taken to Fowey. 1420. Part I. valued at £197 13s. Patent Rolls. 2d. arrived Calend..f Edward IV. a ship called le Kateryn de Bayonne. m.Partl. December Kt.VI.

^supplied by far the greater proportion of the wines drunk in this country.. m 2ld t Idem. 2 Ed. m. 'and to seize such wine as might have been brought. m. from thence to England. J This unjustified and unprecedented measure was a source of endless trouble to all foreign vintners.' 5d. t Idem.. 2 Ed. a commission was nominated to inquire whether any wines had been brought to the port and town of Plymouth contrary to the late ordinance of the King. under colour of safe conduct or otherwise. 6d July 15th. after August 31st. IV. Part. or to other places under the King's obedience. Bayonne. such an ordinance could not be strictly enforced. whether they came from Burgundy or * Calend.. 1462.. whose wines. except such as might be taken by the King's subjects as prizes at sea. Patent Rolls. 1 Ed. or Rochelle. or any other place of the Duchy of Aquitaine.time. Part I. n . IL. that no one should bring any wines of the growth of Bordeaux. IV.. Part I. On October 20th. IV. 1461.

a commission was sent to the Mayor of the towns of Poole and Weymouth. in Normandy. and a vessel of Rouen. Thus.* In 1465. who owed them 100 marks for their expenses in prison. John had brought the wine to Plymouth. for the payment of the said expenses. then in the port of Poole. were often seized as lawful prize.n Spain. in Brittany. although the latter were prepared to prove that the wine was of the growth of the Duchy of Brittany. and to keep the vessels and the wine in safe custody. to seize a vessel of Talamons. one John Hatys. freighted 30 tuns of wine of the growth of the Duchy of Brittany in a carvel of Nantes.f Such seizures effected under the Royal authority proved to be an encouragement to similar acts of violence on the persons and wines of the King's allies . then in the port of Weymouth. to the great loss of the petitioners and of the prisoners. having captured at sea William Boyne and some other men of Brittany. some men of Fowey complained that. of Nantes. both laden with wine of the growth of Aquitaine. where it was seized by force of a commission of the King. in Aquitaine. under pretence that they had been shipped from Bordeaux or La Rochelle. because it was asserted by certain persons to be wine of the growth of Aquitaine.

Patoiit Kolls. being stranded near the Isle of Wight. and despoiled of the wine. | t -^«^«i'i. by English pirates. which formed the €argo. and carried off the wine.violence on the persons and wines of the King's allies and of neutrals. laden with divers wines of Spain. 17d. were plundered in the • .t and l<i Manddeyne. the inhabitants kept the letters of safe conduct shown them. some merchants of Venice. Pratte of Wynchelsea. goods. 19 Thames by Litell Peryn of Sandwich.. March 13th. was seized. was seized by subjects of the King. IV. in spite of the truce. in 1464. CiiWml. called le Martyn de Bayonne^ coming to England under the King's safe conduct. 5 Ed. 1405. | 22d.§ . ni. taken to Portsmouth. HISTORY OP THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. with a cargo of 92 tuns of wine..J In 1466. Part ll. of Spain. Thus.* A ship of Brittany. and merchandise. the ship of one Arnold Trussel. 140i» Part I. IV.. and Fagge of Whytby.« m. who had freighted a crayer to go from Sandwich to London with sweet wines. G Kd. during that same year.

... 3 Ed. 161. 1464. m. IV. Part II. had been committed at or near Belle Isle during that year alone. in.In 1467.. . IV.. January 2nd. t Idem. July 27th. IV. t Idem. which. Other depredations. lid.ra. m.1 V. near Belle Isle. Pateat Rolls. near Belle Isle. it was alleged. m.! Ed. :20d. after Whitsuntide. m.. QEl IV.. 4d. Part II..|| In 1469. a ship with 37 tuns of wine of Anjou . on Tuesday. Complaint of merchants of Brittany of seizures:—On May 17th. 4 E1. Part II. near Belle Isle.23d. ... § Idem. some merchants of Brittany complained that one of their ships had been seized on May 17th. ^ Idem. May 3rd. with a cargo of 37 tuns of wine of Anjou. included the capture of 240 tuns and one pipe of wine from eight different carvels. 1469. 9 Ei. eight Flemish ships laden with wine were seized in the Channel by mariners of Southampton. Part I. m.^ \* Calend. 17d. 1464. Part II. Part II.. aDd 8 Ei IV. Part I... IV. II Idem. 7 Ed. 19d. a carvel of William Morice.

was seized by men of Dartmouth. In 1470. of sweet wine. from a carvel B2 HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. another carvel with 27 tuns. and on the same day and place. a treaty was concluded between the King of France and Henry VI. value £100. a Venetian carrack. since captures of French^ ItaUan. Spanish and Rhenish wines at sea are far from uncommon in the records of his reign.laden with 23 tuns of wine. does not appear to have been binding on Edward IV. how^ever.* This treaty. of Vandordrygh. the ship of John Ochoa^ on its voyage from Spain to England. value £100. J In 1472. near Bollc Isle. with 72 tuns of wine. In 1470. Henry Hermanson. in spite of the truce betw^een Edward IV. also.§ In 1473. with over 400 casks.f In 1471. a San Sebastian merchant had his ship seized and the cargo of 40 casks of Bordeaux wine taken from him. and the King of Castile. who regained the throne in the following year. in . by which the merchants of Bordeaux and La Rochelle were once more permitted to bring their wines to England.. was captured on its way to England by French pirates. whilst English subjects could go in perfect security to all parts of France.

In 1473. a can • . coming from t he parts of Spain.|| of Ivo Giiiok'. 23 tuna of wine. en (Iictes lettres tous nir et descendre tn . 2 tuns fiascon wine from merchant . ct d*Angleterre. Henry Hermanson. and from another. in PVbruarj-. in Holland. anH in tlie }»ort of LaseillcF. had brought 60 tuns of Rhenish wine to« Orwell. and his vessel being at anchor. iictes let tres estoit e faicte du Roy. of Vandordrygh. 4 tuns and 1 her ship . 4 tuns rem another . with also C3 tuns of olc . pirates came and despoiled him of the said wine and other goods. on the Ftiij^t of Corpus Christi. a ship of Ivo ('» lole» with 52 tuns of wine .

11 Idem. XL. 6/4. four ships.nir et descendre tn ur leurs affaires ct wine of Ivo ( pijje from . Vol. and 1 pi I <' another (.. 12 Ed. Part II In 1480. the wane was carried away by the inhabitants as . -i^rojts. § Idem.il Ed IV Parti. 8d.. sauf en ce non comprins Edouart de la Marche."—Histoire do Louys XI. m. Part L. n'aguieres Roy dudit Royaulme d'Anpleterre. laden with over 1. went ashore at Mounterbay.000 tuns of wine and other goods. IV. 13 Ed. I\'. p. m. and although the merchants and crew were saved. PatentRolU.. di. 1714. « of Gascon ' 44 tuns (•• * "E* contenu ! du Ro> mandan ' Angloi** I ce Roy*' marchandises. m. * t C'alend.te Chronique ^candaleuse. jar Jean de Troves Ed. sans t^auf conduits ne autre seureto com me Ics subiets de France. ItU. in Cornwall. * 13. ses ahez et comjiliccs.. p. t Rymer's FoDihra.

. a ship of Henry.f The same fate befell some other Bretons. trusting to the treaty between the King of England and the Duke of Brittany. . 20 K(\. and were despoiled off Topsham by men of that port.saved. bringing wines of Gascony and La Rochelle to England. J On the other hand. bringing wines and other goods to England for that nobleman. some merchants of Brittany. 11 At no period of English history were the fundamental principles of political prudence and economy more utterly disregarded than under the rule of the Lancastrian and Yorkist monarchs. in 1484. 1 Ric. Bent on reaching their ambitious ends by fair means or foul. these princes completely ignored the wise policy of the * Calend.Southampton. \ § Idem. in 1483.* In 1483. the wane was carried away by the inhabitants as wreck of sea. a permission which was granted to them. as also that of selling the said wine in London or .. who were bringing wines from Aquitaine. § These repeated losses did not prevent John de Saere and Anthony Johnson from asking. Patent Rolls. to be allowed to bring Gascon wine in ships of Brittany. were seized by Fowey mariners. Duke of Northumberland. Part U. III. in 1484. pirates of Brittany were accused of having captured and taken to Brest.

t Idem. a calamity which was followed by the far worse evils of civil war. although the growth of the nation's foreign trade was checked by the storms it had to contend with . 4n. lOd. V.. Ait. in 1475. III. foreign expeditions were renewed. MS. 5:1. His son diverted the turbulent energy of the nobility into the channels of foreign struggles. 2 Ric. the wars of the Roses desolated the land.. and when thesfe came to an end. m. who always commanded his officers to do everything in their power to insure the prosperity of the people."so. 4. Emperor Frederick II. fo. 2025.* Henry IV. ra. gained the throne by violence and was forced to resort to violence to retain the supreme power... For twenty years. t Idenit Ed. m.. saying that it waa greatly to his advantage that his subjects should be wealthy.. But.Part U. 197 ve. IV.. Part n. 7d. During the reign of Henry VI. Part II. England was drained of both men and money for a disastrous struggle which ended in the complete loss of all her French possessions. II Harl.

Histoiio Diplomatique dc Fredciic II. (Reg. . in the Parliament that met in November^ 1487.during the greater part of the fifteenth century.) Prsescitim ad omnem Iocu|iIetaHuillard Breholles. it was already too strong to receive more than a temporary injury. and it began to recover activity and prosperity as soon as some degree of tranquillity was restored under the Tudors. 507. His love of gain made him study the interests of the commercial classes and encourage maritime enterprise.. v. II. Thus. Henry VII. restored peace to the country and rendered possible the wonderful progress which was to take place in England during the sixteenth century. although it cannot be said that this thrifty monarch was much beyond his age in the notions he entertained of trade. p. **Xo8tioium fidelium volumus tioncm ficleiium intemlentes... by his energy and some of the wise laws enacted during his reign. fo. trading and traders. 99 verso. t. CHAPTER II. Fieder....'"— utUitatilus provideio cum nostia intersit locuplctcs halere 8ul)jcctos.

* This generous recommendation of the monarch iv^as. considerably discounted by the exclusion of the French wine merchants bringing their wines from Bordeaux. he issued orders to all his subjects HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. had given a proof of the good intentions he entertained towards the trading 'community soon after his accession to the throne. to receive the merchants of France in a friendly manner and without requiring the production of either safe conducts or licences. 1486. the King directed that the Commons attend to the best means to promote the advancement of the trade and manufactures of the country. however. who formed a large proportion of all the French subjects trading with England. On January 17th. commerce was therefore to be promoted by the destruction of commerce. in the Parliament that met in November^ 1487. Henry ordered that" no manner of person of what degree or condition that he . since usury. Henry VII. in mediaeval phrasaDology^ meant the lending and borrowing of money at interest. and " to repress the bastard and barren employment of moneys to usury and unlawful exchanges " .Thus. a most important branch of commercial credit. By a Statute which received Parliamentary sanction in the first year of his reign.

p. to consist of at least a majority of English. S. or Welsh sailors. Ireland. m." The crew of all such ships were. I Hon. Calais or Berwick. Vol. . AimaU of Com-morfo.. This Stututo wuh rtniowiHl it been strictly enforced or loni. Irish. All wine brought to England after Michaelmas contrary to this act was to be forfeited.. Pari. 7iH».manner of person of what degree or condition that he be of. Vll. or Welshman's ship or ships. but such wines as shall be adventured and brought in an English.rine and proved fatal to the English wine trade had • Mnophorson. Soon after. f Stat. besides. Wales. drawn into an unfortmiate quarrel with Charles VIII. any manner of wines of the growing of the Duchy of Guienne or of Gascony. which wouUl have crippled the mercantile mn.! This measure had been adopted by Parliament with a view to stimulate the English shipbuilding trade and maritime enterprise. buy or sell within this said realm [of England]. Henry resorted to the extreme measure of prohibiting to his subjects nil intercourse with France. persevered with. was happily cancelled by the treaty of Etaples in 1492. r.. For ofH-rtuionA oi thr Sturv. I. Irish. from the feast of Michaelmas next now coming (1486). 70. Hot.. This measure.

to go to Bordeaux with similar privileges (October 25th. 1490) . however. to import wine from Bordeaux (October 5th. John Shaa and John Wiltshire. merchants of London.happily cancelled by the treaty of Etaples in 1492. Xt to John Heron. merchants of London. merchant of London. merchants of London. was given a safe conduct to import 220 tuns of wine from Bordeaux. to import 100 tuns of wine of Gascony and Aquitaine (November 14th.** to John Michal and others. Bayonne or Rochelle . merchant of Bristol. and called the " licenced and welbeloved subgiettes of the King. to import 200 tuns of Gascon wine (October 8th. II to John Wheler. f Such licences were also granted to John Persyvale. in August 1488. to import Gascon wine (October 1st. 1490) ." had a similar safe conduct. Previous to this treaty. 1490) . 1490) . to import 100 tuns of Gascon wine of the coming vintage (September 10th. the King condemned his own policy by the grant of very numerous licences and safe conducts to those of liis subjects w^ho wished to go to France and fetch wine. Knight and Alderman of the City of London. 1488) .^ to John Robynson. merchants and subjects of the King.§ to Altobrandine Tanagli and Lewis de Bardes. to go to Bordeaux and bring back any maner of wynes as shal ^please theni (October 24th. merchant of Boston. .% to Philip Payne and Richard Popeley. John Wiltshire.tt ^ John Esterfield. Thus. merchant of London.* Thomas Wyndeout. 1490). 1490) .

to import 200 tuns of wine from Bordeaux to London (November 13th. Rolls Series.* toHenry Brasier. p. merchants of Bristol.. ** Idem. 517. 342. merchant of London.t ta Nicholas Brome and George Minons.. and men of Brittany. to import wine from the lost provinces.Campbell. p. }{ Idem. tt Idem. t Idem. p. 302. merchant of London. 1490)4 Such licences and safe conducts granted to wine merchants rendered the King's prohibition of commercial intercourse between France and England quite illusory. p. 340. Safe conducts were accordingly freely granted to foreigners. to import 200 tonnes of Gascoync wijnes from Bordeaux (July 25th. VII. Vol. § Idem. 518.§ to Peter de Indainta. 512. p. ^ Idem. 1488) . master of the ship Peterde Spinuya to import . 514. p. p. p. The same may be said of the order that no wine of Guienne or Gascony be imported into England except in English bottoms. 513. 1490) . Such licences were granted to John de Scova^ merchant of Spain. a safe conduct for a similar quantity (November 24th. principally Spaniards. to import wine of Gascony and Anjou (November 21st. 505. the resources. t Idem. II. 1490) . Hen. i! Idem. of the national mercantile navy were quite unequal to the importance which this branch of the Englisk wine trade still held. p.

:! Idem. I).. § Jdcmj p. p. II. by way of retaliation the Archduke Philip. 1489) . 1488) . 4(i3. 34. J Idm. when fresh trouble arose over the affair of Perkin Warbeck. expelled all English subjects from his . p. to import 60 tuns of wine from Bordeaux into England (December 9th. '^'i2. to import 300 tuns of Guienne wine from Bordeaux (July 19th.]f to Uomynyk del Mesqueta. master of the ship Peterde Spinuya to import 250 tuns (August 14th. p. 525. p. in Brittany. 5:n.** and to Yvon Michel. 1490).">. VII. 33*<. tt Iiic/n. The trading commuiiity had barely time to rejoice at the normal commercial relations between France and England. 1489) . Vol. * M//I. 45. that he banished all the Flemings out of England and ordered all intercourse between the two countries to cease.Indainta. master of a Spanish ship. sovereign of the Netherlands. oii}. ^ Ifkitif p. subject of the King of Spain. t Jd^m. merchant of Morlaix. KoUs ScricR. which had been resumed as a consequence of the treaty of Etaples. The encouragement given to that adventurer by the Duchess Dowager of Burgundy was so greatly resented by Henry VII."). to import 250 tuns of Bordeaux and other wines (June 30tli.tf Camplx'lK Hon. |).|| to Anthony de Rownc.

" The interruption of trade. Henry VII. Italy. both in the east and the west. and of the wine trade in particular. in the second instance. " began to pinch the merchants of both nations very sore. This branch of commerce derived at the same time much benefit from the wealth accumulating from the great geographical discoveries G. in the first instance. if not actually cordial. the like of which had not been known in Europe for many years. This state of things continued for nearly three years. Schanz. the greater material comforts and increased spending capacity of the public benefited the wine trade directly. Englischo Handelsjiolitik gegen Endo des Mittelalters^ YoL L. soon arranged a treaty for the renewal of commerce.* During the rest of his reign. Such a general peace. having met at London. of the period. which gave rise to prolonged public rejoicings. relations with France. p. Spain and Portugal. it was indirectly affected by the diversion of the King's ambition into new channels. 18. if any^ German wine could have found its way into this country.dominions. was able to maintain friendly." and commissioners from both sides." says Bacon. known as the Intercursus magnus or Great Treaty. during which very little. Flanders.. "The claim to the Crown of . whilst. had a very invigorating effect on the trend of the foreign trade of England in general.

were only granted to those foreign traders who otherwise were not allowed to come to England with their wines.France which Henry VIII. and their command over the conveniences and luxuries of life. they are practically exceptional shipments which did not affect the trade to any appreciable extent.'s reign. They represent. but the considerable quantity of wine which \vas thus imported helps us to form See Ix)rd Herbert of Cherburv. thought of asserting once more was only abandoned. from the number of licences granted by that monarch to merchants and others wishing to import wine. History of Biitish .'' says Lord Herbert of Cherbury. These licences. proceeded at an accelerated rate during the early part of Henry VIII. it must be remembered. servants of the King or their widows. or to noblemen. '* on representations of the far greater advantage to be derived from competition with the Spaniards and Portuguese in the New World/'* The increase in the foreign trade of the country and in the wealth of the people.L. to whom such a favour was accorded in consideration of past services. therefore.t Some idea may be formed of the importance of the wine trade in England during the reign of Henry VIII. Crnik. only a small proportion of the wine imported into England. f ^i.

to import 500 tuns of Gascon wine. 217. to import 200 tuns of woad and Gascon wine. of Spain. a licence was granted to Joan. Groom of the Robes. to Peter and Antonio Lopez.* In 1511. to John Lavell and Thomas Ende.f In 1512. to Peter de la Rea." each to import 100 tuns of Gascon wine. in spite of the fact that Henry had joined the Holy League against France. In 1609. to Thomas Bradley and to Richard Gittons. to import 200 tuns of Gascon wine in the space of two years . and to Giles Duwes. one of the King's " sewers. p. to import 150 tuns of Gascon wine into London. widow of William Menart.Life and Reign of King Henry VIIT. licences were granted to Emma Grey to import 100 tuns of Gascon wine. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. Commerce. licences were granted to James Worsley. merchants of France. to Peter de la Rea to bring a cargo of Gascon wine from Bordeaux . L. and another to Henry Penago. each to import 100 tuns of Gascon wine. of London. to import 300 tuns of Toulouse woad and . 29 an idea of the importance the regular trade in wine must have reached in England during that period. Vol.

1143.. 741. one ship of 120 tons burden laden with Gascon wine and woad. to import 100 tuns of Gascon wine from Flanders. X Idem. I. for four years. Vol. 3424. 1840. 1880. licences were granted to import Malmseys . to John Ware and John Shipman. Yeomen of the Guard. to Robert White. to import 500 tuns of Gascon and French wine. 1137. Grooms of the Chamber. and to John Younge. Dean of the King's Chapel. Letters and Documents relating to the Reign of Henry VIII. to William Atwater. Nos. Nos. to Thomas Brewer. 3009. licences were granted to John Holand and William Walesse. to import 100 tuns of Gascon wine. t Idem. 1944. to import 300 tuns of Toulouse woad and Gascon wine. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. to import ^00 tuns of Gascon wine or Toulouse woad . to Thomas Tyrell. Nos. J In 1513. 1837. also. to Wat-kyn and John Vaughan. to import 100 tuns of Gascon wine. Stotevyle.* In 1514. 402. Master of the Rolls. to bring to England every year. 1140. Master of the Horse to the Queen.. to import 60 tuns of Gascon wine . to Roger Deele. to import 40 tuns of Gascon wine .merchants of Bristol.Lopez. 2058. to Robert .

to Robert Loward. alias Lord. to import 1. to John Lyne and William Turner.200 tuns of Gascon wine . to import 2. alias Lord. to Martin Dupyne. to Robert Loward. 5227. to import 300 tuns of Gascon wine. of London. 42(>0.f In 1515. . to Edward Matthew. 4420. to import 400 tuns of Gascon wine or Toulouse woad . goldsmith. to import 400 tuns of Gascon wine . to John Meawtis.. to import 500 tuns of Gascon wine . cooper. licences were granted to Charles.. etc. was granted * Brewer. 4588 t Idem. Duke •of Suffolk. I. merchant of Genoa. Vol. 4515. each to import 100 tuns of Gascon wine . of I^ondon. 4797. 45S0. Groom of the Chamber. goldsmith. 4552.000 tuns of Gascon wine . merchant of Boston. to import 2. to Giles du Wes. 4834. to William Demies and to William Symons. to import 100 tuns of Gascon wine . 6459. to John Rokes. Henry VllI.. No8. of London. 6233. to Godfrey Darold. to John Eston.burden laden with Gascon wine and woad. the King's French Secretary. 42G1. George Anderson. 4884. 4409. N'oM. to import 100 tuns of Gascon wane. to import 400 tuns of Gascon wine and Toulouse woad . clerk of Sir John Daunce. 4925.000 tuns of Gascon wine . merchants of London. to import 200 tuns of Gascon wine. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND.

to import 20 tuns of Gascon wine. merchant of Rouen. the customs not to exceed £2. Sergeant at Arms. to import 22 tuns of Gascon wine. to John Lavell. to Richard Gresham.* In 1516.31 a similar licence.400 tuns of Toulouse woad and Gascon wine. and to William Symons. to Barnard Toley for 450 tuns. to import Malvesey and other wines. to William Dale. for 60 tuns. de Barbi. licences were granted to John Peter de Bressia to import 500 tuns of Gascon wine and Toulouse woad.061 butts of Malvesey. to import 100 tuns of Gascon wine within two years .000 tans of Gascon wine . to Ambrose Bradman. to John Lyne and John Rokes. to import 300 tuns of Gascon wine . to import 409 tuns of Gascon wine . to John Eston. merchant of Bristol.f In 1517. as also Jacques Rochart and his executors to import 500 tuns of Gascon wine. to import 1.000 . to Peter Wildbank. to import 120 tuns of wine . alias Lord. to import 1. to Jacob Pillino and Peter de Antinariis. to import 2.000 tuns of Gascon wine and Toulouse woad .. to import 1. the King's servant. to import 265 tuns. Groom of the Chamber. Mercer. to Jacques Rochart. merchants of Venice. to Charles. to import 300 tuns of wine. of London. etc. of London. to Edward Forrest. gold. cloth. Earl of Worcester. silk. to Robert Loward. merchant of Florence. cooper. and to . licences were granted to Fras. Chamberlain.

Nos. for 500 tuns . J In 1518. and to John Fazacurley for 400 tuns. 837. 2181. having reasons to doubt Francis I. 384. 19. II. 3704. to Alex. Vol.* In September.. II.John Lavell. under some pretext or other. for 120 tuns . Manseno. Part II. 1948. Part I. t Idem. 1521. 3306. the King feared that those ships might be seized at Bordeaux. t Idem. to Rassinio de Isturisaga.575. 2512. to Richard Gittons.. Vol. Nos. 2582.. 2350. of Gascon wine and Toulouse woad. to Benedict de Opiciis. 822. 792. 793. 2479. asking him whether it would be wise to allow the English fleet of merchantmen to go to Bordeaux as usual at the vintage . 1591. but at the same time he did not . who was then at Calais on a special mission. Nos. 1740. Henry VIIL. to John Meawtis. wrote to Wolsey. Vol. 3381. by the French. for 400 tuns . merchant of Rouen. 2049. the King's French Secretary. 932. for 200 tuns. for 300 tuns of Gascon wine.. II.. 2198. Henry VIIL. 1040.. 2297. 2422.'s good intentions towards England. licences were granted for the importation Brewer. 2999. Pirt I. 3502. for 350 tuns . 1810. 1041. of London.

d7r Part II Xo8. but he adds that caution is necessary. and thus minimise the risk the English mercantile marine would run by trusting to friendly declarations. In a lengthy reply to this enquiry..4300.4389.! In 1533.other. was not followed. Wolsey says that he had obtained from the French Chancellor the assurance that no English vessel should be molested at Bordeaux.. and little faith is to be placed in such promises.. and the English fleet proceeded to Bordeaux. and going to Bordeaux or other French ports. a Bill w^as passed forbidding t he import " ^Brewer.4CH)8. Vol. as had been feared. 4102. King . Wolsey's advice was to allow French and Breton vessels to bring Gascon wines to England. but at the same time he did not wish to give offence to Francis by rendering his suspicions public. and forbidding merchants to go to Gascony to fetch their wines. Henrv Mil. the authority of His Majesty's 4488.x.uj V. some vessels were confiscated by the French authorities. I mv c*«v.. This advice..* iiia majesty s Commissioners. 4(500. where. by the French. however. t State papers publisli^d~'^i. II.

x.. King Henrv VTIT pp. 68.. 02.uj V. ^ ^^-^ of new wine from France before the Feast of the Purification of Our Lady (February 2nd).* iiia majesty s Commissioners. 40. and renewing tlie former prohibition to import wine in other than ..mv c*«v.

to import 200 tuns of Gascon -wine and Toulouse woad. one of the very few acts of piracy recorded at the time. to import 30 tuns of French wine . cap.** Stat.X this was.§ In 1535.* This Bill had. the Scots captured seven vessels. See Calendar of Letters . f In 1532-3. 23 Hen. laden by English merchants with wines and.tlie former prohibition to import wine in other than English vessels. more commonly called the Great Harry^ of 1. who pointed out that it was contrary to the treaties and leagues then existing between France and England. Flanders. to import 100 tims of Gascon wine in vessels of France. VIII.000 tons burden.^ to Robert Porter. however. In 1534. licences were granted to John Res-kemer.other goods . however. Spain or Brittany. Gentleman Usher of the Chamber.|| to Richard Long. Esquire of the Body. to be revoked the following year on account of the representations of the French Ambassador.. John Chereton was granted a licence to import 200 tuns of wine. 27. The greater security of the mercantile marine at •sea was the immediate consequence of the more numerous and more powerful Royal Navy built by Henry VIII.. the pride of which was the Henri Grace a Dieu.

Part I. \o\ IX. 1534. See Calendar of Letters and State Papers relating to the negotiations between England and Spain. 914. and to Edward Rogers and John Zouch. cap. Henry VIII. sec.000 tuns of Gascon wine and Toulouse woad. Calend. 9. 30. to Christian Parke. Vol. Bishop of Tarbes. % Brown. Edite<l by Pascual de Gayangos. 27. Vol... licences were granted to Anthony de Castelnau. VIII. § Gairdner. November 3rd. t Gairdner. for 1. Vol. for 500 tims.. 914. Hen. No. 11.. XV. In 1536. to Gawin Carewe for 500 tuns. VIII. to John Berckle. * to Sir Francis Brian. II Idem.J In 1537. VII. Vol. No. 1030. for 600 tuns . No. for 200 tuns. 1377.. IV. to Charles Howard. p. No. 867. V. Venice. sec.. 347. No. also for 500 tims. Philip van Wylder was again granted a licence . p. to Petro de Gozman. C HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. of State Papers. % I firm. for 300 tuns.t to Philip van Wylder.. to import 50 tuns of Gascon wine . /rfew. 230. sec.Stat. sec. 23 Hen. 18. to import 100 tuns of Gascon wine .

were jointly licensed to import 1. James V. sec. X.In 1537. No. sec.^ in the same year. 49. No. of Venice. VIIL* m. another Italian. and to Antonio. Henry VIII. 8. to buy in London 16 pieces of Gairdner. X Idem. 795. 1539. Vol. surgeon. eec.. 392. was given a licence to import 600 tuns of Gascon wine.000 tims of Gascon wine and Toulouse woad. § Idtm.§ In July. XL. 8ec. his brother . II French RoU. a licence to import 300 tuns of Gascon wine was granted to Jacopo de Basyano. Vol. Part I. No. sec. Philip van Wylder was again granted a licence to import 600 tuns of Gascon wine and Toulouse woad. No.** On January 22nd. 202. No. and George Howard.ll In 1539. his servant. No. Antonio Giabo. t Idem. 48. of Scotland wrote to Cromwell desiring a licence for Thomas Udart. 40. one of the King's surgeons. 28 . Charles Howard. . 2. 17. 1256. 775. 22. 1538. 1417. one of the Gentlemen of the Privy Chamber. 581. 22. No. 24.... VoL XII. to import 200 tuns of Gascon wine or Toulouse woad. sees. and a similar licence was granted to John de Severina. 30 Hen.

the King's jeweller.. 403. /dcm. 264. and to Antonio. 26.. Part I. a London merchant. sec. and to Alard Plumier. subsisted. 20 tuns of Malmsey or other sweet wine. to import 400 tuns of Gascon wine and to export 400 tuns of beer. to import 300 tuns of Gascon wine.J In 1542. a licence was granted to Martin Balkysky. his brother. Henry VIII. of Venice. for the use of his royal master. In 1539.. a licence to import 400 tuns of Gascon wine was granted to William Pagett. to import 50 tuns of Gascon wine. to Jacobo de Bassyano. the English monarch's ire was roused by Francis' curt reply and refusal to agree to a proposed meeting of the two Sovereigns.§ Such licences were freely granted whilst the friendly relations which had been at last established between Henry VIII.PartII. one of the Clerks of the Signet. 49. 1540. another servant of the King of the Scots.. at Calais. 25. No. sees. No. whilst Charles and George Howard were again allowed to import 1. VoL XIV. Malvoisey and other Stark wines.^ Gairdner. where he was invited to bring along with him the Princesses of Guise and all the . and Francis I.000 tuns of Gascon wine and Toulouse woad. licences were granted to George Barne.* and on May 15th. to purchase in England.f In 1540.

sec. sec. then Regent of the Low Countries. 3 . No. No. § Idem. C2 Henry's displeasure and to bring about an open rupture between the Kings of France and England. between the Queen of Hungary. 3. No. t Idtm. 733. there to be chosen or rejected by the humour of the merchant. sec. her . VoL IIl^ p. and Eustace Chapuys. 137. The Bordeaux trade suffered greatly from this renewed hostility. VoL XVII. and licences to go to Gascony were no longer granted so freely.. 1056.handsomest ladies of quality for Henry to choose another victim to succeed his three former wives. was not slow to take advantage of Gairdner. || Charles V. 10. 58.. Part I. 16. sec. 220. t Idem. No. 638. No. they were even refused to the King's allies. VoL XV. "Francis said that his regard for the fair sex was too great to bring ladies of high rank like geldings to a market. No. sec."— Le Grand. on this question of the safe conducts to Gascony. none but English subjects being able to obtain them. No. 49.. 126. Henry VIIL. sec. 780.. VoL XVL. VoL XIV. the subjects of the Emperor. 71. The correspondence which passed.

and she argued that Henry ought to give orders to his admirals not to molest Flemish vessels which were granted such safe conducts by Her Royal Majesty. ought to grant his own safe conducts to those Flemish vessels which the Queen deemed proper to licence for the voyage to Bordeaux. the Queen of Hungary wrote to Chapuys.of the Low Countries. and waged war against France. her Ambassador at the Court of Henry VIIL. On April 8th. you will represent to them that those very considerations have . 1543. moreover. In order to encourage the mercantile and maritime enterprise of his own subjects at the expense of Francis I. now his enemy. were to obtain a royal safe conduct for the voyage. The Queen of Hungary. in 1543 and 1544. Henry had prohibited the importation of wine into England in other than English vessels. is of interest as illustrating the character of the English monarch. which. or else that he. not unnaturally. and Eustace Chapuys. the King. that she had as good a right to grant to her Flemish subjects safe conducts to go to France for wine as the King of England had to his own people .. as follows :—" As to the difficulties which the King makes about granting safe conducts to vessels laden with wine from France on the reasons and considerations alleged by his privy councillors and mentioned in your despatch of April 2nd. claimed. who had espoused Henry's cause.

de Gayangos.. it is indispensable to make provision of wine for the soldier to drink—of which article we already begin to feel the want—we have lately granted permissions to introduce 10. of Letters and Stat« Papers. 3. but in Spanish. it shall not be introduced in French bottoms. We very much wish that the King would give orders for the said wine destined for these Low Countries to be allowed to pass free. German wines cannot be easily procured. . as may be. and that an army is to be raised and put on war footing. . considering that in consequence of the War of Cleves. Part IL.represent to them that those very considerations have hitherto prevented us from granting safe conducts to vessels coming from France to these Low Countries laden with wine. should we require in future more wine. not to what else the French ships might convey besides the aboveGalend. Eustace Chapuys replied to the above as follows :—"I have tried hard to obtain the passport or placet for the twenty ships laden with wine and some with biscuit {les vint navierez chargeez de vin^ et lez aultres de pastel)^ but I have been unable to make this King consent to it. . pp. his principal objection being. 2»9. Edited by P. promising on our part to take care that none of it goes to Scotland . English or Flemish sliips. . but since then. 1643. . besides which.000 tuns of it. .000 tuns of which are already stowed in twenty French vessels. 300. VoL VI."* On April 18th.

2»9. That the price of such a quantity of wine would amount to a terrific sum (horrible denier)^ besides which the wine was of such quality that it could not be carried by waggons in the train of an army without becoming thick and sour in consequence.000 tuns for England and the Low Countries together. did not satisfy the Queen of Hungary. who wrote again on the subject to her Ambassador on May 1st and May 7th. VoL VI. however.000 tuns. 300. or do during their voyage. and that he found it very strange that the licence applied for should be for 10. the King founds his refusal of the pass or licence on the ground that the application seems to have come entirely from foreign merchants having importuned Your Majesty under false pretences."* This concession. or even water. Part IL. letters which Chapuys answered on May 17th as follows:— " With regard to the wine. whereas in time of peace it had never exceeded 6. As to himself. mentioned articles.000 or 6. and likewise because he finds that a considerable sum of money will thus pass into the . pp. He had no objection to grant a licence for the introduction of 6. but on account of the return money which through that means would flow into the pockets of the enemy. he certainly would not.Gayangos. he declared to me that he would rather drink beer.000 tuns for Your Majesty's dominions. than allow his subjects to import French wines as abundantly as they used in former times.. but as to a larger quantity.

Edited by P. to the great indignation of Henry. where they had gone to fetch wines.. J In 1544. the Queen of Hungary wrote again to her Ambassador urging him to make new representations to the King and his Council. VI. in order to recover the losses they have sustained at theii' hands. p. t The last excuse was rendered equally worthless by the fact that. Henry ordered that they should be immediately released.considerable sum of money will thus pass into the hands of the French. who. of Letters and State Papers. which is that a number of his own subjects. presumably to be brought to England. Vol. On January 10th she wrote . our common enemies. will naturally be displeased at the grant of such licences to export. 315. Part II. to fetch wine for his table and that of other distinguished people."* The first argument of the King was not very convincing. those vessels were even captured on their way home by some French and Scottish ships. de Gayango". He still alleges another reason. since he had himself sent several ships to Bordeaux in that same year.. three or four Portuguese ships having been captured on their way to France. with his permission. also in that same year. fitted out privateer vessels against the French. have Calend.

Edited by P. X Idem. writing as follows:— " By previous letters of . t Idem. for the soldiers especially. p. and which cannot be easily procured even from France. and a good deal more injurious to us and to the inhabitants of these Low Countries than to the French. for if the Emperor's Army is not pro\4ded with it in time. the inequality in this * Calend. de Gayangoe VoL VL. that we some time ago granted safe conducts for vessels carrying herrings. 233. they make use of the pretended neutrality of Guernsey for actually communicating. Part IL. p. case would be too glaring and unbearable.to the King and his Council. and we think this all the more unfair that they—^the English—give many such safe conducts for merchants to come to England and we respect them. of Letters and State Papers. which is much wanted. the soldiers will have none till after the autumn. and bartering freely with the French as often as they like without hindrance or restriction of any sort. 331. an article that cannot be kept long. contracting."* On February 9th. On January 10th she wrote :— " The English do not respect the safe conducts we give to merchants to import wine into the Low Countries. Moreover. It is for the sake of wine. especially as to wine nowadays very scarce in Germany. the Queen recurred to the same subject. 331. p. in exchange for French wines.

and tliis is why the said safe conducts were granted. wo might get in return a good quantity of w^ine from that country. have been seized in England. de Gayangos. to return therefrom with wine. generally speaking. which seizure. Vol. but also. when required at the approaching spring season. you must have been apprised of the fact that the Englisli refuse altogether to acknowledge and observe those granted on our side. we apprehend. will be not only exceedingly inconvenient. p. 11. * Henry yielded at last. fearing to lose an ally whose assistance was of so great value to him then." The Queen goes on to say that if the seized vessels were not immediately released. the fisliing industry of her realm would be serioush^ aflected.. most prejudicial to the inliabitants (ynanans) of this coimtry. wlio are in want of wine. VII. writing as follows:— " By previous letters of ours on the subject of the safe conducts. and there would be no wine for the consumption of the Army.subject. under present circumstances. of Letters and State pjners. Edited by P. and it was agreed that in future the English were to respect all . We were in hope that in exchange for those herrings thus exported to France. Caiend. We liavc since heard that vessels of these Low" Countries with a cargo of herrings for France.

with only a Dutch safe conduct. if not openly to London or Bristol. Henry VIII. and whence much French wine was re-exported to England. asking only that an exception might be allowed in favour of vessels forced by stress of weather to enter an English port for shelter. Calend. no foreign vessels. At the same time. of Letters and State PapeiB. to which the prohibition did not apply. the import of French goods was prohibited. leatherseller."!" In 1544. Edited by P. a licence was granted to Anthony White. were to enter any other ports than those of the Low Countries. however.Ja prohibition which was found so injurious to all classes of the community that it was repealed in the autumn of that same year. de . in 1644. even whilst the interdiction was being enforced. the mercantile marine being again called upon to furnish ships towards the fleet to be used against the French.. at least to the Channel Islands. Bordeaux wine was still shipped to England. who had been greatly irritated by the renewed French alliance with Scotland. resolved upon an invasion of France.safe conducts granted by the Queen of Hungary as the Dutch would respect those granted by the King of England . A large and powerful naval force was collected. But. Thus. The Queen expressed herself satisfied with this agreement.

89. 1545. and to be paid for at tl\o rato of :U>s. 14th. Ivfore Midsummer next. the Duke of (Movos and othors uso to drink." ami William Wurdon. ami to Thomas Gosslyng. merchant of the Steelyard. p. after thov had first brought hither M)i\ ohnus o{ Khouish wim\ which they had bound thomsolvoH U^ bring to London for the King's use before ('hristmas noxt. John Grousby. pp. Nos. 1544. and to l>o of tho bo8t sort. Feb.t . such as the Emperor. XIX-. VIL. Henry VIIL. and. at tho Siune measure and |>rioo. t Idem. to briuK »^t() the realm 25 tuns of Gascon wine from the ])art8()t Ouornsoy. won> grant od a lioenco to export 800 tims of beer before Mii^haolmas. " gentleman.* To try ami make good in a certain measure the (lom'oaso in the imports of Gascon wine into England. por ohuu Tlieir bond further com-poUod tl\om to bring Wfon^ Raster next as much more UH sl\aU u\ako 4tH> tuns. merchant of London. X Gairdner. 54. oaoh ohm to contain 36 gallons. whii^h tho war with France was bound to cause. 40-42. 45. Vol. In Novombor.. Part I. Vol. encouraj^omont soems to have been given to Englishmen ami Gormans to import greater quantities of Rhenish wino. tho rou\aindor of StH> t\ms.Gayangos. 1543.

<.lu KMS. except in English ships. however. into * \UvxnI»w4. They were speedily joined by a few discontented Frenchmen of similar tastes. attacking any Spanish vessel or ship from the Low CoTintries that they could discover. A number of young men of good families fitted out some small vessels. ladou \vitl\ wino of iia^^ovmv tW the King's |mw\siou. and cruised in the Channel.^d. u. and does not appear to have been renewed. K\4^. 1552. was repealed.K Sir b\ IX^xxtrt^v asked lor ji lu'ouoo to uui^M't KiHH^ tuns of xvino § ' hy »vVM thoSt. One of the . it was decreed that " on and after February 1st."* This permission. J " England.. and were. a distinct menace to maritime commerce. a regularly organised system of downright piracy prevailed in English waters.^oapturtHl bv tho S^vt^ and taken to ^>u SojMoudvr ^iSth.MMhdMtuv^ tho uu.Mvt. After the death of Edward VI.. it shall be lawful for any manner of persons of nations in amity with the King to bring Gascon and French wine to England in their own ships in all security. four Kn^iiUsh vossols coming fn>m Bor-iloau\.a. and as far as the Bay of Biscay. chiefly in the ports of the West of England. was only granted for a year.n*«n \ui.uiou of i.vNor.vuv xvir.umoof 4 Uoury VlL c. \y * V . U\ . for a time.

of State Papers. Venice. Addenda. was captured off Sark. 18. which were to become the headquarters of this piratical fraternity. 831. in the port of Plymouth. t R.. the French captured. who had gone so far as.distinct menace to maritime commerce. Comewall-Jones. 43-44. of State Papers. vin. J. i In 1553. cap. Vol. and bound for London.pp. J and in spite of higher duties levied * Statutes of the Realm. in spite of the risks they ran at sea. besides attacking and robbing the ships. 5 and 6 Ed. Stat. Calend. and Mary caused great prejudice to the merchant shipping in general. Vol. One of the principal leaders of this gang was Sir Thomas Seymour. Calend. to Actually murder the crews. a Venetian flhip laden with wine. Mary. p. VL. and to the wine trade in particular. The British Merchant Service. Domestic Series.f The decay of the Royal Navy during the reigns of Edward VI. he had formed the project of seizing the Scilly Islands. laden with some Frenchmen's wines. In 1557. native as well as alien merchants never ceased to bring to this country large quantities of wine. a Guernsey ship. . in England. But. V.

to Venice. even their Sovereigns. barley. but in lieu of wine they make beer. religious. but it is sold at a . rather than anything else. and producing a contrary result by reversing the process. and making it stronger or weaker by adding more wheat and less barley. one Florence de Diaceto applied for a licence to import 4. as the grapes do not ripen save in very small quantities. the Venetian Envoy in London.for which there must have been a ready market. and from France. Spain. and commercial turmoil which prevailed when Queen Mary ascended the throne. Thus.000 tuns of French wine. partly because the sim has not much power. so that the grapes wither. it is explicitly stated that the English drank a great quantity of Levant. which is brought from Candia. although they also consume a great quantity of wine. with wheat. 1554. and partly because precisely at the ripening season cold winds generally prevail. Rhenish and French wines :— " Although they have vines they do not make wine of any sort. This potion (potione) is most palatable to them. the Rhine. boiling all the ingredients together in water. the plant serving as an ornament for their gardens. even during the unsettled period of political.* In a report sent in August. in 1654. and hops. which [last ?] they import from Flanders. and all persons drink it. by Soranzo. Spanish. this last being prized more than the rest. on which an additional duty had lately been imposed.

.. Domestic Seiies. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. £11 5s. The wine trade was directly affected."* In the following reign another foreigner. and the national prosperity rose accordingly. 1547 -1580.e. though the soil is productive. and greatly benefited by an Act passed in Elizabeth's first Parliament. "t In the course of the long reign of Elizabeth the commerce and navigation of England made very striking progress.). a Oerman. CalenU of State Pai^ere. Rhenish and Spanish. so that it is usually worth from 36 to 40 ducats per butt. p. wrote as follows : ". J which is remarkable for a liberality of view going far beyond the notions that were clung to in commercial legislation in much later times. but this want is supplied from abroad by the best kinds as of Orleans. travelling in England.last being prized more than the rest.. it bears no wine. 45 and in his (Soranzo's) time it cost as much as 50 ducats (i. The . but it is sold at a very high price. G4. Gascon.

" other foreign princes. by Brown. 542. reason whereof there hath not only grown great displeasure between the foreign princes and the Kings of this realm.commercial legislation in much later times. as thinking that the same were made to the hurt and prejudice of their country and navy. V. Venice.. Since the enactment of these laws prohibiting the import of wine in any but English ships. late Earl of Orford (1797). t Paul Hentzner'a Travels in England daring the Reign of Queen Elizabeth. p." says this preamble. p. consisted in the monopoly . Vol. " finding themselves aggrieved with the said several Acts. i Statutes of the Realm. of course. of State Papers. but also the merchants have been sore grieved and endamaged. 62. The preamble is a confession of the loss and inconvenience that had already avenged the interference of the legislature with the natural freedom of commerce by the introduction of the prohibitive and restrictive navigation laws.'' The damage sustained by the merchants. cap. 13. translated by Horace.. have made like penal laws against such as should ship out of their countries in any other vessels than of their several countries and dominions. Stat. Calend. 1 Eliz.

Do. On June 22nd. 242. The law was now so far relaxed that wine and other merchandise was allowed to be imported in foreign bottoms upon payment of aliens' customs. on October 29th.* The liberal policy which had marked the opening of Elizabeth's reign was often checked by subsequent political events. This more liberal policy was further carried out by the grant of licences for the import of considerable quantities of wine. 241. the effect of which was to diminish trade by diminishing consumption. consisted in the monopoly freights they were obliged to pay for the carriage of their goods. . of course. a permission sanctioned by an Order in Council a few days later. notwithstanding the statute to the contrary. Elizabeth permitted French subjects to import wines in their own vessels. 1658.000 tuns of French wines at a reduced custom duty of 4 marks per tun. A more comprehensive permissive ordinance was again enacted in December. the Queen granted to the Lord Privy Seal and Sir Henry Pagett a licence for five years to import yearly 10. 1564. pp.I f Idem.merchants. when all foreigners whose Sovereign was not Caleml. but never wholly abandoned. and a share in the pressure of which was borne by every consumer in the kingdom.t for a limited period at the end of which it was not renewed. Thus. 1579. of State Paix»r8.

or whosoever be thereof master or shall be mariner or mariners in the same. 1547-1580. and authority to aU. boat or boats.I f Idem. and power. or proprietor. now used to be sold and uttered within this her (the Queen's) realm of England. is pleased and contented by this Her Highness' proclamation. crayer or crayers. pp. for avoiding the great and excessive prices of wines of the growing of the realm of France. owner. to convey and bring. mestic Sories. 242. to give and grant full licence. p. liberty. in any ship or ships. which shall be in the year of our Lord God 1580. 1680. and the same wines to utter and sell in . and every person and persons. 241..Caleml. I at war with the Queen were allowed to bring Gascon and French wines to England in their own ships. all manner of wines of the growing of the Duchy of Guienne or Gascony. of State Paix»r8. being of any realm. vessel or vessels.. at all times from the day of the date of this present proclamation. whatsoever person or persons be or shall be thereof possessor. or of any other part or parts of the said realm of France. 109. Do. this permission. and dominion. being of a coimtry in amity with Her Majesty. was as follows :— " The Queen's Most Excellent Majesty . until March 20th. whatsoever. or cause to be conveyed and brought into this Her Majesty's realm of England and dominion of Wales. country. and without obtaining any special licence. which was only granted until March 20th. being in amity with Her Highness.

f Although outrages at sea. at London. nine from Scotland. At the close of the sixteenth century. returned on December 12th. Spain. and thirty-four from the Low Coimtries. was expected to arrive in London on December ISth. two from Tripoli. during the month of January alone. two from Caen. Bordeaux. and the same wines to utter and sell in grosse in any part of this her realm of England or dominion of Wales. In 1597. ten from Dantzic. the following vessels arrived at the London quays and docks:— Twenty-six from Bordeaux. subsidies and other duties to be charged for the same. 22 Eliz. during the reign of Queen Elizabeth. one from Rouen. one from Venice. the foreign trade of England had become very active. 16. and. two from Stade. were not nearly of so frequent occurrence as . three from Hamburg. which continued to go to Gascony at every vintage. not the most propitious for shipping."* Letter Book Z. by far. fos 14b. 1597. one from Dieppe. and ships from all parts of Europe were to be seen in the Thames.the same. Burgundy. The Bordeaux fleet. in the following year. six from Spain.* or ninety-seven in this month. bringing the wines of the Levant. paying to Her Majesty the customs. (1579). and the Rhine.

In 1566. some were still perpetrated from time to time. 467. mestic Series. Addenda. In 1670. No.Elizabeth. No. by some French Huguenot vessels. 45. to Beerhaven. Vol. 1 aden with wines.* In 1681. two French ships seized an English vessel. were not nearly of so frequent occurrence as formerly. Domestic Scries. was captured by Captain Pelley. Part VIL. XIIL. was seized and sunk by . 118: Part VIII. laden with wine. laden with %vine. p. Venice. a Venetian sliip.f In 1591. a Newhaven vessel on her way from San Lucar. 303. off the Yorkshire coast. Do J Cnlend. in Spain. of Stnto Papcrp. t Salisbury MSS. VIL. in Ireland. Calend. of State Pai.crs.. p. 507. j). Vol. to London. where the wine was sold. an English ship took a Flemish hulk..ij: In 1569. was captured on her way to England. with a cargo of Sack. 1505-ir)97. of State Papcre.§ Calend. the Mary of Aldemey coming from Nantes with wines. § Brown.

being forced into Falmouth by stress of weather. 1.§ In 1592. laden with wines. 2 hogsheads. to obtain the release of his ship and wine. in 1593. 1597. Sir John Gilbert reported the capture of certain Portuguese of the Madeiras. of Hamburg. an Englishman. or. John Claen. taken in a Dutch ship. VoL . which he had captured at sea. the White Lion. and had been seized off the coast of Portugal. Addenda.to London. the Duke of Cumberland brought in to London a prize consisting of no less than 143 ships in all. 65 butts and 40 pipes of Maliaga. 1601. was seized and sunk by Webb and others.984 casks of wine. but apparently with little success. with a cargo of Sack. State Papers. laden with wines from Rochelle. including the following wines : —225 pipes of bastard wine. and the unfortunate owner of the wine. was arrested by George Lake. a ship was brought into Plymouth which was laden with wine from the Straits.^ In August. 142 pipes of Canary. petitioned Lord Treasurer Burghley.** * Calend. 1599. in all. Domestic Series.|| In August. 26 pipes of Alicant. who pretended that he could not have law at Hamburg. 81 pieces of Rhenish wine. and which were laden with many commodities. 579 butts of Sack. 814 tuns. and 10 tierces of Gascon wine.§ In May.

t Idem. subsidies and the gauge tax. as well as those appointed by municipalities to enforce. D CHAPTER III. Domestic Series. p. No. 291. assist or limit this important branch of commerce. 16011603. (I Calend. 99. S Idem. Addenda. of State Papers.* Calend. } Idem.. but it was likewise affected to a considerable extent by the legislative and mimi-cipal regulations by which Kings. also on the degree of security aiforded to the mercantile marine and the consequent abundance or scarcity of wine brought to this country. 334. 432 t Idem. Parliaments and Corporations attempted to control. Idem. 26. the wine merchant in England had to satisfy the Royal officers who levied customs. 17. VoL XXVIL. VoL XVII. pp. 1591-94. Whether a native or a foreigner. not only that no . 329. 15951597. Do< mestio Series. State Papers. 319. 1598-1601. 84. p. The prosperity of the English wine trade depended largely on the more or less friendly relations existing between England and Continental Powers. 1691-94. p. No. p.

had ever since remained fixed at 2s.* At the time of its imposition the rate of the butlerage was about the same. The average price of a tun of wine was then about 50s. or a little less favourable to the merchants. This custom was the direct outcome of the unbounded prerogative of the monarch to demand and take from his subjects. and the merchant-vintners of Aquitaine. The prisage. The prisage was the right of the Crown to take 2 tuns of wine out of every English vessel bringing 20 or more tuns of wine to England. per cask. was never granted by Parliament.. than the prisage which the native traders had elected to go on paying.appointed by municipalities to enforce. so that the alien who . The taxes levied by Royal officers on wine before it could be sold in England were the prisage. the recta prisa. not only that no wine be sold without a licence. the butlerage. and it was only levied on the wines of English subjects. it w^as never mentioned in any of the commercial treaties between England and foreign powers. or. nor limited by Statute. as it was originally called. and the gauge. but also that the price and the quality of the wine sold be of the standard fixed by authority. the subsidy or tunnage. this duty. for his use and that of his Army. which had been agreed to between Edward I. a' certain supply of the necessaries of life. in 1302. Aliens or French subjects of the English monarchs paid butlerage in lieu of prisage .

whilst the alien still paid at the same rate of 2s. in sacrificing out of every cargo two tims of wine. greatly resented by the native traders. and See History of the Wine Trade in England. the prisage had gradually become more onerous. the price of which had doubled. the native vintner paid now twice as much as formerly to the Crown.. and the native merchants paid the same on a similar cargo by sacrificing two tuns of wine valued at 50s. they laid their grievance before Kichard II. if the native merchants agreed to pay the same butlerage of 2s. This inequality of treatment was.. naturally enough. viz. at the end of the fourteenth and during the fifteenth century... but he offered to renounce entirely the Crown's right to the recta prisa. so that the alien who imported 50 tuns of wine paid £5 butlerage. Vol. and to pay the King 20d. as the price of wine had increased to over £5. for each " prisable " pipe. per tun. on . as paid by the aliens. for every other pipe of the cargo. and lOd. each. complaining of the excessive rate of the prisage. UI D2 praying to be relieved of this impost. two out of each cargo. per tun.of wine was then about 50s. I. p. But. and was thus placed in a more favourable position than the merchant denizen. Richard refused to entertain such a proposition.

a duty very onerous for one who only imported 50 or 60 tuns of wine at a time. to take from every ship containing 30 tuns or above. as paid by the aliens. first of all by claiming an exemption of prisage on small cargoes of less than 30 tuns of wine. per tun. II. yet Rot. the Commons presented their petition in Parliament. and in every port of the realm. who elected to still pay the prisage of 2 tuns per cargo of wine... Bishop of . by way of prise. Nevertheless. 2 tuns at most. In 1400. complaining that whereas in ancient times there was granted to the then King and his heirs. per tun for the wealthy trader who could import 200 or 300 tuns. or even more.. Vol.* This offer was rejected by all the English merchants. the London vintners and other English merchants tried to render the burden of the recta prisa lighter. the privileges of London and the Cinque Ports notwithstanding. failing in the first they were only partially successful in the second of these two objects. in the large ships which were built from the close of the fourteenth century onwards. III. 16 Ric. John.same butlerage of 2s. and then seeking to obtain for certain ports a total immunity from this custom. but far more advantageous than the butlerage of 2s. Pari. in the reign of the late King Kichard II. on all wine landed in England.

. John. however. and the amount at which they could redeem the two tuns the Crown claimed as . Denizens who did not enjoy the freedom of the City. The Commons were more successful when they urged the renewal of the privileges of exemption from prisage which had been granted in the past to London and the Cinque Ports. 2 tuns against the usages and customs of the Southern and Western ports existing from time immemorial and contrary to the grant of the prisage aforesaid. and the merchants obtained from the monarch that a uniform rate be fixed and maintained. being then Treasurer of England. it was.in the reign of the late King Kichard II. and for their own wines only. ^'non existentes liberi homines civitatis Londonie. wrongfully and without authority of Parliament. caused the then Butler of the Crown to take of every ship laden with 20 tuns or more. specified that this exemption could only be claimed by freemen of the City or barons of the Cinqu'^ Ports. The fluctuations in the value of wine from year to year rendered the prisage a very unstable duty.* This petition was bound to be rejected. Bishop of Salisbury. whereas no such sanction had ever even been asked by any of Henry's predecessors. since it was based on the assumption that prisage had been granted formerly by Parliament.^^ had to pay prisage at London t as at any other port. representing the average value of a tun of wine.

or 6s. Thus.could redeem the two tuns the Crown claimed as prisage . The subsidy differed from the prisage and butlerage. ParJ. per tun on French or Rhenish wine. 4s. III. A History of the 477. being a parliamentary grant in excess of either of these imposts which were levied by virtue of the Crown's prerogative. at £3 by Mary. or 3s. always selected by the legislator for extra taxation. " 3s. the Commons granted to Edward VI. Parliament granted a subsidy of 2s. according to the needs of the time. on every tun of wine coming in to the kingdom.." * In 1547. but the rate at which it was charged differed with the origin of the wine imported or the nationality of the importer. pp. per tun of wine imported in England by alien merchants. . and £6 per tun by Elizabeth. or tuimage. the butlerage remained fixed. at 2s. it was fixed at £4 per tun under Henry VIII. of 3s.. Parliament granted a subsidy of 6s. on every tun of sweet wine to Edward IV. from the first.. when. | t Hubert Hall. also to Henry VII. more on every tun of sweet wine. whilst Rot.. was paid by alien and native merchants alike. the " same subsidy called tunnage. Vol. 109. throughout the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.. and of 3s. The subsidy on wine. i Custom Revenue in England. was charged on all sweet wines which were.

£120 from the subsidy of 6s. his physician.* The subsidy on wine appears to have been a personal grant to the monarch. Materials for a His. . cap. who was not bound to expend the proceeds thereof to national ends. This vessel having been captured at sea by French pirates. 1 Ed. " 3s. what nation soever he be. and every tun of sweet wine. pp. VT.'' f Campbell. granted to Dominic de Serigo. 240. and so after the rate . and so after the rate over and above the 3s. as well Malvesie as other that shall or is to come into the same your realm by every or any merchant alien. Edward IV. hi granted to Dominic £150 from the same subsidy on any sweet wine brought by the two first Venetian carracks to reach England. above granted. And of every ohm of Rhenish wine 12d. 3s. on every tun of sweet wine brought in a Venetian carrack shortly expected to arrive in England.In 1547. the Commons granted to Edward VI. as well as by merchants of the Hanse and Allmain as by any other merchant stranger. in 1472. i This grant was renewed in favour of Queen Mary to last during her life. Thus..| t Statutes of the Realm Stat torv of the Keignof Henry VII. tunnage on every tun of wine imported by way of merchandise.. i:\ 245. f .

a special duty was sanctioned by Henry VII. m. and tunnage. c. when the Venetians imposed a duty of 18s. by way of retaliation. 1 | % See in/ra^ Chapter X. Patent Rolls. when the wholesale price of wine was fixed by authority at £12 per tun of Gascon wine. 8d. on all Malmseys brought to England by Venet'ans. < Custom Revenue in England. other taxes and customs were from time to time levied on certain wines brought to England. 12 Eel.| § Hubert Hall. if the purchaser paid all the duties. BlaruB. and Elizabeth imposed an additional duty of one mark per tun on all French wines. t Calend. No pound. Stat. beyond the butlerage and subsidy.J Queen Mary imposed a new custom of 6s. in 1553..§ It is not possible to estimate quite accurately * Statutes of the R^alm. Thus. the total amount of duties and taxes levied on wine imported into England before the latter part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. according to their quality or the nationality of the importers.Besides the prisage. 18. A History of the age cluurgedonwiDe. Part L. per butt on all sweet wines. 2. IV. Stat. . or £14 13s. 13. butlerage. per butt of Malmsey shipped from Candia in English bottoms. and this duty remained in force long after the repeal of that imposed by Venice.

1592. the charge is estimated at £1. apparently.* The customs amounted. therefore all ships bringing any wines into this realm before November 30th. for instance. and the league towns.7b. to £2 13s. t Calcnd nf Sfo*^ n~ ^ . if the purchaser paid all the duties.fo8. per tun. and additional duties levied on wine imported into England and. having received advertisements of some ships of war being prepared in Dunkirk. Letter Book Z. This appears.9."t The subsidies. which is to be taxed upon the goods of such as may "be benefited thereby. from the dominions of the French King. shall rateably contribute and pay towards such charge. taxes. Newhaven. lOf)!). the privileges of certain towns. 8. or Rochelle. on the other hand. and to his deputies in fifteen different ports. has set out two of her ships for their better defence . if these were paid by the seller. Taxes were also levied from those wine merchants who had derived some benefit from special measures taken for their safety and entailing an expense which it was thought just to lay to their charge. farmer of the imposts. Charente. " Her Majesty. from the following Order of the Council to Peter Haughton.wine. 4d.282. the exemptions granted by the monarch to noble and commoner alike whose loyalty or services deserved recognition. to surprise the ships of her subjects on their return from Bordeaux. or £14 13s. 4d.

these deputies. paid to obtain an office which they were expected to make yield a certain amount.. instead of being paid for their pains. 202. a share in all the surplus being left to them. etc. The farmer appointed deputies in the provinces to levy customs in the different out-ports.. 22 and 25 KHz. his offer was readily accepted as the easiest. during Elizabeth's reign. an enterprising financier proposed to farm the customs at a fixed yearly rental. With the prevalent spirit of monopolies which is one of the characteristics of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. means of introducing some measure of certainty in the revenue the Royal Exchequer was to derive from the different imposts on wine. lOgulaoiySo renders any approximate estimate of the yield of this branch of the national revenue well-nigh impossible. sometimes even to a different person than he who farmed the impost on Rhenish wine. When. As the farmer of the Customs himself had never but a very limited time to remain in office.^ 109. mcUc Series. we find the impost on French wines farmed out at a fixed rental. if not the best. he and his personally-appointed deputies in all parts of England were anxious to make their office pay as rapidly as .

It is difficult to state what is the value of the office. some others it has been double that sum. unless to serve myself or a friend. not having the books . it would make them forbear occupying. Exactions and injustice were the natural consequences of this system. when their best wines are taken from them . and never crossed any favour that he could find at the other officers' hands at the Custom House. for they account their sale of the rest almost defaced. and wine being a merchandise of no great gain when they have best favour. and in dealing with the merchant. if they should have extremities showed them from all parties. agreeing to pay for it £14. all depends on the use of it. After saying that he accepts the office. which. for though some years it has not been worth 100 marks (£66 13s. he continues thus: "I think it the best for both. A letter of Edward Tremaine. gave me instructions to deal as I did. and this office would be little worth. throws much light on the extraordinary manner in which the collection of the customs was carried out. Mr. but compounded for ready money. as his predecessor did. A. Throckmorton considering. Working after this . 4d. showing him great favour in price and payment.were anxious to make their office pay as rapidly as possible. deputybutler of Devonshire.). although some deputybutlers tried a more ingenious method to swell their revenue by attracting merchants to the ports under their control by the promise of fair and generous treatment. I very seldom took wine out of any ship. to Sir Nicholas Throckmorton.

gave me instructions to deal as I did. did all he could to ."* The competition for the farm of the customs was always keen and sometimes even very bitter.Easter and Michaelmas. Alderman Haughton. the next year about £200. I know nothing of Dorset and Somerset but recommend my countryman. more claret having been brought in this year than in the three former years. Working after this sort. These years past all has arisen upon sack. near about £30. If you bind yoilrself so that you be restrained from showing the merchant HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. and out of what is made you shall be fully answered and paid at. when £60 would have paid the Exchequer . his predecessor in that office. Peter Wilkes for anything you commit to him. 59 favour. I offer to use it for you as you shall instruct. the then farmer of the imposts on French and Rhenish wines. when John Swinnerton. Thus. when £30 might satisfy the Exchequer . in March. approached the end of his contract. you will either drive him from bringing wines or else to entering them in Cornwall or other ports out of your grant. making other offices more gainful than your own. 1595. I made in money (above my £20 and pipe of wine yearly) the first year £120. the third year about £60 the Exchequer.

f At the same time.050 tuns . to provide 200 tuns of wine for the Queen's household. Domestic Series. and Chichester as before. He circulated the news that the Spaniards were at hand. at the Queen's price of £9 per tun. in return. unless the merchants compound for the same . Eliz. complaining of these unfair proceedings. 1565. he asked for the grant of a ten years' lease and a yearly commission to take wines in London.* . ready to intercept the fleet ready to sail for Bordeaux. Haughton also wrote to the Queen. Swinnerton wrote to the Queen. doing his best to prevent strangers from bringing wines in. but was willing to continue on the same terms as in the past if Her Majesty placed her confidence in him. he also asked Exeter. did all he could to discredit him and prevent him from remaining in charge. that merchants be allowed to bring in wines in foreign bottoms when no English ships were available. p. Southampton. 18. of State Papers.. he declared himself quite ready to give up his office at Michaelmas. t March 20th. Domestic Series. VoL XII. 1596. he accused Swinnerton of keeping back a large quantity of wine. Addenda. and to make the usual allowances to the nobilitv to the extent of 1.000 a year rent for it. March 29th. 159&-1597. Calend. of State Papers. asking that the said office be granted to himself. Calend.ton. his predecessor in that office. and oilering to pay £10.

and increased the rent paid for the office to £13. J In 1698. collected no less than £34. .000 yearly rent. and was not successful. 6d. the Exchequer was offered £14.000.867 16s.t This result was all the more disappointing considering that a merchant—Lawrence Smith— had been given £100 a year to survey and watch the quantities of wine which would be brought to London during that year and on which customs ought to be pa id. and in 1699.. The fault. £15. lid. 1697 and 1698. besides 200 tuns of wine for the Queen's household.* This offer was rejected and the tender of Swinner-ton. Then an attempt was made to have the customs collected by Royal officers.000. this attempt does not appear to have lasted more than two years. whilst the farmers of the customs had offered a yearly rent for the office of £13.692 12s. however. who only asked for a yearly grant. was accepted for the ensuing year.bottoms when no English ships were available. John Swinnerton. since the Queen could not make the customs yield so much when she kept the farm in her own hands. since the profit reaped by the Royal Exchequer in twelve months amounted to £10. to whom the farm of the impost on French and Rhenish wines was again granted for the year 1599-1600. a tender which was readily accepted.000 a year. must have rested entirely with the collectors appointed by the Queen either through corruption or ignorance. duties on wines.

1595-1597.405.867 16s. his net profit amounted to £14. there had remained to your Majesty but £10. in London alone. 1598. £11. p. 1597.462 16s. lid.* On July 20th.| f Idem. to Michaelmas. deducted from £11.. and by the out-ports.. 6d. 19. that by Sir Henry Billings-ley. collector of the subsidy on wines. £911 7s. £3. p. 500. lid. 61 months only. gives you a clear profit of £6.592 12s.841 7s. Do. 8d. you . 6d. p. of State Papers. including £16. lid. He paid to the Exchequer £20. duties on wines. 248.385 12s. collector of the impost on French and Rhenish wines for the port of London. 1599. The collectors have had help that the farmers had not. mestic Series. making £793. and during nine Calend. 1600. Bevis Bulmer wrote to the Queen as follows :—" The amount collected by John Cage. more upon every tun than the collectors. from Michaelmas.. exclusive of all moneys collected at the outports. | j Idem.385 12s. which. 1698-1601. total. £370 was saved this year in the bills of impost upon 200 tuns of wine. between September. 1599.collected no less than £34. and June..000 for the yearly rental of his office.. which amounts to £423.632 18s. HISTORY OP THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. 15951597. and the farmer allowed 10s. 3d.

500 more. and there shall be £10." f Representations and complaints respecting the * Calend. corrupt or defective way customs on wine were collected. Id. and all bills of impost and other charges to pay. 445.000 a year and 200 tuns of good wine. and the other £4.000 rent by the farmers. No wine was allowed to be sold before it had been lawfully gauged and bore the ganger's mark. of State Papers.000 rent paid at Michaelmas next. 1608-1601. —The ganger was a royal officer. as less wine by 1. lid. • arbitrary. 446. t Idem. pp.000 next half year. but always beforehand. whose duty consisted in ascertaining the contents of the tuns.. pp. Domes-tio Series.592 12s. casks and other vessels in which wine was brought to England. If you please to grant the same in farm.600 tuns is likely to come in this year. Gauge. . so if the saving by the impost had not taken place you would have lost £2. you will have £14. you will lose £1.407 7s. you were offered £13. and.remained to your Majesty but £10.* remained practically fruitless. 15981601. 447. it was left for the Stuarts to set this branch of the national finances on a more sound footing. 248. and the enormous losses entailed on this account by the Exchequer..

252 gallons. coming by way of merchandise into this land out of strange countries. nor make within the same realm. the object of which was more particularly the lawful size of casks shipped from Bordeaux. 144. . a tun of wine except it contain of the English measure 252 gallons. the following Statute was enacted. by device and subtlety now late. whereof special remedy was prayed in Parliament . such vessels have been of much less measure. that is to say. hogsheads of Gascoign wine. 126 . fo 7^ ' ^^^^' Easter next coming. In 1423. and also made in the same land. from what comitry soever it be. was re-enacted by Henry IV. which were alleged to hold less than in the past:— " Whereas in old time it was ordained and lawfully used that tuns. p. to the great deceit and loss of the King and of his people. 63 gallons. 1601-1C03. Bo. after the end of twelve months from the Feast of Calend.I +12 Wpn TV a -i «. should be of certain measure. etc. nevertheless. the tun of wine. the pipe.. pipes. ~^ mestio Series.f and amplified on three distinct occasions by Henry VI. tertians. as to the gauging of wine. of Stat« Papers. the hogshead. | Letter Book I.The Statute of 27 Edward III. it is ordained and stablished that no man. 8. shall bring into the realm of England. cap..

upon pain of forfeiture of the same wine. tierces. pipes. hath granted and ordained by authority aforesaid. all manner of tuns. but for the gauging of tuns and pipes of oil and honey. to the great damage of the King and of his people. vendible within the realm of England ought and were wont. hogsheads of wine. The seller to allow the buyer any deficiency in the capacity . this Statute was supplemented by the following :— " Because all the tuns.of the English measure 252 gallons. before they be sold. and by divers Statutes it hath been ordained that the tuns and pipes of wine shall be gauged. to contain a certain measure. pipes. or the value of same. 126 gallons. shall be well and lawfully gauged by the King's ganger or by his deputy. according to the ancient assize of the same realm. every tertian four score and four gallons. tertians and hogsheads as well of wine as of oil and honey. etc."* A few years after.. that from henceforth. that is to say. upon pain to forfeit to the King all the wine. to be sold within the realm. and so after the rate the tertian and the hogshead of Gascony wine. every tun twelve score and twelve gallons. the pipe. every pipe six score and six gallons. the King willing against this damage to provide a remedy in this behalf. and every hogshead three score and three gallons . no ordinance hath been made in certain before this time. or of tertians or hogsheads of wine. oil and honey contrary sold.

at the most. knowing how much of this wine is wanted in the realm. another Statute was deemed necessary to decree that " the penny. until he or his deputy hath gauged the wine. Stat. or 63s. .* Statutes of the Realm. who sought to regulate the contents of the butts of Malmsey. shall not be paid to the gauger nor to any other in his name. cap. 2 Hen. . 1423. which contained 140 gallons each. the preamble of this Act contains information as to the price of this sort of wine in England.. VL. and also that he or his deputy be ready to do the office of gauger in all places wherever required."t No further legislation on the matter occurs before the reign of Richard III. . by the craft of these merchant strangers. which is called gauge penny. and other detaUs which are sufficiently interesting to be reproduced here:— " Complaint in Parliament that butts of Malvoisie used to be brought in greate plentee previous to the year 1449. and some 132 gallons. . But now. 14. and the smallest of them 126 gallons. besides which. and the gauger to receive a penny per tun or pipe gauged. of the vessels sold. to be paid two parts in woollen cloth and a third in cash."* Ten years later. a butt of Malveseye barely holds 108 gallons . and that a man might buy of the merchant strangers a butt of such wine for 60s.

hurt. nor any manner of vessel with any manner of wines. and by authority of the same. from the Feast of Saint Michael the Archangel.- . and establish in this your present Parliament. In consideration of which hurtes and damages aforesaid. Stat. please it Your Highness of your most bounteous and benign grace.) ready money. Every tun to hold six score and six gallons . for to ordain. and for the reformation of the same. and damage of your statutes of the Realm. but if it hold in measure at the least 126 gallons. 28 Hen. whatsoever he be. so that they have enhanced the price to 8 marks (£6 6s. VI. nor any manner of vessels of oil. 1439. whatsoever they be. by the advice and assent of your Lords spiritual and temporal. I 16. to the great enriching of themselves and great deceit. cap. now next coming forward. 18 Hen. enact. to wit:— Gallons. 8d. these merchant strangers only bring enough to last barely a year. but if the vessels of those wines and oil contain and hold the assize and measures following. Sovereign Lord and of all your Commons of this your said realm. VL. and of what country soever they be. cap.knowing how much of this wine is wanted in the realm.. I f -^o^^wi. 17. and no cloth. and of your Commons in this your present Parliament assembled. bring nor cause to be brought into this realm any biitt of Malvesey to be sold. that no manner of merchant nor other person. Stat. loss.

the legal measures were as follows :— Gallons. VIIL. cap. cap. and Stat. 1 Ric. 13. other than sweet.. VIIL. E Rochelle. cap. 1536. the wine imported or sold otherwise than in accordance to the aforesaid regulations to be forfeited.Gallons. | 14. all such vessels to be gauged by the Royal ganger before being sold. The Tun to contain 252 . III. and Spanish wines. On arrival. Nantes and Rouen. Stat. 1531. Every tun to hold six score and six gallons .126 Every tercian to hold four score and four gallons 84 Every hogshead to hold 63 Ever}' barrel to hold 31J according to the ancient assize and measures of the same vessels used within this realm. 28 Hen. | 7."* As regards the wines shipped from Bordeaux. Re-enacted Stat. 1483. 23 Hen. any shortage to be made good by the seller and the price to be fixed by authority.

.236 Soissons 217 Montelimar 163 Orleans 139 . and from various districts in each country. le Vicomte d'Avenel :— Tun: Gallons..284 Bergerac and Angouleme . the figures of which are chiefly based on the researches of M. could not possibly be enforced.The Pipe to contain 126 The Puncheon to contain 84 The Hogshead to contain 63 The Tierce to contain 42 The uniform standards of measures for wines imported from different countries. was to have each cask duly gauged. and the only security the purchaser had of getting the quantity of wine he paid for. Some idea of the different sizes of the wine vessels used during the period under review may be gathered from the following table. At Bordeaux and Nantes ..

...Chartres 117 Malmsey (in England) .252 Pipe : Spanish (in Spain) 175 At Bergerac 160 Saintes 182 Vin de Graves 150 Bordeaux and Nantes ..126 >» >» Queue: Gallons..142 Legal measure in England . Troyes 215 Normandy 151 Chablis 120 Paris and Burgundy 116 ...126 Other wines (in England) .

Champagne 104 Puncheon: Legal measure in England ...58 „ Spain 58 Hogshead (Muid or Pihce): Legal measure in England. for all wines (sweet and otherwise) .. which was usually settled either by the payment of a certain fine ..84 At Orieans 70 In Paris..63 to 80 At Brives 84 „ Soissons 73 „ Lille 66 „ Bergerac 58 In Champagne 52 Such differences led to endless litigation.63 In Paris and Burgundy . Burgundy and Nonnandy .

the ohm contained 36 gallons. on behalf of a Frenchman called Le Fort. E2 HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. 261. the French Ambassador.t or about 40 * MSS. it contained 50 gallons. M. of the Marquis of Salisbury at Hatfield. according to the standard of Antwerp. since its capacity appears to have varied greatly. or through the intervention of some influential person at Court. p. Handelsrechnungen des deutochen Ordens. German authors say that the ohm was about twothirds of a hogshead. who had imported some wines from Spain in vessels which were not of the legal gauge. Hirsch. 44. p. was the standard measure. whilst. by way of a compromise.. according to that of Dordrecht. gallons.usually settled either by the payment of a certain fine to the ganger.* In a letter . p.* As regards German wines. sometimes spelt aulm^ awme. also an active centre of the export Rhenish wine trade. wrote to the Earl of Essex. Beauvoir La Node. t Sattler. Danzigs Handelsgesischte.. a very important mart for the Rhenish wines sent to England. the ohm. 105. etc. In February 1595. but it is difficult to ascertain what the contents of the ohm were. Part V.

in 1600. Rhenish wine was also imported in larger vessels. pp. Bishop Bancroft writes that the ohm only contained 40 gallons. 240.^ Larger than the fatte was the roody which. or 490 gallons. according to the standard of Antwerp. p. 19U. 245. according to that of Dordrecht.ff but sometimes more and sometimes less. and. contained 10 ohms or 600 gallons.** Rhenish wine was also sold by the rundlet. or 120 gallons.f The apiece of Rhenish. 1595-1597. held 14 ohms. j). principally in fattes or vats. however. the vat or Fatte only contained three ohms. t Salisbury MSS. a measure which usually held about 10 gallons. of State Papers. Part 10. The hodeXX was probably equivalent to the * Arnold's Chronicle. J or the hutt of 36 gallons. holding five ohms.to Sir Robert Cecil.H According to Bishop Bancroft. X Calend. . 432. which are frequently mentioned in the reports of the searchers of wine appointed to examine the stock in City cellars every year. Domestic Series.§ were evidently names given in England to the ohniy and not denoting a different sized cask..

By retail. II Letter Book X. FatUs are sometimes called tuns in the Letter Books. 1461. and every awmo is 1 galons. Letter Book Z. 185. and every awme is xxxv galons.D. the rood of Andwarp is xiiii awmes. 245. fo. a measure which seems to have been much the same as the German stubchen. As to the handles of Rhenish mentioned in 1502. a. A. History of Apffii^ulture.d. D.D. 432. Letter Book Y. fo.d. 1579.. 1577. 246. 12."— Arnold's Chronicle.p. 1443. 191b. A. Part L. Rhenish wine was usually sold by the gallon.X . fo. pp. pp. 13b. ^\ Salisbury MSS. fo. fo. Vol. IV. 1(>9.190.d. 1580. 267.D. fo.. must have held 4 gallons.i>. 1581. fo. 1578 . § TlioroM Rogers. Vol. tt Rutland MSS. 1582. Part 10. 258. A. a. 1573 . Letter Book Z. A..d. III.. IV. Item. p.. 115.t it is hard to say what they held. 388. tX Calend.D. Patent Rolls. 1575. a. set Letter Book Y. A. 281b. a. ** ** The rood of reynysh wyne of Dordreight is x awames. m. fol. judging from the price it was sold at. 2 Ed. 189. a. sextary^* which.

Wardrobe Accounts of Elizabeth Tudor. Her Majesty would lose the custom of one tun in eight. which no cask ever contained by the ale gallon.. and in all places fifty miles round. but were ready to accept the standards of London and Bristol.D. and of all those places by the sea-coast from London to Southampton and Poole. They (the Salisbury vintners) wished to be excused from arguing the point of gauging and measuring. 1532. A. p. and no wine could be brought into the realm. they appealed to the Council and some of them were summoned to London to argue the point. Vol. 614. and which agreed with the measures by which wine was sold. 1502. and from time out of mind. and they asked the Queen to be allowed to return home and to continue selling their wines by their usual measures until London and Bristol had tried the case. but would all be forfeited. . 48.. by which gauge and measure all wines were bought and customs paid. t Privv Purse Expenses of Elizabeth of York. p. § Thorold Rogers.d. They soon got very tired of wasting their time in the metropolis to no advantage. because the tun must contain 252 gallons.d. from London to Oxford. a. III. If it should be altered. the vintners of Salisbury were charged by the Mayor with selling wine according to measures other than those which were then legal. 1495 . a.X In 1582. and to Bristol.have been much the same as the German stubchen.

the right to sell Gascon wine belonged to all members of the Vintners' Company. Merchants were protected from imfair competition by the grant of extensive privileges to their association or guild. 244. during the reign of . CLVL. During the latter part of the fourteenth and the whole of the fifteenth century. p. Tliis ancient Company played a sufficiently important part in the early history of the London wine trade to deserve more than a passing notice. Vol. 45 stiibchen to 1 ohm. Do mestic Series. of State Papers. X Kohl. CHAPTER IV. Der Ratsweinkeller in Bremen. the consumer was equally protected from unscrupulous dealers by the obligation of all persons selling wine to obtain a licence. the Vintners' Company. also Vol. 18. by the limitation of the price at which wine was to be retailed and by the vigilant official supervision of the quality of the wine offered for sale. Early in the fourteenth century. The sale of wine in England was regulated by many legislative and municipal ordinances with a view to protect the retailer and the consumer alike. 131 . XXVIL..1502. § Calend. Addenda. No. p. Eliz.

. vinetarii and tahernarii.* The Merchant-Wine-Tonners of Gascoigne were originally divided into two classes. where they were not considered as foreigners. chosen by their fellows for their energy and intelligence. Many of these men. the Bordeaux wine merchants trading with England. to some being entrusted the care of recovering all moneys remaining due after the departure of the sellers. whilst John Adrian. was confided the charge of obtaining from the King's Coimcil advantageous privileges or the rejiewal of these at the accession of every new monarch. during the reign of Edward II. formed themselves into a sort of confederation for the greater security and better regulation of their trade. Thev were com-monly called the Merchant-Wine-Tonners of Gas-coyne. we saw how William Trente. Henry Picard and several others became Mayors of London. as the London municipal authorities forced . the former selling their wines wholesale or leaving it to the tabernarii or retailers to dispose of for their account. the importers and retailers. But this did not last long. all the expenses thus incurred being paid equally by all the merchants. attained high distinction in England.Early in the fourteenth century. Thus. but did not form a sanctioned or articled Company. to others. became the King's Butler and Chamberlain of the City. Their agreements were purely private. a native of Bergerac. being Gascon subjects of the King.

III. Sir John Stodeye (1357). to which so large a share of the carrying trade was soon to fall. was Majors of London. and Sir Chithbert ford (1341). Sir James Spencer. vintner. Sir Henry Pycard Buckle. a fact which was obviously bound to result sooner or later owing to the rapid growth of the Flemish and Genoese merchant shipping.last long. the freedom of the City. viz. as the London municipal authorities forced the Gascons to submit to their regulations.:—Reginald Mayor in 1395 . the Gascons arrived at a friendly working arrangement with the Londoners by the formation of an association of London Vintners comprising Londoners and Gascons who obtained During the reign of Edward (1356). four vintners wero elected Sir William More. in 1527 . John de Oxen vintner. in 1593. de Conductu (1334). The importing vintners were sacrificed. excluding all but citizens of London from the right to sell wine by retail in London and the liberties thereof. After an unsuccessful attempt to assert their own privileges against those of the City. The resident vintners still retained the former distinction of vinetari% those who sold wholesale or financed . vintner.

* Three years later. and the more profitable prosecution of their trade . for the government and instruction of the same. 19(»b. . if not before. but other documents exist which prove beyond a doubt the existence of a well-defined organisation known in 1328. and the tabernariiy or retailers who kept a tavern or a cellar on their own account. who were all to become Mayors of London . Henry le Pal-mere. Michael Mignot. Thomas Cros. Stephen de Bercote. : — Reginald de Conduit. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. John de Oxenford. Alderman. Edmund Cosyn. Henry de Gisors. the names of the Vintners recorded at the Guildhall are more Lot tor Book E. Bartholomew de Honylane. Reginald de Thorpe. Robert de liynne. In that year (2 Edward III.) we find in the Letter Books of the City of London the following vintners amongst those elected and sworn in divers misteries of London.retailers. William le Gaugeour. in 1331. Richard de Rothynge. Articles of association and letters of incorporation are not in existence to show that the vintners had thus organised themselves in London in the earlier part of the fourteenth century for the better defence of their rights against the pretensions of a grasping Corporation. viz. fo. as the Mistery of the Vintners.

73 numerous. the Gascons were forbidden to sell the wine they imported. including some " taverners. 1364. until July 15th. John de Oxon. that the Vintners obtained royal letters patent forbidding anyone meddling with their trade *' unless enfranchised inthemistery. amongst those who did not keep a tavern. to be presented to and sworn before the Lord Mayor. Richard de . fo. however."t This charter. by the tim or pipe. entitled Amj>le Liberties for the Vintners of London. otherwise than wholesale. 221b. these four experts not only advised the municipal authorities Letter Book E. and in them was vested a very considerable authority . in this. as alleged by Strype. each year. By this charter the members of the Vintners' Company were invested with the right of trade search to ascertain whether the wines offered for sale within the City were sound aiid wholesome. as far as Gascon wijies were concerned. four of their members. contradicts Stow. who." for the first time. They were to choose. " it is as much an incorporation charter as any granted to the other great livery companies at the time.* It was not. did not merely regulate their trade." J It practically gave the London Vintners the monopoly of the retail trade in the metropolis.

Letter Book E. Edmund Cosyn. Richard Sterre. Henry le Palmere. Alexander de Burgoyne. 627. . Walter le Tableter. Benedict de Suffolk.. Cambin Fulbert.Fohn de Tackele. t Herbert. Richard de Essex. John de Wyght. t 38 Ed. but do not appear to . Stephen atte Conduyt. Letter Book G. Thomas Hauta3m. John de Cliftone. Nicholas Ponge. but they were empowered to correct and amend defaults they detected in the exercise of the craft. Nicholas le Blake. John Hablont. Nicholas de Bristoll.. Richard de Rothinge. Michael Mignot. Vol. Alan •tte Conduyt. William de Croidone.The Great Livery Companies of London Vol. Reginald de Thorpe. John de Oxon. 127b. William Isamberd. and to inflict fines according to their good advice or judgment. John Wroth. 742-743.* The jurisdiction and influence that the members of the Vintners' Company came to enjoy as a result of this charter were very considerable. as regards the price at which wine was to be retailed in taverns.. fo. pp. III. 221b. Frank atte Brokenselde. Richard de Pelham. II. Rymer's Foedera. p. John le Taverner de Bredstretende. III. fo. Simon le Taverner near le StockcSf John Turgiz. William de Stanes. Part II. Adam de Burgoyne.

cap. 1377. for instance. which was confirmed in 1427.f Again. fo. the Vintners obtained the assent of the Mayor and Court of Aldermen to certain regulations for tavern keepers. The Livery Companies of the Citv of London. 5. t Hazlitt."J In 1422. and see the wine drawn. since most of its provisions were either renewed or amplified from time to time. 127b nml 129.See Letter Book G. received the assent of Parliament. It enacted that " no Englishman shall go to Gascony or elsewhere. but do not appear to have been abused.. that certain servants of the mistery be permitted to search tavern cellars. and considerable amercement in cases of contumacy or fraud. a royal ordinance. . and was practically a repetition of the Statute of 37 Edward III. 73. In 1370. p. t Letter Book H. Aldermen and Common Council to the effect that " the good and trusty men of the Mistery of Vintners appraised wine sold by retail in taverns. to buy wine or bring it to England unless he be free of the mistery of the vintry in London.charter were very considerable. or be experienced *. 318. and place a distinctive mark on the several vessels according to the quality of the wine they contain. involving wide powers of search and inspection. in August. fos. an ordinance was made by the Mayor.

but may not sell it by retail there . to survey the trade in London. and in each town where the mistery is used. in other cities. receiviag the ordinary privileges and endowments as to perpetual succession. 75 in the mistery. no private person or stranger. fo. Merchants of Gascony and other foreigners may bring wine to England. cloth. 73. the right of using a conunon seal and of pleading and being . The merchant vintners of England may export cloth to Gascony. that the Mistery of Vintners of London was formally incorporated."* It was only ten years later. fish or herrings otherwise than as aforesaid. The said merchants of the mistery of the merchandize of wine are to elect yearly four of their number. on August 23rd.p. at the Vintry. HISTORY OP THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. and herring and cloth from elsewhere in England and take them to Gascony. may export it again without special leave of the King. Wine must be landed above London Bridge. and known to be of it. for the convenience of the King's butler. No merchant or other denizen or foreigner shall buy or sell wine. boroughs or towns. t Letter Book H. ganger and searchers. 1437. 318. not being tavern keepers. after having brought wine to England. and the Gascon merchants who bring wine to England may buy dry fish of the counties of Cornwall and Devon.

m. The sale of German. p. p. Spain or Venice. in the earlier part of the fifteenth century this progress was stopped. 24. It must not be forgotten that the privileges and rights granted to the freemen of the Mistery of Vintners were limited to the trade in Gascon wines.. and unmistakable signs of decadence made their appearance some fifty years later. and a licence in mortmain to the extent of £20 a year. 320. See the full text of the charter of incorporation of 1437 in the Appendix. Levant or Spanish wines was regulated by special ordinances and according to certain treaties of reciprocity entered into between England and Flanders. November 8th. the title to appoint a governing body of four masters or wardens. 6 Hen. Calend.'* Hazlitt.f This incorporation was followed. Patent Rolls. The power and influence of the Vintners' Company in London had been gradually rising during the fourteenth century. 296. VI. in 1447. Both the royal . by the grant of arms to the Mistery.. The Livery Companies of London.impleaded in all courts. t The style of the guild was " The Freemen of the Mistery of Vintners of the City of London. Part I. 1427.

having proved most unsuccessful. respecting the sale of sweet wines.^ This attempt. 130l».t In 1365. in 1369. the London municipality took into their own hands the retail sale of sweet wines in a few special taverns under their own supervision. or even to foreigners.Bi t5 tb$tc6e tbt0 noS^ namctbtt^tt) f^ii ptoccff^ of tpmc . .* so that the searchers appointed by the • Vintners could not interfere. I t idtm.Janunrv. 157. 1305 notb of lat. Such licences and the privileges of the merchants of the Steelyard. it was agreed to issue licences for the sale of sweet wines to any freeman of tlie city. | t /</t'Wi. 2b. May 2Hth. tpte of f6c nau^ Cbp<$u) t^td t»am« of <Bnc^ fonoj. a similar prohibition. 13. Edward III. who claimed to liave the right • U'tlcr Book G. fo. Both the royal and municipal authorities had always carefully kept the sale of German or sweet wines outside the pale of the Vintners' jurisdiction. however. who were ready to pay for that privilege the price fixed by the Corporation. 238b.13 NovombtT iHt. had been issued as far back as 1353. Spain or Venice. Thus. ordered formallv that Rhenish wine should not be kept in the same taverns as Gascon white wine. fo. fo.England and Flanders.an^ 3^m((c of i^ matgmt« tbjtbtt) t^ famc.

% no: fi\& tbpt^ tt) t|jt<» fapo tsstmd Jtu^n^.m ot con^pctot) t^at ^ Be of. tba^e ealape/ ot t^K maic^it tfecwf .onp mamt tbpme of t§« gtotbpnge of t§c ^uc^ie .tb$tc6e tbt0 noS^ namctbtt^tt) f^ii ptoccff^ of tpmc l\){)^ ou^ t:cfb2mactot) S^^a^ t^ii)* f^att mi ^ of ba6p0ite an^ potbct <o 5ef fen »t< f<lfe.ot i^crtbp^. f »rt) t^e ftft of Qrtp2?elmae ncjot notb (ompng. 'ftj^tefbtc ai <^ prater of (^ fa g^ compn« / ^ ^gngc out (omi»gm fori? 8p c§c a^upji of t^ wr^0 fpgrtiueUan^ tcmpetcfi ti) t9i<J fagt> pwfm< pazGtamchtc affbtSfe^ a:^^ Sp aucfo2tte of t^e fame/ 3( te onacfco oc^pneo ano ct1a66if|tVt^at noo maner of perfom of tbbat Qea.

8. To face p. whilst other . but after the loss of Guienne and Gascony. wliich had so long eclipsed all others.) A. as it had been during the reigns of Edward III. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. Hen. 1489. cap. and his immediate successors . The earliest printed Statute concerning the Wine Trade. did not affect the prosperity and power of the Vintners' Company so long as the importance of the Bordeaux wine trade with: England remained paramount. this branch of the English wine trade. suffered to a very large extent.I). (Facsimile from Caxton's Statutes of Henry VII. VII.of ^upct) or of <6afoopgfm/ But fuc^ tbpncc ae fl^aHe Be au^ntutf^ an^ Brougi)<« i>) at) (^ngCiff^ y32p(ro? 02 "fiOfalfl^mannp* 5pppeoif^ppp?0/ ®n^ 6?at t^c matpmre of t^c fame mslSffJe 3«ff6e ot tbalft Statute i. 77. 77 to sell Rhenish wine in London.

VIL. 8 . Spanish and Levant wines. the most complete ordinance regulating the wine trade in England was issued. 1 Hen.. 206. t Letter Book O. whose prestige and means had decreased during the commercial crisis which followed the loss of the French provinces and the w^ars of the Roses. failed. ca]). covering no less than thirteen full folios of one of the great Letter Books of the Guildhall. 1530.f The Vintners' Company made a determined Statutes of the Realm. et seq. 10. to secure a renewal of their ancient privileges from Henry VIL This monarch allowed all his subjects to go to Gascony for wines.'s charter.French as well as German. VII. and only prohibited the sale of those Bordeaux wines which were imported in foreign bottoms. at first. became more popular. 4 Hen. cap.* even if such wines belonged to freemen of the Vintners' Company. consented to renew the ancient privileges of the Vintners' Company by the grant of an inspeximus of Henry VI. On January 20th. The Vintners. in which it is clearly stated that all freemen of the Livery Companies were free to retail wine in London. It was not until 1508 that Henry VII. fo. See Appendix. .

f The Vintners obtained two charters from Queen Elizabeth on May 17th. any person was free to retail wine that had obtained a licence from the municipal authorities. that a Bill was sanctioned repealing the Act of 7 Edward VI. and granting full liberty to the London Vintners to buy and sell wine wherever they pleased. and the magistrates were " to see that the number of such taverns do not inordinately exceed " the requirements of the time.* it was not. and on October 12th. (1553). 1554. fixed and regulated their trade in the minutest details. on July 30th.stand to oppose. the inimical legislation directed against them. and throughout the sixteenth century. 1566. At the same time the Vintners were entrusted with the duty to watch and report how the Queen's commandments were kept by all persons selling wine. during the reign of Queen Mary. no Vintner was to be allowed to keep more than one tavern. 1558 . 1567. 1553. Much stress was laid in this ordinance on the licensing question. and March 26th. which dictated the patents of May 22nd and September 30th. whilst a very important ordinance. They eventually succeeded in obtaining the grant of a charter recognising most of their former privileges. whose duty it was to ascertain that the applicants had served a sufficient term of apprenticeship to be conversant with matters pertaining to the trade they wished to take up. in 1583. however. . before November. J During the reign of Henry VII. 1576.

fos. 283. two grocers. one cook. in 1583. one mercer. four haberdashers. one Salter.* Such licences were also granted directly by the monarch. Freemen of the Vintners' Company. 79 of their eligibility for the Company was that they should have been apprenticed to a Vintner and thus learned their trade. 117-119. Thus. + Calend. two coopers. four cloth-workers. three fishmongers. unfortunately. were not under the necessity of obtaining such a licence. without enforcing the stipulated apprenticeship. Queen Elizabeth granted licences for the retail of wine in London to two drapers. nine merchant-tailors. and. one dyer. two . 1547-1580. See the complete text in the Appendix. however.pertaining to the trade they wished to take up. X Letter Book Z. since the first condition See in the Api)endix the texts of these patents and charters. Domestic Series. p. one chandler. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. of Stat« Papers.

to be obtained from . See Appendix. of State Papers. { Up to Michaelmas. t Letter Book Z. and monopoUes. 119. 1600. 1598-1601. (Calend. the Earl of Essex appears to have |K)3se3sed the licence for sweet wines. Domestic Series. as is most agreeable to his choice or taste. were free to sell wine " in London or Westminster. 477. 1592.girdlers. Southwark. and the widow of a barber surgeon. Nos.) In February. 479. it was decreed that none could sell wine without a licence. and the Uberties of our Duchy of Lancaster without Temple Bars in London. p. t Elizabeth granted a great many such licences. fo. "§ The right of a freeman of the Vintners* (5)mpany to sell wine in London without being at the mercy of the licensing magistrates is the last practical privilege which is still enjoyed by freemen of this Company. and the widows of such. she prefaced the latter with a statement which must have been very distasteful to the Company. to the effect that everyone was free " to pursue such lawful calling whereby he may gain his living. to the effect that every freeman of the City of London. and again in 1577. 298." At the same time she repeated and amplified a decree of Henry VIII. patents.J and although she renewed the Vintners' Charter in 1567.

19Eliz. . Vintners still helped the municipal authorities carry into effect royal ordinances as to the price of wine and. became more and more administrative. {Idem. and the wealth of most of the freemen of the Vintners' Company rendered their advice and cooperation invaluable for the grant of licences and the proclamation of ordinances regulating the wine trade in London.the Queen. 1591-1594. 176b. whose authority was continually traversed and curtailed by the grant of licences to independent persons. The experience. but they never recovered the preponderance which they had enjoyed at the close of the fourteenth century. particularly as regards the sale of wine in taverns . the reputation. The role played by the Vintners' Company.) § Letter Book Z. p.fo. were always called. but the freemen of any of the other Livery Companies. on any such occasion. and the proceeds of which to be given to the Clerks of the Signet and Privy Seal. to co-operate with their fellow-freemen of the Vintners' Company before any decision affecting the sale of wine was arrived at. who held licences for the sale of wine. before the Mayor and Aldermen. generally speaking. the knowledge. with the duty of enforcing the proper execution of royal ordinances and municipal proclamations affecting the wine trade. They were also entrusted. as well as the Vintners. were entrusted by the Corporation with a large share of the policing of the wine trade. 195.

shall in the Lord Mayor's name from time to time send for all such person or persons as do sell wine by retail within this City and the freedom and liberties of the same. and also that they the said master. and such Aldermen as he shall call unto him. that Sir Rowland Howard. enacted and decreed by the same Court. and such other four. and thereof to inform the Court that order may be taken by the same according to Her Majesty's commandment in that behalf. Knight. wardens and others aforenamed shall cause all such orders and ordinances as have heretofore by this Court been decreed and set down in the Repertory touching retailers of wine to be duly and . three or two discreet and able freemen of other companies which now are or hereafter shall be authorised by virtue of Her Majesty's letters patent to retail wines. and certain other persons using to sell and retail wines within the same city and the freedom and liberties thereof. it was ordered. 25 Elizabeth (1582): Item this day upon the reading of the petition exhibited to this Court (Mayor's) by the master and wardens of the Company of Vintners of this city. or near adjoining to the same.This is made absolutely clear by the following entry in Letter Book Z in the Guildhall:— ^* March 23rd. the master and wardens of the same Company for the time being. and to examine them whether that they be lawfully warranted so to do.

but there are some instances on record of foreigners being given this privilege. 1' As a rule."* Letter Book Z. 300. on October 14th. the officer for that purpose appointed. Thus. during the reign of Henry VIII. In 1515. by Henry Byron. nine taverners were . and shall refuse to come upon lawful warning to them given. keeper of a garden belonging to the Italian merchants in London. licences for the retail of wine in England were only granted to natives. shall by the same officer be forthwith committed to ward into one of the compters of this city upon the Lord Mayor's commandment and thereof to make his honour privy . Peter Maria de Bolonia la Grassa. and that such of the said persons retailing wine as shall be sent for in the Lord Mayor's name. and that in all cases of refusal by any person to obey the executing the said ordinance. it is probable that this monarch had ordered that a special permit be taken by those who retailed this kind of wine.* To judge from the numerous fines imposed for selling Rhenish wine without a licence.. fo. 1555. was granted a licence for the sale of wine.strictly executed in all points . the said master and wardens to inform this Court thereof and to pray the aid of the same for order therein to be taken.

t Letter Book M. 796. Romeney * Syllabus to Ryraer's Foedern. that of Malvesie. VUL. 199b. VIII. had been confirmed by Act of Parliament. but sometimes only in December. As a rule a price was fixed for sweet wines of all descriptions double that of the Gascon. 198. VIII. Rochelle and other French wines. each. by retail. 4d. for that offence. Letter Book N. in 1409.fined 3s. Rochelle. 100b. ' 7 Hen. 150b. Hen. 10 Hen. whilst the price of Gascon. 12 fo8.. 4 Hen. was fixed at 6d.* These prices were . t The price at which wine was to be retailed was proclaimed by order of each succeeding Mayor soon after his assumption of office. they came to the Lord Mayor's Court and promised to bring in a book of the grant of this privilege obtained from Edward IV. without a licence.. whilst the price of Rhenish was often left out. they said. letter Book p. Thus. the merchants of the Steelyard having been forbidden to sell wine. to. { Letter Book X. VIIL and Bastard was fixed at a shilling. fo. 50 . at one time. fo. red or white (vermaylle or blank) wines. per gallon. especially Rhenish. usually in November.t In 1520. N. which..

They further asked that no Gascon wine be allowed to be sold at more than 6d. the same assize was kept. whilst the price of Malmsey and Bastard** remained stationary at 12d.JJ In 1522. under pain of a fine of £6 per cask and confiscation. Rochelle and French wines had risen to 8d.* These prices were maintained the following year. || In 1422. under the same penalty. fine to the King for each cask.§ In 1420 the Commons asked that no wine of Malvesie. per gallon. and that of all sweet wines at 12d. that of Muscadell. the cost of the gallon of Red. being fixed at 16d.and Bastard was fixed at a shilling. per gallon.^ Nearly a century later. but a further addition ordained the price of Oseye to be lOd. and no Khenish or Rochelle wine for more than 4d. per gallon..f In 1414. and again in 1530. the price of Gascon and Rochelle wines was fixed again at 6d. Komeney. the price of Gascon and Kochelle wines was raised to 7d. per gallon. be sold by retail in England under pain of 100s. per gallon. and confiscation of the price of the wine. in 1513. or any other sweet wine. . Claret or White Gascony. in 1517.J In 1416. per gallon. the price of Gascon wine remained fixed at 8d. the only alteration beijig the addition of " and all other sweet wines " in the shilling tarifE. the retail price of Rhenish wine was fixed at lOd..ft In 1515. however. per gallon.

in 1538. Bastard and Fimoy^ but I have been unable to find out what Fimoy was. 1536. fos. per gallon. 185b. i § Idem fo. Rochelle. f Letter Book K. 123. and that of Malmsey at 12d. and other French wines was repeatedly reenacted in 1527. }J Letter Book N. 96b.§ Sack being allowed to be sold at 15d. Art. ' II MS5. F2 HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. fo. t Idem. 442. Harl.|| .$ and that of all sweet wines was still fixed at a shilling per gallon in 1532.Letter Book I. fo. per gallon in 1538 and 1539. 219 recto. lb. There is in the text Malmsey. 56b. 1531. 1532. 122. per gallon rate for Gascon. fo. 208. 133. No. 1533. tt Letter Book M. and 1538. 10b. 226. per gallon.* The 8d. fos. but the price of Romeney and all other sweet wines was raised to 16d. fos. fo. 219b. fo. 76b. 1538.. 1536. and 1552. t Idem.t The price of Rhenish wine was raised to 12d. 118. and Letter Book O.

as the cost of the grapes and of the wine at the vintage. 7Ed. 1741). 23 Hen. VIIL. they gained an important point when it was decided in the Royal Council that henceforth the wholesale as well as the retail price of wine should be fixed by authority. however. Letter Book P. cap. many years before the Vintners could make the authorities grasp this'and realise how arbitrary and altogether unjust it was to force the retailer to sell at a fixed rate the wine he bought at widely different prices from year to year. fos. fo. t Letter Book P. Stat.Stat. fo. fos.The very slight advances taking place in the official retail price of wine and the uniform standard maintained for considerable periods are all the more remarkable when one considers the wide fluctuations taking place in the cost of wine sold wholesale. 5. cap. cap 14. . Although they were imable to obtain the permission to sell their wines at their own discretion. at a time when no large stocks nor reserves could be kept. VL. 184. 7 . so that the selling price of wine. t Letter Book X. 237. 28 Hen. 299b. 131b. fo. was bound to vary from year to year according to more or less successful seasons. 171b. Letter Book N. Letter Book O. VIIL. It took. 131b.

fo. VIIL. 28 Hen. the office of fixing the price at which wine was to be sold wholesale throughout England. VIIL. and bailiffs of all cities. 23 Hen. 131b. It was decreed that these men should have power and authority to &x the wholesale price of wine at their discretion. and the two Chief Justices. the Lord President of the King's Council. embodied in the following Statute :— . JI Letter Book P. who confessed their inability to enforce such a universally condemned measure. towns. was to be forfeited.§ Stat. was entrusted to the Lord Chancellor. led to further and more stringent legislation. Unfortunately. whatever their personal merits.* This innovation. I>?tter Book P. cap. towns. 7. the Lord Privy Seal. when Parliament met (1532-3). In the following year. and boroughs. were ill qualified to act as arbitrators in the matter. men who. the Lord Treasurer. sheriffs. This proclamation was to be made and enforced by the mayor. which had the betterment of the retailers' condition in view. by causing a proclamation to be made in all cities. cap. 131b. and boroughs. was very ungraciously received by them as well as strongly opposed by the wholesale dealers. the reports of the royal and municipal officers. 14. and the wine sold contrary to the assize thus proclaimed. Stat. fo.

7. to have larger and higher prices of their said wines. or which hereafter shall have. and refusing to . some for more.. 23 Hen. to be set according to their insatiable appetites and minds. some for five pounds the tun. since their said attempts and defaults proved. and some for less." Because that divers merchants inhabiting the city of London have of late not only presumed to bargain and sell in gross to divers of the King's subjects great quantities of wine of Gascony and Guyenne and French wines. contrary to the form and effect of a good and laudable Statute thereof lately made in this present Parliament. cap. have refused to bargain and sell to many of the King's subjects any of the said wine remaining and being in their hands. purposing and intending thereby for their own singular and unreasonable lucres and profits. wine to be sold. they obstinately and mahciously. the Lord Privy Seal. VIII. it is therefore ordained and enacted by authority of the present Parliament. the Lord Treasurer. that is to say contrary to and above the prices set by the Lord Chancellor. But also having in their hands and possession great abundance of wine by them acquired and bought to be sold. the Lord President of the King's Council. that every merchant and other person now having. etc. they have therefore fallen into the penalties provided by the said Statute.. and so after the rate of excessive prices. Stet.

wine to be sold. shall forfeit and lose the value of the wine so required to be bought.hereafter shall have. . and refusing to sell or deliver. or not selling any of the same wines for ready money therefore to be paid according to the price and prices thereof being set.

boroughs. bailifis and other head officers. at the desire and request of any of the King's subjects. and depose upon his bodily oath. that he keeps and retains the said wine to the intent only to draw and expend the same in his own house. and the head officers and governors of shires. taking of the buyer of the same wine or wines to be sold. towns. cities. purposing to make the said sale by virtue of this Act. by retail ." And furthermore it is enacted that it shall be lawful for all and singular justices of the peace. what and how much quantity and sorts of wine he shall have. cellars. to whom any denyer of sale or from whom any restraint of sale of any such wine shall be made. and in other places of the realm. and to sell and deliver the same wine or wines desired to be bought to the person or persons requiring or desiring to buy the same. the merchant vintners or other owner or owners thereof do truly. after the rate of the prices thereof now being set or hereafter to be set as is aforesaid. fully and manifestedly declare and show to the said justices of the peace. " Provided always that at the time of any such sale of wine purposed to be made. mayors. 1533. bailiffs. mayors. to enter into the houses. and affirm. to the use or satisfaction of the forfeiture aforesaid. within precincts and limits of their office from the last day of April. and other places where such w^ine shall lie or be.

other than in the city of London and within three miles compass of the same. Gascon and French wines had been fixed at £4 per tun. before the last day in July. and the Statute of 1 Eichard III.or otherwise.. the above Statute was re-enacted and proclaimed. he shall forfeit and lose the double value of all such wines sold in gross.t to be lowered again the following year to £4 for the best of such wines. cap. 24 HeD. But if he should sell it in gross. in this case he may be allowed to keep it. 13. that is by the tun. or roundlet."* In 1536. were at the same time revived. others that might be " small and thin" were to . as well as all forirer ordinances as to gauging.. tierce. hogshead. when the maximum wholesale price of Statutes of the Realm. 1539. 1533. 0. and not to sell the said wines nor any of them in gross . the wholesale price of Gascon and French wines was raised to £6 per tun. cap. where before the said last day of July it shall happen to be put in execution. butt. pipe. barrell. Stat. " Provided always that this Act extend not to take effect in any shire of this realm.* In November. unless that in the meantime this Statute be openly proclaimed in some open fair or market within the same shire. VIII.

1541.^ There is. Hen. 28 Gairdner. however. every reason to believe that this low price was seldom strictly enforced.§ In 1544.) for wine of inferior quality. '| Gairdner. 1393. 173.be sold by private agreement. 14. and that of French wine to £6 per tun. This fact seems evident from the complaints of retailers that they could not purchase their wines wholesale at the p. and the consequent instructions and ordinances reiterating the penalties Statutes of the Realm. the price of the best Gascon or French wine was fixed at £5 for the ensuing year. Vin Vrf . 1419. 8d. and until 1553. and to 13 nobles (£4 6s.ssize price.J In December. the assize price of the best Gascon wine was raised to £8. 172b. VIIL. 11 Later. the maximum wholesale price of Gascon and French wines appears to have remained fixed at £5 per tun. Hen. Vol WI Hen. fo«. or else they realised that their task was an impossible one and could only ruin the wine trade in England if carried out to the letter. ' ' '' t Letter Book P. and that the officers whose duty it was to carry out the drastic measures provided by the Statutes of 1532 and 1536 were either bribed by the merchants into a tacit complicity. caf). Stat. VIIL. Ncs.

and . No. and had competent living for their wives. at the most. A further Statute to that effect w^as enacted in 164243. 6 marks (£3 6s.) the butt at the most. which is of special interest on account of the detailed prices given of different kinds of wines. 200b. cap. Part I. fo«. VIII. the pipe . " § Letter Book Q. boroughs. 42b. Malmseys. Bastards. unless they do pay to the merchants for the same after the rate of £7 or £8 the tun. £3 6s. at the least. 537. Referring to the last legislation on the subject (Stat. for £4 the butt. 17lb. 8d. 4d. the casks and vessels containing the said wines being full gauged so that upon the retailing thereof again they might sell the same wines at the prices limited in the said Act. children.Vrf t Idem. bought of the best wine of Gascony for £4 13s.. the tun. since which time the said retailers of wines cannot buy any good Gascon wine. and ^ Letter Book R. Sackes and Romeneys. 28 Hen. of the best French wine for £4 the tun . towns and other places within the realm. and confirming the same. lo. the new Statute goes on to say:— " Since the making of which Act. previously enacted against Vintners and others who either sold wine in bulk above the fixed price or refused to sell it at all. such persons as did retail wine within the said cities. XIX. fo. family and household. 14). 8d. 200...

and albeit the buyer of the said wines may. Bastards.. " For all of which causes. yet the merchant in no wise will sell his wine. and also for what the wines called Muskadells is (sic) reputed and taken for sweet wine and ought to be retailed at such price as . " And where the pipe of Bastard should contain as much as doeth Sack. and every tun of French wine £6 at the least. at the least. but be thereby utterly impoverished and undone. and also the Malmsey butt should contain as much as the butt of Sack should do. by the said Act of Parliament. allow themselves upon the payment of their money for the same. £4 10s. unless other remedy be speedily provided. £5 the butt. and otherwise bind themselves that they shall take no advantage of the Act of Gauging. £5 per pipe or £5 6s. Sacks and Romeneys.after the rate of £7 or £8 the tun. 8d. your supplicants cannot sell and retail the said kinds of wine at such price and prices as is in the said Act expressed and live upon the same. but the same pipe doeth want of the same contents twenty gallons at the least and yearly wanteth more and more. unless the buyer do indent promise and covenant with the said merchant. In tender consideration whereof. Malmsey. the Malmsey butt likewise wanteth of his (sic) true content twelve or sixteen • gallons.

anything contained in the former Act to the contrary notwithstanding. Stat.sweet wine and ought to be retailed at such price as other wines called sweet wines mentioned in the said Act. VIIL. under penalties provided by the Statute of 28 Henry VIII."* It was further ordained.."* . cap.t None of the numerous Acts and Statutes which had attempted to regulate the price of wine of Encr-land before the reign of Edward VI. cap.. or impracticable as that which received the royal sanction during the seventh year of the reign of this monarch (1653). 34 and S^Hen. officers empowered by the said Act to set the price of wine sold in gross. the retailer cannot buy that kind of wine under £15 or £16 the tun. 11. 23. that the price of wine should be fixed every year between November 20th and December 31st. in 1545. 7. cap. Stat. may in like manner have authority and power to mitigate and enhance the price of wines hereafter to be sold by retail as often as time and occasion will require. " An Acte to avoyde the greate price and excesse of wynes.. called. " For reformation of the above. VIII. 37 Hen. t {dfm. was so drastic Statutes of the Rcnlm.

. to raise this to £6 6s. fo. per butt of sweet wine. 8d. cap. per tun wholesale. to 13d. In 1573. and Is.t Wine remained expensive throughout the following reign. a gallon by retail. and that of the gallon.t the price of French and Gascon wines was fixed at £7 6s. the price of the tun had been raised £1 to £8 6s. and its price rose rapidly during that of Queen Elizabeth. per gallon. Id. and £5 9s. 8d.. per tun. whose task it was to fix the maximum legal price of wine. 192. 11 Idem.tt i^ spite Statutes of the Realm. wine was scarce and dear.Like all excessive measures. per gallon. Malmsey not above 14d. and Mus-cadel not above 16d. which forced even the Lords of the Council. Sack was not to be sold above 13d.|| The following year proclamation was made that no wine be sold above 20d. 8d.. " to avoid the great prices of wine. costing as much as 14d. 6d. Stnt. this Act defeated its own ends. in 1554. In 1666. 5.** and the Queen paying as much as £7 9s. when the Act of 7 Edward VI.^ per gallon." was repealed. per tun of Gascon wine. per gallon in Paris... a standard of price which might have been reached before in private transactions but which had never been officially recognised. 7 Ed. for French and Gascon wines.§ In 1672. VI. and the scare it caused in the trade resulted in a general advance of prices.

192. in the same year. In 1578. ^ Idem. tt Thorold Rogers. J a figure which was only occasionally and slightly increased during the latter part of Queen Elizabeth's reign. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. 1675. fo. 1574. J Letter Book V. 652. Vicomte d'Avenel.. On December 10th. The following year. under date of January 10th. was again very unsatisfactory. and one cannot wonder at finding. that some Vintners were sent to prison for refusing to sell their wine at the price fixed by authority. Vol. to. Histoiy of Agriculture.t Letter Book X. IV. 192.f Later on. of her many privileges. the Vintners and other retailers within the City asked that these should be made to promise that none of them would sell Spanish wine above £20 nor Gascon wine above £17 per tun. fo. 336b. the Merchant Adventurers of the City of London going to Spain and to France to fetch wines. 1574. Hist. § Letter Book X. a more plentiful supply of wine brought about a marked reduction to £10 per tun for French wines.* Such prices had never been heard of before. p. 65. and the cost of wine reached famine prices in England. ^cono-mique. in spite of all regulations and ordinances. fo. it was decreed .

fo. Tl Viz. The usually low price at which wine was ordered to be sold left the retailers little profit. 9. 7b. X Letter Book Y.§ This " assize " was renewed in 1579 and 1580 . Letter Book X. fo. 8.. 262. and £11 per tun for the Rochelle wines. in the way of admixtures and blending.** All these prices were only to be charged when the wine was sold free of all customs and other charges .|| it was increased by £1 in 1581 and 1582. II Letter Book Z. Letter Book Z. 361b. § Idem. 341b.^ and brought down again to £12 for the best. less was to be charged per tun. fos. 5b. £13 per tun for the best French and Gascon wines. if these were left for the buyer to pay. fo. 305. in 1583. whilst the " small and thin" Rochelle wines were not to change hands at more than £10 per tun. 4d. 341. with a view either to increase the quantity on hand or to clarify and render drinkable old wines which had become foul or sour. In 1578.part of Queen Elizabeth's reign. 106b. fo. Letter Book Z. 105. and was a strong incentive to fraudulent practices. fo. it was decreed that the best Gascon and French wines should not be sold over £12 per tun. and £10 per tun for the cheaper sort. £2 13s. 283. . t Idem. fos.

are not always successful in avoiding. is now openly conducted and the mixture thus obtained can be sold HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. he has a right to our sympathy and indulgence when we consider that he was forced to sell his wine at a price which left him too narrow a margin of profit to cover the risks of those accidents which. or. but even the blending of different wines or of wines of the same growth but of different years. enacted severe punishment. with water. and care. but if the mediaeval taverner cannot be excused for resorting to these expedients. as well as misdescription of the article offered for sale. to call it by its real name. raisins and chemicals. the fraud of manufacturing " wine " in England. Not only the adulteration. the same cannot be said of the unlimited care and jealous watchfulness of the mediaeval municipal authorities as regards the quality of the wine sold to the public.Such practices were undoubtedly much to be regretted. even now. science. the science. were offences for which the mediaeval legislator. If the interference of the legislator was detrimental to the wine trade when its object was to enforce an artificial price. experience. far wiser in this instance than our presentday law-makers. The art. .

or to clarify it. Drugs which are not according to the standard of the British Pharmacopoeia are instantly condemned. from the earliest times. Wine is unfortunately easily adulterated.as Claret and Burgundy without any fear of the law. and add to the brilliancy of its colour. in the case of wine. and for punishing those who dared sell any. adulteration has often been resorted to. All such practices were severely prohibited abroad . but he decreed very severe measures for preventing unwholesome wine from being sold.t Amongst the oldest German prohibitions against the adulteration of wine is that of Nuremberg in the year . and. 1371. dealing with the subject. on September 20th. The mediaeval legislator enacted no laws against artificially made wine. Milk is not allowed to be sold when adulterated.* and a similar ordinance was issued at Brussels in 1384. the most unwholesome substitutes of the real article may be safely retailed by unscrupulous dealers. because none was made. either to make the wine last longer by the addition of antiseptics likely to check the acetous fermentation. but. in Paris there was an Ordonnance du Prevot de Paris. by the use of sulphur or the addition of litharge or of some other substance no less injurious to health. and December 2nd.

In the year 1500. in Beckmann. the use of sulphur was in particular prohibited. weak. the same affair was discussed at Augsburg and again in that city. under Charles V. p. History of Inventions. I. 514. Franconia and Alsace. 632. t M^moires siir les questions pro-poet^ par TAcadiSmie de Bruxelles en 1777 (Bruxelles. from time to time. and this fraud was a subject of deliberation at the diet of Rottenburg. and also at the Diet of Worms. in 1548. Datt. issued prohibitions against so destructive a fraud. J In the year 1487. UlmiB. 1778). It appears that this business was left afterwards to the care of the different princes who. the same year. Traits de la Police. however. or sour wine. the Emperor caused an order against the adulteration of wine to be pubDe la Mare. p. . p.. In England. At the Diet of Lindau. De Pace Imi)erii Publica. 1698. lished by the local authorities of Swabia.1409. Discoveries and Origin (184G). Vol. the adulteration of wine proper was then unknown. and also at Freyburg in Brisgau.. imder Maximilian I. although vintners and coopers were often forced to have recourse to more or less orthodox practices to get rid of old. X Further legislation ngainst adulteration was enacted in 1476. 252. in 1498. in 1495.

"* The municipal authorities did more than enact penalties for the sale of mixed or unsoimd wine. from internal evidence. no white with red.'' and." when they were " feeble in colour and naught in value. " colour nor mingle no manner of wine.orthodox practices to get rid of old. that " each wine be sold whole in his degree and kin as hegroweth. but sell them whole and true. although undated. that no man. they . bind. weak. set in head. it may be ascribed. as well as misdescription of wine. further. penalties were also enacted in the case of coopers and others. that is to say. '* should they be so hardy. to the year 1419. and. or sour wine. whole with broken or corrupt. rase. reboiled. even as they grow " . or by their servants. sodden." and of selling them as Romeney. of their own persons. a " slanderous deceit which must be stopped. The first comprehensive ordinance against such practices. or in any other wise counterfeit or meddle with the undue making or counterfeiting of any manner of wine. and unthrifty wines of other countries. It accused London vintners of faking their wines of Spain and Rochelle and other " remnants of broken. is to be found in the Letter Book I in the Guildhall. or a foreigner. whether a freeman of the City." The Mayor and Aldermen decreed. nor none other wine of divers kinds nor growings together. therefore. old with new. Rochelle with Rhenish. to " gum.

296) . which were seized by the searchers of the Vintners as unwholesome. Searchers of wine were appointed every year. 1423. however small or considerable. was to be condemned and publicly destroyed by these official searchers. soon after the new wines had reached England in the autumn. bad cellarage or adulteration. butt. it was also decreed that Letter Book I. were condemned to be publicly cast into the " Channel " . Robert Grey applied for the post or controller and surveyor of the searchers in . 227. This ordinance will I e found in cxtcn«o in the Appendix (p. cellars. whose duty it was to visit taverns. and every place where wine of preceding vintages was kept. and to ascertain the condition of such wine. Every cask. they took practical steps to see that such wine was neither sold nor even kept in the taverns within their jurisdiction. fo. pipe. three hogsheads of wine. it is a document of double interest on account of its importance as regards the wine trade. in December. fieeii from Latin and Norman. or vessel containing any quantity of wine.f Thus. which had become '* unwholesome for man's drink. t On February 18th. and also because it is one ot the very first recorded in what may bo called ** real" English language.penalties for the sale of mixed or unsoimd wine.1517. warehouses." through age.

of course. 9.* In the following December.f At the same time. and so from year to year. Patent. ^11 such wine found elsewhere should be treated in a similar way. besides Vintners. Calend. These reports are. and could be used to make vinegar. very valuable on account of the indications they furnish regarding the stocks of wino and the proportion of the different sorts of wine used in England at the time. Amongst the keepers of taverns or cellars where defective wine was seized. m. which they had found. 1 Hen. Part IL. were licensed to sell wine in London. and that keepers of taverns where it would be found should be sent to prison and committed for trial. good and otherwise. the searchers had to render an account of all the wines. the names . searchers were presented at the Mayor's Court by the Vintners and sworn before entering on their duties for the ensuing year. They also bring additional proofs to the fact that many.post or controller and surveyor of the searchers in London and all ports and places in the water of Thames. VL.J After proceeding with their search in the City. Rolls. the Wardens of the Tallow-chandlers of London were sworn before the Lord Mayor or his deputy to certify which of the wines condemned by the Vintners in their search were defective but not unwholesome.

Thomas Parkyns. in fact. fo.or cellars where defective wine was seized. fo. the list of persons retailing wine without a licence in December. and another in Bermondsey Street. 137. 109. the names of drapers. merchant taylors. Thus. merchant taylor. 267. VIIL. 25 Hen. clothworker. December. VIIL § Letter Book V. fo.§ There were also usually a few names of persons * Letter Book N. haberdashers. 185b. 200: Letter Book Z.. 206b. VIIL . etc. Vm. November. 109b. 268. 58b. 1568. tallow chandlers. and another in Bermondsey Street. fo. for a cellar in the Strand. for a house in Holborn. 26 Hen. 50. coopers. VIIL . 26 Hen.. 29. Letter Book P. VIIL t Letter Book N. etc. fos. 51. included the following : " Roger Richardson. William Hamsworth. 29 Hen. than those of vintners and taverners.. 267b. in a far greater proportion. as well and. December. G selling wine in cellars or taverns without a licence and being members of other companies than the Vintners'. 136. J Letter Book P. 10 Hen. 9 Hen. November. . fos. are to be found. 100. December. 62b. November.

195 tuns of sweet wines. the stocks of wine in taverns. in the West. at the Dolphin. amounted to only 160 tuns of Gascon. in the East. fo. * estraungers. fos. at Bosom's Inn. tuns. the searchers condemning 14 tuns and 1 pipe . 575.cooper. claret and white wine. 57. 2 puncheons and 1 hogshead were found defective."* Different searchers were always elected to investigate and report on the state of the wines in stock in the East and in the West.' etc. 86 * Letter Book Z.' f Letter Book O. at the same time. ' % Letter Book S.t In 1555. William Toughe. bcr 11th. there were 200 tuns of the former and 120 tuns of the latter wines. John Barber and Dominic Busher.^ In 1568. Thus. 26 EUz. in the East. and 71 tuns of sweet wine. of which 10 tuns. for a cellar at Aldgate and another in Seething Lane . 2 tuns and 3 hogsheads of which were defective. and 16 . French and Rochelle wines and 67 tuns of sweet wines. Deocm. in 1528. one of which only was defective. in New Fish Street. the searchers in the West condemned 41 tuns and 1 hogshead of red. claret and white wine and 42 tuns and 1 butt of divers sweet wines seized. fishmonger. there were 21 tuns and 2 hogsheads of red. 1 hogshead and 1 puncheon of Gascony wine. David Maston. there were.fo. 126. clothworker. in the East^ as being defective . 268.

1 puncheon and 1 hogshead of Gascony wine. and 7 fattes of Rhenish wine. all of which was found defective. there were 111 tuns of sweet wines. in good condition. 208 tuns of sweet wines.tuns and 3 hogsheads of which were defective. in the East. 3 tuns and 1 hogshead of faulty Gascony wine. there were. of which 1 tun and 1 hogshead were condemned. in the West. in all. 112 tuns and 2 hogsheads of Gascony wine. of which 1 butt was found faulty. of which 5 tuns. 1 butt and 1 rundlet were found defective. of which 12 tuns. of which 6 pieces were defective. there were 180 tuns of sweet wines. of which but 1 butt was found faulty. in the West. 371 tuns and 2 hogsheads of sweet wines. 91 tuns and 3 hogsheads of Gascony wine. apparently all good. of which 2 tuns.* In 1573. t In 1575. and 76 fattes of Rhenish wine. and 102 tuns. and 16 tuns of French wine. of which 2 hogsheads were condemned. 81 tuns of Gascony wine. in the East. in the West. of which 6 were condemned. 1^ hogshead were condemned. there were. J In 1577. there were. 310 tuns of sweet wine. 196 pieces of Corsica^ wine. and 3 fattes of Rhenish wine. there . all good. 3 hogsheads and 1 puncheon were defective. and 2 fattes of Rhenish wine in good condition.

of which 1 tun and 2 hogsheads were defective. o2 HISTORY OP THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. fo. none of which was condemned. 9^ tuns of Rhenish wine and 75 tuns of wine of Corsica and Diana. 281 tuns of Gascon and French wines. 206. t Letter Book X. 724 tuns of sweet wines. 115. 27 tuns and 3 . fos. in the West. 337 tuns and 3 hogsheads of Gascon and French wines. there were 263 tuns and 3 hogsheads of sweet wines. 256. there were 621 tuns of sweet wines. fos.Rhenish wine. and only 6 tuns in all were condemned. and 7 fattes of Rhenish wine .^ In 1580. § Most probably an error for Gascon!/. 205b. in all. in East and West together. there were. 496 tuns and 3 hogsheads of Gascony and Rochelle wines. the stocks of wine in East and West amounted to 816 tuns of sweet wine. 256b. and 131 tuns and 3 • Letter Book V. and 196 tuns of Rhenish wine.^ In 1579. apparently all good. hogsheads of Gascon wine.* In 1578. J Letter Book Y.

480 tuns of sweet wines. t lA?tter Book Y. I have been unaV)lc to find out what was meant by wine dc Diana. fos. II /rfcw. The remarkable continuity of the archives of London.^ Letter Book Y. 2 tierces of Gascon and French wines and 17 fattes of Rhenish wine. 13 tuns and 3 hogsheads were condemned. 27 tuns and 3 hogsheads were found faulty. however. 281b.wines. 185b. a very great mistake to . 1 hogshead and 1 tierce being condemned as unwholesome. ^ Idem. and 32 fattes of Rhenish . It would be. 1 hogshead and 2 tierces of Gascon and French wines. 16 tuns. fo. and 7 fattes of Rhenish wine . 185. fos. 207. there were. || In 1582. fos. 100. 109b. there were. 191b. in all. 207b. 543 tuns and 3 hogsheads of sweet wines. 405 tuns. than to furnish anything like adequate information regarding the state of our trade in the provinces during the same period. and the wealth of documents relating to the metropolis. 618 tuns. CHAPTER V.§ In 1581. §/rft7n. fos. in all. 13b. 282. fo. X Letter Book Z. 3 hogsheads. make it much easier to trace back the history of the wine trade in the City during the Middle Ages.

period. however. It would be. Unlike the civil wars of Northern Italy and the religious feuds in Prance. even amongst some of the least important. and to make room for the development of free thought and independent action. It must be borne in mind that the Wars of the Roses served to rid the country of many restrictions introduced in the age of feudalism. Although provincial archives are not so complete nor so easy of access as those kept at the Guildhall. The supremacy of the barons was brought to an end. and particularly the population of the towns. sufficient data may be gathered to show that in every county and in most towns. a very great mistake to imagine that the proportion of wine consumed in all parts of the country was trifling compared with what was sold in London. stood aloof. retainers and supporters to share their fortune. the Wars of the Roses were struggles between great lords who led their relations. of the conmiercial classes who made the strength and wealth of towns—initiated. We may even infer that the wine trade made relatively greater progress in the provincial centres during the fifteenth century than in London itself. And took no part in the fight. This accounts for the unbounded prosperity of Bristol and Newcastle during the Wars of the Roses. wine was known and consumed by the mediaeval population. so long as they were not actually compelled to by either of the combatants. and the supremacy of the towns —that is. the population. whilst many other ports and cities thrived and increased in wealth and power during .

Mentions of the royal gangers* at Bristol. Part II. Sec. the most important wine mart in England. J are frequent. Anjou or other wines. 435. after London. was. History of XIV. | Agriculture. grants of wine out of the King's prisage at Bristol.cities thrived and increased in wealth and power during this troubled period. .. | there with other Englishmeii.. i § Thorold Rogers. in Warwickshire. Vol. 1406. Vol. Hist. Patent Rolls. 119.. to the Reign of Henry VIII. Hereford. Worcestershire and Shropshire. 1 Hen. m. No. 13.§ as well as to all the western counties. Bristol. A. p. du Commerce k t Gairdner.D. Part II. See VI. L.! Calcnd. and as far as Warwick and Coleshill. Michel.. Documents relating Bordeaux.t and records of Bristol merchants importing Bordeaux. Vol IIL. 24. owing to the exceptional facilities afforded by the Avon and the Severn for sending wine inland at a cheap rate of freight. Fr. From Bristol wine was sent to Evesham..

(Worcestershire). Documents \ \\ Idem... p. 1462. anno 1490. the sheriffs and other municipal officers of Shrewsbury were in receipt of allowances of wine." for the preservation of the peace. In 1546. etc. . 103 At Shrewsbury. 1441. in 1543. IV. Pari.* whilst a century later. wine was sufficiently abundant. 518.f Occasionally. J but there does not appear to have existed a regular import trade at that place. II.. 1525. 89. in 1458. 1433. . a wine-laden ship was brought to Chepstow. two Bristol merchants who 1445..t Ser Rot. a. had gone to Bordeaux were arrested I HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. i>p. to be regularly given to the patrols appointed to walk the town by night. in " defensible array.d. anno 141G. Vol. 532. Campbell. Numerous purchases of relating to the Reign of Henry VII. ! wine by the Monastery of Pershore Vol. 1433.

for every tun of wine coming from Andalusia. four pipes of wine yearly out of his prisage on wines landed at Bridgewater. 37 Eliz. 226. London.. 19s. 4d. t Idem. Id. since Henry IV. ]). where wine was imported direct from France and Spain. " Duties levied at Mynhead.. 1538. for every tun of sweet wine. was MiNEHEAD. according to the following rates:— " For every tun of wine coming from France." according to which municipal taxes were imposed in that year (1594) on all wines brought to the town. there is a sixteenth century record entitled. granted. p. and where wine must have been imported sufficiently regularly. . I. 340. 6d. VoL I. 1825. in Somerset.. Documents relating to tbe Reign of Henry VIII."|| Wine was also brought direct to the smaller In clenariis solut* pro vino expend' super tres subballivos ambulantes nocte cum diversis ambnlantibus cum iUis modo guer-rino arraiatis pro conser vatione pacis. 6d. { September 15tb.§ Another port of the Bristol Channel.. in one instance. Vol. in Somerset. Owen and Blakeway. Amongst the manuscripts preserved at Dunster Castle. A History of Sbrewsbuiy.. where a royal deputy-butler was stationed. Gairdner.Not so Bridgewater.

. Documents relating to tbe Reign of Henry VIII. a busy port. 12. a pipe of white wine was given to Beckington. Dartmouth and Exeter. In 1442. Part IL. where wine was very cheap during the fifteenth century.. Part I. F. Vol. per gallon in 1411. p. I! The MSS. attributes the decay of the shipping in that port solely to the new impost on wines. of Dunster Castle. in 1472. XIII. such as St. Luttrell. 347. in a letter written on November 9th. 1565. anno 1399.. 74. § Calend. Part VI. carrying on an active trade with Bordeaux. in the Tenth Report of the Royal Commission on Historical MSS. of G.. m.. Cornish ports which merchant vessels passed before entering the Bristol Channel. Esq. to Sir William Cecil. IV. at Plymouth.§ . Patent Rolls. per gallon. up to the sixteenth century.f and in 1599 Ann White and her son George White were licensed by Sir Walter Raleigh to keep a tavern for the sale of wine. costing 8d. and only 6d. Ives. 1 Hen.ner. J Dartmouth was. and Sir Peter Carew..* Devonshire was chiefly supplied with wine from Plymouth.. No.

London 1G81 t A Journal by one of the Suit« . 1547-1580. the Recorder's wife and the Mayor himself. 1871 ^ PublicaHISTORY OF THE WINB TRADE IN ENGLAND. p. tions. Qty of Exeter. 341. ^ Letters and Pawre' of Tolm of Thoma« Beckington. given by order of the Mayor to the Bishop.A. the tun costing only £3. In 1444.i| and it may therefore be presumed that it was fairly abundant. . Max^r of E^tor 14^X C'alend.. CanuIn ISv P^hr«^ Idem. . for instance. quarts and pints of Malmsey. and following years. p. wine was cheap in 1421. 4. p.7Tho^d~Roge^ Agriculture. of State Papers Do 1450. Edite<i bv S?imrt a \t '" mestic Series. Sweet wines appear to have also been plentiful and retailed at moderate prices. 611. 261. \oI.At Exeter. as w^ell as red and white wine. F.S. Romeney and Bastard wine. pp. the Recorder. III. ' Shillingford.. 512.^ Wine was also very . we find numerous entries of gallons. 1508-1601.

as they foimd it convenient to proceed thence to Flanders. During the reign of Henry IV.t and Poole. in 1465. which principally brought these wines to England and beyond. The Venetian galleys. where a Gascon wine-laden vessel came in that same year. not far from Exeter. where a ship from Rouen arrived with wines.* The two principal ports of Dorsetshire to which wine was brought were Weymouth.HISTORY OF THE WINB TRADE IN ENGLAND. throughout the fifteenth century. made Southampton their first port of call after they left the Straits of Gibraltar. and where they were always sure to find a suitable return cargo. and where grants of " prisage" directed to be made in 1539. increased rapidly during the fifteenth century. when it became practically the staple port for all the Levant wines. 105 cheap at Otterton. great as it was before. Southampton obtained a monopoly of the import trade of all wines coming from " beyond the Straits of Morocco." a privilege which was .. J wine were The importance of Southampton as one of the chief English wine marts. where they sold whatever wines they had not disposed of.

Part I.. as the town exacted an impost independent of the customs paid to the Crown. At its expiry. % Qairdner. No. IV. the said lease was offered by the Mayor and Burgesses of Southampton to Lord Howard of Effingham. Malmseys. for a similar period of six years.. 13.. Greek or Italian wines. et seq. during six years. p. Vol. were to be brought to the quays of Southampton and there acquit various toUs and customs. Part II. declined the honour. Vol. Paul Morel were fined £8 for selling some butts of Malmsey in Southampton Water instead of bringing them to the town quays.. imported either by foreigners or natives.* The duties levied on sweet wines at Southampton were heavy. In 1429. III. 435. saying that he understood that the Earl of Essex was a suitor . t Calend.. Documents relating to the Reign of Henry VIII." a privilege which was renewed by succeeding Sovereigns. 6 Ed. sec. 22d.. History of Agriculture. 612. the Lord High Admiral. and the way these were collected was also peculiar. m. the Earl of Leicester " enjoyed " the lease of the duties on sweet wines in Southampton." beyond the Straits of Morocco. Patent Rolls. however. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth. XIV. Gregory Catan and * See Thorold Rogers. Muscadels and all the sweet Levant.

135. in I. p. of theXo^^Tiof Southamp t Idem. the complaints of the men of Southampton who asked for injunctions against . p. to prevent merchants from bringing sweet wines to Bristol. Part III. Many merchants accordingly left Southampton either for Flemish or other Enghsh ports. The men of Southampton complained bitterly of this " infringment " of their sacred rights. | fact. and the merchants who brought these wines must have resented and endeavoured to avoid the exactions they were subjected to in that port. 127. no active measures appear to have been taken. Api>en(lix. London. they must have been very arbitrary. or any other port.f It is quite natural to infer that if the duties levied on sweet wines at Southampton were so lucrative that noblemen of the highest rank petitioned to be appointed the collectors of them. Hull. where they had reason to expect fairer treatment. During the reign of Elizabeth.for the lease and he would not deprive his dear friend.. in the Eleventh Report of the Royal Commiesion on Historical \ MSS. MSS. was actually renewed by both Queens Mary and Elizabeth. ton. nor any penalties to have been enacted.. but although their monopoly was not repealed and.

ParL (Chanc). and. had he brought his wines to their port. saying that one Benedict Spinola. 6 Eliz.men of Southampton who asked for injunctions against Venetians landing their Malmseys and sweet wines at any other port than theirs became more frequent. imported to England by merchant strangers. ^'ee? Api)en. 310. should be landed at Southampton and not elsewhere. upon forfeiture of 20s. A history of the Custom Revenue in t MSS. a few years later. pp.* In 1566. (1562). a butt. that such wines be forfeited as a punishment for his offence. a moiety to the Queen and the other to the Mayot. 311. . it was once more enacted that all wines of the growths of Candia or Rotimo. of the Town of Southampton in the Eleventh Report of the Royal Commission on Historical England.. had imported Malmsey and Muscadell in several other ports of the realm instead of bringing them to Southampton.t This unreasonable request does not appear to have been granted. Part III. or any other places within the Levant seas.MSS. they demanded that Spinola should be made to pay to them all the dues which they were entitled to. Bailiffs and See Rot. p. in Hubert Hall.. but. of Genoa. in 1570. to the great hurt of the town. the Mayor and Burgesses of Southampton sent a strongly worded petition to the Queen. besides.

the prisage paid by denizens on wine brought to Southampton amounted to £379 6s. were frequently made by the Mayor of Southampton to noblemen and others. 310. i State Papers. Domestic Series. Thus. and Calend. in 1429. 2jd. ^'ee? Api)en. the latter amount representing 3.100 tuns of wine at Southampton.267 tims of wine imported.* In 1534. and the former about 2. on their wines. 16471680. sea-banks. 2jd.300 tims of wine imported. p. when wine was still cheap. p. especially during the fifteenth century. lid. and the butlerage to £136 12s. 279.. 1^. 317. etc. the prisage received at Southampton amounted to £320 10s. of dix. 94. representing about 3. Burgesses of Southampton. 6|d. p... as butlerage. and the prisage £321 4s..England. for maintenance of the walls.! In 1536...f In 1535. was paid in the same port by aliens. the butlerage was £217 16s. representing the importation of about 4. 8d. 311.! Presents of wine.000 tuns. and £326 13s.MSS. Part III. pp. a tun of red Gascon wine was given to .

| MSS. 61.J From Southampton wine was sent..the Duke of Gloucester . not only to St. to Richard Holte. of the Town of South | 1420..d. but to Calend. Wiltshire. Part I. ampton. in the Eleventh Rejwrt of i HISTORY OP THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND.. No. p. two gallons were also given to John Lysle. Addenda.§ Christchurch and Beaulieu. I Aj^riculture. Henry VIII. Vol. J MSS. j § Thorold Rogers. and Salisbury. 1003.. and even to Oxford. Part III. Vol. Apiwndix. Knight. pp. 135. by order of the Mayor. History of XXL. | the Royal Commission on Historical Domestic Series. a gallon of Gascon wine was given at the same time. t Gairdner. three gallons to Maurice de Berkeley. of Stat« Papers. a. p. 512..* Tichfield. . Justice of the Peace. 109 Micheldever. James I. XLIIL. Vol.. and throughout Hampshire. 137. Dennis. and five to George Mixstowe. III.

the Vintners of Salisbury petitioned the Council as follows :— " We have been molested about the standard whereby wine is to be sold. " by which gauge and measure all wines are bought and customs paid. two merchants of Bordeaux sold 16 tuns of red wine of Gascony. 4d. but were ready to accept the standard of London and Bristol and of all those places by the sea-coast from London to Southampton and Poole. the opinion of all the judges. 1582. the tun of red and white wine costing £9 13s. with Her Majesty's coimsel at law. and now. and even to Oxford. worth 6 marks a tun (£4). the Salisbury Vintners were greatly tried by some impracticable regulations which the Mayor endeavoured to enforce respecting the measures wine was to be sold by.Hampshire. in 1406.^ A century later. is to be set down touching the true meaning of the law "' They asked licence to continue their accustomed measures until London and Bristol had tried the case. . At Salisbury.t In 1478. They (the Salisbury Vintners) wished to be excused from arguing the point of gauging and measuring. of Salisbury. Gascon wine was relatively dear. On December 16th. by your good means. Wiltshire. to John Hall.

relative to the standard measures by which wine was to be sold. 1562. and from time out of mind. and to Bristol and in all places fifty miles round. wine was also sent into Hampshire from Portsmouth. from London Gairdner. no HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. 1563. If it should be altered Her Majesty will lose the custom of one tun in eight. and no wines can be brought into the realm but will all be forfeited. No. 609.{ ..and which agree with the measures by which wine is sold. where a ship arrived with Rochelle wines on November 1st. 161.. m. J Calend.. because they must contain 262 gallons the tun. IV. p. and a Breton vessel laden with Sack on January 8th. which no cask ever contained by the ale gallons. Part I. to hear and determine the controversy betw^een the Mayor and Vintners of the town of Sarum. a."* The Council desired the Earl of Pembroke."!" Besides Southampton. as Steward of the City of Salisbury. p»f Thorold Rogers. 18 Ed.. VoL III. History of Agriculture. VoL XHL. Patent Rolls. to Oxford. 18d. Part IL. Henry VIII. 1638.d.

** Calend. 131. in 1425... No. 210. per cask. which was brought to all the small ports from Chichester.. were seized.{ Sussex was amply provided with wine. XIIL. ^ Thorold Rogers. of State Papers. in 1502. Domestic Series.§ to Hastings. Vol. Vo\ III.^ At Rye. 18. by order of the Lord Privy Seal and sent to " Sefford. t/</«fn. History of Agriculture. of Stat© Papers. Documents relating to the Reign of Henry VIII.Breton vessel laden with Sack on January 8th. 216.. Domestic Series. in 1454. II Gairdner.. and Gascon wine about £4 10s. andCLVI. LVI. sweet wine cost Is. Part I. No..N0. 3d. the gallon in 1498. 1547-1580." the wine being appraised at £3 the tun and the carriage amounting to 12s. in 1538. Vol. r. 610. VoL XXVII.|| At Battle. 2d. 922. . p. where seven puncheons of claret. Ill. per tun. Eliz. History of Agriculture. belonging to a Frenchman. 18. good wine cost 8d. per gallon and sweet wine Is. No. Addenda. pp. 514. 1563. 8d. Vol. per gallon. {Calend. § Thorold Rogers. where red wine cost only £5 6s.

and that large quantities of it were consumed. In 1420. were to be found at Canterbury. and the historian of the Cathedral city adds that wine was cheap and abundant. reached. Tyre and .t A great variety. per pipe. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. There is a complaint recorded in the municipal archives of the city for 1450.. Ireland and the Continent. 491.* Much wine was yearly consumed at Canterbury^ where the Shrine of St. by retail. per pipe if sold by " way of tappyng. a hundred thousand. Thomas drew a great concourse of people. of the Corporation of Rye. that not only red wine. says Somner. but also Malvesey.* MSS. per pipe of wine sold wholesale by freemen of the town and 2s. Romney and Dover were the principal ports where wine was imported after the decay of Sandwich. Others than freemen selling wine within the town of Romney paid 2s. At the first-named port an important income was derived by the municipal exchequer from a tax of Is. whether sold by wholesale or retail." viz. the number of pilgrims who repaired thither for the feasts of the Jubilee from all parts of England. as well as an abundance of wines. y. Ill In Kent. in the Fitth Report of the RoyalCom-mission on Historical MSS..

8d. Documents relating to the Reign of Henry VIII. t The Records of the Qty of Canterbury. claret at £3 17s. Appendix. 51. 4d. Later.that not only red wine. p. 25 tuns of Rochelle wine were sold at Canterbury at £6 per tun. No. p.—Gairdner. Part I. 1417. 136. and white wine at £3 6s. Rhenish wine was sold at 23s. per ohm. red wine at £4. in 1615. in 1405. London. even at so unimportant a place as Bexley. of the Corpora-tion of New Romney. pp.* Wine was also to be had in most parts of Kent.. 638. and lOd. when it cost £4 per butt. in 1480.. in the Ninth Report of the Royal Commission on Historical MSS.D. MSS. but also Malvesey. Part IL. wine was sent to Cranmer. 1703. Vol. at the same time. where it cost 9d. in 1539.t . at Canterbury. together with red and white wines.. Tyre and Bastard had become much dearer on account of the civil discords of the time^ chiefly Jack Cade's insurrection.. in the Fifth Report of the Royal Commission on Historical MSS. The Antiquities of Canterbury. Somner. XIV. 4d^ A. J and again in 1604. 140. Malvesey is again mentioned. per gallon. t W. per tun. 637. Part L.

the pipe in 1463. at the White Hart. 4d. the bailiffs issued a proclamation.§ At Orwell. || and at Ipswich.** In 1586. wine was both cheap and plentiful during the greater part of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. 517. p. History of Agriculture. . III. Sir John Smythe. being accused of using seditious words to the soldiers at Colchester on a certain occasion. IIL. History of i «! Thorold Rogers. that French or Gascon wine was not to be sold above seven marks (£4 13s.In East Anglia. where a deputy-butler was stationed.) per tun. in 1537. a merchant of Ipswich bought 500 tims of wine at Bordeaux from three Gascon merchants. having drunk white wine and claret that morning.. [>. Colche8ter. Gascon wine cost 35s. Vol. olo. and £14 the tun in 1579. in 1474. in Suffolk. Henry Hermanson brought Rhenish wines.ft * Thorold Rogers. Muscadine was bought by the Churchwardens of Mendlesham. said he could not remember what had happened. | Agriculture. Vol.1} In 1550.J In 1596. At Colchester.

Documents relating j k Bordeaux. 243.. F. Part II. VoL I. in 1424. there was a deputy-butler stationed to levy prisage . and in 1434. 16d. 593. Romeney and Muscadell.. where the hogshead of red wine only cost 26s.f Wine was equally abundant in most parts of Norfolk : at Winterton. 1442. . 1165. in 1466. 1434.. IV. 509. at Wymondham. of State Papers.. in 1425. Tyre and Bastard lOd.. wine was sold there at lOd. du Commerce { Gairdncr. p. Malmsey sold at Is. . Hist. 1595-1597. red wine <50st 8d. Vol. a gallon. No. 1433. 456. red wine only cost 8d. p. . p. a gallon. . At Yarmouth. where. in 1433. per gallon.. 8d. In 1417. in the Fifth Report of the § Calend. at Ormesby. wine was very plentiful. p. to the Reign of Henry VIII. where they had Malmsey. to judge from the numerous entries in the old Corporation accounts. per gallon. II Calend. Do i Royal Commission on Historical raestic Series.t Idem. Patent Rolls. of the Parish of MendleXIL. I ft -^I^^i^. Michel. Part II. m. MSS. 13 Ed. 1431.* it was the natural port of Norwich. sham.

258. Part I. sometimes called Lynnbishop. History of Agriculture. 5. in Pembroke College. 4d. Thorold Rogers. in 1505.red wine only cost 26s. 257. in 1519. Cambridge. History of Agriculture. in the Appendix. and 30s. pp. 511. five hogsheads of wine were sent from Lynn to Hunstanton at a cost of only 2s. and MSS. H . Lynn. in 1527.. in 1466. where red wine and <5laret fetched the same price.. p. VoL III.. Malmsey being sold at Is. 4d. in the Fifth Report of the Royal Commission on Historical MSS. 25s. in 1520 . X See Thorold Rogers. 5d. lOd. the hogshead.. Calend. Patent Rolls. 8d. which show that the activity of the wine trade in Lynn was maintained until comparatively modern times. at Wymondham. and Rhenish at Is. et seq. was an important centre of the East Anglia wine trade. at Hunstanton. et seq. Rhenish being sold at Is. f Set numerous entries of purchases of wine. IV. per gallon. and Malmsey 2s.. in 1527. 486. where -claret cost 23s. Malmsey at Is. Ijd. p. the tun. £4 13s. in 1533. at Norwich. per gallon. the hogshead in 1522 . and some fine vaults are still to be seen in the older parts of the city. J In that year. in 1522. per gallon . m. 1 Hen. VoL IV..

Antony de Lynne. 1618. 12 tuns of William Castell. by an indenture betweeif Richard Wells. on the other. of London. the deputy-butler in the port of Lynn. 4 tuns of Robert Carr. December 4th. 1617.. Mathew. £3. 7 tuns of John Smyth. 1617. . December 6th. on the one part. gives the following list of men and vessels of Lynn bringing wine. the dates of entry and the duties levied from each. of London . Prisage. Miller. 15 tuns of Th. Mytton. 1618. December 4th. and two London merchants. of London..On July ISth. Prisage. £6. October 24th. 1617. £6. Margaret of Lynne.* In September. Mittyn. and 7 tuns of Edward Redde. the latter undertook to freight a ship in Andalusia to-the port of Lynn. 7 tuns of Ed.. Mary of Harwich^ 41 tuns^ of wine of John Maynard. 1 tun. of Lynnbishop. 9 tuns of John Greneway. 12 tuns of Ric. of London . 1617. Mary Grace of Lyntiy 32 tuns of Ed. 1617. with wines and fruit. 6 tuns of R. 1618. Prisage. 1 pipe of Ed. of London. 18 tuns of Ric. Prisage. and Michaelmas. of London. 2 tuns. Gerves . cooper. accounting for the prisage in the said port between Michaelmas. Smyth. Kyne . Prisage.

* Numerous proofs of the abundance and moderate price of wine at Lynn during the fifteenth century are to be found in the manuscripts of the Borough of King's Lynn. for one flagon and a quart of red. 5s.318. April 14th. Part II. red. Mary Fortune of Lynne. 16d.. As Butlerage. 10 tuns of John Flenyshion. a foreigner. for two flagons of sweet wine sent to the Lady de Scales. 8d. Mary Imperially 11 tuns of John Clerk. Henry VIIL. IL. for a potell of Tire . 2s. for two flagons and three pints of red wine . Vol. 3s. 14 tuns of Robert Baker. Prisage^ 1 tun. Prisage. 2s. 9d. 2s. for three flagons. 2d. for two flagons and one potell of red. 4d. given to the Lord de Cromwell. the following entries are recorded in the accounts of the Chamberlains of Lynn : — 1-2 Ed. Brewer. 1518. (1462). February 26th. to the same. of London . December 6th. £6.1617. July ISth. 4s. No. 1518. 3d. and two flagons of sweet wine. and one flagon sweet. 4. for a flagon of sweet wine.. of London. Barke of Shirbourne. During the reign of Edward IV. IV. 44 tuns of John Greneway. Andrew of Lynne. for two flagons and one quart of sweet wine. 14d. and one flagon of sweet wine. 1 pipe of John Moll. 1618. called Tyre.

for five potells of red wine. Henry VIIL. to see the tenements of the community. spent at Geiwode. for a potell of red wine spent when the Mayor and divers of his brethren went round the towns. for a vessel of Rhenish wine {pro uno vase vini del Riene)^ given by the Mayor to Sir Robert Wyngefield. and three potells of sweet wine given by the Mayor to the Lord de Scales . for two flagons of red wine for the Mayor and his brethren . (A. and 20d. 2s. 8d. for the . (A. 4s. for three potells of red wine. Part IL. 3s. 20d. Na 4461. 2s. Knight. in the presence of the Mayor and other honest men of the town.and a potell of wine. 1474).D. Master of Carbroke. called Renysshewyn^ given to-the wife of John Twier . 3s. VoL XL. for four flagons of wine given to Lord Arundell. Knight. IV. 12d. 1466). 25s. when the Mayor assumed his charge for Brewer. 6s. IV. 5-6 Ed. Knight.D. for five quarts of sweet wine. for two flagons of red wine and one flagon of sweet wine given by the Mayor to the Lord de Cromwell. H2 HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. 13-14 Ed. for one flagon of red wine given to Sir William Langestrother. 8d. 4d. the year . paid for wine spent on Sir John Howard.

* Cambridge was also chiefly supplied with wine from Lynn. and Boston merchants sent some there occasionally. and 8d. at Cambridge. saying that he could not drink the beer nor the wine to be had there. which accounts for wine being always slightly more expensive at Cambridge than at Oxford. Erasmus wrote from Queen's College. it cost lOd. and asking his friend to send him some Greek Sec Eleventh Report of the Boyiil Commission on Historical 224f'22^^'^'''^*'^ ^""'^ ^^'* PPHISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IX ENGLAND. etc. In any case the carriage was somewhat costly. ^t Cambridge. in 1445. at Oxford . etc. it cost Is. in 1449. to Ammonius. Ammonius sent him some from London on several occasions. Cambridge. at Oxford . at Cambridge.* . in 1456. at Oxford . and 6d. In 1511. being at the Hospice of The Bull. and 1450. in 1414. 16d. although London. and 9d.carriage of the same wine to Harley. at Oxford.^ where the said Knight stays. " but not too sweet" . at Cambridge. llT wine. and 6d. Thus. for a flagon of sweet wine sent to the Lord Duke of Suffolk. at Cambridge. it cost 8d. at Oxford. in 1410. the gallon of wine cost 8d. Ipswich. in London. and 7d. it cost 6d.

Sack cost 3s. to be delivered by Christmas. the Anthony of Hully of 205 tuns. the Manj de Hullj of ninety tuns.^ It was also at Boston that the Earls of Rutland purchased some of their wines for Belvoir Castle . J J and during the year 1433. At Worksop. per gallon in 1585 and a little more in 1595.J being supplied from that centre. the Earl bought.t and even Stamford.|| a similar favour being granted ta another Boston merchant. obtained a special licence to import 200 tuns of Gascon wine. John Robynson. when the following fleet left Hull for Gascony:— The Trinite of Hvll^ of 300 tuns burden.** Hull was the chief source of supply for the wines consumed throughout Yorkshire and the neighbouring parts. on December 15th. Bardney. a merchant of Boston. two hogsheads of Gascon wine from George Lasselles. in 1514.from London on several occasions. the Mary Bussel and the Peter de . 1541. at Boston. in Lilicolnshire..* Boston was an important wine mart where merchants from the interior came at the time of the great fair to purchase their provision. for 100 tuns.§ In 1490. for instance. which was also supplied with wine from Boston. tt References to the merchants of Hull going to Bordeaux are to be found previous to.

. X In 1498. tt MSS. See MSS.. HarL. of Bridlington. which arrived back from Bordeaux. Documents relating to the Reign of Henry VII. ll Campbell. No. in 1444.the Mary Bussel and the Peter de * Brewer. the George of HuU. ft Select Remains of the Learned John Ray. belonging to John Somerly. 109. belonging to Robert White. VoL II. wine cost 258. together with . Hvll^ of eighty tuns each. VoL \ I. merchant of Beverley... wine coat lOd. t In 1627. 1840. fo. 1433. 1918. 17(5().. p. Henry VIII. of 151 tuns.. p. History of Agriculture.. Thorold Rogers. p^ 320.* A few years later. No.. ^ Brewer. verso. Documents relating to the Reign of Heniy \ III. we have a list of the Hull fleet. 5227. per hogshead at Bardney. Vol. etc. per gallon at Stamford.. VoL I. I. 14r». VoL III. 614. the John Bridlington. § Idem. 1917. No. VoL IV.of the Duke of Rutland at Belvoir Castle.

two tims each to Naudin de Las-tage. 78. Jtujmes Mmie^ Saint Jehan. seven from Dartmouth. three casks. three casks and one pipe to Monyn Jeuven de la Layne. Art. Harl. the Maria of Bayonney the Gorge Payntone. 964. the Seint Yves de Dyerna. the Petre of Exeter. the I'rinity. together with the quantity of wine brought by each vessel. Johan Jenstay. and one pipe belonged to Fortin de Cantelop. vcrso. the Gorge de la Pottla (of Poole).t A little further there is an entry to the effect that on October 29th and November 18th. 433. eight vessels from London. forty-two casks. The other ships which arrived the same day appear to have belonged to foreign and English ports other than HuU. t They were tlie Cnthclinc dxi Fan. fo. Kathclin of BahonvCj Juliana dc Landemeaity the Marie and the Anthony of London. one from Portsmouth. eighteen tuns and twelve casks to Lorens le Boria .. and eight casks to Pey Estort. Aittho7iy du Fnu.fleet. one pipe. the MSS. The ship called La Saubade de Bayonne was laden with 136 tuns and one pipe of wine. 1444. two vessels belonging to the port of Hull. and Pey Bachey. which arrived back from Bordeaux. No. eight tuns to Bernard Julian. two ships from Weymouth. the Trynytat of Winchelsea. the Marie de . belonging to no less than ten different people : seventy-one tuns. and one pipe to Johan Buscat.

Vol. du Commerce ot de la Navigation a Bonleaux. also the Maria de Cledkol and the Valentyn de Gloucester brought wine to Hull. Michel. the (ieorge of Dartmouth. Sebastian. Cherbourg. the Marie of Swansea. the Kathilyn of Plymouth. Saltash. another from Wanford. the municipality of Hull showed signs of temperance tendencies by prohibiting the sale of wine on Simdays.. 'the Marie Kanik. by . and.London. Tenby. the Trynytat of ChepyscoUe (? Chepstow). the Mar\t of Hull. Sre Fr. all arrived at Hull with wines. ships from Milford. Oxenford.* and ordering. Holderness. 345 -358. Guernsey. Llan-ethle. a vessel from Newcastle. Hull. the Martynet Tabbet. Pensand. Early in the fifteenth century. I. in 1414. Hirtt. p]). the Marie of Rouen. the I'rinity. one from Southampton. etc.. the Marie de Courtinay. Bridge-water. raSTORY OP THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. lastly. Lymington. 119 Maria Careau^ the Trynitat de Berkeley^ six ships from Bristol. There are a very great number of such entries illustrating the considerable activity of the wine trade of Hull in 1444-1445. 1444. On December 13th. St.

t Idem.) II Whitaker.. p. 4d. VoL L.§ Wine was also sent from Hull to Bolton Abbey. (Crom. J. well's Accounts. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. received £7 14s. where claret and * J.f In 1659. a vintner. History of the Town and Port of Kingston-upon-fiull. Documents relating to the Reign of Henry VIII. At Leeds. wine was sent to a great many places inland as well as along the coast.. 73. Hylton. Sheahap. in 1441. etc. t Rutland MSS. 782.. XIV. p. . 72. p. || to Kirkby Stephen. Part II.. p. 70. No. History and Antiquities of Craven.. 343. for five hogsheads of wine in 1539.an ordinance rendered by common consent at the Town Hall. that no Mayor of Hull be allowed to sell ale or wine in his house during his year of office. wrote to the Earl of Rutland and Lord Talbot concerning the proposed exemption of their wines from impost. Thomas Alrede and Harry Modye. Vol. J Gairdner. J From Hull. two merchants of Hull.

was York. 1537. by the Humber and the Ouse. in 1530. and in close commercial relationa with this port. York merchants traded directly vnih Bordeaux. religious. and Muscadine 3s. had granted to York wine merchants the same licences as to those of Hull.* Nearer Hull. 4d. 4d.t York did not draw its supplies of wine only from Hull. per gallon. 4d. in 1586.white wine cost £18 per tun. J A century before. in 1532. and under. in 1531.§ In 1421. 4d. since it cost as much as Is. and £8 per tun.e. 4d. i.. 8d. was Is. per gallon. wine must have been scarce at York. and to Durham. where red wine and claret cost £6 13s. £6 13s. and under.]| whilst it only cost 8d. per tun. per gallon in 1550. and military life of the nation^ The cost of carriage of a tun of wine from Hull to York by water all the way. in 1433. £7 13s. where one of them and two of his Hull compatriots were arrested in 1546. in 1533 and 1534. Richard III. the Duke of Norfolk ordered four hogsheads of wine out of his cellar to be broached in the streets of York for the people to drink and rejoice on the receipt of the news that the Queen was " quick with child."** At Beverley wine as well as beer was supplied to the " . at that time a great wine-consuming city and playing an important part in the political.^ In June. £4 13s.

119. I. Henry VIII.. cook. History of Agriculture. Vol. XII. John Redyshan. on several occasions distributed amongst archers . 1437. 1445. p. Hist. No.. [| Thorold Rogers. 109. «I Idrm. fo."* Mentions of gifts of wine or purchases of this commodity are also to be found in the records of the Corporation for 1409. Thorold Rogers.. per gallon.armed men and archers " during the northern rebellion in which Archbishop Scrope was engaged. m. 510. Vol. when it was. § MSS.. 510. f>. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. Ilistory of Agriculture. ]2r in 1405. 608.. 1423. 51G. IK. Vol. Vol. Harl. p. the assize . Michel.. in 1448. Gairdner. du Commeice et do la Navigation a Bordeaux. Part II. t Idem. p. 22. J Fr. for refusing to sell red wine of Gascony at 6d. III. was fined 50s. verso. p. a hogshead of wine was at the same timegiven by the Corporation to '' Sir John de Scropp.. 433.

and undertake for Hist. or female wineseller (vendatrix) called tipeler. brewster. under the penalty of all which the King could take as forfeit in this behalf.to sell red wine of Gascony at 6d. the price of wine had risen to 12d. and in 1520. the assize price. for whose doings their hosts will answer to the lord the King and the community of the town. permit any inhabitants. 157.f In December. Com. in 1460. per gallon. Report on the ^ISS. and make their names and persons there known. or strangers to reside or remain by night in their taverns after 9 o'clock has struck in the night. per gallon. wine. p. and ordered to be made every succeeding year:— " And let that proclamation be yearly made when it shall have seemed good to the keepers of the town and the steward of the lord that no innkeeper (hospes) wineseller. . 1405. the following proclamation was issued at Beverley. which only cost 8d. MSS. unless their hosts in the first week come before the keepers of the town with the same strangers. except true and honest persons. of Beverley. per gallon. And that no burgess or other inhabitant of Beverley keep at his house or table any stranger unknown beyond a competent time for coming and going in travelling. was given to the Cardinal Archbishop of York on his way to London.

and an inhabitant of 408. Rhenish. f Newcastle seems to have been the usual supply market whence the monastery of Durham received their wines. 173. chiefly red and claret. 165. nor any stranger after 8. 158. There are also mentions of French wines. 161^ 162. and even Chester. pp. or the Accounts of the Bursar of the Monastery of Durham. to be paid to the Ejng. but also from Hull. there are a great many entries relating to wines. probably. viz. 1530. a burgess under penalty of the loss of his freedom. Darlington. bought by the monastery. their good behaviour.t /(fern. 164. from Pentecost. And that no inhabitant wander in the streets beyond the franchises of Beverley by eight after 9 o'clock. 132. to Pentecost. without a light. until provision and order shall have been made for the delivery of offenders by the keepers of the community and the servants of the lord.. 133. In 1567 the assize price of wiue was fixed. principally from Newcastle-onTyne."* In the Durham Household Book.J The cost of carriage for the wine sent from Newcastle to Durham varied considerably. Malmsey and '' vino reniseto. at Newcastle. and reasonable cause. 1534. under penalty of imprisonment. at £10 per tim. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. according to the time ." which means.

to carry. t The Durham Household Book (Surtees Society Publications). the cheapest costing £6 10s. whilst in June. complains that wine was only to be had occasionally. wine was more plentiful. 1531. J At Berwick. cost 3s. 3. for example. when a prize was brought in. 4. 58. and that it always fetched a very high price. 229.* From Newcastle.of the year and special circumstances. 49. 135. 23G. a town which long enjoyed many special privileges. and occasionally to Scotland. or three hogsheads. 175. wine was purchased in that port ^nd shipped to Edinburgh. one tun. 16. Lord Lisle. 5s. for instance. 261. ^as charged per tun of wine sent from Newcastle to Durham. * MSS. In February. . 230. 67. writing to the Duke of Suffolk. 227. and one hogshead Is. p. in 1534. 63. or 4s. 4d. 248. 1530.f At Alnwick. per tun. 152. 4d. in 1643. in 1543. lOd. and the royal . was asked. of the Cori)oration of Beverley. 13. wine was sent throughout Northumberland. t The MSS. of the Earl of Lona-dale. i)p. 2s. 1. 161. and of very inferior quality. per hogshead was charged. 148. 293. in 1532. pp. 228.

per gallon. and that of Malmsey 2s.No. No.11 whilst. 63." for money.. in 1543. soldiers were not allowed to " dice or card. History of . and the royal cellars there were always abundantly supplied ior the needs of the army. that. the gallon in 1429.678. 343. at Chester. XVIIL. Vol Alnwick. 16. Lisle had to pay at the rate of 28 French crowns per tun for 20 or 30 tuns of wine he bought at 'to the Reign of Henry VIII. 13. in 1542. •then very scarce at Edinburgh. in 1559.PartL. XVII. but could play for wine or other drinks.^ The Durham Household Book (Surtees Society).privileges. t Gairdner. the price of red wine was Is. where wine was sold at 8d. || Thorold Rogers. It is recorded in the Book of Statutes and Ordinances of Berwick. Vol. 248. pp. these prices being the same as ruled in London during that year.. Wine was § Idem. 151. 152. per gallon. § The Western counties of the North of England ^ere chiefly supplied with wine through Chester and Lancaster. Documents relating also sent from Alnwick to Edin-biurgh . 4d. wine was more plentiful.

IIL.^ . Raven-glass Creek. the Council ordered that an inquiry be made into all the ports. merchants and burgesses of Ayr.where its cost increased from £8 to Agriculture. ^ Idem. bought wine and victuals at Kirkcudbright. No. Wine was . 1566. of mail " for the purpose. It was then proved that ships came from Chester and Liverpool with refuse wines and salt. £20 per tun within a year. where some of the principals amongst them came on land " in their shirts. 510. whilst others brought from Scotland wines which had been bespoken for the provision of the houses on the coast.156. 1572. at Powsfoot Creek. which they wished to sell at a better price than they could get in Scotland. 1601. they first went to Beaumaris and thence to Liverpool. Martin Merrie and Adam Harber. Vol IIL. Whitehaven Creek. Skinbumess. 517.* In April. in Scotland. t Idem. etc. Workington Creek. creeks and havens on the coast of Cumberland. p. 153. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENOLAND.f In May. On April 20th. Vol. a ship sent by the Dacre rebels to reconnoitre the coast of Cumberland. where smuggling: was alleged to take place. came from Ayr with a ship laden with Gascony wines. Parton Creek. p..

without composition or allowance. 125 wine to the quantity of 100 tuns. Kliz. No. 40. of State Papers.. 38. No. XIII. p. they pretend.Liverpool. on every tun of wine towards furnishing of wines for Her Majesty's provision of household and 5s. They are aggrieved in respect they pay prise of wines to Her Majesty's Farmer. the officers of the Port of Chester wrote to Lord Burgh ley protesting against-the imposition of a special additional tax on wine in their port..^ On January 28th. of every tun for wastage. 1601-1603. 1593. who. the one French barque and the other a Scottish ship. dealeth hardly with them. and will have his full prise of four tuns in wine. the merchants had brought in two ships of Calcnd. Eliz. 13. Domestic Series. Addenda. as follows :— "The merchants of this city are aggrieved at the impost of 10s.. Vol XXI. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. t Idem. Vol. and also in . t Icfnn.. Shortly before the receipt of the letters directing them to collect the same.

t at Windsor. the gallon. Lynn. Gilbert Gerrarde. the hogshead.respect that before this time never the like demand hath been made of any other wines for Her Majesty's provision within the County Palatine and Earldom of Chester. pro Supervisor. and they pretend there is no wastage due on strangers' bottoms. At Farley.t it was also the price asked at Henley. the gallon. in 1488. in Hungerford. They have taken sufficient pawn of plate for satisfaction of the same several duties. customer . in 1518. Alexander Cotes. Southampton.—Salis- . in 1437. red wine cost 8d. Signed."* Besides Bristol. Hull. by far the most important market of the realm. Last year the merchants were discharged from payment of wastage. when sweet wine cost Is. the gallon.f Chester.t and at Hatfield ten tuns of Gascony wine were sold at £8 each in 1551. January 28th. Controller .t and at Bicester.t All along the river Thames wine was to be found in great plenty. and in 1424. were often supplied from this. many of the towns and places within fifty and even a hundred miles of London. claret only cost 30s. Peter 3Iiddleton. Chester and many other ports through which wine was distributed inland. At Kingston-on-Thames Malmsey was sold at 2s. in 1571. 1593. in 1456 . 4d.

one of the results of it was to cause the Ejng to grant to the Chancellor of the University.f In 1354. ale and wine and of all victuals. per pipe.. 469. J In 1556. given by Professor Thorold Rogers. Wine was usually cheaper at Oxford than at any other inland town. crete and all sweet wines were plentiful and cheap. At Oxford.bury MSS. ei seq. by cart. Magdalen and Corpus Christi Colleges. excluding the Mayor entirely. Hatfield. the complete supervision of the assize of bread. and although the distance must have been between seventy and eighty miles. but also from Southampton.. Vice-Chancellor. the two nearer ports. History of Agriculture. which is a sufficient proof of its abundance. . 610. t Thorold Rogers. claret. the cost of the carriage from the Hampshire port ta the University City was only 4s. Chancellor of Oxford. then at Court. not only from London and Bristol. VoL III. a fight in the streets of Oxford between town and gown arose from a dispute between a scholar and a taverner over a quart of wine. Part TV. Thomas Reynold. to judge from the extracts front the Corporation accounts and those of Oriel..* red and white wine. wrote to Cardinal Pole. p. p. It was sent there.

VI. pp. 609 to 518. neither I (the Vice-Chancellor). then at Court. } Robert of Avesbury. so that some sell Gascony wine at 16d. each drawn by six horseR. which " most prudently ordained that in all Oxford there should be but three wine taverns. and that to their best advantage.. 706. 1720.Cardinal Pole. in all. in three carts. pp. t In 1406. ]2T obtained of the late Lord Chancellor licence to sell wine for a term of years. 197. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND.. De miri-bilibus gestis Edwardi tertii. History of Agriculture. Sack at 2s.* If this gap be not stopped. 7 Ed. Vol. VoL IV. nor all the heads of this University can do any good. Chancellor of Oxford. six pipes of wine were sent from Southampton to Oxford. lOd. The letuin journey occupied ten days and only cost 24s. and Malmsey at 2s. Heame. the gallon.. eight or more have. III. for. asking for the re-enacting of the Act of Parliament. Edited by Ed. 6d. 4d. 604. p. since then. under the cloak of pretended loss in providing for the Parliament that was appointed by Her Majesty to be held at Oxford— * Thorold Rogers. besides the . History of Agriculture.. if it may be without injury. Thorold Rogers.

Is. in 1462 . Is. 8d. and £4 in 1514. besides the great impoverishing of the poor scholars.. at Stonor. £7 6s. Id.. Gascon wine cost 25s. and Sack 2s. 8d. and 8d. at St. the gallon.heads of this University can do any good. sweet wine. in 1521 . in 1443 and 1444. . 3d. in 1462 . Sack and Malmsey. red wine-cost 35s. the gallon. in Essex. in 1431. lOd. per gallon. 8d. at Writtle.. * The prices which had been fixed by royal authority at that time were: Gascon wine. in 1510.. the gallon. 4d. at Hulme. in 1577.. and Malmsey. at Stoke. 8d. Malmsey cost Is. the tun. at Hickling. per gallon. where claret and white wine cost £4 10s. and 8d. per butt. claret cost 25s. in 1437 . in 1434 . red Gascony wine cost £5 6s. the gallon. and Ehenish. at Castre. 5d. at Kirling. per gallon at Trevarthen. per gallon and Bastard at Is. when claret was sold at 8d. the tun. Osith. Gascon wine cost £5 the pipe and Spanish wine £5 6s. per tun. per hogshead at Finchale. Bastard. the hogshead. the gallon. Ehenish. the hogshead. 8d.. who will have wine whatever its cost. white wine and claret cost 8d. 12d. in 1533 . the hogshead. and 40s. and £6 lis. the gallon."t According to the researches of Professor Thorold Eogers. the butt of Malmsey cost £5 in 1513. at Eipyngton. 2d. and Ehenish Is. 6d. in 1460. . and in 1536. Is. £2 lis.

447. per gallon in 1599. Sack cost 2s. bears testimony to the activity of the wine trade in Jersey . and of £20 per tun. I am informed that a great number of new angels have been exported from . In 1592. at Kirtling . where claret only cost Is. 446. 5d. In 1600. pp. 1590. in that same year. at Gawthorp. as they delight too much in drinking. where Sack cost £8 per butt. of State Papers. whilst Malmsey fetched 3s. 2d. In 1583. 3d. Sack cost 3s. per gallon. Mary. Rhenish wine cost 2s.t Calend. The following letter of Amias Paulet to Sir Hugh Paulet. 1589. 8d. claret and white wine cost £20 per tun. 8d. In 1587. and 2s. and Sack 3s. and it is to be lamented that so much money passes from the isles in such unprofitable wares. at Gawthorp . per gallon. and Gascony wine £11 per tun. and claret £24 per tun. at Gawthorp. In 1586. Vol. lOd. claret was bought at the rate of £17 12s. in 1600. claret cost 2s. per gallon. November 30th. per tun. 6d.. per gallon at Mendham. per gallon.— '' Great prejudice is done to the poor people of Jersey by the quantity of wines brought into the island.. at Eton. In 1588. and aqua vitae cost 6s. Addenda. white wine cost 2s. Domestic Series. per gallon at Kirtling. claret cost £21 15s.' at Gawthorp. per tun. and 8s. 8d. at Wormleighton. per gallon. Jersey. In 1589. per gallon. 8d. and Is. 4d. and Sack 3s. at Kirtling. MI. 1591. at Kirtling.

In 1406. Vol. as in the thirteenth century. but the nobiUty and the Church had lost much of their former wealth and power. The consumption of wine in England during the latter part of the Middle Ages was very extensive. The Kings of England retained the custom of buying part of the supplies of wine they stood in need of direct from Gascony.eml. were entrusted with this buying for five years. CHAPTER VI. and it had become a luxury."* Ca'. when it cost 2d. IX. the price of the gallon reaching 2s. Addenda. so long as this province remained under their domination. Malo.number of new angels have been exported from England to St. Large quantities of wine were required for the royal households. castles and armies. Domestic Series.* at the . Although the greater and wider distribution of wealth increased the number of those who could afford to buy wine. burgess of Bordeaux. Anobls were gold coins lately introduced. or less per gallon. of State Papers. and did not purchase wine to the same extent as during the fourteenth century. it had ceased to be one of the necessaries of life within the reach of artisans. and John Melburne. although it showed signs of an approaching decline. an English merchant. Richard Mackanan. before the end of the sixteenth century.

however. gave a similar commission to Thomas Bolthorpe. winding and rolling. Vase.. m. often chartered a number of ships or commissioned some merchants to go to Bordeaux and purchase large quantities of wine for the royal household. amounted to £265 12s.'s reign. to freight two ships with Bordeaux wine for the King's provision. another such and more comprehensive commission was given to one. Henry V. a tun. cranage. in 1528. 4d.045 7s.. including lighterage from Blackwall to the crane in the Vintry. free on board Bordeaux. | t ^^^f^^ H-l* Hen.t Rot.^ After the loss of Bordeaux. J Thus. John Fowy. a tim.. 6. etc. cooperage. The expenses of bringing the wine to London. a tun.end of which the duty was entrusted to the King's Butler. freight. during Henry VI. to buy and provide in England.* and. 11. wine for the royal household. who.. 6d. Roger Basyng received £1. m. 2d. IV. IV. with power to go up country {en la haute pam). 9-10 Hen. lid. 4d. white and claret wine for the sum of £618 19s. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. France and Normandy. brought up the total cost of . He bought 152 tuns of red. no royal officer was ever appointed to go to Gascony on behalf of the Sovereign. army or castles at home.

the shipment to £884 12s. at a cost of £112 17s.* In February. 3. Part I. 1534. 1530. 14. ot State Papers. Vol.§ In that same year (1528).. Chiet Butler of England Calend. 1528. December 31st. at Blackheath.. Part II. Patent Rolls. or £5 16s. 4d. September 23rd. t By Bill of Thomoa Chaucer. 5082. one tierce and one " carte " at Bordeaux. two hogsheads of wine were housed at the Three . £16 4s. Henry VIII. m. 4d. per tun.. was paid to the *' Serjeant of the cellar" for three tuns of white wine of Gaillac . at a total cost of £3. at Roanne. Gayangos.. 5 Hen. they purchased no less than 563 tuns.. 262. the same time 21 tuns of Orleans wine. 4 HeiL V.812 lis. Vase. VI. No. IV. had commissioned eleven other merchants to buy wine for his use . one William Formar bought at Rot. m. X See the letters of Eustace ChapujTS to the Emperor in the Calend.t in December of the same year three hogsheads of wine were placed in the cellar of the Tower.. 2jd. v. for the King. 5d.. Part II. p. Documents relating to the Rt'ign of Henry VIIL.. § Brewer. Vol.

1f and in the following month 12s.1| In December.two hogsheads of wine were housed at the Three Cranes. for the King.454 was delivered out of the royal coffers for the King's provision of wines. there is a mention of a " vessell of sodde wyne " brought to the King. 182. 1532. In the text the Reign of Henry VIII. was paid to the wine porters who laid down wine in the King's privy cellar. an entry of £1.§ and in August. 1531. two " botells" of new wine were sent to the King.000 being given for the King's provision of wine to the same Roger Basyng who had been to Bordeaux on a similar mission in 1528. | " pryvay ohambre " was vnitten in Part II. Documents relating to ^ Idem^ p. . £1. 5109... but " sellor '* sub- . 5s. £1.ft In November. |J In 1539.500 being given him to that effect.** In July. 1531. the first instance..§§ In * Brewer. Roger Basing was again entrusted with the charge of procuring wine for the royal household. Vol. 1531. 1532. IV. No. and two tierces and one " carte " of wane were " cellared in the King's private chamber. was paid to the serjeant of the cellar for laying in wines for the King. "J In February.

p. No. 190. §§ Gairdner. to December. 99. t In 1543. 109. ** Idem^ p. and 400 before the ensuing June. 1532. 1529.{ In 1547. at 30s.* The following month. 231. edited by ft Idem. King Henry VIIL. 826. each. on February 27th.. the King of France was pleased to grant that Henry's " Sommelier " at Bordeaux should be suffered to depart with the wines he had bought there. 24. p. Voi. I XIV. 156. Part L. laden with wine for Henry VIII. p. Documents relatiit<]^ § Iden. 1544. 1543. contracted with one of the Steelyard merchants for a supply of 800 ohms of Rhenish wine. Nicolas.'s annual provision. from November. p. N. H. no less than sixteen English ships.t The Privy Purse Expenses of stituted for "chambre*' after. 400 before Christmas. 98. I2 January. 276. Idtm. to the Reign of Henry VIIL. Henry VIII. merchants trading with France petitioned the . were captured by the Scots. 1543. JJ Id*w. } Idenit pp. p.

Domestic Series. 1404. four English vessels coming from Bordeaux. . 217. purchases to no small extent were regularly made in London. Gairdner. No. Addenda. No. XVII. Vol. Part L. Southampton and Hull for the requirements of the royal household in different parts of the country. 57.Council. § Besides the provisions of wine made abroad on behalf of the King. Bristol.. requesting payment for the wines supplied by them for the royal household during the last fourteen months. a grant was issued in favour of John Nicol. VI. Documents relating to the Reign of Henry VIII. Vol. Part II. t Idem. No. to whom £661 lis. 22. ofState Papers. 77. Part I. No. II Idem. No. 20. § Calend. XVIIl. Ed. 449. Foreign Series.. t Idem.. was due for certain wines bought from him for the royal household during the previous year. Sec.. vintner.. || In 1548.. Thus. were captured by some Scots and brought into Brest. on November 23rd. laden with wine of Gascony for the King's provision.

the royal butler. the King's Butler. On July 3rd. the Bishop of Worcester was ordered to take thirteen tims and one pipe of wine in Worcester and Hereford. wherever they could find them the required number of tuns or pipes and have them sent to a specified place to some duly appointed royal officer. and therefore in large quantities. 133 as appeared by a Bill uixder the seal of Thomas Chaucer. In such cases. but it was sometimes found necessary to obtain wine for the royal castles or armies. either in the summer or early in the autumn.* When wine could be had of the merchants. or his deputies.! purchased whatever was required for the King's table. Thomas Walsingham was commissioned to take wines for the expenses of the household. 1403. 1403. and to bring ten tuns to the castle of Brekenoky two tuns to .^ and on September 12th.HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. the Sheriffs of Bristol were ordered to send wine and victuals to the castle and town of Newport for the sustenance of the men at arms and archers there. orders were issued to local authorities in all parts of England to seize. that is before the new wines had arrived and when stocks of previous vintages were practically exhausted. On the same day.

for the household. again.. t On July 4th. on the same day.f and soldiers also received an allowance of wine. 1403. chief butler.<) John Wenlock. was appointed to provide wines in divers places within the realm. 6 Hen. m. on the same day also. Part I. IV. 11. 1 Ed. 4 Hen. IV. was fully occupied. 22. becaui>. IV. 12. Patent RoUs. m.. This sum was to be paid from the customs of wools and woolfells shipped in the port of London after Easter. six tuns of which were to be sent to the castle of Lampedervaury ten tuns to the castle of Cardygan and one pipe to the castle of Emely?}* All the royal castles were supplied with w4ne. ten oi which were to be sent to the castle of Kemerdyny two to the castle of Kedwdly and two to Sweynseye . Calend. yeoman of the King's butlery.. 4 Ed. 19d. Peter Courtenay was ordered to take fourteen tuns of wine in the County of Calend. Patent Rolls. m.. Patent Rolls.. 1461. Part I. IV.. Part II... Knight.bring ten tuns to the castle of Brekenoky two tuns to the castle of Hay^ one tun to the castle of Kenflyey and one pipe to the castle of Dynas. the Bishop of Exeter was ordered to take sixteen tuns and one pipe of wine in Devonshire. Part I. m. at any rate . Robert Stowell. X Calend. Somerset.

** having to go three or four days without drinking anything but water. in 1644. which were sent to the towns and castles wine. the reverse had come about. to help the Emperor invade France. Constable of .J but the troops sent by Henry VIII. where wine and provisions were found in such plenty that the Germans drank more * Further supplies ot wine John Payn. "the greater part." writes the Emperor's Ambassador in London. The armies of the Lancastrians never lacked wine during their campaigns in France. a sort of privation." he adds. " which military men seldom endure without falling into despair. Calend. during the J In 1415. asked the following year.when on active service. Patent Rolls. had of Kermerdyn. the imperial army had entered France and occupied Epernay. and specially when on a foreign campaign. remained a long time inactive through the lack of supplies. Kydewelly and Llan become putrid and of no value." staffan in South Wales. Henry V. not being consumed." § A couple of months later. late chief butler.

Part I. p. Constable of Guienne to send 700 6 Hen. No casks of wine to his army in Xorvember 4th.—Darnal. p. Hen.. m.. m. IV. mandy. Calend. to William Notebem. 4 Clironiques de Bordeaux. Letter the castle of Dover. 42. 1404. Vol. IV.* Entertaining was not carried out on so gorgeous a scale at Court during the latter part of the Middle Ages as in earlier times.. Patent Rolls.following year. 1544. Supplement des t See Calend. July of red wine delivered to him by ' 7th. 25.. of ten tuns of Chapuys to the Emperor. of State Papers. Patent Rolls. VIL. Part II. victualler of Gayangos. . than was good for them and began to be insolent and unruly. but the occasions of those festivities which called for good cheer were much more frequent. 39d. to save his soldiers from getting drunk en masse. " Pardon § Calend. the Emperor having to order that two thousand casks of wine be broken and the wine destroyed. 234. .

VoL VIL.. At all State banquets. p. Vol. porque el Emperador mando que se derramasen mas de 2. que comencaban ya a se revolver como suelen hacerlo. it is said that the house built for the King of England at the Field of Cloth of Gold had a cellar containing ". and in excelling both his allies and rivals in the choice and abundance of his wines. on October 7th.11. appears to have taken a certain pride in having well-stocked cellars at home. there were three tuns and two pieces of wine.. of State Papers. When he went to meet Francis I.000 botas de vino porque los alemanes no se apoderasen dellas."—Calend. when the French Queen was entertained at Greenwich by Henry VIII. The purveyor's wages for this festive gathering were only 2}d...t Henry VIII.since the greater facilities of communication rendered the visits of foreign princes or exalted dignitaries of common occurrence. 1518. in 1520. p.. 1614. as well as wine. t Brewer. Gayangos.. when abroad. and the latter at £7 14s. 4d. Documents ielating to the Reign of Henry VIIL. 349. . which only formed half or part of the liquor consumed. Thus. beer was now commonly served. the former being charged in the royal household expenses at £13 3s. and six tuns and seven hogsheads of ale consumed.. 2d. Part II.

88. of State Pajxjrs. Venice.^ Such grants were never very important. but they were so numerous that they necessitated a very considerable quantity of wine. he granted for life four tuns of wine yearly from the King's prise in the port of Bridgewater (Bruggewater). annually. granted to him by Richard II.|| to Elizabeth Elmham. J to Thomas Brette. but they were further swelled by the great number of casks of wine given yearly by every monarch to his own relations.§ to Thomas Bolour. of Kent. or elsewhere within the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. . the best that could be found in Flanders and France.. he granted for life a butt of Romeney or Malvesey in the port of London. whose gift was renewed by Henry IV. 94.** * Caleml. Yarmouth. f This monarch granted to the men and women of Cirencester two casks of wine for their service in capturing the Earls of Kent and Salisbury. Nos. or Lynn. and every sort of good wine. friends or servants. VoL III. from the King's prise in the ports of Ipswich.000 butts of the choicest wines.. Malmseys.HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. he also granted for life two tuns of wine yearly. was in receipt of a cask of wine. Geoffrey Chaucer. DO less than 3. the poet.* The quantities of wine required for the royal household. castles. and two tuns of wine of Gascony in the port of Hull . and armies were considerable.

1 Hen. 2. 20. 14. 1.26. and also a tun of sweet wine. 32. 30. 29. 8.27.. 24. m. In the Calend. 15. ra. October 27th. 22. 16. 1399. 32. 31.. m... 28. IV. in the said port.13. 4. for . Part VI.1. 19. 6. during the first year of his reign only: 1 Hen. m. as they may choose. in Somerset. 12. 5. 5. 39. 536. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. Venice. 30. Patent Rolls alone. G. 23.28. 29. t Syllabus to Rymer's Foodera. m. 633. Part IV.. 33. pp. 539. Edward IV. 28. m. Part I. p. 1 : Part II.. 28. 137 In 1461. 25. October 2nd. m. VoL III. 38. 94.20. m. July 6th.23. Part UI.34. 88.. 11. 9. 36.. 19. 39.. 20. m. 5. Fart V II. 12. 25. 1399. 12. m. 1399. 3. II Idem. 18. m.. Nos. " bastard or oseie. Part VIII. a tun of wine yearly in the port of Bristol. 1 . November 3rcl.. granted to the prior and convent of Henton." yearly. 34.. Ph.. 42. § Calend. of State Pajxjrs. ^ Idem.* Caleml.36. 14.rt v. Part I. the following relerences are those of grants of wine by Henry IV. 1400. Patent Rolls.15. t Idem. 12. IV.

for instance. in lieu of four tuns of wine granted to them by patent of Edward III. weakened by their vigils and fasts. in 1415. from William Knyght and John Style.. 34. 1 Ed. that they may pray for the good estate of the King. and for his soul after death. or an ambassador abroad. because they were unable to obtain the wine. sent by either a friendly foreign potentate. and Henry VIII. in 1357. 32. Henry VIII. IV. Part VI. J The royal cellars received from time to time a few casks of some choice vintage. found himself obliged to grant money in lieu of wine in many instances. granted to them by Henry V.* Grants. especially such as were made in favour of religious houses. received."t Again. the prioress and monastery of Dartford were granted an annuity of £16 out of the customs of London. were scrupulously renewed by every Sovereign. and for the souls of his progenitors. their number went on increasing from reign to reign.. In 1512. either from the port of London or the wines of the royal household. the prior and monks of the Carthusian monastery of Shene were granted an annuity of £12 instead of two tuns and four puncheons of red Gascon wine. . in 1513. and confirmed by Henry VII. m. Patent Rolls. his ambassadors Calend. which both " were overcharged with such grants.....the sustenance of their bodies. in 1516.

since she also bought some in the following December. Foreign and Domestic. in 1543. of the Reign of Henry VIIL. was . from noblemen or officials. which were sent to her at Langley by the Lord Mayor of London. Mary. from Paris."* Jn 1542. who probably wished to gain their favour thereby." in September.! and he also received a present of Bordeaux wine.^ The most unfortunate queen. J /cfc7n. at the Court of the King of Aragon. 1502.. Vol. the Queen of Henry VII.VoLn. Catherine of Aragon. Letters and Papers.f The consorts and children of several Kings of England were not unfrequently favoured with such gifts of a cask.PartI. some white wine of " San Martyns. No. Knight. Dowager Queen of Hungary. 201.§ The following month a servant of Sir John Shaa. 3316. brought her two vessels of Rhenish wine from London to Esthampsted. received two "barrels ot Rhenish wine.il The Queen was evidently fond of Rhine wines. No. L. sent him some casks of wine which were thankfully acknowledged.t Brewer.. or even of a few bottles of wine. Elizabeth of York..

p. 4267. Pait II. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. was only given new wine for her drinking. Vol. Letters and Papers of the Reign of Henry VIIL. Cay-angos. which was given her. to have some other. I. of State Papers.. IX. p.. h. 139 her orders. Foreign Series. but it appears that the servant who executed her commands was dismissed for the offence of obeying X Calend. 32G. Vol. Edited by N. * Brewer. VL. Vin. 62. Nicolas. 1542." t Calend. Vol. the King not choosing her to drink or eat . VIL) mentions the wine of San Martin amongst the best of the kingdom of " Toledo. London. the Emperor's Ambassador. for a cask of old Spanish wine. 48. and she begged. II Idem. p. but in vain.The most unfortunate queen.. p. 47. No. 1830. 84. Catherine of Aragon. In 1534. •. Bacci (De Nat. she sent to Chapuys. of State Papers. July 3rd. although this did not suit her faiUng health. $ Ptivy Purse Expenses of Elizabeth of York. Idem. p. lib.

** Twenty casks and one pipe of red Gascony wine. 82.^ The wine sent by the Duke of Brittany to his sister Joan. ** ..t from the Duke of Suffolk. VoL V. . although the very limited means at her command never allowed her to purchase any large quantity. who sent her some flagons of it in November. imported in 1411. and afterwards Queen. a licence to bring over from Lreland to England four tuns of wine free of all customs and subsidy. was also exempted from all duties. 11 The consumption of wine by the lords spiritual and temporal was greatly encouraged by the special licences. who presented her with a hogshead of wine in April.{ from Lady Lisle. She also bought wine for her household. Calend. of State Papers. 1544. for the use of the Prince of Wales were likewise exempted from duty. Robert de Faryngton..her orders. 1537.* Her daughter. Gav-angos. Parti. exemptions of duty and other privileges which were often granted to them by the Sovereign. Mary. p. who also sent her a hogshead in July. received presents of wine from Lady Kingston." . gave one of his clerks.§ and from others. Henry IV.\ et ne veult ce roy quelle boive ni mange que de ce quil luy fera poiu*veoir. Princess. the King not choosing her to drink or eat anything but what he provided for her. Lady de Baset. 1538.ff The collectors of the subsidy in London were ordered.

1396. II Idem. Patent Rolls. p. 5 Hen. Part II. 66." t Privy Purse Expenses of the Princess Mary. 3 Hen. p. 1403. IV. Dr. pp. afterwords Queen Mary. In 1637. 58. 46. ** Syllabus to Rymer's Foedera. % Calend.* Similar exemptions and privUeges were granted by all subsequent Sovereigns to noblemen and religious . London. to allow the wines sent to Queen Joan to pass free of duty. 529. p. ft Idem. Part L. 63. 1411. 23. IV. t Idem.. 160. November 28th. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. 63. p. 569.de ce quil luy fera poiu*veoir. § Idem. 68. in 1418. 67. 28. m.. by Frederick Madden. 3. 161. m. MicheL Idem. 120. June 18th. a hogshead of wine was bought for the Princess's physician. 27. October 10th.. 1831. p. p. 1. 162. Idem. 79. licence renewed for thr-je years.

Clarencieux King of Arms. his French Secretary. in 1465. all that could be saved of a great ship of his. Secretary of the Duke of Austria. for the importation of 100 tuns of Gascon or other wine. granted to John Meawtis. was wrecked oil the coast of Ireland. and which.** . Canterbury. J In 1482. a Hcence to import 100 tuns of Gascony wines. Henry VI. called GabrieU. a remission of all duties on the wines imported by the Duke of Orleans. was bringing wines and other goods to England when it was captured by Brittany pirates. and to Roger Machado. allowed. alias Richemont. which he had sent at great expense to foreign parts. a ship of Henry.^ Henry VII.subsequent Sovereigns to noblemen and religious houses importing wine for their own consumption.§ Richard III. Duke of Northumberland. a licence to import thirtythree casks of French wine yearly. gave a similar licence to Peter Puissant. laden with divers wines and other goods. on its return to England. in 1440. granted to Lord Herbert. Edward granted to the prior and convent of Christchurch.|| In 1483.")" Edward IV. although all that was cast ashore belonged by right to the King as wreck of sea.

who was also his French Secretary. p. the Duke of Suffolk. . Part I. the Dean of the King's Chapel. sometimes in considerable quantities. 1483.* Many men of his Court were given such licences by Henry. October 2l8t. 1482. July 20th. Idem. X Calend. p. etc. 606. a licence to import 400 tuns. Anthony Ciabo.. Grooms of the Robes and of the Chamber. August 19th. Patent Rolls. 4. five ships of Wriothesley's arrived at Southampton. 714. and purchased them in England.J But many never ran the risk of importing their wines direct. 1440. Patent Rolls. ** Syllabus to Rymer's Foedera. the Earl of Worcester. ^ Calend.Syllal»u8 to Rymer's Foedeia. including the Master of the Rolls. m. 1 Ric. 667. 717. p. Part I. 21. 729. and to his surgeon. p.. IV. 5 Ed. m. 1418. p. three with Malmseys and two with Sacks. t Idem. 1484. Yeomen of the Guard. a licence to import 600 tuns of Gascony wine. m. July 28th. November 17th.f In 1538. June 22nd. Henry VIII. granted to the same John Meawtis. 1494.. § Syllabus to Rymer's Foedera.

In 1405. and fifty-four gallons of Gascon wine. History of Agriculture.considerable quantities. 1517. Letters relating to the Reign of Henry VIII.§ In 1443.. 645 . III. 777.. § Thorold Rogers. and one pipe of Gascon wine. and twelve pipes and fifty-four gallons of some other wine not otherwise described. Part L. also 33 gallons of vinegar. No.Vol. 4389. I. at Writtle.. Documents of the Reign of Henry VIIL. and six gallons of vernage. and one butt (thirty-six gallons) of Rhenish wine for his Essex seat. one hogshead fifty-two gallons and three quarts of white wine. consisting of forty-eight casks. where a further provision was sent the following year. p. pp. Letters relating to the Reign of Henry VIII. August 17th. p. Vol. Part II. X Gairdncr. the Duke of Buckingham bought eleven tuns. XIII.. five ohms of Rhenish. 507. 766. . the Countess of Warwick bought three casks and sixteen and a half gallons of red wine. 6233. No. . II. Vol. t See Brewer. Brewer. twenty-two gallons of oseye. No. thirteen pipes. || SyllabiiB to Rymer's Foeilera. September 25th. 1539. 1196. Vol.

t In or near London. Their children and numerous household officers and servants had to be satisfied with beer. wine- . p. five tuns of claret. and his fellows. and the other half was to be purchased in the spring and to last until Michaelmas. 611. No provision appears to have been made for the months of October and November. two tuns and two hogsheads of white wine. The Earls of Rutland. at their Yorkshire seat Wresill.II Idem. in 1522. Vol. a quart of wine was allowed every day for the breakfast of the Earl and Countess. and their manor of Eagle. in 1512. their London residence. in all ten tuns and two hogsheads. wine was kept and the cellar was under the charge of a special servant or "officer."* According to the household expenses of the fifth Earl of Northumberland. in Leicestershire. In all the great households. purchased a great quantity of different wines for Holywell." called "Yeoman or Groom of the Cellar. in Lincolnshire.. and a " pottell " of wine for their supper. Thus. The yearly provision was composed of three tuns of red wine. half this quantity was to be bought in the autumn and last from December to March. William Crowe. for instance. III. Belvoir Castle. the consumption of wine by all exalted personages was far greater than in the Percy family. in a remote part of Yorkshire.

Mary. 88. Eleanor. at the same time The yeoman of the cellar to f Household Expenses of the Ladv Richmond is mentioned in Earl of Northumberland. the Privy Purse Expenses of Princess 15. received 6s. 2.* In 1532. from Boston. 143 another tun of new Gascon wine was bought from Guytons. for " leidyng and cowcheeng of ij tonnes of Gascon wyne. During that year. 8d. in December. claret. where some Gascony wine was also sent. paid 30s.drawers of London.J In 1539.t In 1537. red and white wine . and oone fatte of Renysh wyne at Halywell " . the Earl of Rutland bought at Totham (Tottenham ?) some claret and Malmsey. vintner. etc. Countess of Rutland. 6. 73. claret was again purchased. p. HISTORY OP THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. and in 1541. to Tyrry. 17. pp. for a hogshead of claret given to Master Coke. they drank Sack and Muscadine at Bel voir Castle.

the carriage from Grantham to Belvoir Castle being only 8d.§ In 1542. 312.Boston. received. During that year. § Idem. one hogshead of claret was bought from the BulVs Head. 277.|| In 1542. Sack and French wine . Cheapside. in London. In 1543. 329. ^ Idem. at a cost of only 16d. vintner of London. II Idem. for a butt of Malvesey supplied to the lately deceased Earl of Rutland. and. of Cheapside.. p. claret. t Idem. of the Duke of Rutland. p. IV. another hogshead of claret. pp. Vol."* . 311. was also delivered at Holywell. 320. lOd. p. 8d. t Idem. these seven hogsheads and a butt of Sack were sent to Holywell. 310. was due to one Barnes. p. red and white wine was also bought and sent to Holywell. who was entrusted with the mission to choose the wines in London. at the rate of £8 per tun. red and white wine purchased elsewhere. 4d. £4 13s. on one occasion. 273.1| MSS. was paid to Anthony Digby for ypocraa bought when " my Lorde was syke. 6s. the carriage from Thames Street to the Earl's house being 8d. p. at the low rate of £5 per tun. one Frossell. in 1546. a rundlet of Muscadine was given by one Basche to Lady Rutland. as well as six hogsheads of claret. as well as Muscadel. At the same time. 324. 262. per day for his pains and took two days to find the suitable provision. bought of George Barne.

two of red wine.11 In November 1517. It is held at £21 a tun. about twenty-four tuns of French wine have come. and Malaga wine is mentioned in the accounts of 1602. at Newark. his agent sent him a tun of new Gascon . and four of sweet Graves. writing from London to the Earl of Rutland. in May. Gonenn wrote to the Earl of Rutland as follows: " I have arranged for the delivery in the river of London of twenty tuns of good wine. Robert Wethins."J More Rhenish wine was bought for the EarFa household in 1586.|| The purchases of the Earl of Shrewsbury were not so considerable.was syke. six of Gascony. R. four of Burgundy. 1575. viz. one of white wine and a puncheon of French (freeche ?) wine were dispatched from Coldharbour to his place at Wingfield. for six and a half pounds sterling.. said : " I have received your letter telling me to provide you with a piece of Reynesshe win and eleven hogsheads of wyn of Court. some Rhenisn wme is expected every hour."* In August.§ Greek wine was also sent to Belvoir Castle in 1600. and in 1603 ."! In March. 1571. There is also good Gascony wine at £20 the tun. I think there will be no wine of Court in London this year . six of Orleans. 1516. four hogsheads of claret.

. at Templehurst. Lord Ferrers. VoL IV. I. IX. Countess of Devon. of the Duke of Rutland. Vol. 94. Malmsey. 448. value of the wines left in her cellar. City.f In 1524. then . 103. Devereux.[| During that same year. French. 388... asked Lord Lisle to have some wine sent from Calais to his residence in Mark Lane. as none had reached London at the time.. X Idem. p. eight tuns of wine were delivered to Lord Darcy's house. Lord Lisle. the executors of the Countess of Richmond accounted for £28 3s. IV. claret. 4d. Beaune.. § Idem... 1935..§ In 1538. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. Vol. Vol. t Idem. ^j Brewer. pp. J In 1537. Romaney. 428. who was Deputy of Calais. pp. 438. Letters lelating to the Reign of Henry VIII. received similar demands from Cromwell. Part I. there is an entry of over a hundred pounds for the purchase of Gascon (red) wine. 145 wine and wrote saying that he could not find any Orleans. white. VoL II. in the Household Book of Katherine. 340. p. p. and Muscadell. i || ld<:tn.MSS. nor Rhenish wine. No.* In 1518.

8d. May 14th. No. No. Lord Lisle's agent in London. XIIL. October 17th. No. Vol. No. Countess of Rutland. 1258. Elynor. then Lord Privy Seal. .688. who usually transmitted all such demands.^ from the Earl of Essex. saying. 3807."JJ In 1576. Part L. per tun. on April 9th. 4183. II Idem. ^ Idem. t Idem. IV. 1538... from Calais. Letters relating to the Reign of Henry VIII. t Idejn.. April 6th.Calais. 997. " Mrs. Idem.§§ Brewer.|| and John Hussee. Documents relating to the Reign of Henry VIIL. Part IL. Vol. No. 77L § Gairdner. Vol. Vol. XIL.** and others. No. Part L. VoL XIIL. 996. 1638. wrote to Lady Lisle. who asked for French and Gascon wine. 1538. Part I.. Vol. Part II.. received similar demands from Cromwell. received wine at Enfield. Whalley gapes for a piece of wine. 1538. Lord Cecil bought no less than seventy tuns of wine at £7 7s. IL. 631. who also wanted French and Gascon wines. Nos. Part IL. II.

p. tJ Idem. desiring him to send to London a piece of the best French wine. as of old". K In 1594. 135. there were twelve hogsheads and one pipe in the cellar. also wrote to Lord Lisle in 1538. Sir Richard Gresham. in Yorkshire. 1570.J The Countess Dowager of Huntingdon also purchased wine abroad. the Lord Chancellor received some French and Gascon wine from Calais. 215.. Sir Thomas Gargrave sued the Lord Treasurer " to be allowed four tuns of wine.* The Lord Mayor of London. for the last two years this allowance had been . No. when the inventory of Sir William Fairfax was taken at Gillny Castle. in the Fourth Report of the Royal Commission on Historical MSS. of the Most Hon. No. §§ MSS. for which he promised to pay the bringer."]" In 1539. the Marquis of Salisbury.tt Idem.§ In September. in 1599. 717. by the Lord Treasurer and the Chancellor of the Exchequer for some tuns of wine imported for the use of her household. an entire remission of duty being granted to her. at Hatfield House.

. Vol. || Such exemptions had perforcedly to be limited when. 536. No. !| Idem. p.* . Vol. so that the farmer be able to know the extent of the loss of revenue he must be prepared to meet en account of these grants. exemptions were to be granted varying from ten tuns for a Lord Chancellor. 265. Part I. during Elizabeth's reign.. 369. Part IL.. XIII. archbishop or duke. 1598-1601. April 7th. No. and Sir Thomas begs to have at least three tuns. EUz. p. although four tuns even were not sufficient for the needs of his house. to two tuns for justices of the peace and for knights. dated November. 1538. Do-to the Reign of Henry VIII. XXL." a document Archaeologia.. f Gairdner. 1539. Documents relating § Calend. Addenda. No. Vol. According to the schedule of the " allowance to sundry estates and degrees of the new impost upon wines to be provided for their household. 121. of State Papers. mestic Series. + Idem. Vol XLVIII. November 17th.. the customs were farmed out. for the last two years this allowance had been reduced to two tuns. 86. XIV. if it is not possible to give him four.old".. 1561.

In November, 1571, a note was thus issued giving the number of persons discharged by the Queen and her Council from the impost on wines. There were ten bishops allowed from twelve to three tuns each, the Ambassadors of France and Spain, who were allowed each twelve tuns or "more, if needful," the privy councillors, the law and other State officers, noble ladies, thirty-three knights, and one esquire, who were each allowed from ten to one tun. It was further specified that any lady " who is of good reputation for hospitality," and is omitted from this list, may have a meet allowance, provided the total allowed does not exceed 1,000 tuns yearly. Those who brought in their own wines from abroad were allowed to import them free, whilst all the wine destined for the Queen's household was to be free of duty, on certificate of her household officers."]" The limit of 1,000 tuns "to be free of duty " for the nobility was evidently not thought excessive, nor even quite sufficient, since Alderman Haughton, when he made an offer for the farm of the customs, in 1595, proposed to allow 1,050 tuns free of duty for the nobility, and 200 tuns for the Queen's house-hold.J In 1600, the Lord Mayor, aldermen, and sheriffs of London were granted an allowance of the impost Calend. of State Papers, Domestic SerieSyEliz., Vol. XX., No. 31, and Addenda, VoL XL

t /rfem, EUz., Addenda, Vol. XX., Na 93. (King Edward VII. is the first English monarch who has paid duty on the wines purchased for the roval household.) t /(Jem, 1595-1597, p. 10. k2 HISTORY OF THE WIXE TRADE IN ENGLAND. of wines according to the following rules:—The Lord Mayor could have six tuns duty free, the sheriffs four tuns each, and the twenty-four aldermen one tun each.* Foreign Ambassadors were always specially favoured as regards such exemptions of duty. In 1543, the French Ambassador was given a licence to send his servant, Thomas de Noguy, over sea to fetch sixty tuns of wine for his use-t In 1568, the Spanish Ambassador asked to be allowed the impost on twenty-five tuns of wine.J In 1593, the French Ambassador asked to be allowed to import no less than 600 tuns of French wine free of custom, between Michaelmas, 1593, and Michaelmas, 1594.§ There is, however, every reason to believe that

1594.§ There is, however, every reason to believe that this quantity was not only for his own use, and that the Ambassador had some speculative scheme in view. Trading in wines, although no longer carried out by the Sovereign, was occasionally indulged in by some of his most exalted subjects ; the Duke of Norfolk, for instance, asked and received permission, in 1483, to buy 100 casks of wine of France, Normandy and Guienne, and to sell them in England.|| On December 18th, 1598, Monsieur Noel de Carron wrote to Sir Robert Cecil, saying that his late father had always granted a warrant for the free import of liis own wine, whicl i amounted to six tuns » .>harpe. Analytical Index tu + Cali-mi. of .State raiwr^ jj^. the Series of Recordn knouTi as the me»*tic Serief«, 1547-1080, i).* 32'> Remembrancia, ])reserved amonpHt Xovemher TJth, I'yiiS. "' the Archives of the City of London, $ Idci, lo91-159-4, p. 370 f (tairdner. Document? relating? Octo])er 2nd, 1-483. to the Rei^n of Henry VIII., Vol. XVni.. Xo. 6-23, 8cc. 40. May 9th, 1543.

HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. 149 per annum; he therefore hopes that, as his provision of wine is expected by the first fleet from Bordeaux, the same privilege may be accorded him to pay no duty nor custom on these wines.* Although th-e consumption of wine in the royal household and the houses of the nobility was still considerable, it did not increase during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries in anything like the same proportion as amongst the mercantile classes, whose wealth and political importance was far greater than in preceding ages. Few, however, amongst the richer commoners, kept wine in bulk in their own houses for their daily needs and those of their family and guests ; Edward VI. had even prohibited, in 1563, any commoner to keep more than ten gallons of wine for his private use in his house, unless he was worth 100 marks a year, viz., £66 13s. 4d.—the income of a rich man in those days.t By far the most important quantity of wine consumed in towns, large and small, throughout the land, was drunk in taverns; they were the social and political rendezvous of all men who could afford the price of a pint of wine and the leisure to enjoy it in company of their fellow-citizens.

their fellow-citizens. The number of taverns had grown to such an extent during the reign of Henry VIII., that his son endeavoured to suppress a great many ; his legislation on the subject, however, was conceived in such an intolerant spirit, and provided such extreme measures, that it never was possible of application. According to the Statute of 7 Edward VI., already Salisbury MSS., Part Vni., p. 507. t Statutes of the Realm, 7 Ed. VI., cap. 6. referred to, no one was allowed to keep a tavern or retail wine without the Mayor's licence, in towns and cities, or that of the justices of the peace in market towns. Two taverns and no more were to be allowed in each town, with the exception of London, where forty were tolerated; York, which was allowed eight, Bristol, where six taverns were permitted ; Norwich, Hull, Exeter, Gloucester, Winchester, Canterbury, Cambridge and Newcastle-on-Tyne, each being allowed four taverns ; Westminster, Lincoln, Shrewsbury, Salisbury, Hereford, Worcester, Southampton, Ipswich,Westchester, Oxford, and Colchester, in each of which three taverns were permitted.* It was also during the reign of Edward VI. that taverns were ordered to be closed on Sunday before 11 a.m.

were ordered to be closed on Sunday before 11 a.m. and during Evensong time.! During the reign of Elizabeth, however, the number of taverns went on increasing rapidly; the Act of 7 Edward VI. limiting their number was not repealed, but the Queen granted to certain favoured persons, either in consideration of services rendered or money paid, the power of licensing taverns over and above those assigned by Act of Parliament. Sir Walter Raleigh was granted such a licence, on August 9th, 1588, to remain in force for the ensuing thirty years. J Statutes of taeRea m, 7 Ed. VL. f Letter Book R, fo. 96. Nocap. 5. The preamble of the Act vember 13th, 4 Ed. VI. This pro reads thus :—For the avoyding of many inconvenieticeH, muche evUl rule and commune resorte of misruled persones used and frequented in many tavemes of late newly sette uppe in very greate noumbre in backe lanes, comers and suspicious places within the Cytie of London, ' mestic Series, 1598-lGOl, j). 341. and in divers other townes and vyllages within this Realme ..." hibition was confirmed the following year, when it was also applied to all vintners and retailers of wines,

victuallers, tipplers, etc Letter Book R, fo. 157b. December, 5 Ed. VT. } Calend. of State Papers, DoOriginally, nothing but wine was sold in taverns, but it appears that during Elizabeth's reign some London taverners retailed beer as well, and served their customers with bread and meat, to the great indignation of ale-house keepers and proprietors of cook-shops, who applied to the municipal authorities for restraint. In 1582,the Lord Mayor appointed Commissioners to search records and present to the Court all past ordinances made against vintners, as well as new laws, and "to consider whether the Mayor may rule and order them from selling and uttering strong beer and ale, and from tabling and victualling within their houses or no."* As no restrictive measures are recorded as a consequence of the researches of this Commission, it may be safely inferred that no legal means were found to prevent taverners from selling beer as well as wine, and catering as they thought fit for their customers. Many of the names of London Elizabethan taverns have been preserved in the Letter Books of the Guildhall. It is true that most of them owe this distinction to the fact that the searchers found defective wines in their cellars and reported them, but

it would not be fair to infer from this circumstance that they sold inferior wines ; it is Jar more probable that those taverns where defective wine was found almost every year were the largest and had a considerable stock in their cellars, being consequently much more liable to lose some casks of unsold wine, in an age when the art of making lasting wines and the science of keeping them were unknown or very imperfectly comprehended. • Letter Uook X, fo. 230b. July 7th, 25 Elizabeth. The number of taverns in the City must have been very considerable indeed, since, in the very imperfect records at our disposal, there is a list of over a hundred names. To the east of the Mansion House, in Comhill and Lombard Street, were many noted taverns; in Cornhill, the Castd (1581), the Bull (1573), the BuIVs Head (1578), and the Queen's Head (1573); in Lombard Street the Horse's Head (1583), and the Car-dinars Hat^ which was given by Simon Eyre, in 1459, " to the brotherhood of our Lady in St. Mary's Woolnots," and which had not changed its unmis-takeably Catholic sign in 1581, at a time when the persecution of the old faith of the people was at its worst. But, far more famous than any of these, was the Pope's Head tavern at the corner of Comhill and an alley leading to Lombard Street. The wine-drawers of the

leading to Lombard Street. The wine-drawers of the Pope's Head tavern would, in the time of Henry VL, stand in Cornhill and stop passers by saying, " Sir, will you drink a pint of wine ? " To which some answered, " A penny spend I may," and went into the tavern, where they drank their wine and had bread, if they liked, for which no charge was made. In 1464, this tavern was flourishing and it also withstood the fury of all anti-Catholic persecutions, being still known as the Pope's Head tavern in 1668, and until it was finally pulled down in the latter part of the eighteenth century. In Gracechurch Street, there were the Three Tuns (1668), the Sun (1577), the Harrow (1577), and the Spread Eagle (1581). In Leadenhall Street, the Greyhound is mentioned in 1568, 1580, and 1583, and the Qtieen^s Head in 1581 and 1583. In Fenchurch Street, the Martin, or probably St. Martin*Sy was in existence in 1528, and the Star in 1577, but the most famous was the King's Head, at the top of Mark Lane, where Queen Elizabeth " dined on pork and peas "on November 17 th, 1558, when she came forth from her confinement in the Tower. In Bishopsgate Street, was the White Hart tavern,

In Bishopsgate Street, was the White Hart tavern, which is said to have been built in 1480 ; and at the top of Houndsditch was the Dolphin, which belonged to Margaret Ricroft, widow, who died in 1513. By the Steelyard, the stronghold of the Hanse merchants, was the Maiden Head (1573); in Shoreditch, was the PycJcerell (1683), whilst the Bell (1581) and the White Lion (1583) were noted taverns within Aldgate ; the Three Tuns (1580) and the King's Head (1581) were also famous houses without Aldgate. Further east, at Barking, the Rose was a celebrated tavern, mentioned in 1554 and 1678 in the Guildhall Letter Books. Nearer the river were the Horse's Head (1579 and 1583), and the Ship (1581), in Tower Street; the Salutation (1573, 1678), in Billingsgate ; another Salutation and the Horse's Head, in Thames Street; the Hart (1580), at the head of London Bridge, on the City side, and the Bear " at Bridgefoot," i.e., at the foot of London Bridge, on the Southwark side. This inn was the resort of the aristocratic pleasure-seekers as early as the reign of Richard III. Sir John Howard went there to drink wine and shoot at the target, and it was repeatedly visited by him in 1463 and 1464. In Fish Street, there was the King^s Head (1583), and in New Fish Street, there were the King's Head and Castle (1568), and the Dolphin (1581, 1583). In the Vintry, there were the Three Tuns (1528), the Three Cranes (1578), the Three Swans (1580), and the

Three Cranes (1578), the Three Swans (1580), and the Emperor^s Head (1583). In Dowgate, there was the Swan tavern (1578). Coining back to the Mansion House, near which stood the famous Ship tavern (1573, 1583), " over against the Exchange," and the Red Lion (1583), in St. Clement's Lane, and proceeding westwards, many noted houses were to be seen in Cheapside —the BidVs Head^ which was in existence in 1517 and 1578; the Goat^ also dating from 1517; the Crown^ more ancient than either, which was kept, in 1467, by a certain Walter Walters, who lost his head for having made an innocent Cockney pun, saying he would make his son heir to the Crown. Of great antiquity and fame was also the Mitre, in Cheapside, mentioned in the Vestry Books of St. Michael, Cheapside, before the year 1475, and in the Guildhall Letter Books in 1578. The Horse Head tavern, in Cheapside, witnessed the assemblies and discussions of Parker and other "reformed" ecclesiastics, in 1559, and is also mentioned in the Guildhall Letter Books in 1577, 1578, and 1583. Not far from the Mitre, in Wood Street, stood the Pheasant tavern (1580, 1583), and in Little Wood Street the Mermaid (1578). There was another and more celebrated Mermaid in Bread Street. In 1464, it was a fashionable rendezvous,

In Paternoster Row. etc. and the Cardinal's Hat (1517). Cotton. without Newgate. and in Lawrence Lane. amongst its members were Shakespeare. Donne. Fletcher. the sign of which was St. a large hostelry with twenty beds and stabling for sixty horses. the Bull (1578) and the Bdl (1583) were noted taverns. Ben Jonson. So was the WindmilU in Old Jewry. another Three Tuns (1580). before the reign of Elizabeth. Beaumont. at the Old Bailey the Ship (1575. In Friday Street. it was. 1583) and the Pole's Head (1578). it was a fashionable rendezvous. Laurent^ although it was commonly called BosorrCs Inn or Blossoms. there was a well-known inn. Carew. the figure of St. there were the King's Head (1573. In 1464. it was still flourishing in 1568. at Newgate Market. where Sir John Howard and Sir Nicholas Latimer drank wine . Martin. . 1583). there was the White Horse tavern (1582). in which. lived the canonists and professors of ecclesiastical law. Selden. probably the first in England. the Three Tuns and the Rose. At Paul's Chain. Laurent had a border of blossoms or flowers . the Qtieen^s Head was a highly respectable inn.Bread Street. because. says Stow. in 1522. Cheapside. but its later fame was chiefly due to Sir Walter Raleigh. who established a literary club in this house. and in Distaff Lane.

the Greyhound (1580. the Bdl (1579. and in Holbom. the King's . the Bishop's Head (1580). 1575. 1583). there was the Star (1578). and Without Temple Bars. the Rose was a celebrated tavern (1573. at Temple Bars. the Kirufs Head (1578). and. and the White Hart (1570). the Belle Savage^ which belonged to one John French. the Castd (1580).In Aldersgate. were the CardinaVs Hat (1580). were the Horns (1667. the King^s Head (1576)." In Chancery Lane. the Sun (1568. 1583). at East Smithfield. the Rose (1583). the Ram (1578). more famous than any of these. By Fleet Bridge. the Hart's Horns (1580). 1578. 1582). the QueerCs Head (1568) and the Angel (1582) were important taverns. 1578). the Lamh (1580). and in Fleet Street. in the Strand. At Charing Cross there was the Queen's Heady and in Westminster. 1573. there was the Mermaid (1578). the White Hart (1678. and appears to have become a place of amusement during the sixteenth century. In St. Martin's. 1578). in 1453. at Smithfield Bars. the Castel (1579). a noted house in Elizabeth's reign. and the King's Head (1582). 1583). at Cripplegate. when bear-baiting and performing horses were the means whereby " Mine host of the Bel Savage " attracted his " honest guests. 1575.

a White Swan (1578) in St.Head (1583). which shares. On the Surrey side. Michael's Lane. a White Cross tavern (1578) in White Cross Street. a Blue Anchor at Battle Bridge. 157 In the provinces. Borough. etc. one of the oldest Bdl taverns in London. and in Pepys' diary in 1660. 1583) at St. and the Belly in King Street. a Horse's Head (1583) by Durham House. in 1466. some of which have come down even to the present day. the . HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. in the High Street. the admiration of the visitors and of all antiquarians. 322-326. another example being this quaint old hostelry. in 1450. a Red Cross tavern (1575) in Red Cross Street. Anthony's. such as the Maid*s Heady at Norwich.* All references and particulars I will be found at the end of this legarding the taverns named above | volume. There was another well-known Bdl inn (1580. The Tavern (1528) at Crossfriars. named in the expenses of Sir John Howard. pp. there were a great many famous taverns and inns. w^here Jack Cade had his headquarters. and the White Harty a large inn. with the cathedral. the Blue Anchor (1581) was a celebrated tavern in Southwark. ApjK^ndix C.

which dates back from the fifteenth century. Henry V. But it was not only in town hostelries that wine was sold . At Oxford. At Leicester.another example being this quaint old hostelry.. generally put up. the most interesting and complete of The limits within which this work must remain do not permit of more than a mere enumeration of all these . and it was there that. was entertained by one John Norwood. Much valuable information on the subject can be gathered from the sundry " riding accounts '' that have come down to us. including wine at a penny per pint. at the White Boar^ a celebrated inn which became the Blue Boar at the accession of Henry VII. the Red Lion boasted of higher antiquity still. Sir William Davenant's father. the Crown was kept by Davenant. at most country inns throughout England the traveller could buy wine. Richard III. and flourished until the early part of the last century. on his frequent journeys between London and his native place. 9d. the Flying Horse. and there Shakespeare. and at prices only a little higher than those charged in cities. at Nottingham. passed his last night. At Sittingbourne. on the eve of the battle of Bosworth. in 1416. the whole cost of the feast only reaching 9s.

In January. when the supper of eggs and fish with wine for my Lord. 8d. only cost lis.. the next day. to judge from some items of her Ladyship's supper account. When Huntingdon was reached. supper cost only 12s. the Earl's residence in London. viz. wine and beer. but only . besides ale and beer. : white wine. on a Friday. paid the following morning. Id. 23s. the following day.permit of more than a mere enumeration of all these London taverns. London. where a good stock of wines was kept.* In July. a potell of claret wine. . Lord Rutland left Belvoir Castle with twenty-six horses to ride to Parliament.. one pint. They stopped at Fotheringay. 3d. and beer for his men. 1539. at Roston. 1866. for some unrecorded reason no wine.. 4d. The History of Signboards from the Earliest Times to the Present Day. and the day after they reached Holywell. but much interesting information on the subject will be found in the Letter Books of the Guildhall and the following work :—Jacob Larwood and John Camden Hotten. was paid for meat fare. 2d. and at Huntingdon. she also spent the night at the inn at Ware. a pint of sack. at Ware. when the Countess of Rutland rode from Holywell to Belvoir Castle. 1532. which are those that have been preserved at Belvoir Castle amongst the manuscripts of His Grace tEfe Duke of Rutland.

290. Vol. 326. the expenditure of his Lordship and suite at Morpeth.. but only beer. pp. 333. to London. IV. was registered as follows:—" For drencke. I J Idem. 6d. when a most outrageous bill was presented by the innkeeper. 1542. when my Lord of Rutland rode from Eagle.."J In December. Is. t Idem. for fyer in the kechen. but a marginal note by the Comptroller of the Household reads thus :—" Nota—to kno whether they use in eny inne to aske allowance for fire in the ketchen or no. to fill my Lord's fiagons.. " for fyer in the chamber where the gentylmen sopped. Stamford. 2d. in Northumberland.reached. for some unrecorded reason no wine. 6d." 4s." wine was bought at Southwell."* When the Earl visited Leicester. after breakfast. Rutland MSS. 332. f In August. 291. 4s. for wyne. 4d. | including not only a charge of 3s. The account was paid. two pottells and one pint of claret. and. was served. p. 7s. 6d. in Lincolnshire. pp." but also " 2s. amounted to four pottells and one quarter of " Raynyshe wyne. 1550. and departed the following morning. he spent the night at the inn." The wine consumed on that occasion. Hull or Newcastle he .. when the Earl of Rutland " rode to the North. Nottinghamshire. according to the account. ten days later.

320. quality and cost of the wines consumed in England. on one occasion. sales and purchases. beer and wine afterwards.was the guest of either the Mayor or of some friendly lord having a residence in the neighbourhood.. can be found recorded in a great variety of documents. Legislative and municipal ordinances. he spent the night at the Dean's House. with a little patience and research. duties and customs. the task becomes far more difficult. p.. and ascertain what were the quantity. 367. Vol." CHAPTER VII. p. grants and seizures are isolated facts which. and he not only paid for a pottell of Malvesey and one of Sack he drank there.. 6d.000 tuns a year. But when we wish to come to generalities. Rutland MSS. IV.. and in such cases there are no entries of the wine or provisions consumed. IV. we may assume that the total imports of wine in England between 1400 and 1422 averaged about 15.^ Rutland MSS. in 1541. The only cheap article in that account is: " for aples and orrenges. however. hA nnlv ohean Artinln in that tto. p. f -Wcm. when the Earl went to Lincoln. but he even sent to the Dean a present of bread. As regards quantity. 367.. style. Vol. but did not reach .

averaged about 15. From 1509 to 1518.000 tuns a year between 1422 and 1483.000 a year between 1485 and 1500. The opening years of the sixteenth century showed a decline in the importation of wine. to the throne was the sign of a great wave of prosperity for the English wine trade.000 tuns a year. Between 1518 and 1529 there are no documents enabling one to form any estimate. A marked increase took place during the reign of Henry VII..000 tuns a year. imports must have reached an average of 50. but from 1529 to 1534 imports probably averaged 20.000 or 25.000 tuns a year. but did not reach more than about 8. Between . but the accession of Henry VIII. and imports probably reached 20.

was also very considerable.000 tuns yearly. per tun. under date of May. the duties on wine did not yield quite 100. e of ihe Vinliier's Myskry Display'd. There is a letter pf Daniel Barbaro. but the Venetian could not have had access to the customs books of the outports . IS". and the custom and duties on wine to have amounted to 30s.000 ducats.NTAGE. that. the amount of wine imported by the Sovereign and by royal licence free of duty. the duty received for wine imported had been paid on over 16. in which he writes. . 1551.* Assuming the ducat to have been worth about 5s. and swelled this quantity greatly..000 tuns or thereabouts. 1535 and 1557 they increased to about 30. Ambassador of the Republic of Venice in London.) To hti p. in England.

000 tuns . the average of the imports between 1596 and 1600 being approximately 35. In 1558-9. the English wine trade was very flourishing. very nearly 100.000 tuns.000 tuns . 366.000 tuns of wine imported. about 60. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. As regards the quality and the style of the wines consumed in England during the period under review.000 tuns per annum. p.000 tuns. in 156263. and perhaps more. and the sweet and rich Malmsey of Candia. This amount remained practically unaltered. were always sold at a lower price and held in little estimation. there were about 25. usually within one year of the vintage. chiefly Poitou. those which were most appreciated were the " mighty Calend. in 1560-61. the yearly average of the first six years of this reign being about 68. in 1561-62."* shipped from Bordeaux.During the greater part of Queen Elizabeth's reign. VoL V.000 or 40. about 70. of State Papers. in 1559-60. Most wines were still drunk when quite new..000 tuns. and the only example on . only 25.000 or 30. whilst the " small " and " thin '* wines of many French provinces. or only slightly lower until the last years of the century when a sharp decline took place. nearly 60. so dear to " my Lord of Sussex. great" wines.000 tuns . and in 1563-64. Venice.

Vol. Andre. XIIL. the member of his suite who kept a faithful diary of everything that happened. Part L. and the only example on record of a marked predilection for old wine is that of Catherine of Aragon. was sufficiently * " My Lord of Sussex did not dispraiso the wine. was liked by some . "§ Must. Even the unfermented juice of the grape. March 16th. Guillantine on August 19th. when Beckington was at Bordeaux on a special mission. 1442. for I I erceive he loves great and mighty i> ." Letter of John Husee to Lady Lisle. Gairdner. only that the same is small.within one year of the vintage. but ho loves none but mighty great wines. noted a present of *' some new wine called Le Must^^ sent to a Mr. the secretary and comptroller rode to the place of St. Hen. Denis. at this place they drank. the vintage was evidently still in progress. where they saw the process of making wine . and there also drank. sweet and sickly as it is. near the Chapel of St.f by birth a foreigner. a remarkably early date for any new wine to be drunk. "My Lord of Sussex findeth no fault with the wine you sent him.J A month later. in 1442. No. 1538. Severin. since we read that " after dinner. and then rode to Le Bordeu of St. or unfermented wine. on September 18th. VIIL. 511.

8d. white.. VIII."* Bordeaux wines. Gairdner. Part 1. were only seldom designated by the name of the growth they originally came from. in January. the one Musty containing xi gallons dimid \ the other new rucked (newly racked) Rhenish.of State Papers. 1538. at 2s. 512t Calend. § Idemt p. 35. March 15th. \o\. all the wines shipped from that port. Thus. They were usually sold in England indifferently as Gascon wines.i> wines. Hen. Vol. This last denomination was still applied to a style of wine of a lighter colour than the red. . p. and some means were evidently found to check the fermentation. the Earl of Rutland bought *' two rondletes of Rennish wine. 163 appreciated to be shipped to England. that is. X Journal by one of the Suite of Thomas Beckington. No. V. Part I... 28. p. the gallon. Xill. red. 1586.. Gay-angos." Letter of Anne Basset to Lady Lisle. 82. containing x gallons. or claret. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND.

. White wine 45 francs 5 sous. as is clearly evidenced by the ioUowing prices paid by Henry VIII. Red wine >> » Claret wine }> >> >) )) >> }} »> >> }} »> >> . and neither better nor worse than the red or white wines. at Bordeaux :f Per tun.whatever its origin. but not necessarily lighter in body. in 1528.

. 4d. p. that a much greater proportion of claret wine waB Rutland MSS. t F. white. 388.>> >> >> >» >> Wmes of Surk (?)'-Wines of Gravys This account tends to show. which accounts for such widely different prices.* and no difference was . in the first place.. in 1571. In 1512.. VoL IV.. bought by the King than of either the red or white sort. p. Vol. p. RutlandMSS. Private Expenses of the Princess Mary. the red. and claret wines bought by the Earl of Northumberland are all accounted for at the uniform price of £4 13s. Madden. The only other mention of wine of Graves I I have found is a purchase of four tuns of Svout Graves by the Earl of Rutland. 275. I. and also that there was a very great variety of qualities of this wine. U.

white and claret wine of Heidelberg|| —but it was chiefly used with reference to the vintages of Gascony.§ Claret was not an appellation exclusively applied to Bordeaux wines—the Count Palatine even mentioning. and white wine was sold at the uniform price of £5 6s.^ In his treatise on wine and cider.f On the other hand. the price of wine in England. and it gradually became usual to use this name to designate them. 1827. 4d. was £8 per tun of red wine. at Oxford. the gallon of claret cost 2s. written in the sixteenth century. per tun. referred to elsewhere. London. " when the vintage has been very good.* and no difference was ever made in the price of these three styles of wine when the assize was fixed from time to time. . 8d. £7 6s. thus. where white wine only cost Is. Paulmier says that. in 1516. and £6 13s. 6. in 1539. 8d. in his letter to Sir Nicholas Throckmorton. 8d. most of the wines of France Household Accounts of Algernon Percy. for white wine. that more claret was imported during that year than before. Earl of Northumberland.J whilst in 1573. In 1504. according to the Chronicon Preciosum. 4d. p. in 1565.uniform price of £4 13s. Edward Tremaine wrote. red. using the word in the modern sense of Bordeaux wines. for claret. claret.

617. t Brewer. Part II. Addenda. " most of the French wines have reached their perfection within three or four months of the vintage.. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. they are so thin and weak that they become sour within twelve months.. 198. as is clearly evidenced by the results of the annual search made in the London . p.. See also mentions of Beaune claret and Orleans claret. VIII. VoL XIV. \ Calend. when they are a year old. p.. whilst the wines made in more southerly and hotter countries are much stronger and improve during five and six years. 611. Part I. No. Gairdner. at the latest. Henry \^II.. 1935. No. Eliz..t Chronicon Frecioeum. but when the year has been cold and damp." he says..."* Wine was only indifferently kept and was liable to become foul after a few months. II. or. § Thorold Rogers. or even longer.. VoL XII. Chapter IX. of State Papers. 115. Domestic Series. Vol III. Hen. Vol. p. 165 and Germany are at their best after one year. As a rule.

at dinners and suppers. traduit par Jacques de Cahaignes. 1539. that the wine was " suffering from being drunk and not refilled again. however.. the Earl of Shrewsbury kept a well-stocked cellar of old as well as new "wine. * Traits du Vin et du Sidre. 1516.taverns. Caexi» 1589. Henry VIIL. by the use of flagons and bottles. August 24th. and his steward there reported. in London.. during the time of her abiding. to Cromwell. XIV. "f In November. J A great improvement was. May 28th. X Gairdner. At Coldharbour. No. In a letter dated from London. No. De Vino et Pomaceo. beginning to be introduced in the way wine was kept. t Brewer. VoL II. Henry VIII. Sir William Penison said that he *'had provided for Lady Motrell white and claret wine. when much wine was condemned not as fraudulently adulterated. at the beginning of the sixteenth century. 1936. 1538.. on one occasion. Part L. Part II.. 696. and that no old Sack was to be found that was good. but as " defective " and fit only to make vinegar with. . par Julien de Paulmier. John Husee wrote from London to Lord Lisle that no new Sack had yet arrived. Vol.

master of a crayer called La Trinite^ of Bristol..X Gairdner. This appears to have been a frequent occurrence. with the said crayer and twenty tuns ot old wine. since the lack of care or of proper cellarage often caused part of it to become less palatable."* Quality and scarcity. so that it could only be disposed of at a lower price. were the real factors which determined the actual cost of wine. 696. to cross to the Castle of Conere and the town of Sligo. Vol.. in 1400. neither could nor did prevent the cost of this commodity from fluctuating incessantly. and it was not rare to reexport to Ireland or Scotland wine. a licence was granted to Thomas Clerk. the poor quality of which made it impossible to sell it in England. which. Henry VIIL. on account of its age and weakness. in flagonSy as if it were sent in hogsheads it would be unfined and unmete to drink so soon. Part II. in Ireland. could not be sold in England-! . Thus. The numerous regulations fixing the price wine was to be sold at in England and the heavy penalties enacted against vintners or taverners selling wine above the assize. XIV. far more than any Act of Parliament. Even the wine which had been bought in the first instance by a taverner at a certain price could not be retailed at a uniform price throughout. No.

. Part I. IV.. HtanccH of auch licences.. IV.. even more so than now. Part IV. 2 Hen. Henry Vlll. 22 etc * Besides the quality. At the beginning of the fifteenth century. Voi.* t Calend. the failure or success of vintages abroad and the scarcity or abundance of wine at home regulated the cost of wane in England during the Middle Ages. of Bristol. 38. IV. 18 . 37. No. 40. 2 Hen. m. m. 0. m. J * Gairdner.38. Patent Rolls.. see Calend XIII. and take the same to Ireland to make their profit therefrom. Part I. 36. wine was scarce and dear in Aquitaine. 4 Hen. .. 1401. on account of the inability of the mediaeval wine merchant and consumer to lay by a store of wine in good years. i IL. Patent Rolls. Pait II. m.4 January 12th. Part II m. Part II m... 5. Part VI. m. the wines of Bourg costing .. m. } IfUm. 1 Hen. 3 Hen. m. m 3o'. For other in ' Hen. IV.. IV.. 177. 19 . m.A similar licence was granted to John Banham and John Walter to ship thirty tuns of old and '' undrinkable " wine in a ship called Le Cristofre... Part II.

only cost Is.. to join in the defence. the Duke of Orleans having laid siege to Blaye in January. Hist. p. instead.. red and white wine cost as much as £9 13s. Vol. 1206. 057. 192. and sweet wine only Is. per gallon. per tun. du Com. compared with 12 francs in 1497. and 20 francs in 1541. 1407. t D'Avenel.scarce and dear in Aquitaine. p. . p. Wine w^as scarcer still in 1407. Note 1. Michel. where the high price of Gascon wine was more sensibly felt. de la Girondo.J The 1405 vintage was a failure and the cost of red and white wines rose to about Is. § Ft. the average price was 7d. the average price of wine in Paris.* Elsewhere. per gallon. IL» Vol IV. p. being barely Id. Michel.. which usually were double the price of the other sorts. etc. in 1406. § Archives du D6p. and dearer. 4d. in 1401. per gallon. at a time when fifty foreign merchant vessels had come to Bordeaux to fetch the wines of the preceding vintage and were made. ^onomique. Ordre de Malte.'|' whilst in England. the wines of Bourg costing 40 francs per cask. At Salisbury. per gallon in England. VoL I. 4d. wine—and particularly Burgundy and Anjou wines—were cheap.. Hist. F. however. 337. 337. S^e H. terrier. whilst sweet wines. 4d.

and we find the cost of wine reduced by half in Paris and brought down to 6d. there are many deals recorded when wine was sold at 8d. The vintage of 1418 was spoiled by the fear of the enemy. when a phase of the hostilities between the Kings of France and England was terminated by the treaty of Troyes and the marriage of Henry V. X Thorold Rogers. the same happened as regards sweet wines. wine was dear in 1418 —9d. for Ossey. being at the rate of about Jd. at 5d. the former being sold at Is. on the other hand. p. per gallon. at Orleans. when it was raised to 7d. 192.. which was and remained the assize price until 1416. in spite of the assize. the wine selling for 2 livres 2 sous per tim.Vol IV. per gallon. The following vintage was generally good. the French war affected the price of wine to a very great extent. p. But. 337. per gallon. and. per gallon on an average— and probably dearer still in 1419. and fluctuations are more numerous than usual during that period. for Malmseys and lOd. on the other hand. with . 4d. in 1435.VoL IV. per gallon in England.* In 1420. or even 4d. the price of which had been fixed at 12d. From 1417 until the treaty of Arras. and the latter at 12d. r-652. and the prospects of a very fine crop were blighted by the hurry of the growers who gathered the grapes too early. In England. evidently on its merits .

wine was proportionally much dearer in France than in England . per gallon and. in 1421. per gallon. 6d. In 1431. per gallon at Orleans. and 7d. in Paris in the same year. French wine cost only fd. During the next ten years. 7d. nearly 4d. at Bicester. in 1529. it cost 8d. in 1434. In Paris. wine cost A^d. per gallon at Rouen. In 1425. against 4d. and in 1430. The price of wine in England remained fairly steady and somewhat below 8d. the gallon of wine cost lOd. at Otterton. and Norwich. in London. per gallon at Oxford. per gallon at Lancaster. whilst in Paris wine cost 5d. per gallon. per gallon at Orleans and 8d. in 1429. in 1427.treaty of Troyes and the marriage of Henry V. 6d. per gallon. with Catherine of France. and £3 per tun at Exeter. at . per gallon between 1435 and 1550. Burgundy Id. and the best Beaune or Auxerre wine 2d. at Orleans. the price of the gallon of wine had I have not been able to find any price recorded for that year. per gallon at Oxford. it cost 5^d. increased to 8d. the price of wine fell to S^d. at Oxford. where the same price was charged in 1433 and 1434. Li 1437. when Bordeaux was lost to the English Crown. per gallon at Norwich. whilst it only cost 8d.

the gallon costing 8d. although red wine cost Is. per gallon at Norwich. per gallon at Soissons. whilst it decreased almost in the same proportion. however. but gradually and steadily. per gallon. the gallon being sold at the rate of 1^.. Pershore. in 1440. In 1442. it remained. red wine cost 8d. the price was about 4d. where some wine cost only 2^. at Ripyngton. during the same period.Oxford. During the second half of the fifteenth century. per gallon. whilst the wine of Nantes cost 5d. and the same high price was asked in London. and white wine 4d. 8d. in Paris. the gallon of red wine cost as much as Is. at Rouen. a marked decrease took place. the price of wine was lower still in France. and the best 4|d. and until 1450. etc. at 6^. at Exeter. and a . per gallon. wine costing only 6d. and also at Cambridge. it was sold. the price of wine increased without any violent fluctuations. and 7d. Norwich. at Cambridge. at Oxford. In 1443. at Orleans. per gallon at Cambridge. per gallon. in England. In 1441. per gallon at Oxford. In 1450. in France. the price being also lower in Paris. and lOd. in 1445. In 1438. fairly high in England. per gallon at Norwich. at Pershore and St. wine cost lOd. In 1444. Ives. in 1444.

per gallon. at Cambridge. the price at Nantes being then over 6d. however. at Cambridge. Both 1501 and 1503 were very plentiful years. in 1501. per . at Cambridge. and the average price. at Oxford. remained at about 9d. the gallon costing only 8d. in 1500. in Paris^ In 1460-62. it still cost about 9d. at Oxford.In 1450. being only slightly over 9d. it rose again to lOd. at Oxford. in 1504. and lOd. and a little less than 9d. it cost over 9d. per gallon. per gallon at Orleans. on an average at Oxford. In 1465. in Normandy. per gallon at Cambridge. being equivalent to Id. until 1482. and less than 2d. and less than 7d. and 8d. than during the preceding fifty years. and a few good vintages helped to maintain prices at the lower level. but Is. or slightly under. per gallon at Cambridge. In 1455-56. In 1466. at Oxford. and lld» per gallon at Cambridge. however. when the cost rose to Is. at Cambridge. the average price. The gallon cost only 8d. per gallon at Oxford. there was a momentary sharp decline in the price of wine in England. and Pommard costing only 5 francs 9 gros per poin9on in Burgundy. per gallon for the closing years of the century. the price of wine was lower. wine cost lOd. throughout England. on the whole. During the first decade of the sixteenth century. as well as at Oxford. wine being sold at 2d. and under 4d.

8d. being equivalent to Id. in 1528. wine cost only Id. and in 1531. where the gallon cost Id... at Orleans. During the ten following years. on an average. cost. per gallon. in 1504. and again in 1532. for the last twenty years. owing to the general failure of the preceding vintage and the great scarcity of wine in England. £5 6s. 8d. The assize was once more fixed.* The tun of Gascon wine. and £6 Is. £5. red and claret wine cost £7 2s.. and £8 per tun. and about Ijd. in 1522. but there are very few records of purchases of wine at that price. In 1522. per gallon was practically the maximum price given for red wine sold by retail. and the King paid as much as £5 15s. and probably even a little lower. it then rose to £6 in 1527. also at Durham. until 1521. £6. and £5 per tun when sold wholesale. in 1530. in 1531. 4d.in Burgundy. £7 13s. In England. at 8d. 1531-1541. . wine being . at Durham.. the price of wine remained practically stationary. in 1530. in 1520 and 5d. £6 13s. and £7 per tun. per gallon in Paris. 4d. claret was sold. 4d. The same rise in the price of wine was also taking place in France. the price of which had been well under £5. per gallon for all French and Gascon wines sold in England. in 1529 . 5d. and £5 13s. In 1505. the price rose sharply.

wine was cheaper in England. Gascony wine being bought for the King at £4 8s. Gascon wine. 8d. lOd. slightly lower until 1550. and Spanish wine lOd. in 1542. in 1547. Calend. per tun in 1550. sold at Is. when another very sharp advance took place.. a remarkably violent fluctuation. During both these years the assize price for the best French and Gascon wine was £5 per tun. Vo\ IIL. where a similar rise in the price took place at the same time. 5d. £4 9s. lOd. After the peace of 1546. and Is. whilst Rhenish wine cost Is. and to £6 for the lighter French wines in 1544. in 1545 . per tun in 1546. in Flanders the piece of Burgundy cost as much as 240 florins.. Venice. cost £6 14s. in 1531. 396. In 1541. In 1553. £8 per tun in 1551. but it was raised to £8 for the best Gascon wine. In Paris. per gallon in 1544. £4 7s. per gallon. 6d. 6d.. and 6d. per tun in 1552. of State Papers. and remained. 8d. which cost £6 Is. 5d. and at Nantes 6d. partly due to the renewal of hostilities with France and partly to the scarcity of wine on the Continent. per tun and at £3 15s. a gallon in London and at Oxford. No. in 1545. at Soissons it cost 5d. wine was sold at 7d. per gallon. the price of wine was. in 1548. and the King paid as much as £8 16s. in 1544 . although the assize had fixed the price of .Brown.

. in 1560 wine cost Is. 8d. per gallon.. and in 1564.. per tun for this wine in 1554. 4d. £5 18s. in 1554. the sweet kinds in a less degree than the other sorts. still at Oxford. 8d. per gallon at Oxford. and again in 1555. In 1559. In Brassels. 4d.French and Gascony wine at £5 per tim and 8d. having to pay £6 18s. per tun. per gallon at Oxford. In 1558. 8d. per gallon in Paris. and Rhenish Is. per tun. 3jd. Rhenish cost as much as Is. the price of wine in England increased rapidly. however. 4d. and 7d. but the . per tun was paid for the Gascon wine bought for the royal household. per gallon in London. whilst wine cost Is. and Malmsey 2s. since the cost of the gallon of wine... During the reign of Elizabeth. the assize price was fixed at £7 6s. This rapid advance in the price of wine in England cannot be attributed to defective vintages abroad. 5d. Gascon wine cost Is. 6d. in Paris. and particularly at the close of her reign. in 1561 and 1562. remained stationary at 4jd. the assize price of Gascon wine was raised to £6 6s. Is. and at Valenciennes 2s. and 2s.. however. from 1551 to 1555. the Queen. In 1565. and Is. per gallon. both at Chester and Oxford . per gallon for French and Gascon wine. per gallon. 4d. Is. wine cost Is. 4d. In 1554.

. per tun. whilst Sack was sold for 2s. wine . 8d. per tun of Gascon wine. and Muscadine 2s. per gallon. and. and at Oxford the gallon of claret still cost Is. 2d. but the Queen paid £7 10s. however. the same prices ruling in 1568 and 1569. Sack 2s. the assize price was raised to £8 6s.. per gallon. per tun for Gascon wine that year. and 13d. £10 per tun for Gascon wine. viz. the vintage was a complete failure in France.. the Queen paying £13 lis.and Is. 8d. since the Queen. and only £6 10s.. and Muscadel 3s. In 1575.. for her provision. 4d. 8d.. had still to pay £12 10s. whilst that of Muscadel was fixed at Is. 4d. 6d. per gallon for French and Gascon wine. in 1576.* and the price of wine rose very rapidly in England. and that of Sack at Is. per butt of sweet wine. per gallon at Kingston-on-Thames. 9d. 6d. per gallon at Oxford. white wine cost Is. for French and Gascon wines. In that same year. Id. 2d. In 1571. that of Malmsey at Is. In 1574. we find Sack sold at 2s. per gallon. wine costing as much as Is.. claret 2s. and only £7 14s. when the assize was still being maintained at £10 per tun. the gallon in Paris. in 1573. the assize was fixed at the highest price yet officially recognised. and this rate was evidently below what wine could actually be purchased for. 8d. During the last quarter of the sixteenth century. 4d. in spite of her many privileges.

writing from Boston to the Earl of Eutland. respectively.During the last quarter of the sixteenth century. 22. Domestic sought to export 200 tuns of beer ' Series. at Oxford. wine had become much more expensive in England than it had ever been before. wine cost 2s. but the actual sales and purchases. in proportion. and 1582. were soon to rise again and become almost prohibitive. 1581. said : ^' I have been commanded by you. then at Newark. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. in 1581. 1575. very much cheaper at £10. ajid during that same year. of State Papers. The assize price was raised to £12 for Gascon and £10 for Eochelle wijies in 1578. and £17 at Kirling. 8d. Eiiz. the tim of wine costing £14 at Ipswich. and Sack 2s... were transacted at much higher figures. Watson. Vol. in 1579. In February. high as they then appeared. XXIV. Licence . Addenda. whilst the butt of Sack was. . also at Kirling. Calend. to Guernsey. failed in France the previous year. wines and cider having No. 1586. and to £13 and £11 per tun. in 1580. per gallon. to provide you with a tun of Gascony wine May 17th. Fitzwilliam. through Mr. records of which have reached us. These prices. G.

as I hear that the wine is of poor quality and the price has risen to £25 per tun. per gallon in London. I have not done so yet. Rhenish wine cost as much as 2s.17 at Lynn. ."* In that same year. 8d.

the gallon. 8d. also at Kirtling. The price of Sach also increased from 2s. rate them at a very great price. in 1587. for great quantities are sent to Dort. in London. 6d. t Salisbury MSS. and to 4s. to 3s. at Kirtling. I. do. in 1585. cost £24 per tun. merchant. and sweet wines were sold at 4s. per gallon. at Eton. in December. at Gawfchorp. in 1597. and 2s.. at Canterbury. which were with my Lord of Essex.§ * Rutland MSS. which must be mended by French wines. 211. Gascon wine cost as much as 2s. and £21 15s. which cost £11 per tun. in 1583. as I hear.. writing to Sir Robert Cecil. came into Margate Road. Vol. said : " Here comes daily store of French wines. p. per gallon. John Gylles. "f Two years later..Claret. per gallon. to 38. of the white wines and of the sweetest to be brewed. at Norwich. 1597. the best burdens at £25 and £26. in 1586. and some at £20 and £22 the tun. writing from Flanders to Thomas Mydleton. in London. in 1583.''t In 1598. the Ehenish wines fall very bad this year. and. at . In November. Sir Eobert Crosse.. 1595. and with them most of the Bordeaux fleet. said : " This day some of Her Majesty's ships. 4d. in 1587. at Worksop . who. in 1586. notwithstanding their wines are ill.

will be found in the Appendix A CHAPTER VIII. 618. seemed to leave Guienne at the mercy of the King of Prance. p. In 1399. the last important towns where the English still held out. t Idem. and the necessity for Henry IV. The Due de Bourbon. asking the inhabitants of these. the King of France. The small English garrisons which were left in the towns of the interior were totally helpless to oppose the progress of the French army. His confidence in the success of this mission was all the greater that the . § These and other prices. and sent to Bordeaux. p. the more so that the population received their compatriots with unfeigned joy and gladly returned to the allegiance of their natural Lord.. together with the authorities for same. Part v. 479. Bayonne and Dax. Part VII. the Due de Bourbon was sent to the south at the head of a large army and reached Agen without having met any serious resistance.. quartered his troops at Agen. already congratulating himself on the rapid success of his expedition.. The deposition of Richard II. to employ all his resources and energies at home.Hatfield. to acknowledge Charles as their Sovereign.

urging their compatriots to remain faithful to the English Crown. **If the Londoners."* The Earl of Worcester. We have a far greater commerce in wines. what has it to do with us ? We still have a King. was able. the men of Bordeaux not only refused to accept his offers... affectionate to the memory of Richard II. Their message was very plain and outspoken. let us take great care not to enter into any treaty which we might have cause to regret. thanks chiefly to the dissensions among the French princes. . It is said that the Bishop of London and Sir Thomas Percy will soon be here. but they even sent envoys to Bayonne and other places. wool and cloth with the English than with the French. to his great surprise and annoyance. and if we are naturally more inclined towards the English. to keep the whole of this province under the English rule." they said. 177 But. who arrived soon afterwards with some troops in Guienne. had refused to swear allegiance to his murderer. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND.success of this mission was all the greater that the Bordelais. who will tell us the truth. who had been bom amongst them. **have deposed King Richard and crowned King Henry.

Nous avons plus de marchandises. et si nou» inclinons mieulz par nature auz Anglois gardons bien que nous ne faisons traitie nul dont repentir nous puissons. Edited by W. renewed the charters which had been granted to the merchants of Bordeaux by his predecessors. Vol. prohibiting the sale of wine by retail and in taverns. qui nous infor-meront de veritc. between Whitsunday and Michaelmas.. conscious of the blow that would be dealt to her . by any other than burgesses of Bordeaux. de vins. Reoueil des Chrcniques et Anchiennes Istoriesde la Grant Bretaigne^ a present Nomme Engleerre. M HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. II.— * JeLan de Waurin. " Se lea Londriens ont depoHe le roy Richard et couronne le roy Henry. p. at Bordeaux. que nous en touche ? Tons jours avons nous roy. 1414.In 1400. de laines et draps aux Anglois que nous navons aus Fran9ois. Hardy. as a reward for their loyalty.* Bordeaux remained faithful to the English Crown to the last. Henry IV. he even granted them an important monopoly. £t nouvelles sespardent que levesque de Londres et messire Thomas de Persy seront temprement ycy.

in 1402. Delurbe. . Bordeloise. depict in very black colours the state of Guienne at that time.commerce and her prestige the day when she would lose her rank as the metropolis of England's hereditary possessions in France. and the need for a far greater number of troops than those available was very urgent. rendering the Rot. I In spite of the unsettled state of the Province and of the imminent danger of a French invasion. The inhabitants of the interior had. fo. at first. m. no^ such reasons to remain loyal to a foreign prince. 2 Hen. very active. IV. but too long to be given here: they have been edited by the Rev. J The price of wine rose rapidly in 1405. however. the Bordeaux wine trade remained.. Chron. Hingeston in llryal iiiid Historical Letters . and both ask for immediate help. and of John Morhay to the Bishop of Bath. F. on account of the severe spring frosts which blighted a great proportion of the vineyards. 20. C. in the autumn of that year and in the following spring. 237. The letters of the Archbishop of Bordeaux to Henry IV. the shipments of the 1403 vintage. being on a very large scale. t These letters are of the greatest interest. Vase.

. Denys. 113. at a time when fifty foreign vessels were at Bordeaux ready to sail home with the dearlybought wines of the preceding vintage. 437-444. being in France. J Chronique do St.Rev. The exploits of Henry V. p.. In September. 81. in the Medoc. rapidly called together to resist the invader. Julien. p. vintage very small and the wine scarce. pp. applied to Bordeaux for subsidies. Henry. the Duke of Orleans tried to stop them. in Normandy relieved 'Guienne of all the French soldiery. At St. F. Appendix IV.t to fetch wines for the young King who had just ascended the throne. Vol. they armed themselves. 1407. 157.* Another fleet went to Bordeaux in 1413. rroceedings of the Privy Ck)uncil.. III. Nothing daunted. T^ut they fought desperately and managed to make good their escape. C. Hingeston in llryal during the iiiid Historical Letters Reign of Henry IV. pp. 112. Des Ursins. II.. formed in good order and sailed boldly down the Gironde. the Duke of Orleans laid siege to Blaye in January. 1415. asking his Seneschal in Guienne to procure no less than 700 casks of wine for the needs of his army. Vol. The citizens of Bordeaux seized this 'Opportunity of obtaining the renewal of their ancient . to make matters worse.

to whom they brought a present of 200 casks of wine. their Mayor and the Town Clerk journeyed to Normandy to the King.'Opportunity of obtaining the renewal of their ancient charters and privileges. du d6p.. X Damal. Vol. I.. p. \S6rie H. 237. French troops in Guienne. H2 HISTORY OP THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. p. t Rymer's Foedera. de la Gironde. the mission sent to Bordeaux. Supplement des Chron-Jques de Bordeaux. 42. VoL IX. their crews alone could prevent much of the mischief . 667. saying that no resistance was offered them on account of the lack of men and treasure. F. 47. headed by Thomas Beckington. they added that if a small force could be sent over it would easily check their advance and that even if the fleet which was wont to come to Bordeaux at the vintage time was allowed to proceed thither. p. Michel. when they reached their destination they wrote to the jurats of Bordeaux to send them forty casks more of wine to propitiate the Earl of Dorset. J In 1442. wrote to the King's Council informing them of the rapid progress made by the Arch. p.

A. and caused a great shortage of wine in England. the Commons petitioned the King. With notes and illustrations by N. in all such times. that all his said merchants repairing to the said parts of Guyenne and Gascony. and a Daughter of the Count of Armagnac.committed by the enemy. may freely hereafter buy the wine there of the high country.* This prohibition for the English merchants to go to Bordeaux to fetch wine was quite as unpopular in London as in Gascony. and great loss and hindrance of all his faithful liege people. and also now there be divers new impositions demanded and levied of his said lieges merchants-repairing to the said parts. asking for its removal. In 1444. considering how divers complaints-have been made before this time by divers of his-lieges merchants. otherwise than hath been used of old time demanded and levied. how that now of late they have been suffered to buy wines of the growing of the high country..]). H. and in A Journal by one of the Suite of Thomas Beckington. during am Embassy to negotiate a Marriage between Henry Vl. 1442. repairing to the parts of Gascony and Guienne. to the great damage of the said merchants. in such time as they [were wont to be made] . . Nicolas.| and they obtained the enactment of the following Statute:— " The King. hath ordained by the authority aforesaid.

D. no relief appeared on the appointed day. and that if any of the King's officers in the said parts. 113. contrary to this ordi-nance.London. t Rot. col. Every province.to the party grieved £20 over his treble damage to be paid to him. Bordeaux. was unable to defend his title of King of France and the vast possessions he had inherited from his valiant father in that country. town after town—all. Vol. if not relieved by a certain time. p. since it enabled the citizens to obtain terms which were •considered as very . to be forfeit as oftentimes as he oflEendeth. A. and as no one in England had either the will or the means to succour the distant city. or any other persons. v. agreed at last to submit to the King of France. 51. without any other new imposition or charge to be put upon them .. vex or grieve.. vexed or grieved.. Pari. or do to be disturbed. p. any of the said merchants or liege people of the King. after all surrounding places had been captured. and Bordeaux surrendered. VL. Its gallant defence was not altogether fruitless."* Henry VI. disturb. 182S. 1444. 23 Hen. save Calais—was gradually lost. 2. or do to be levied of any of them any new imposition. All such [liberties] as they have used to buy them twenty or thirty years past.

. but of some other nation.* But. so that he might exercise his mistery within the^ town of Norwich or elsewhere within the realm. as the officers of that town had imposed on him and would not permit him to exercise his mistery. 23 Hen. Peter Salamon. It was formally agreed that all who refused to swear allegiance to the King of France were free to leave the city at their own time and go wherever they pleased. royal notification that he was a native of Bordeaux and the King's liege.advantageous. ne faire le HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND.. as far back as 1405. Some. saying that he was not the Bang's liege. ships. after the final loss of Guyenne. t *' £t 8*il y en a aucims qui ne veuillent demeurer. had already left Gascony" during the wars which desolated this province previous to its conquest. the Gascons who elected to come and settle in England resented keenly to be called aliens and treated as foreigners by" the .f * Statutes of the Realm. 1444. cai). VI. obtained. Many of the wealthy inhabitants of Bordeaux: availed themselves of this option right and emigrated to England. a delay of six months being granted to them within which time they were to leave. 17. One of these. taking with them all their goods. moneys^ furniture. in fact. vessels and whatever belonged to them.

argent et biens meubles. 142. J).. turned their attention to commerce.. p. 5 Hen. Hiatoire c!e Bordeaux.to be called aliens and treated as foreigners by" the natives. XI\. vaisseaux et autres (•hoses quelconqueB. etc. or. Vol. nefs. 515. ruin. p.. I. 3(50.er 8*en pourront quand bon leur semblera et ou il leur plaira. m. et pourront emportcr toutes leurs marohandises. and most of these engaged in the wine trade. Note viii. who also gave them all the safe conducts and licences they might require to go back to Bordeaux either to settle their affairs or to fetch wines. with the right to enjoy the same privileges as native-born Englishmen. Fr. et co la Kav. et auront i)our ce faire bon sauf-conduit et terme de vuidange jusques a demy-an. p. i\ Borcenux. Many of the Gascon knights and noblemen whose attachment to England had proved their utter .. p. MDCLXvii.. p... Calend."— Piivilegcs des Bourgeois ce !a ^'illC et Citc^ de Borceaux. Devienne. aV. 12. Ortlonnanccs c'es Rois c© Fiance. Hist. Michel. cu Com.serment au roy do France. IV. Patent Rolls. their task being . asking to be legally and officially recognised as English subjects. CO.. This just demand was readily granted by Henry. A Bordeaux. II. t. after all they had suffered and lost on account of their loyalty to their EngUsh Sovereign^ They applied to the King in Parhament.

m. l f M^moircH c'e Comines. when Edward IV. I. VI. many of these merchants had followed him and received offers ta settle in Gascony.^ 15. 2 and 3 ch. When the King saw that his promises failed to-decide the merchant to stay in France. In 1475. also Rot. the King asked one of them to dinner and made him the most alluring offers to come and settle again in hia dominions. tried to entice back some of his Gascon subjects who had emigrated to England. his native town. and the kindly disposition of the royal officers in England. however. x. to go back and live in Bordeaux. where they disposed of them.these engaged in the wine trade. It was. a Gascon emigre going back in his own ship to Gascony. y. their task being facilitated by the knowledge of the coimtry where they went to fetch their wines. See. Thus it was that. all of no avail. in 1457.| The next day the monarch was more successful and prevailed on another Gascon merchant who had come to ask for a remittance of the royal dues on some wine he wished to export from Bordeaux. 35 Hen.. . Vas^. granting him some profitable offices and giving him a thousand francs for the expenses of Rot. Vol.* Louis XI. met Louis in France. IV. he sent him away with a present of a thousand ecus in hard cash and assured him that those of hia brothers who were still in Gascony would be under his royal protection.. a safe conduct was granted to Jean de Lalande.. whose name is still honourably known in the Bordeaux wine trade. t. Franc. On one occasion..

parquoy Ics Anglois ponsassent <ju*il 89 mooquast . on arrival. during the latter part of the fifteenth and the whole of the sixteenth century. a large merchantman. HISTORY OP THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. 2 and 3 ch. its destination. x. taking back his wife and family from England to Bordeaux. and on a somewhat diminished scale. all English ships were allowed by the French authorities to come to Bordeaux to fetch wines. Hen. and their guns had to be landed and left there before they were allowed to proceed up the Gironde. Vas^. 8. in. 302. but. called the Christopher J of Hull. Vol. VL.| In 1459. as a measure of precaution. in spite of a safe conduct granted by the Admiral of France. this trade was nevertheless kept up with varying fortunes. I.. the merchants and mariners * '* II n'estoit rien an mondedont le Roy eust plus grande i^ur. also Rot. * Although the annexation of Gascony caused a Tery great prejudice to the hitherto paramount Bordeaux wine trade in England. VL. See. que <ie ce qu*il lui eschapast quelque mot. m..^ 15. however. y.t. 21 and 22 Hen. they were made to stop at Blaye. In 1453. 12. IV. was seized before reaching Blaye and not allowed to proceed to Bordeaux.

corame il estoit en son retrait. qui demeuroit en Angleterre. connoissant qu'il avait trop parl6. le lendemain apri's <5ett? veui*. quand il le vit. who were on board were thrown into prison. s'il lui estoit accord6.parquoy Ics Anglois ponsassent <ju*il 89 mooquast d*eux. il lui demands de quelle ville il estoit en Guienne. et en SQ tournant. dont il estoit nay. et envoya un sien fr^re en Angleterre sans ce qu'il y allast. et ains. x. et oommsnt il pouvait ostro entr6 . 30v. bquel lui estoit venu demanJer un conge. Livre IV\. fo.. et d*adventure. et parlay h. avant que partir de 1&» qui le conduisit k Bordeaux. Incontinant le Roy lui bailla ua homrae. ct eut un tres bon office ea la ville.* A similar . et la traito des vins qu'il demandait. Vol. Le dit Seigneur fut tres esbahi. et estoit chos3 qui pouvoit •fort profitcr audit marchand. que nous n'estions que trois ou quatrc. p. touchant les vins et les prdscns qu'il avoit envoyez a Tost des Anglois . t Chronique Bord3loise. L. luy par le commandement du Roy. ch. Anno 1453. se condemna le Roy en cotte amende. et millc francs comptans pour fairo venir sa femme. pour tirer une <5ertaine quantit6 de vin de Gas-congne sans rien i)aycr du droit du Roy. 303. et s'il estoit marchand et mari6 en Angleterre. 1706. il lui eschapa quelque mot do risee. il appereeut un mar-chand Gascon. Brussels. le marchand lui respondit que ouy. mais qu'il n*y avoit gueres vaillant. El."— Mt^moires de Me8"<ire Philinije de Cominei.

up to a certain amount. In 1475. enacted very heavy penalties for such of his subjects as dared go to England with their wines without a special licence of the King. Louis aggravated still further the situation by the imposition of a vexatious supplementary tax of one ecu on all English ships coming to Bordeaux to trade. granted a remission of half the custom and subsidy. Edward IV. The first-named had by far the larger share of this trade. which was taken in the port of Bordeaux itself. One of the immediate effects of this spiteful policy was to force the greater part of the carrying trade between Bordeaux and England into the hands of the Bretons. Edward IV.§ Later. Louis XI. of Orwell. where it had come on the faith of a safe conduct.alled the Margaret. in 1475. of the Bordeaux wines they were bringing to England.J and. if one may judge by the great number of complaints preferred by subjects of the Duke of Brittany of the capture. on Gascon wine brought to England by Bretons in consideration of the losses sustained by them at sea. forbade his subjects to import any wines of the growths of Aquitaine.f Such unfair as well as impolitic proceedings led naturally to retaliation.* A similar fate befell another English merchantman <.who were on board were thrown into prison. Flemings. in 1462. by English pirates.|| . Spaniards and Italians. in 1463.

and English merchants still went to Bordeaux for their wines. 10117. II Calend.. Richard III. io. " English merchants. August 30th. to cause each other the greatest possible prejudice. IV. by all the means in their power. I'urt II.. they dare not venture to Bordeaux nor elsewhere within your realm until they receive your royal assurance that they may in all security go and trade in all places within your power. " In spite of the truce.. m. had been renewed from time to time.. L. seized this occasion to remonstrate with the French King on the subject. Patent Rolls. having received a friendly letter from Louis XI. 2 Ed. on his accession to the throne. 66r. Patent Rolls. 73r.. for. fo. t Idem. 1463. m. Part I. IV. according to the . although the truce between France and England •* Archives Nationales. 69V. B. X. § Registres duPortde Bordeaux.This state of affairs was very unsatisfactory.. 5d. who seize their ships and their goods.'' wrote Richard. 42V.* the two countries seemed to seek. 4. 15 Ed. { Calend. seeing the great risk they run at the hands of your subjects. In 1483.

f Gairdner. No. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND... col. allowing foreigners to bring wine to England in their own ships. 18T . Part II. p. 1483. 1 Hon. cap. 2. Vol. Patent Rolls. strictly enforced on account of the limited proportions of the English mercantile marine. "t One of the very first acts of Henry VII. Such a licence was even granted. * In February. 1 Statutes of the Reahu. in direct opposition to his ordinance... 22d.. soon after the enactment of this prohibition. Many licences had to be granted by the King. VI. Richard I illustratinpr the Rf'ipfns of Ric. 1482. J a measure which never was. to a Frenchman.. p. of London. III. 2 Ric. bought wine in Bordeaux to the vahie of £100. m. VIL. Calend. 111. Pari. Letters and Pajjcrs and Hen. X^ August 18th. VII.'s. Challerton. 335. reign was to prohibit the importation of Gascon wine in any but English ships.truce. I. Rot. 8. 34. nor could be. Vol.

to import 100 tuns of Gascony wine into England. a similar licence was granted to Anthony de Rowne. Diego de Castro and others. for 300 tuns of . Maria j of San Sebastian. and in 1488. were granted licences to freight the following ships from Bordeaux to London :— Sta. Sta. and the Sta. subject of the King of Spain. a safe conduct for the import of 250 tuns of wine from Bordeaux was granted to Peter de Tndainta. also for 260 tuns. 80 tuns. merchant of Spain. Maria J of Summayo. John de Scova. Antonio Dolaiciola was granted a similar licence. In 1485. In the same year. merchant of Spain.Fraii9ois Dupon. Mariuy of Bilbao.f In 1486. was granted a licence to load his ship with wine at Bordeaux and to bring the same to England. the relations between England and Spain being at the time very friendly. Sta. merchants of Spain. J During that same year. 80 tuns. was given a licence to export from Bordeaux 200 tuns of Gascon wine to England. 140 tuns. 150 tuns . Stus Jacobus^ of Bilbao.. 200 tuns.* But most of these licences were granted to-Spanish merchants. Diego de Cadagna. Maria^ of Fuentarabia.§ In 1489.|| and to Domynyk del Mesqueta.

4 Ken. 14. 23. \ III. etc.. II Idem. VIII. p.. \\ 501.. Part II. m. etc. Chamfollion-Fig^ac. 5 Hen. VIIL. 4. m. 455. 7. VII.. A. Henry VII. ^ Idem. Charles VIII. VII.^ etc.. wrote to the custom officials at Bordeaux. 16. 14. 1495. 17 . MIL. 3 Hen. m. Part IL. Edited by G. 12.. m. etc. m. p. had complained that his subjects who went to Bordeaux for purposes oL trade did not enjoy the privileges.. exemptions and'Uberties which had been .. 6. that his " tres cher et tres am6 frcre et cousin Henry. VIIL. J Calend. f See these and similar licences in the Rot.. 1 Hen. 1489." King of England. June 30th.. 1. p. 8. 4. MIL. 15. m.. 18. relating to the Negotiations between England and Spain. IL. of Letters. 6 Hen. 1489. 12. King of France. 1488. II. 2 Hen.. 345. 1. 13. m. I. m. 1 Hen. Vol. July 19th. 403. Vol. August 14th. m. On November 16th. Bergenroth.Vol. Reines. pp. Part L. 3 Hen. Franc. § CampbeU.Guienne wine. Lettres desRois.

in the Medoc. that English merchants and sailors. and were never permitted to go up country alone.000 in the town. Henry VIII.* During the reign of Henry VIII. and enjoy all the liberties and privileges they had previously.promised to them by letters patent of April 11th. were now allowed to come without any restriction whatever.000 or 8.f See the whole copy of the f Gairdner. 1495. the Bordeaux trade regained some of its former importance. and a great many Englishmen went every year to Gascony to fetch wine. Part II. that all extra taxes or duties which might have been exacted from them during the previous six months be refunded to them. II. Vol. there being sometimes as many as 7. Michel. who complained. in 1517.. and.. . that should war break out between the French and the English. The King of France expressly and emphatically ordered that English merchants be treated in all fairness. No.. they also added that the English merchants were on such good terms with the people of all the coimtry roimd Bordeaux. the latter would find no difficulty in landing troops there. 3521. as in the past. who were previously bound to wear a red cross whilst in Bordeaux. original letters in F.. Hist. Their number was even so great as to cause alarm to the French authorities. moreover.

as most of the English ships which went thither that year were seized. "f This ordinance was very detrimental to the French wine trade in general.* In 1631-32. Vol. Michael. HISTORY OF THE WIXE TRADE IN ENGLAND. and who thus lost the privilege of selling . du Com. at any haven. whose exactions and bad treatment of English merchants was greatly resented in London. a Bordeaux. and that of the Purification of Our Lady. in 1621. creek. or Guyenne. especially the Sacks from Spain. which practically monopolised the market between September 29th and February 2nd. p.. port. war was soon afterwards declared between the two countries. 1517. and fetch wine. Francis I. I. a promise which was little kept. that. since it gave an enormous advantage to all other wines. or other place within the realm. upon forfeitures of the said wines. all persons were forbidden " to bring and discharge any maimer of wine of Gascony. It was particularly directed against the town and burgesses of Bordeaux.July. 376. and again in 1533. or French wines. but the fears of the French authorities were found so unjustified. 189 As it happened. between the Feast of St. et de la Nav. assured Wolsey that all English merchants could come in all safety to Bordeaux.

VIIL.. They succeeded in obtaining the repeal of this measure in 1634.* In 1535. Henry VIII. he also removed the prohibition imposed previously. 406-7. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. t Statutes of the Realm. He complained to him of the detention of his ships. accusing him of being partly the cause of it. sent for the Privy Councillors and summoned to his presence the French Ambassador.their own wines in November. some English ships being detained at Bordeaux and representations made to the King of France having been unsuccessful to bring about their release. for having . on representation from the King of France. when. according to their self-made regulations. Hist du Com. as contrary to * Ft. VoL L. before those of the interior had been brought to their market in December and January. 23 Hen. Henry VIII. 7. Miohel. the treaty and commercial convention lately agreed to between himself and Francis I. et de U Nay. against importing Gascon wine in any but English bottoms. k Bordeaux. cap. p. revoked the newly enacted prohibition to import French wines between September and February.

forfeiture was. Vol. in order to justify his assertion. the * Statutes of the Realm. 1536. which charge the Privy Councillors flatly denied... They said that if they imported wine in their own ships. of State Papers. for having written home that French merchants in this coimtry were badly treated. VIII. again. penalty they were liable to should they happen to sell their wine in London or Bristol to an Englishman who was not free of the city. They also complained that they . January 29th. Gayangos. p. against the letter of the treaties agreed upon by the two Kings.. of State Papers. whereupon the French Ambassador. Vol. 26 Hen.. cap. they had to fear the same fate if. 347. they happened to make the slightest mistake in their declaration of their cargo . V. Calend. and without a special licence of the King of England.. summoned on his return from Court the French merchants of the City and asked them to put down in writing the grievances they complained of. December 19th. 10.accusing him of being partly the cause of it.they ran the risk of having their wine confiscated. Part I. England and Spain. p. on arrival in England. Part II. and that every day new taxes were imposed upon them. 1534. 29. V. t Calend.f The Frenchmen complained that a great many difficulties were placed in their way when they attempted to sell their wines in England.

succeeded in obtaining the repeal of some of the taxes and prohibitive ordinances which were complained of by English. at a cost of 550 " ecus d'or " . Christophei: Godwin. and there are many records of transactions between Gascon and English merchants. the wine was to be chosen and tasted by George Jobson and William Espople. that any Frenchman seen in the street after dusk without a light {sans chandeUe) was thrown into prison. led to similar vexatious measures at Bordeaux. where the English merchants said they were badly treated. Sir William Pickering. bought 500 tuns of wine of three Bordeaux merchants. that they were searched " jusqu' a leur chemise " before they left England. etc.f In 1557. merchant of Ipswich. They also complained that they were made to buy English goods with the money they had received for their wine. they were to be accompanied by a native broker during their stay. and to buy through his ministry.* In spite of these vexations. and the Constable of Bordeaux wrote to him . who was then in Paris. Englishmen were not left free to buy wine where and how they chose. the commercial relations between Bordeaux and England never ceased. and made to pay ever-increasing taxes. In 1550. and to buy none but the wines of Bordeaux burgesses. and other mora or less well-founded complaints. of Hull.was not free of the city. merchants going to Gas-cony. These.

La Mothe Fenelon. one at Bordeaux for the King of France. per tun.. it was raised to 22s. 1557)..000 tuns during each of . and in 1592. p. the Bordeaux trade with England. the exports to London averaging about 6. the exports reaching 7.. in 1591.f During the latter part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. in spite of heavy export duties imposed on wine in France. and one at Blaye for the Prince de Condt^. VoL II. assuring him that all objectionable regulations concerning the wine trade= at Bordeaux should instantly be cancelled. du Ck)in. the export duty levied at Bordeaux was 19s. Hist. Vol L. In 1590.400 tuns a year. and that they said that they had been very well treated out there. where a fleet of English merchantmen had gone to fetch the wines of the last vintage. p. 460. (September 29th. k Bordeaux.* On January 6th. 1569. wrote that fourteen ships only had returned from Bordeaux. although they had been made to pay double custom. the French Ambassador in London. to 31s. was still active. Michel.Constable of Bordeaux wrote to him * Ft. 377. HISTORY OP THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. et de Ja Nay. t Idem.

duCom. the duty was again raised to 35s.. des Ambas-sadeurs de France en Angletcrre. In 1593. kk Bordeaux.000 tuns only being exported during that year. et de la Nav. During the next few years. in 1600. VoL L. No. in 1598. p.. Michel.. in 1594 and 1595. 195 which the London merchants claimed to have sustained through taxation. J The losses Calcnd. etc. Calend. No. 49. VI.these three years. p.000 tims were shipped. to 28s. Foreign Series. The Ambassador said that he had reason to believe that the Queen of England was awaiting the return of the fleet which had gone to load wine in Gascony.. Hist. and in 1601. per tun. and in 1597. 448.. 93.. when 7. t Depeches. the duty was brought down to 27s. to 12s. only to be raised to 40s.000 tuns only were exported to London. Ed. Vol. in 1596. VoL II. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. and that then she would immediately declare war against France. of State Papers. 4. 468. when 4. VIL.. in 1599. Venice. per tun. ct passim. to 17s. of State Papers.. the duty was gradually lowered. t Fr. to 8s. seizures and other arbitrary .

through taxation. of State Papers. were those of Poitou. 28G. p. seizures and other arbitrary proceedings.. 140. which were shipped to England. Eliz. .* and the fact that they continued to be largely imported into this country during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries is evidenced by the large proportion of Rochelle wines forming the cargo of the numerous captures of merchantmen at sea.f * Calend.* English merchants resented those exactions all the more that the King of France had asked Queen Elizabeth to furnish six ships of war during six months. the charges to be borne by all except English subjects. amounted to no less than £78. p. Poitou wines were known in England at a very early date.700. Orleans and Burgundy. Anjou. besides those of Guienne and Gascony. their losses on wines shipped during the same period from Charente to London amounted to £18. t Idem. 1591-1594. to be sent into the river Gironde and protect the maritime commerce there. N CHAPTER IX. Tire other French wines.100 on wines shipped from Bordeaux to London between the years 1590 and 1601. Do-roeetio Series. 1601-1603.

. granting many licences to those who wished to import Poitou wine into England. for instance. i Idem.. t Calend.* Henry VII. St.. and as far as Saintes. IV. m. | | Idem.II See Historj' of the Wine Trade | § Calend.f A century later. Part I. bringing a cargo of Rochelle wine to England. seventy-nine tuns of white Rochelle wines were taken from some vessels on their way to Weymouth. 4 Hen. m... in 1403.. m. for wine. m.. lid. in 1426. in England. J In 1424. during the last ten years of Queen . ninety-six tuns of Poitou wine were forcibly seized in Kent. Part 11. \ During the latter part of the fifteenth century. 7d. 30d. Part II. Part I.§ and. 19d. IV. also i 5 Hen. 4 Hen. 200 tuns of Rochelle wines were seized in a ship off the Isle of Wight. Part II. M. 3 Hen. Patent Rolls. 34d. was captured at sea. Vol.t and.In 1402.. VI. Patent Rolls. m. from the merchants who brought them. . a ship of Brittany.. Jean d'Angely. I. English merchants are said to have come in great number to La Rochelle.

d. per gallon.. de Bressuire. pp. p. J Fr. k Bordeaux. II. 50. 340. Henry VII. .. Le Cabinet du Roy Louis XI. during the last ten years of Queen Elizabeth's reign.. Gascon. apparently. 342.A century later. t Campbell. J During the whole of the fifteenth and the early part of the sixteenth century. there were. but. 1473. etc. per gallon.§ but in 1552. on an average.^ From Nantes.. in L'Hermite de Soliers. * Iiettre <le Louis XI. when Guienne. 11. Michel. and French wines were ordered not to be sold above 8d. Vol. Vol. a. the more so that it was maintained afterwards. Rochelle was not to be retailed for more than 4d. || This difference in price leads us to infer that the produce of the vineyards of Poitou had lost much of its former quality and popularity. the price of Rochelle wine was the same as that of Gascon and other French wines.000 tuns of wine shipped from the Charente every year to England. some Anjou and Orleans wines were occasionally shipped to England. in no very considerable quantity. " Rochelle and other small and thin wines " were always to be sold £2 per tun cheaper. 6. and even aggravated by the order repeatedly enacted that whilst Gascon and French wines were to be sold at a certain price. et de la Nav. Hist. du Com. k Mr.

. 283.A. fo. 1414 . 50. 262. 76b. 8.f In 1466. 1583.D. 9. Letter Book Z.!! in 1594. lS5b. J and in 1469» a ship laden with thirty-seven tuns of wine of Anjou was captured at sea.cap. p.d. fo. fo. fo. 1409. Letter Book M. was also seized. § Letter Book I. 341b. a. x2 In 1399. fo. II Stat..d. fo. a.6." were shipped from Nantes. «[ Letter Book Y. a.d.D. 11. in 1423. A. a. fo. A. and twenty-four tuns of Orleans wine. used to produce a wine which enjoyed a great reputation in England during the .D.d.D. fo. more renowned in modern times for its vinegar than its wines. a. thirty tuns " of the growth of the Duchy of Brittany. eighty-five tuns of wine shipped from Nantes were captured at sea. wine was exported from Nantes to Scotland. 133. 1416. the Mary of Alderney^ with a cargo of wine from Nantes.d. 1580 . 22b. 1579 . 341. A.VI.Vol.§ In 1481. 1513. 105.7Ed. 1578.* and the same fate befell. 105b. 1581 .^ Orleans.. a ship of Brittany laden with f orty-f oui tuns of wine of Nantes.D. fo.155*i. A.

. VI. No. Rotulus I ^ Idem.. and thence to England. 5109. 17d.. the Earl of Rutland bought six tuns of wine of Orleans.enjoyed a great reputation in England during the sixteenth century.in 1571. I XI. 36.Xn.** In 1536. IV. Vol. where he purchased twenty-one tuns of wine of Orleans for Henry VIII. there is a mention of two pipes of white wine of Orleans. Part IV.. m.. .^ Brewer. Patent Rolls. m. Henry \TII.. 1591viagii. ft Gairdner. one William Forman was sent to Roanne. Domestic Series. IV.. wines of Orleans were sent to Cromwell from Calais.. it was more commonly sent to Rouen. Part II. at a cost of £112 17s.No. and again in 1539. Vol. Henry VIII.Part n. p.1089.. 1594. Patent Rolls. No. either direct or via Calais. IV. in 1537. m. In 1528.| * Calend. t Calend. Part II.. 4d. .tt and. 1 Hen. 496. 12d... .ff In 1562. X Idem. | Vol. 1 Hen. 6 Ed.§§ Although Orleans wine was sometimes shipped from Nantes.

Domes mestic Series. 1547-1580. m. and a far more considerable quantity of French wines were shipped by way of the Seine to England. Vol. tX Calend. Do> II Calend. 1641.D. 17.. XVI. tie Series. 669. 204. Henry V. Part H. of State PaT)pr. No. the most important transit mart of the French and English wine trade during the Middle Ages.. Part H.. of State Papers. ordered that all transactions be carried through brokers whom he instituted at Rouen for the convenience of the wine trade. No. No.. IV. XIV. Addenda..{ Idem. XXVII.s. Vol. HISTORY OP THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. p.. 9 Ed. I7d. Vol. 94. jjll Gairdner. Vol... 197 All the other French wines sent to England had to pass through Rouen. Henry VIH.. A. I. . 1280 . p. 492.* and the capital of Normandy acquired greater importance still when Guienne and Gascony were lost to the English Crown. §| Rutland MSS.

Normann. de Bouen. Syllabus to Rymer's Fcedera.. m. prendre et vendengier tout la vendage qui y estoit. I. In 1419. at Rouen. t Fr6ville. lesdits Bretons et Bourguignons furent es terrouers de Clignencourt. the wine shipped from Rouen to England came from more distant districts. Maiden. Commerce Marit. there was quite an active trade carried on between Rouen and London. p.! all along the valley of the Seine. Hartlepool. if not all. ia^oit — ce qu'elle n*estoit point . Poole.. Montmartre. forbade the buying of wine in large quantities by English soldiers or merchants in Normandy. Vol. the vin de Beaune cost 40 francs. HuU. the vin de MarUea. and even on the heights of Clignencourt and Montmartre. p. 71d. 615. and other English ports. Auxerre or Bot. 25 francs.. Exeter. Lynn.. p. 7 Hen.f Although wine was made in many parts of Normandy. X In 1405. la Courtille et aultres vignobles d'entour Paris. such as Orleans. and the vin du pays 6 francs only. Newcastleon-Tyne. Bristol.§ most. V. 9 Septembre. III. Vol. Southampton.During the latter part of the fifteenth century. 266.§ in the immediate vicinity of Paris. the vin franais 13 francs. 305. § "Et le lundy. Henry V. D'Avenel.

ia^oit — ce qu'elle n*estoit point meure. sent to James IV. J and. Beaune. p. producing wines of much better quality and better suited for export. Et fut la plus meschante ann6o et poure vign^e qui long temps fut sceiie en France et Tappelloit on le vin de Tann^ des Bourguignons. 8 of white wine of Blois and 12 of white wine of the growth of Bagneux. 51 of Orleans claret. in London. In 1483. Louis XII.f In 1536. and thence to England. qui n'estoient pas a demi-meures. dite Chron-ique Scandaleusc.* On December 8th. been shipped from Rouen to Calais. et en firent du yin tel quel pour le boire. 1512. Histoiro de Louis XL.§ . Ed. near Paris. 1714.vendage qui y estoit. Normandy. in all 108 puncheons of French wines. the Duke of Norfolk was granted a licence to import from Rouen into England 100 casks of wine. Et a ceste cause furent oeulx de Paris oon-traints de vendanger les aultres partout autour de Paris. however. or Guienne. 65. of Scotland. he received some more which had. some Auxerre wine was sent from Rouen direct to Cromwell."—Jean de Troyes. either of France. et aussi le temps leur fut fort oon-traire. 36 puncheons of Vin de Beaune dSret. in the following year. HISTORY OP THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND.

at Calais. No.. Vol. Part I. and in 1540. sec. Vol. in 1538. Vol.. an advice dated from Brussels of some wines of Burgundy (Borgoyn).. Vol. Part I.. Part I. XII.^ and in the autumn of that same year. some Auxerre wine was sent from Rouen to Lord Lisle. by Hutton. Vol. ft Rot. X. 385. 1037 . 16. 462.. No.ers relating to the War with France..) { Gairdner.In 1537.. XII.500 muids of Burgundy wine passed through Rouen for Abbeville. m. DI. 1028. ten pieces of wine of Beaune. 70. ^ Idem. by Alfred Sront. Henry Vm. XIV. XV. No. 1 Ric. Part I. XII.. Xo.. Xo. II Idem.. § Idem. (Navy Records Society Publications. Vol. . t Letters and Pftj.** In 1538. 49... 285. |I In 1537. Franc. 1512-1513. sent to Henry VIII. Lord Lisle also received from Rouen. 1030. leads us to infer that those wines were sometimes shipped to England via Flanders. p. 1. No.

Vol. XII. when Queen Elizabeth joined the Duke of Burgundy against France. I. 1518. 507. the import of French wines was practically stopped. twenty puncheons of Ay . they were not imported into England before the seventeenth century. Thus.e. on which an additional tax of 13s. from Rouen and Calais) imported into England between 1659 and 1565.285. the total quantity of French wine (i. Part II.* In 1571.. only twenty-four tuns reaching London by March 28th. per tun had been levied. 4d. Vol. with the exception of a few casks which were occasionally sent to some exalted personage. p.f In 1575. No. Idem. J As regards the wines of Champagne... tt Icfem.576 tuns. the Earl of Rutland bought four tuns of wine of Burgundy. amounted to 7. According to the accounts of Thomas Lord Buckhurst.. Vol. 1040. in November. XIII..

Vol. and the chronic scarcity of 151d» to Calais. p. although I have failed to find any contemporary evidence to that effect.. 4581. who says that the wine he is sending is very good. twenty puncheons of Ay wine were sent to Wolsey by one Bonnyvet. them shipped to London. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. . the lack of cheap means of transport to the sea coast. Part H. Brewer Idem.. II. I Henry VIII. 4597. ^ 5 Rutland MSB. The high price of the Champagne wines during the sixteenth century. 94.Thus. Vol. p.. Evremond also said that Henry VIII. 1518. in November. 103. possessed vines there. on November 23rd.. but adds that the Cardinal's vines had been a failure that year {voz vignes nont gueres bien rencontre ceste annSe).% This letter seems to prove that Wolsey had a vineyard at Ay. Nos! These twenty puncheons were d«)spatchcd. and St. A History of Custom Revenue in England. addruiwed to the treasurer there. I.. who would have • Hubert Hall.

Rhenish. and there is such abundance of wine. Vol. and were See History of the Wino Trade in England. in some remarkably good years. the Moselle. as well as to other parts.{ The wines.the wine at a time when no reserve stocks were kept. In . Viticulture and the art of wine-maldng were held in great esteem all along the Rhine.* and Bacci gives us a very long list of all the most renowned Alsatian and German vine-growing districts during the sixteenth century. Moselle and other German wines." adds the old doctor. which seem to have been held in the highest estimation were those of Alsace and the Upper Rhine. that the farmers have to throw the old wine into the river in order to have a sufficient number of casks to lodge the new wine. prevented these wines from being shipped to England regularly. and the Neckar from a very early date. and no particular vintage being mentioned before the end of the same century. Those of Alsace were reputed for their strength and vinosity."t In England. however. Rhenish was a generic name covering all Alsatian. the Main. I. such as 1582. " The wine produced along the Rhine. " is exported in large quantities to England and Scotland. no distinction being made in their respective growths until the seventeenth century.

. largely exported to England. Do Nat. as also those of Landau. a fact to which he attributes the heaviness and strength of those wines. In May. Der Weinhandel im Gebiet'C der Hanse im Mittelaltor. " there is the best and delectablest wine that ever I drank. 1539. Hist. Frederick. VII. " where. and many members of the aristocracy were actively engaged in it.* The produce of the Heidelberg vineyards appears to have been very greatly esteemed by Englishmen during the sixteenth century. p.the fifteenth oentiiry the wine trade was considered as one of the noblest guilds in Germany. which." he says in a letter to his father. 1538."t On November 30th. chiefly Muscats. Bacci says. t See Bacci. Count Palatine. X Hans Hartmeyer. Yin. said : " I send you two pieces of wine. He also says that Italian and Levant vines. the one white and the other . See Eugon Niibling. Thomas Gold well. writing to Lord Lisle from Heidelberg. on his way to Rome. 18. Ulm's Weinhandel im Mittelalter. Lib. formed a large proportion of the plants to be seen in Grerman vineyards. paid a visit to the University of Heidelberg. were in his time considered the best.

In 1491. | HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. Henry VHI.. The German ships bringing their Rhenish wines to Sluys.* and its importance grew so rapidly that. the Saar. Cologne. as well as of the Rhine. Part I. where the produce of the vineyards of the Moselle. was brought for sale to foreigners attending the autumn or " vintage " fairs there. which the great Venetian galleys brought there. 935.. Mayence and. No. of the best growths of this country. Xni. p. vintages of Gascony. | CU. exchanged them there for the Bacci. above all. No."! Francfort-on-Main. at the close of the following centm:y. 338. or the Levant. t Gairdncr. De Nat. I think.you two pieces of wine. Vol. Hist. Spain. Although the season has been indifferent. from what I hear from France. the Neckar. were the chief marts of the Rhenish wine trade. Part IL. and to native merchants trading with the Baltic and Flemish ports. Antwerp was chosen instead of Bruges as the Flemish staple town for wines. it had become the largest and most important . Treves. XIV. I J Ideniy Vol.. Bruges' outport. Bruges was for a very long time an active centre of the international trading of Lower Germany. that you will find it passable.. the one white and the other claret. Vin.

J whilst the Hanse merchants who traded in Moselle.. In Lubeck. Der Weinhandel im Gebieto dor Hanse im Mittelalter. De Nat.|l in Bremen. Bishop Rudolph. 360.^ A certain proportion of the Rhenish wine imported into England also came from the LowCountries. which were thence exported to England and other countries. Yin. X In UiyS. Alsatian and Rhenish wine at a very early date. in 1571.^ Rhenish wine was not imported to any very considerable extent in England before the closing Hans Hartmeyer. where a greater abundance and a greater variety of all the wines then known were to be found. t Bacci. .§ appear to have practically relinquished this branch of commerce during the latter part of the sixteenth century. it is said that there were no more than 200 ohms of Rhenish wine in the merchants' cellars. particularly Dordrecht and Utrecht. amounting to only 854 ohms. Hist. Hans Hartmeyer. it had become the largest and most important wine mart of the world. p. levied a duty on wines passing through the town. Der Wein-handel im Gebiete dor Hanse im Mittoa'to-.centm:y. all the stocks. for instance. of Utrecht. the total exports of Rhenish wine to all parts averaged only 800 or 900 ohms yearly.

Sd. A mention of dealers in Moselle and Alsatian vrines. 4d. in 1510. II.. in 1589.§ See Vol. Der Weinhandel im Gebiete dor Hanse im Mittelalter. Voreins fur liib. 9d. at Hulme. •[ Boneke. whilst the gallon of Rhenish cost Is. . Hans Hartmeyer. in 1433.. in 1558. at Cambridge. in London. Gesch. 99. 2s. Bd. it only cost Is. d. I. years of the sixteenth century. curiously enough. per gallon. to 2s. a century later. the cost of Rhenish wine was uniformly Is. Zeitschrift. per gallon. in 1583. and reaching 3s. and in 1536. show only very slight fluctuations according to place or time. in 1522. In 1508. p. 8d. in 1594. p. which. in 1443. Der Ratsweinkeller zu Liibeok. (| Wehrmann. at Kirtling. 250. per gallon. at Mendham. per gallon.* During the latter part of the sixteenth century the price of Rhenish rose rapidly. at Birling. but it appears to have always been held in high esteem and to have fetched fairly high prices. in Essex. Hamburgische Ges-chichten und Denkwiirdigkeiten.. at Writtle. in London. appears to be the earliest instance of a difference made between these wines (originally included in the Rhine winemerchants* monopoly) and Rhenish. in d. Thus. at Hunstanton.

merchant of the Steelyard. 225. 8e^ I port of the Royal Commission on Appendix to this volume.. at Lynn. and the merchants were further compelled by their bond to bring before the following Easter as much more as should make 400 tuns. and other estates use to drink " . if not all. Part IIL. gentleman. p. etc. in 1474. Rhenish was bought for the royal household from time to time. in 1550. and such as the Emperor. the only exception being supplied by a contract between Henry VIII. History of I t Lynn AISS.* .. and the remainder of 800 tuns. Norwich. 30s. and John Grousby..It is also worthy of remark that most of. VoL IV. in Eleventh Re-Agriculture. provided they brought 400 ohms of Rhenish wine to London before Christmas. but always in small quantities. and the wine to be " of the best sort. the price agreed to was Thorold Rogers. each ohm to contain thirty-six gallons..t Stamford.t ^s ^^^^ ^s Cambridge. p.. the Rhenish wine imported outside London is to be found in East Anglia. VoL III. 260 et I Historical MSS. 516. the Duke of Cleves. 8fq. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. before midsummer. 1543. I t Rutland MSS. who were allowed to export 800 tuns of beer. p. 367. and Wilhem Warden. per ohm. p.

not forgetting yours (but remembering you better. J Gairdner. Part n... 22. or as they are termed there. praised the wines of Cassel of the year 1571 above all others . No. but that I did so surfeit at Embden in quaffing to such and so many healths. Landgrave of Hesse. your own for ever. dated from London.The following letter. Bishop of London. the wines of Wildung were said to be superior to those of the Rhine. Henry VIII. that is. at the Savoy.^f It is possible that some of the German wine imported into England came from the vineyards of North Germany. the red wines of Witzenhauser were also highly esteemed by Frederic II. although it can never have been to any large extent. and to make it. In 1540. and to send me word whether I shall send it to the Court. This vessel I entreat you to accept. Vol. deserves to be published here :— "I have brought with me from Embden a vat of Rhenish wine containing six score gallons. three ames. written by Richard Bancroft. to Sir Robert Cecil. I trust. . XVm. and William IV. sec. July 26th. You should not have had it. in my prayers). or to your house.. as you have made me.. 1600. 449. that now I can be well content to part with it.

he says. 246. p. t Salisbury MSS. 37.Rhenish wine and Malmsey bought for the royal household in 1530. 160. which. 1877. however. B. Nordhoff. 205 Although no trade can be said to have existed in Austrian and Hungarian wines in England during or previous to the sixteenth century. and that the export of this wine was a lucrative source of commerce with the countries of northern Europe. 246. Geschichte der DiOcese und Stadt Hildesheim. pp. Part X. Der vor-maligoWeinbau in Norddeutschland. in 1508^ asking permission to export a certain wine.. Landau* Beitrage ziu: Geschichte des Wein-baues in Hessen.* Far more precise. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. 325. III.. the fame of the wine of Tokay had spread abroad.. p. is a letter of Henry VII. to the Venetian Senate. See Archaeologia. he has been in the habit of purchasing. Lunteel. because it agrees . t See J.. 156. Miinster. Vol.. 329. Nemety says that long before the end of the sixteenth century. III. I. these were not totally unknown in London at a very remote time.

This was particularly the case with the wines of Rivoglio.1[. This assumption is based on the following passage in Frano. is difficult to ascertain. Venice. Whether this wine. which * G. VoL I. but in any case the predilection of the King of England for some Austrian vintage cannot be denied. Forg^b Rer. 228: " Est autem ad Tokaium nobilissimi." t Calend. The Emperor had excused himself for being imable to send this wine to England. the Signory received another letter from Henry VII. 29. . Istria and most of the southern provinces of the Austrian Empire produced wine in abundance. and. atque praestantissimi vini uberri-mus reditus. because it agrees with him. N6mety. as Vilacho had recently been acquired by Veniccf The permission was granted. some of which was introduced into England. 184G. p. of State Papers. Hung. Venezia. 331.has been in the habit of purchasing. or to Villachj further north. quod in septentrionalea regiones longissime negotiatores quotannis distrahere solent. Memoria sul vino chiamato Pr^mone di Tokay. No. about three months later. refers to Wippachf three leagues north of Trieste. sui temporis {circa 1575)» p. thanking them for the good reception they had accorded the envoy he had sent for the wine di Vipao.. de Vilacho or Vipao. and which was sent from Vilacho. 911. p..

911. went by the name of Riholdiy and were known as Ryhole in England as early as the fourteenth century.^ .^ of which England received a large proportion. 925. greater than that of Bordeaux wines. those of Spain were the strongest and most lasting. X Idem. Xo. a special protection was granted to all Englishmen coming to Seville. 11 there does not appear to be any official document. The yearly exports of wine from Cadiz and Port St. 1517. by the Duke of Medina Sidonia. renewed. f and the reputation of the drier sorts. the quantity of Sack imported from Spain was. in 1530. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. became very great in England during the latter part of the sixteenth century. previous to 1517. which were shipped to England from Port St. Cadiz.* Of all mediaeval wines. and Jerez for wines. during some years. regulating the Cadiz and Jerez wine trade with England. Mary to England and northern European ports alone amounted then to 60. By an order of March 14th. Mary.000 butts on an average. in fact. § Although there are numerous records of Spanish wine shipped to England long before the sixteenth century.

3 Ed. Addenda. Calend.. IV. 8d. IT. X Bacci. Rezens iib. 1464 : 11 Ed. March 29th. Part L.d. Patent Rolls. July 15th.H See. 218. Jahrg. as far as can be ascertained. p. he also says that many Spanish wines could be kept twenty. 1565. I.. and. K Brewer. Pari II. Eliz. I. t Bacci (De Nat.. also Thorold Rogers. thirty and even fifty years without deteriorating. Lib. Henry VUL. History of the Wine Trade. Vol. m. Index. etc. in d. m. Part III. which was to be drunk at his coming of age. 363)9ay8 that well-to-do people often laid down wine at the birth of a son. Vin... at Wines of Spain ... Vol. Vn. XII. 1889. Vin. Kunze. Lib. IV. II See History of the Wine Trade in England. Vol.. not . of St^te Papers. De Nat. r. Hist.. Han-seakten aus England. 1462. lid. Vol. IV. WTRTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. 1471. a. Na 6686. p.. Tremaine to Sir Nicholas Throckmorton. 225. January 2nd. See Hansische Geschichtsbl. also Calend.. Domestic Series.. Hist. VIL § Letter of Ed. 207 It was then.

per gallon in London . until 1532. at 15d. not before. every reason to believe that Falstaff never heard of Sack during the reign of Henry IV. that the name of Sack or Seek was used to design those Spanish wines which were not as sweet as most of the other Peninsular. there is. J Its popularity spread rapidly throughout England. and Scick^ in a category of its own. at Stonor . as far as can be ascertained. in country and town alike. and it cost Is. although unknown at a time when the action represented actually took place.|| in 1541. like Malmsey. who made his hero drink and talk of a beverage well known to his hearers. when it was ordered to be sold at 12d. Italian. and. Romeney. In 1533. in 1539.. and . it is mentioned at Newark. therefore. thus. per gallon. although this wine was very popular in Shakespeare's time. in 1542. Sack is mentioned at Lincoln. at Ware. and other sweet wines. sweet wines were to be sold at 12d. and not that it was also a sweet wine. and there were few inns.It was then.* This Statute was re-enacted in 1536. Sack was served to the Countess of Rutland when she stopped at the inn on her way to Belvoir. were Sack could not be found. when the assize for claret was fixed at 8d.§ in 1539. or Levant wines .t but the reason why Sack was included with " other sweet wines " was that it came from the same parts as these. the gallon. There is no mention of Sack in any proclamation fixing the price wine was to be retailed at in England. it only cost lOd. per gallon.

1541.e. . t Stat. 516: II RutUnd MSS. cap. Vol. at the beginning of October. History of Agriculture.§ just as Englishmen used to go in fleets to Gascony in former years. in a letter written to Lord Lisle by his agent. 28 Hen. § Thorold Rogers.. p. 290. p.is mentioned at Newark. at Syon House. i. as well as in those of the Duke of Northumberland. a fleet of sixty English ships would be in Andalusia to fetch wines. 131b. Chapuys wrote that in a month or six weeks hence. VIIL. cap. 23 Hen. for 738. 2d. in a letter to the Queen ot Hungary. fo..* It is deserving of notice that in the manuscripts of the Duke of Rutland preserved at Belvoir Castle. where it was expected. in November. 14. the Earl of Rutland bought a butt of Sack. in London. 7.. J On August 29th. III. like Gascon and Poitou wines.. VoL IV. 1539. VIII. very soon after the vintage . adding that he had not been able to find any old Sack that was good.. he stated that no new Sack had yet arrived in London. and Stat. Sack is almost invariably spelt SecJcf Sack was shipped. 1 Letter Book P.

IV. 312. 617. purchases of Sack are recorded in the Wardrobe Accounts and in the Navy Accounts.In 1546. DotiSee Rutland MSS.. p. the butt of Sack was sold at £5 15s. VoL MSS.. also mestic Series. IV. Mary. of State Papers. in London. 229. || In 1556. VoL IL» . pp. 1593-1697. 8d. 4d. and again in 1568. p. A. Vol.D.. || Thorold Roffere.tt In 1574. p. JJ and in 1580. of the Duke of Northumber-land in the Sixth Report of the Royal Commission on Historical MSS. 320. at Norwich. III. at Oxford.. VII. tt Archasologia Cantiana. Vol.. per gallon at Oxford .** in 1566. it cost 2s. Addenda. Thorold Rogers. ^ Calend. \ ol. Sack cost as much as 2s. III.** Sack is also mentioned in the Mayor of Rochester's accounts for the year 1578.** in 1565... 616. Vol.§§ there are some further Rutland MSS. it cost Is.^\ in 1561.

X Gairdner. fo.. mentions of Spanish wine imported into England. Calend. in 1586. 1126. at Worksop.900 pipes of wine. had a disastrous influence on this branch of the English wine trade. Sir Francis Drake raided Cadiz. No. 1647-1680. In 1587. § Idem. etc. tt Letter Book X. VoL XVI. 27. in 1584 and 1585. No. at Kirtling and Oxford. 698. There are. carrying away no less than 2. VoL i f§ Lemon. See also VoL IX 1599-1600.. at Canterbury and Gawthorp. XIV.* a prize which must have been all the more appreciated in England. in 1583. or brought by neutrals and at great risk. mentions of purchases of Sack. Part IL. which had brought about a complete cessation of commercial intercourse. but the war with Spain. what Sack was sold in England was either the produce of captures at sea. of State Papers. i Domestic Series.p..f . which soon afterwards broke out. . 361b. Henry VIII. however. 696. p. that Spanish wines had become very rare since the declaration of war between the two countries.

of State Papers.* .^ 0 In 1594. his ship was seized and sunk by Webb and others. Lambart wrote as follows : " I will stay a little longer to see what can be done. Mary. a better place for them than London. to St. On January 10th. VoL XXX. Lucar was the natural port of Seville. Addenda.. a Dane fetched a cargo of Sack from St. and send it to Bristol. of State Papers. 346. 1597. which are daily expected with good wine. a municipal tax of 6d. Thus. and wait the coining of the ships out of Spain. 21. p. 1591-1594. Calend. Eliz. merchant of London. Malo with some goods to be either sold or exchanged for wine. and only a short distance to the west of Port St. St." J * Cfidend. t In 1591.Some English merchants sent to French ports for the Sacks they wished to import. Lambart. X Calend. of State Papers. sent his clerk. Domestic Series. p. Domestic Series. per tun was imposed on all wines coming from Andalusia. one Thomas Honyman. 99. Lucar for London . 1695-1597. Domestic Series. No.

designated wines of a similar type. the Earl of Cumberland brought to London 143 prize ships which had been captured at sea.^ was a dry amber wine. laden with 597 butts of Sack. Sherry Sack was sometimes used to design the wines of Jerez. 1597. almost exclusively shipped from the South of Spain. the Canary Islands. and the South of France. originally spelt Seck. in the . and as its popularity in this country grew and brought forth many inferior imitations from other parts of Spain.On June 19tli. MSS. Luttrcll. sinking many others. Mary. the origin of the name Sack or Seck^ meaning a dry wine. J Sack. but of entirely different growths. Madeira Sack. dry Sack and sweet Sack. as well as other Spanish and also French wines. and it was indifferently bestowed on wines of different origin and various qualities. F. the poorer quality of which was not so noticeable when duly sweetened. Portugal. however. was soon lost. burnt Port St. Dunster Castle. eight English ships entered the Bay of Cadiz. whilst Canary Sack.f In May. of G. and captured forty merchant vessels laden with wine.. in order to meet the taste then so prevalent in England for sweet wines . This wine. Esq. was occasionally sweetened by the addition of honey or sugar. 1596.

Tenth Report of the Royal Commission on Historical MSS., Part \1., ]\ 74. § Item, for a gallon of claret wjmc and iSeck, and a j)ound of sugar given to Sir John Russell, iiiis. (Account of the disbursements t Calend. of State Papers, Do- of the Chamberlain of the City of mestic Series, 1596-1597, pp. 244, 258. t Idem, p. 432. Northumberland MSS.) Worcester for the year 1592. See also alovc, p. 208. (Rutland and Venner, who has discussed the qiiestion whether " Sack be best to be taken with sugar or without," says : " Some affect to drinke Sacke with sugar and some without, and upon no other groimd, as I thinke, but that, as it is best pleasing to their pallates. I will speake that I deeme thereof, and I thinke I shall well satisfie such as are judicious. Sacke taken by itself is very hot, and very penetrative, being taken with sugar, the heat is both somewhat allayed, and the penetrative quality thereof also retardated. Wherefore, let this be the conclusion: Sacke taken by itself, without any mixture of sugar, is best for them that have cold stomackes, and subjects to the obstructions of it, and of the meserencks veines. But for them that are free from such

veines. But for them that are free from such obstructions, and fear lest that the drinking of Sacke, by reason of the penetrative faculty ot it, might distemper the liver, it is best to drinke it with sugar ; and so I leave every man that understandeth his owne state of body to be his own director herein." Although the wines of Jerez were shipped in greater plenty to England than those of any other part of Spain, chiefly owing to the advantageous geographical situation of the district, much wine was made in the northern provinces, which was held in the highest estimation, although the difficulties of bringing it to the seaports frequented by English shipping were so great that the cost of the wine was much enhanced and the quantities shipped accordingly limited. Tarragonese wines were highly praised by the Bomans, and were greatly appreciated throughout the Middle Ages for their strength,* but they do Bacci, De Nat Viiu Hiat. p. 364. o2 HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. not appear to have been imported into England then. In 1413, an export duty of 5 per cent, was levied at Barcelona on all wines shipped from that port,* but there is no proof that any of these exports were

there is no proof that any of these exports were destined for England. The wines of the northern district, called La Ribera, chiefly from the vineyards of Rioza, Logrono and Navarette, were red wines of average strength, and greatly esteemed for their sweetness; they were known in England as Ryvere wines, f Bacci says that the wines of Toro were considered the best in Spain, and that at Arandu de Duero, in the same district, there were large wine vaults where considerable stocks of wine were kept for export. The old doctor also praises the wine of San Martin, a small quantity of which was sent to Henry VIII., in 1513,J and there are records of merchants from Salamanca, Burgos, Valeodoleta and Medina wha brought wine to London and Southampton.§ The wines of Galicia, chiefly from the banks of the Minho, were abimdant, but held in no great estimation in England, where they appear to have been brought only when they happened to be included in the cargo of a captured Spanish vessel. In 1595, Drake and Hawkins reported the capture of some carvels with Galicia wine, which, they add, is of small value ;|| and in 1599, a Spanish sailor from a prize bark of Pontanedra, in Galicia, said that the King was taking up most of the wines

Macphersoii, Annals of Commerce, VoL I., p. 027. t Bacci, De Nat. Vin. Hist., and Letter Book H, fo. 260. X Brewer, Henry VIII., Vol. I., No. 4207. § Calend. Patent Rolls, 1 Ric. III., Part v., m. 21, April 25th, 1484. II Calend. of State Paj)er8, Domestic Series, 15951697, p. 70. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. 213 in Galicia, and sending them to Ferrol to be ready for the army he intended to gather there,* The Spaniards introduced viticulture into the Canary Islands during the sixteenth century, and both the soil and the climate were so favourable to this branch of agriculture, that large quantities of wines were exported, not only to Spain, but all over Europe, before the end of the same century. This wine was probably similar to those of Jerez, but sweeter, since Veimer wrote that " Canarie wine, which beareth the name of the islands from whence it is brought, is of some termed a Sacke, with this adjunct, sweete.^^

sweete.^^ English merchants went to the Canary Island to fetch wine, in 1598, during the war between England and Spain, and a Scotch ship was bringing some Canary wine to Scotland when captured by Sir John Gilbert-t Portugal attained its highest glory and prosperity during the sixteenth century, but the great discoveries of her navigators did not benefit the agricultural prosperity of the realm on account of the tremendous exodus of the inland population towards the ports. Agriculture and commerce find no place in the historical records depicting the state of Portugal during that period, but this is due only to the exaggerated political importance attached to maritime affairs. As far as viticulture and the art of wine-making were concerned, Portugal was in no wise inferior to Spain or any other country, says Bacci, who adds that * Calend. of State Pa})er8, Do-mestio Series, 15981601, p. 163. t Idem, 1698-1601, p. 28, May 24th, 1698; p. 171, March 22nd, 1699 ; p. 419, a.d. 1699. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. the generous wine of Portugal was shipped in great pleinty to all parts of the world, legislation having even

prohibited the introduction of vines into the newlydiscovered Indies for fear of despoiling the home farmers of a very lucrative and important outlet for their wines.* As far as England is concerned, the documents relating to the trade in wines with Portugal are very scanty, and it is probable that this branch of the English wine trade was only very little developed ; but, at the same time, it cannot be said that Portuguese wines were altogether unknown in England at the time. In 1402, several Lisbon merchants, subjects of the King of Portugal, complained of their ship being seized at sea with a cargo of seventy-four tuns of wine and other merchandise."}" In 1404, a similar complaint was preferred by a Piemontese, residing in Portugal, whose ship and bastard wine had been captured at sea. J In 1412, Henry IV. bought ninety-six pipes of wine of the Algarves from Oliver Martin, a Portuguese merchant.§ In 1422, some Brittany merchants freighted a vessel at Lisbon with bastard wine and other goods. |[ In 1436, the author of the Libel of English Policy mentions the wine and osey which was then shipped to England from Portugal.^

England from Portugal.^ Bacci, De Nat. Vin. Hist., p.368. t Calend. Patent Rolls, 4 Hen. IV., Part II., m. 21K1. J Idem, (» Hen. IV., Part I., ni. ]9d. § Devon, Issues of the Exchequer, pp. 328, 329. II Caleml. Patent Rolls, 2 Hen. VI.. Part III., m. lOd. «" Thos. Wright, Political Poems and Songs, Vol. II. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. 215 A century later, in February, 1634, four Portuguese ships laden with wine destined to Waterford were separated by bad weather, and one of them, the Santa Maria de Feci, anchored in Baltemore haven, before Inyshircan Island and Doronighlonge Castle. The islanders came aboard and invited the Waterford merchants from the Portuguese ships to dinner at the Castle ; this they accepted, and when they had well dined, the islanders treacherously cast them into irons, manned their galleys, took their ship, and distributed seventy-two tuns of wine amongst their neighbours. The news reached Waterford on March 3rd, and forthwith twenty-five men set sail for Baltemore

haven, which they entered the next day, releasing the Portuguese and Waterford merchants.* In that same year, 1638, a Portuguese ship was captured and brought to Chepstow, where her cargo of Romeney wines was sold.f The following year, in 1639, there were upwards of twenty English and French merchant vessels anchored at the entrance of the port of Lisbon, where they had gone to fetch wine. J In 1666, a fleet of eighteen ships arrived from Portugal in Zealand, bringing wines and other goods.§ In 1689, regulations were drawn for English ships of the company of Portugal and Spain trading with the Peninsula.il In 1696, a Portuguese ship was wrecked on the Carmarthenshire coast with a cargo of wine ; and in Gairdner, Henry Vni., Vol. XIIL, Part I., No. 872. t Idem, Part II., No. 347. % Gayangos, Calend. of State Papers, Spain, VoL VL, Part I., p. 109. § Brown, Calend. of State Papers,

Venioe, VoL VI., Part L, No. 173. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. that year a large number of ships took wine from Lisbon to FerroL* In 1596, Damas Johnson, master of the St. Jacohy of Rotterdam, and Adrian Peterson, master of the HunteVy of Flushing, went to Portugal to buy wine, and it is said that at the time there were several Flemish merchants established at Oporto.t In May, 1597, Captain Watson reported that twenty vessels were then at Oporto lading 1,000 pipes of wine for the army at Ferrol. J Bastard wine is called, in the Libd of English Policyf A.D. 1436, a Spanish wine,§ whilst some was shipped from Lisbon to England, in 1422.|| At Norwich, in 1424, bastard cost about Is. 6d. per gallon, and Is. lOd. at Oxford, in 1425;^ it cost Is. 4d. per gallon in 1446, and again, in 1500, at Cambridge, and, in 1484, at Oxford.** In 1610, it cost Is. 2d. per gallon at Hulme, and only Is. in 1514, at Hickling.** In 1560, there is a mention of bastard wine, at Canterbury,tl and, in 1578, another at Galway.JJ Ossey, which was also a Peninsular wine,§§ was imported in much smaller quantities than in the fourteenth century. It was provided for the house-

fourteenth century. It was provided for the houseCalend. of State Papers, Domestic Series, 1595-1597, pp. 139, 443. t Idem, p. 172. t Idem, p. 417. § Wright, Political Poems and Songs, Vol. IL II Calend. Patent Rolls, 2 Hen. VL. Part III., m. lOd. U Thorold Rogers, History of Agriculture, Vol. III., p. 510. Idcniy pp. 511, 513, 514. tt Canterbiuy Records, in the Ninth Rcjort of the Royal Commission on Historical MSS. tt Galway Archives, fo. 85. Tenth Report of the Royal Commission on Historical MSS., Part. V., p. 428. §§ See History of the Wine Trade in England, Vol. I., Index, l^inea of Osoyc, HISTORY OP THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. 217 hold of the Duke of Clarence, in 1489,* and 200 tuns of

hold of the Duke of Clarence, in 1489,* and 200 tuns of Osey were shipped to England, in 1481. t In 1421, when the Portuguese took the island of Madeira, it was covered by immense forests, which they set on fire; after the conflagration, which is said to have lasted seven years, vines and sugar canes were planted and thrived remarkably well. The wine which was obtained was very luscious, and resembled Malmsey, being shipped to England under that name as far back as 15374 * Coll. of Ordin. for the Gov. of the Royal Household, p. 101. t Calend. Patent Rolls. 20 Ed. IV., Part IL, m. lOd. t Gairdner, Hen. Vm., Part II., No. 761. CHAPTER X. The consumption of Levant wines in England increased rapidly during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Most popular of all were the Malmseys (Malvoisie) from Candia. This island, formerly called Crete^ was then under the domination of Venice, and grew such an abundance of wine that the Republic, according to Bacci, obtained no less than a hundred thousand ducats (about £22,600) annually from the taxes and duties levied by her

annually from the taxes and duties levied by her ofl&cers on the wines exported. f Idem^ ** . In Venice. . 331. Hist. a special sort of Malmsey with a more pungent taste. Rotimo Malmsey. to different parts of Europe. inextremam Lib. et in magnam Gor-maniam advecta. by far the largest mart for Candia wines. et in Hispaniam Britanniam. and Malvasia Garba.f The name Malvasia (Malmsey) is said by * Bacci.. or wine of Crete.inGalliam. adiiavigata. or Candia Malmsey. to the further limits of Great Britain and to Germany. pp.. Greticum vinum. in very large quantities. to Gaul. . Vin. All these went by the generic name of Malmsey and were shipped from Candia. De Nat.* These wines were known as Malvasia Candice. Vn. says Bacci." . there were never less than a thousand casks of it for sale. from the name of one of the districts of the islands. who adds that this wine was also exported direct to Spain. 332.

219 Caelvis Rhodiginus to have originated in Laconia. The Venetif^n trade with England was in a flourishing condition at the beginning of the fifteenth century.HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. were made in Cyprus. they were often sold abroad for Crete or Candia wine. but it became the distinctive appellation of the style more than of the growth of certain wines. although of inferior quality. similar wines. where a very equable temperature and the peculiar nature of the soil were exceptionally well suited for the culture of the vine. Although these were produced to greater excellence in Candia. having further benefited by the privileges granted to . Bacci states that. which also were sold as Malmsey.

No. to which they had already had recourse. 316. No. on August 21st. t Idein. Edited by Rawdon Brown. No. also prove beyond a doubt that wine formed an important part of the cargoes brought by Venetian gaUeys. a decree of the Senate rendered the masters of the galleys responsible to freighters for deficiencies in butts or pipes of wine shipped for Flanders and England. 324. . Vol. July 6th. thus. No.—a means of securing the monarch's favour.§ * Calend. 1465. The mentions of Malmseys sold in different parts of England are very numerous. t Idem. § Idem.f These regulations..having further benefited by the privileges granted to Venice merchants by Richard II. and show how popular this kind of wine had become in the fifteenth century.* In 1408. J In 1453. 1463. which were altered and amplified from time to time. I. 168. 130. the Venetian Senate sent a present of eight butts of wine to Henry VI. the trade between Venice and England and Flanders was regulated by a set of measures which show that Venetian galleys undertook this then perilous voyage very regularly. of State Papers and jVIanuaoripts relating to English Affairs existing in the Archives and Colleotions of Venice and in other Libraries of Northern Italy.

J In 1465. 1442. and. considering that Malmsey (Mai-voisie) was wont to be brought to England in great plenty before the twenty-seventh and twenty-eighth . Jerome Monelesso imported 242 pipes of Malmsey. The following Statute was accordingly enacted :— " Parliament. which had not been very flourishing during the preceding few years.|| In 1480. 1474.There was some sold at Southampton. an effort was made by Parliament to redress abuses which were alleged to have found their way in the Malmsey trade in England. and again in 1480. it was imported at Canterbury.t In 1450. and the Corporation of Norwich bought Malmsey repeatedly in 1434. at the same time. in 1433. to revive this branch of the wine trade. and there are other mentions of such Venetian vessels arriving or expected to arrive in England with wine.§ In 1472. a Venetian carrack was bringing over 400 casks of sweet wine to England when she was captured by French pirates. some Genoese merchants loaded wines in Candia which they sent to England.* at Winterton. which he forfeited for selling them in London before having them gauged. etc. 1481. 1476. during that same year. in 1429.^ In 1483.

the . ^ Idem. m. 140.Southampton Records. at most per butt. J Canterbury Records.. and the smallest of them held 126 gallons each . 221 years of the reign of Henry VI. Part II. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. because of the said plenty. the wine at 60s. Part I... 29. m. Historical MSS. and others 132 gallons each.. IV. Vol. m. and also that divers of the butts held in measure 140 gallons each. Ninth § Calend..ld. 136. II Idem. or 63s. Part I. IV. of late years. for the payment of which two-fifths of the value was given in English woollen cloth. 12 Ed. 510 ct scq. History of Agriculture. 20 Ed. late in deed. But. Part III.. and also that one might buy and have of the merchant strangers. 135.. III. t Thorold Rogers. Part I.. Eleventh ( Report of the Commission on His-Report of the Royal Commission on i torical 3ISS. ])p. by the arts and wiles of such merchant strangers who sell this kind of wine. 13. 4d. sellers of the said Malmsey.. and the rest in cash. IV.. 5 Ed.. and not of right King of England . p. Patent Rolls.. i)p.

they have raised the price of Malmsey to eight marks (£6 6s. and 28 Hen. 14. renewed by Stat. 23 Hen. can."* Statutes of the Realm. by such means. 1 Ric. these crafty merchants will only bring to England. and of the Commons. 7. cap. and of the Commons assembled in Parliament.' to the greate enryching of theym self and great deceit. The assize for other vessels than the butt was fixed as follows:—the tun to hold 262 HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. knowing. of latter times. VIII. and damage ' of the King... the quantity of wine which will be required every year in England when they were wont to bring large and plentiful quantities of such wine to be sold according to the aforesaid prices.. 13 . VIII. onwards. hurt. and. III. cap. etc. and besides. In consideration of the above. bring or cause to be brought into England any butt of Malmsey for sale containing less than 126 gallons. barely enough for one year's consumption. the importance of the . 8d.) per butt. ready money. as it seems. Michael next. and no cloth. from the Feast of St. During the reign of Henry VII. the butt of Malmsey has been so reduced and diminished that it barely contains 108 gallons. losse.. the King was graciously pleased to act upon the advice of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal. and to decree that no merchant or other person whatsoever.such merchant strangers who sell this kind of wine.

had already robbed the Republic of the monopoly which her merchants had so long enjoyed of the Eastern trade. The Venetian Senate. and it was thought advisable to take such measures as would at least secure for the Venetian galleys the freight of all the wines shipped from Candia and surrounding islands to England and Flanders. to the detriment of Venetian ships. four ducats per butt.During the reign of Henry VII. do no longer trade.. do pay a duty in Candia (in addition to the ordinary duties) of four ducats on each butt containing forty- . while Venetian ships cannot load under seven ducats. viewed the rapid growth of the English mercantile marine with the greatest jealousy. imported from Candia by the Venetians and English merchants alike. by discovering a waterway to India round the Cape. And as the said ships take low freights. and the following decree was the result:— " It is necessary to provide that all foreign ships and barques which trade every year to Candia to load Malmseys for the West. but make way for such Venetian ships as go on the Flanders voyage. however. 1488. the importance of the trade in Malmseys. increased to a very considerable extent. The Portuguese. On November 18th. it is put to the ballot (and agreed) chat those who load in Candia on board for shipment after the 1st of March. the Senate met to consider the question of the Malmsey trade with England. 1489. for conveyance westward. that is to say.

to the effect that Venetian ships do load Malmseys for the West. For execution of this present order.000 ducats to be levied by the State attorneys. with regard to that the Signory's ships and those of its subjects which convey Malmseys to the West and on their return load salt at Ivica for this town. If they have none. HISTORY OP THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. the barrel to hold 31. but they may not take any decision without licence from the Signory. save by a majority of three-quarters of the College. 223 " Of the payment of this duty. and that Venetians may build large ships. the tercian to hold 84 gallons. the pipe to hold 126 gallons. half to go to the captor. and be lallen in with by the Senate's galleys.duties) of four ducats on each butt containing fortyeight Venetian gallons. whereas the . and half to the governor who passes sentence.^ gallons. Be it enacted. nor any amendment to it proposed. provision must be made that ships loading Malmseys may have suitable terms on their return from the West. their ships and cargo will be confiscated. the hogshead to hold 03 gallons. The present decree may not be repealed. shippers of Malmsey for the West must obtain certificates. gallons. which money is to be expended on the fortifications of Candia. under penalty of 1.

the Malmseys that Venetian galleys should bring from Candia to Pisa. should wines of Candia be sent to Pisa to be re-exported thencd to England.000 tons below deck. and the policy which had prompted it. They were so earnest . 544. ready money. " Our forefathers always took care that there should be a good number of large ships in this city for the maintenance of the navy.their return load salt at Ivica for this town. as return cargo of foreign ships bringing wool. under no pretext whatsoever. L. whereas the salt office pays one ducat. were naturally very much resented in England."* This new impost levied on English shipping in Candia. By way of retaliation. ready money. and seven ducats by instalment. No. and it was decreed that. The Senate of Venice was greatly incensed at this spirited retort to their own ultra-protectionist policy.000 ducats were voted to builders of ships above 1. Henry VII. Venice. Bounties of 3. but at present there is no ship of upwards of 1. per bushel. in order to obtain the wool they stood in need of. English vessels were to bring the wool there and take back to England * Galend. of State Papers. attempted to transfer the staple of wool from Venice to Pisa. so for the future they shall receive four ducats per bushel. Vol.000 tons burden.

but there can be little doubt that the crippb'ng of the English mercantile marine was the real aim of the Signory by the tone of the Cnlend. though in their own galleys or ships he might either send them into the West. . Piero Contarini. the Senate decreed that. having ordered one of his ships to load some 400 butts at Candia to be taken to Pisa. Vol. under penalty of confiscation of ship and cargo. Scio and elsewhere for shipment thence westward on board foreign vessels.. of State Papers. May 20tb. or have them brought to Venice. wrote at different times to the Senate. whether the wine be sent to the West or brought to Venice. the said wines were not to be landed either at Leghorn or Pisa. and as indemnity in some part for his loss. or conveyed to Rhodes. 1490.'etc. No..about it that one of their own number. This decree was to apply to all similar cases of merchants shipping wine from Candia to Pisa. letters which Henry VII. To facilitate the execution of this order.* With their usual diplomatic caution the Venetian Senate never mentioned England by name in these prohibitive decrees. 509. Venice. a Venetian noble. Contarini was to be paid forthwith one ducat per butt from the moneys of the Signory. I. or in any other place from which they could be conveyed in foreign ships westward . urging them to repeal their late ordinances.

and it cannot be a matter of surprise that his mission proved a failure when one reads the weak arguments contained in the instructions he received from Doge Agostino Barbarigo: — " On arrival in England . present yourself to the King. that the Senate met to consider what reply should be sent to the English monarch. . excusing themselves for their delay in answering his former letters and announcing the despatch of an envoy.which were causing his subjects the greatest prejudice. he informed us-that he objected to our having augmented the duty payable by Englishmen on exporting wine from Candia. under pretext of trade. to write to Henry. whose displeasure was caused by what he might have heard from the Florentines and other rivals of Venice.* This envoy only left two months later. After consigning your letter of credence. to which we did not reply by letter. . undoubtedly to gain time. By those letters. having determined to give the answer through you in order to do honour to His Majesty. tell the King that we received his two letters. Giacomo Venier. It was then agreed. and it was not until February 22nd. 1491. who would put by word of mouth the views of the Republic before the King. You will answer him that the Act was not decreed for the convenience of our citizens.. These letters were at first ignored. The pirates were in the habit. with false flags and . but from urgent necessity.

606. On their way back Calend. they captured and plundered our ships. of going to Candia for wine.. on account of pirates. and for the . however. plots were laid against us and our citizens on the account aforesaid. Venice. would not have moved us. etc. we are sure. with false flags and papers. we should be compelled to do the like by the subjects of other Klings and potentates also. This consideration alone. whose condition in this respect is the same as theirs.the habit. which have orders to extirpate not only pirates but to defend the Christian religion. VoL L. the provisions of which did not apply solely to English ships and English subjects.. to His Majesty. or make a partial innovation for his subjects. had we not perceived that in the heart of our State. under pretext of trade. "Wherefore we beseech him (the King) not to demand what we cannot allow. we might have taken this step earlier for the advantage of our own ships of heavy tonnage. Therefore the said Act was passed. like our subjects. no less detestable than irremediable. No. as but few of the latter come into these seas. '* Add that often. as is well known. and they are at liberty to load the wines of Candia on board our vessels. for if we were to repeal this Act concerning the wines of Candia. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. of State Papers.

moreover. since the English shipping and mariners which were wont to go to Candia for Malmseys had of late years been hampered in their trade by a new tax imposed on them by the Venetians. It was. Neither Henry nor the Commons were satisfied by these arguments. you giving assurance that henceforth we shall supply England with a greater quantity of the said wine than hitherto. No.* per butt. The in-structions concluded as follows: *'Make diligent inquiry whether there be any one of our subjects so rash and inconsiderate as to oppose our decrees.. On hearing our reasons. it was decreed that. Venice. give us special notice of the fact. 610. enacted that no butt of Malmsey be sold in . as we shall act by them in such wise as to afford example for all to abstain from similar presumption."* Caleni. etc. Vol. of 8tate Pajwrs. and to all our merchants and citizens for their information. His Majesty has deservedly made similar and even greater provisions than ours. should be taxed at the rate of 18s. I. Should you discover or hear of anyone. and in the Parliament which met in the autumn of 1491..benefit of his subjects. we feel certain that His Majesty will remain satisfied. Give notice of this order to the Consul. over and above all other customs and subsidies. all Malmseys which would henceforth be imported into England by other than English-born subjects.

P2 youre seid beseechers without speciall remedy be had by your noble and speciall grace. sterling money or' and above all other custumes and charges afore that tyme used. Praien the Comens in this p'sent Parliament assembled that where of tyme that no mynd is.. which pteyneth to the lordship of Venice.this country above four pounds sterling:— " To the Kyng our Sov'eyri Lord. Please it. your Navie hath been mayntened passing the Streittes of Marrokys and so to div's portes in those parties to the univ'sall increace of your seid Navye m'chaunt and maryners. whiche is greate hurte to * Equal to four ducats. and in especiall by ladyng of Malmeseys in the port of Candy. Wherenowe the Veniciens within thies two yere last past have made a statute and ordinaunce for then-creace of the seid lordship of Venice and maynten-aunce of theymself and their Navye and maryners. to enacte and stablissh that from hensforth the Malme-seys that . . which amounteth to 18s.. that noon of your seid Navye or maryners shuld lade in the seid porte of Candy any Malmeseys to be conveyed into this your realm of England. without that your seid marchaunts paye a newe custume for ev'y butte of Malmesey so laden iiii dokattis (ducats) of gold.

shall be sold above four pounds sterling. likewise as they of Venice have sette in Candy uppon your aforeseid sugiettes.'' This new custom was not to be paid by English-born subjects and not to endure longer " than they of Venice shall sette aside the imposicion of the payment of the iiii ducates aforseid. but proclaimed . that then the seller to abate somoche of the price after the rate of the seid content.shalbe brought into this your realme of England by any p'son shalbe of full gauge conteyning six score and six gallons at the lest in mesure. per butt. in 1492."* Such a measure was naturally greatly resented in Venice. And moreov' that it be enacted and stablished by thauctorite aforsaid that no butte or buttes of Malmeseys in vessell or in vessells that shall be brought in to this your seid realme. the Senate sent the following letter to Lorenzo Pisani. And that ev'y m'chant straunger bringing suche Malmeseys into this realme shall pay to your grace the custumes of xviiis. but representations remained fruitless . for a butte of Malmesey ov' and above the custume afore tyme to your grace used to be paid. the then Venetian Consul in London :— " The Signory had understood from the mer-chants and owners of two ships which loaded wine in Candia that the King of England not only refused to take off the duty of 18s. And if it lacke of the seid gauge.

on their arrival in England. . in addition— that those wines might not be sold for more than twentyfour crowns per butt. and as the. or a sum of money not to exceed their value. cap. The Consul. to go with all their wines to Zealand. at whose earnest petition the Doge and Senate command the Consul. VII. it would be the ruin of the said merchants. the Doge and the Senate authorise the compromise (provided the sum does not exceed the aforesaid amount) as it may prove less detrimental and inconvenient to the merchants in general and to the masters and partners in the ships. 7 Hen. if unable to obtain the repeal within twenty days. as the duty was unbearable.. with this. If this were enforced. in case he should be unable to obtain the repeal of the duty from the King. was to charge the masters of the two ships. moreover. and be sold as usual. so that they may be landed free of the aforesaid duty. . Should the Venetian merchants in England in the meantime be able to arrange the matter by giving forty or fifty butts of the wine at the utmost. under pain of the Signory's displeasure. majority of the owners of the said wine in Venice had agreed to . to depart immediately without landing any portion of the wines. it at all his ports. Stat. 7. and loss of the entire freight and of the bounty of two ducats per butt.1491. to order the masters of those ships. taking them to Zealand and there disposing of them. . as their freighters had originally meant them to do at Hampton.

t In April. but Henry VII. the Senate decrees that. but the demand for this wine was so great that it continued to be imported. Finally. but foundered and was completely lost in the English Channel.pay the masters at the rate of a ducat per piece for freight to Zealand. considered entitled to the bounty of two ducats per butt. and in England on Venetians. the Malmsey trade was carried on under great difficulties. saying that they had obtained some slight concessions in favour of the Venetian merchants .000 butts by the Tepoli merchants for England. the Doge and Senate choose that. the other merchants having wine on board do pay freight at the same rate. In 1497. on arrival of the two ships at Hampton. the Venetian Ambassadors in London wrote to the Senate. neither side being willing to reduce the special taxes levied at Candia on Englishmen. replied that if the Signory would take off the prohibition against Englishmen loading wines in Candia . a great ship was freighted with no less than 2. they had again pressed the King to cancel the four ducats duty on Malmsey."* During the following years. as fair and fitting. they are to be HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. 1498.

Venetian Consul in London.prohibition against Englishmen loading wines in Candia he would reduce the duty in England. pp. X Lfrm. I. Henry granted a diminution of 100 ducats in favour of the ship Pandora^ belonging to the Pisani firm. t Idem^ Vol. I. They wrote to their Consul in London. and cancelled the duty which they had imposed a few Brown. but because of the danger from Corsairs who came to Candia. 214. 742. No. dated June 8th. 766a. of Stat* Pajwre. Vol. which had already gone to Candia to fetch wines. to show his goodwill. who said that he would consider the matter. on wine loaded by . they received the following answer from Andrea Bragadin. in 1499. J The Venetian Senate yielded at last. years previously on all wines shipped from Candia in English bottoms.. 1499 :— " I have received your letters concerning the repeal of the four ducats duty per butt. asking him to announce their decision to Henry and to obtain the promised repeal of the special tax on Malmseys brought to England by Venetian merchants. To their great astonishment and disgust. 216. 764. The Ambassadors rejoined that the Signory had not made the prohibition against England. Tiiis argument failed to convince the King. No=«.. the next day. Venice. Vol. Calend.. Nos. 027. 766. I.

to the King and acquainted him with the whole. on wine loaded by foreign vessels in Candia."* This answer was not very honourable. it sufficing to say that.no longer care to go and load wine.the four ducats duty per butt. No. being permitted by the Senate of Venice to ship this wine in any foreign ships available. to take off the duty of four crowns per butt on the wine imported into England from Candia.. p. Calend. whereas of yore they paid £8 18s. therefore. accompanied by the merchants. * Brown. forfeiting.. however. Vol I. as at present his subjects. but it became more profitable for the Italians to carry Malmseys in English or other ships than in Venetian vessels. in like manner. and desiring me to request the King of England. In 1499. 796. so that it is not possible to repeal this duty. the . as the Venetians were then in great difficulties in the Mediterranean and unable to retaliate. but it was expedient. Venice. and this is the course most of them adopted. of State Papers. per butt. I went. the Pesari merchants imported on one occasion 500 butts and the Tiepoli merchants 600 butts of Malmseys. He replied that he neither would nor could. since Henry had formally promised to repeal this duty. 285. Ragusan vessels excepted. the present price is only £6 8s. The trade from Candia to England was still very active.

t Idem. the bounty of two ducats per butt as paid to Venetian ships. per butt of Malmsey brought in Venetian vessels to one noble (about 7s. however. Vol. of State Pa jKirs. No. Motion made . his property and that of others.Ragusan vessels excepted. and again in 1514. forfeiting. March 19th. 800. a concession which did not satisfy the Republic. however. who claimed an absolute equality of duties with all other importers. 288.. to threaten England with setting up a wine monopoly in Candia. 1503. p.) per butt.. Calend. J The last clause was evidently meant to allow • Brown.f In 1511.* Henry VII. No. 298. Vol. During the following five years. in 1503. I. p. if Venetian vessels were still made to pay an extra duty in England. the Acts passed to the contrary notwithstanding. licences were granted to Piero da Cha da Pesaro to hire foreign ships and to load in Candia 500 butts of wine. was soon after induced to reduce the additional tax of 18s. in such name as shall seem fit to him. the 'Venetian Senate refrained from levying any additional tax on English vessels loading Malmseys in Candia and even refused to sanction a motion of some Senators who wished. Venice. I. 832.

and Vol. however.. 1614. p. the Signory having ! 622. defeated in the Venetian Consul in London. and subsequent . 214. 1517. 233 the Italian to ship his wines under the name of an English merchant. the Senate. 1516. 1611 . December 7th. 102. 45. Vol. XL. on the wines. and thus save trouble and money on arrival in England. Time after time. motion was. No. <lesiring him to tell Kinjr Henry to t ^^'w. for a letter to be written to . HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. p. This Sanate. in the her wine staple in Candia. repeal the duty of a noble per butt I May 6th. and that in case of refusal the Republic would organise by Marius Sanuto and others. No. II.Motion made taken off the four ducats per butt levied on foreign bottoms loading in Candia. in 1515.

At Cadiz the master of the ship was not to allow more than half the crew to go on shore at the same time. that he had no reason to encourage their mercantile marine. Calend. it was stipulated that. to provide themselves with wine. the galleys would not remain longer than six days at Cadiz. enacted in 1516. between 1516 and 1519. Italy. that he found the duty lucrative and meant to retain it. 1517. according to their custom. in 1515. which traded between the Levant. and Malmsey was still brought to England in great plenty by Ragusanf and other vessels. According to the decrees of the Venetian Senate. after touching at Messina and Palermo. The " Flanders galleys" of the Venetians. had promised to take oflf. . the Venetians wrote to the King of England and sent special Ambassadors to urge the complete repeal of the additional duty which Henry VII. VoL IL. for the regulation of the western maritime commerce of the Republic. as well as Spanish wine.* Henry VIII. but his son replied. 1516. on each occasion.Time after time. still brought Malmsey. of State Papers. Venice. and stop at no other port until Southampton was reached. was all the more reluctant to grant the Venetians what they termed their just demands. to obtain the • Brown. to England every year. J The efforts made by the Venetian Ambassadors in London. and subsequent years. England and Flanders. Nos.

repeal of the duty levied on the wines brought by their compatriots. having met Wolsey at some official dinner. but. saying that he must have legal advice. but nothing was settled after . answered that he would see to it as soon as ever the pressure of State business became less exacting. he consents to apologise for the delay. in March.• Brown. in July. Venice. 604. The cautious Cardinal. exactly twelve months later. 629. p. but will have the matter settled after Michaelmas . The subject was placed before the Cardinal on February 24th. but could only obtain his promise to " look into the matter. and one of the Ambassadors. VoL IL. Calls after calls have no effect. drew him aside and told him it was really time this affair of the duties should be settled. 842. t Idem." Again. The Ambassador had an audience with Wolsey the following week. On the appointed day it was arranged that the matter would be fully discussed a fortnight hence. who were asked to come again about it on March 8th. the indefatigable Ambassador goes and urges his claim. are interesting as illustrating in no common degree the policy and character of Wolsey. by the Ambassadors. the Cardinal pleads illness. 1517. X Idem. No. but has again to be satisfied with the promise that it would be brought before the Council. the following week. Nos. however. Calend. in June. of State Papers. 1515. 1516. nothing had yet been done. 364. June 15th. 606.

235 diminisliing the customs of the King. and that Venice derived greater benefit from what she exported from England than accrued to the English Government. nor even a year later. however. who had reduced the duty from four ducats to one noble. The . The Ambassador replied that the Signory took off the duty of four ducats per butt in Candia. as inherited from his father. that he would repeal the corresponding duty in England. and unfavourably received there. the question was brought before the Council. 1518. A few days later. under promise of King Henry VII. that the Government would rather the wines should not come than lose the duties. the Ambassador failing to obtain anything more than a " gracious " reception from the Cardinal in November. and said that the Signory ought to be content with this reduction. These and other arguments were accompanied with certain uncivil language concerning the Venetian Republic.Michaelmas . In February. but nothing was settled after Michaelmas. although Wolsey assured the Venetians that things would soon be put right. equal to one and a half ducat. The Cardinal rejoined that the duties were the sole benefit derived from the Malmseys imported into England . 1519. the Cardinal changed his tactics and expressed surprise that the Signory should insist on HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND.

Venice. 1259. 879. 1166. adding that he believed this present would easily settle the affair of the wines of Candia. 1519. saying that in a matter of that sort it was fitting to have more mature consideration. 908. and prove the ruin of the poor merchants. Sebastian Giustinian wrote to Venice saying that Wolsey was very anxious for the Signory to send him 100 Damascene carpets. that it would be the surest means ot making an irreconcilable enemy of him. 11. etc. 934. 1111. In September.. 866. 1522. in conjunction with the Council. 859. Wolsey complained that the * For the whole of this business. 1244.language concerning the Venetian Republic. 695.* In June of the . In his report of the transaction. 1168. 1167.* In April. see the text of letters and despatches. Vol. 1287. as the Cardinal was all powerful. the Venetian Ambassador remarks that it would be useless to appeal to the King. Venetian galleys came to England empty. The Ambassador then asked if this was his definite decision. of State Papers. to which the Cardinal answered in the negative. and yet he protested at the same time against the alleged smaller size of the butts of wine they brought.. after which he would give an answer. 855. Calend. Nos. 691. 1211. in Brown.

same year. Hulme. Hickling. such mentions become very scarce between 1525 and 1550. Calend.. numerous mentions of which are to be found in the accounts of the Oxford Corporation and Colleges. Bardney. etc. as. in London. was bought by the Earl . f These and other such vexatious proceedings gradually forced most of the Venetian merchants to give up coming to England . J A revival of that branch of the wine trade appears to have taken place in England after 1550. Osyth. j however. but as Vinum Creticum^ wine of Crete. was forced to land it at Southampton in order that customs be collected. the Levant wine trade became less and less active during the greater part of Henry VIII. with a full cargo of wine. St. on the other hand. when wine was imported from Candia. whilst we find numerous mentions of Malmsey bought and sold in different parts of England. Hunstanton. during the earlier part of the sixteenth century. Canterbury. and during the reign of Queen Mary. Oxford.'s reign. of Stat© Papers. although its destination was different. the Mediterranean voyage was far too long and costly for many English merchants to undertake. not always under the name of Malmsey or Malvesey. Thus. Wymondham. a ship of Mafio Bernardo. at Cambridge. Brown.

and in 154.... 483. there has not been such custom and subsidy received for the same to those of your Highness and your Progenitors. No. as is due and ought of very right to be paid for such sweet wine coming through the straits commonly called the Strait of Marrok^ otherwise MallegayCy to the great loss and . Vol. the following Statute concerning the importation and taxation of Malmseys and wines coining from the Levant received the royal sanction:— " And where of late years there has been much greater quantity of sweet wine brought into the realm than in time past has been accustomed. Rutland MSS. 340. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. in 1541. No. 320. Agriculture. at Newark. History of London. 440. in t Sec Thorold Rogers. which be brought from the same place where the wine commonly called Malveseye is brought. pp. 237 During the first Parliament of Queen Elizabeth's reign. and is of the same nature of grape. IV. and nevertheless by negligence.Venice. ignorance or corruption of the officers. III. 1542. III. in t Idem. Vol.3. ' of Rutland.at Lincoln. Malmsey. Vol.

t Calend. should be landed at Southampton. 61. and to the intent the officers may more certainly know what they ought to receive for such kind and nature of merchandise. imported to England by merchant strangers.t or any other place within the Levant seas. No. Be it enacted and declared by this present Act. all wines of the growths of Candia and Rotimo. non-payment. seabanks. and the burthen of us. that like custom and subsidy is of very right to be paid and shall from henceforth be paid for such sweet wine as is aforesaid. and by the authority aforesaid. of State Papers. upon forfeiture of 20s. Domestic Series. it was enacted in Parliament..of Marrok^ otherwise MallegayCy to the great loss and hinderance of your Highness. for the avoiding of all ambiguities and doubts. Addenda. 1 Eliz. Vol. . any negligence. half to the use of the Queen and the other half to the Mayor and bailiflfs of Southampton for the maintenance of the walls. 11."* In 1670. " that. usage or custom to the contrary notwithstanding.. a butt. XLIIL. etc. * Statutes of the Realm. and not elsewhere. cap. as is and has been accustomed to be paid for Malveseye . James I. henceforth."* The revival of this arbitrary measure was very distasteful to the Venetian merchants. your loving subjects .

Early Voymestio Series. and their voyages were undertaken at the risk of wealthy and bold individuals." belonging to London. to combine and form themselves into a company for carrying out successfully the Levant trade. caused many Venetian merchants to abandon commercial relations with England. a Venetian ship. Crete. and sometimes with Cyprus. during the first half of the sixteenth century. Bristol. Do J J.During that same year.f In 1575. one of the great Venetian argosies was wrecked off the Isle of Wight. Chios. in Syria. This fact obliged individual action on the part of the English merchants of the day. Previous to the reign of Queen Elizabeth. James I. of State Papers. Tripoli and Beyrout. trading with Sicily.. was captured on her way to England by some French Huguenots. or Southampton. which made voyages to the East. Addenda. but there appears to have been no systematic commerce carried on in English * Calend. J Such losses at sea. laden with wine. ! ages and Travels to . together with the unceremonious treatment they received in England. and whose enterprise was greater than formerly. Englishmen going to the Levant were few in number. whose resources were then more fully developed. Theodoie Bent. We hear of certain " tall ships.

In 1586. and practically the whole of the Levant wine trade with England had passed under its control before the end of the sixteenth century.J This company.* in 1516. i Venice. of State Papers. we read of an exciting voyage made by the Holy Cross and the Matthew Gonson to Crete and Chios. where he obtained trading privileges. and three years later Anthony Jenkinson went to Aleppo. which may be regarded as the beginning of the English Levant Company. 239 bottoms in those days. No. 467. VII. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. only received its charters and privileges from Queen Elizabeth. So far back as 1513.. Vol. No. In 1550.t and. there was an English Consul stationed at Chios. Introduction. Vol. Captain Bodenham " with the great barke Aucher " went to Chios. however. t Brown. XLIII. but its progress was very rapid. the English merchants trading with Chios complained of the charges they were made to pay by the Genoese in that island.the Levant. a charter was granted to fifty-three .. 1893. 61. in 1534. most of the trade between the Levant and England being cotiducted by the Venetians. both ships coming back much the worse for wear. Calend.

. § R. No. relative to the importation of wines. Vol. 1581-159 U p. 11. Vol. of State Papers.. ix.. a charter was granted to fifty-three individuals to whom power was granted to trade in the Levant. 98. 1517. Domestic Series. to whom was given the monopoly of the importation of sweet wines from Venice and Candia .. a special clause was added to the covenant between the Earl of Leicester and the merchants trading to Venice and Candia.§ A few years previously. Henry VEII. Calend. letters patent had been granted by the Queen to English • Hakluyt. 3289. Part n. The Council of Genoa wrote to Henry Vin. 399. Theo"lore Bent. Introduction. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. May 26th. n. were the only means of raising reyenne to pay a debt of 120.000 ducats incurred to propitiate the Turk to whom they were compelled to pay an annual tribute. t Brewer. Early Voyages and Travels to the Levant. and. y. X J. in 1587. \ oyages. saying that the charges complained of by English merchants as imposed on them at Chios. p.In 1586. merchants. Lemon. vi. pp.. in 1582 and 1583.

MuscadelU Vernage and Tyre. 105.t and was exported by the Venetians in large quantities. J In England. pp.§ It is difficult to ascertain with any precision the nature and origin of a wine called Tyre. imported at the same time and mentioned together in the various decrees fixing the price or regulating the sale of sweet wine in this country. but we may presume that it was a sweet wine shipped from some R. Muscadine. . 76. as a rule. the principal wines imported into England from parts " beyond the Straits of Marroco. during a term of six years. Cephalonia and Zante was known in Italy as Romania. the price of Romaney. Ijemon. of State Papers. CalenH. 640 (April." were Romaney. and. as far back as 1353. Romaney or Romeneye may be described as an inferior kind of Malmsey.* Besides Malmseys. and these wines were.importation of sweet wines from Venice and Candia into England.. 1589). the London municipal authorities had made it an offence to sell Romeney for Malmsey. Domestic Series. Bastard and Muscadel was usually the same as that of Malmsey. 1583-April.t The sweetish wine of poor quality made at Corcyra. whilst the best wines made in these islands and many other isles of the Ionian and of the Augean Seas were sold as Malmsey.

during that same year. p. A.D.* and. of State Papers. a. 1424.. IV.d. a gallon of Tyre was given to Lord Cromwell. Collection of Ordin. Vol. 1410. 1469. fo.D.. 1429. 1420.t this was also the price it fetched. Letter Book I. p.d. IV. 7. Vol. such as Capri and Ischia. See also R. 198. 213..^ Tyre is mentioned at Canterbury. Calend.D. 96b.D. A barrel of Tyre was bought by James I. Ancient customs and new imposts of Zante. p. fo. IV. 1. for the (>'ovemment of the Royal Household. of the islands oflf the coast of Italy. the Corporation of Norwich bought some Tyre at lOd. of Doc. A. 4d. relating to Scotland. Stat. A. p.d. 1414. 90. col. at Is. in 1424. King of the Scots. Domestic Series.. per gallon . 361. p. VII. 1542-1543. 1409 . cap. p. A. in 1445 and 1447.D. IV. fo. 2.. Lib. Cephalonia and Candia on wines there and in England. a. Calend. 1. § See Rot. etc. 1581-1591. in the Tyrrhen-ean Sea. a. VUI. Pari. Vol. col.. in 1476 and 1481.. a gallon. 76b. Vol. etc. X Bacci. Vol. and again.D.. A. 640. 101. p. col. at Cambridge. fifty-eight pipes of Tyre were imported by an Italian. 12G. in 1450 .. I. .§ in 1462. Lemon. A.t History of the Wine Trade in England. 133.t In 1465. 1415 . 34 and 35 Hen.

De Nat.ff Croce calls Vernage the native Malvasia of Italy. practically ceased to be imported into England. Vol. Part HI. 198. 224.^ was most probably the same as the vinum coctum. 90. 511. 1. referred to by Bacci.p. ••Bacci. t Calend. 1 Rot. or Vernage. of which one cask was imported. Agriculture. 6 Ed. Eleventh Report Scotland. Pari. IV^. p. r. Patent RoUs. IV. IV. Vol. p..** Vernaccia wine. History of i toiical MSS... in 1415. It was a wine made * Calend. III.. at Lyim..in 1462. relating to ^ I| Lynn MSS.. I of the Royal Commission on Hist Thorold Rogers. col. was held in great estimation and usually fetched higher prices than any other sort of sweet wine. of Doc. who says that it was exceedingly common in Italy and that it was obtained by gradually heating the new wine.|| The vin cuit. .. by a Piemontese.. Vin. J J Muscadelly on the other hand. although Bacci praises its beautiful red colour and its exquisite taste. adding that it was not too sweet and had a beautiful aroma. a gallon of Tyre was given to Lord Cromwell. Vol.

tt Idein^ Lib. J and Spain. from the Muscat grape grown in Candia. . B.. 140. it cost as much as 3s. At Oxford. the barrel of Muscadell cost 50s. Mus-cadine cost 2s. the same price as Malmsey and Romaney . At Cambridge. I. Q HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND.. Ninth Report of the Royal Commission on Historical MSS. 8d. 4d. cap. etc. the assize price of Muscadell. Delia Eccellenza dei Vini.t Southern France. in 1541 and again in 1561. in 1564. 8d. per gallon when that of other sweet wines was only 12d. a rundlet of Muscadine was sent to Lady .. 11. in 1433. per gallon. when Bastard only cost Is. cap.. Part n.. 29. § Records of the City of Canterbury. 1606. the gallon of Muscadell cost 2s. 1565. in 1573. In London. per gallon. m.§ at Winterton. Part L. and 1568. as also at Norwich. xy. I Lib. was 16d. in 1579. 4d. XX G. Muscadell cost 3s. and in 1581.. and Malmsey or Sack Is. Torino. in 1613.* as well as in Italy. In 1542. p. iv..|| in London. Croce.Hist. and 3s.

etc.In 1542. the price of Muscadell was 16d. a rundlet of Muscadine was sent to Lady Rutland. Fifth Report of the Royal Commission on Historical . in his treatise on the wines of Torino gives some very interesting details about White Muscatel. bought some Muscadine. In 1571.. Lib. Calend. Vin. II Thorold Rogers. \. of State Papers. Greek wine. such as Campelyte^'f'f which may have been an Italian wine shipped from Campiglia. § Letter Book M. Domestic Series. in Suffolk. and Tente^ mentioned for the first time at Gal way. in 1578. i. fo.§§ but which was probably an Italian wine and not the pro-duce of Greece. that of ^Sack 13d. X Bacci. fo. the churchwardens of Mendlesham. from Grantham. B. t G. ^ Rutland MSS. Lemon..^ In 1586. De Nat. History of Agriculture. Vol. and Mahnsey 14d.JJ some of which was sent to Bel voir Castle in 1600. 192. Vol. 324.. cap. Crooe. 1581-1591. 510. Letter Book X.** There are a few other names of wines imported into England which are very obscure. VL.. in Tuscany . III. 423. Malmsey. per gallon.. Vemage. Hist.| * R. p. p. IV. 219b.

. although. I Lib.. IV. vines were then grown and wine made in Corsica. I t Bacci. 281b. taken in its most comprehensive sense. 593.. Vol. Q -' o CHAPTER XI. lOd. Ill Archives of Galway. Pegge. p. IV.. 428. tj J. §§ Rutland MSS. of course. 428. Patent Rolls.. Part V. De Nat. 20. fo. No.. 282. Part n. in the Tenth Report of the Royal Commission on Historical MSS. fos. Distillation. m. cap. i."}" Letter BcM)k Y. VI. 191b. 85. 1481.* it seems difficult to believe that such large quantities as those recorded should have been imported into England at that time.MSS. Hist. mentioned in the Guildhall Letter Books as forming part of the stock of wines in the City taverns. No. 20 Ed. Forme of Cury.. As to the wines of Corsica and Diana. p. 132..d. Vin. tt Calend.. No. a. was .

taken in its most comprehensive sense.Distillation. Its virtues are beginning to be recognised. an entry in the account book of the Comtesse Mahaut reads thus : " For wine bought by Girard to . since it is really a water of immortality. in England. and endeavoured to let the contact between the liquid and the heat be as long as possible. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. etc. on heated sand. who does not claim to be its discoverer. it prolongs life. and its use was well known in France as well as in Germany. But the process of distillation does not appear to have been applied to wine before the twelfth century. was known to the Ancients who distilled sea water and the juice of different plants and roots. thinking that this was the surest means of obtaining a more fiery liquor. much progress had been made in the distilHtion of wine. 245 In 1307. when Arnaud de Villeneuve. They distilled it very slowly. During the fourteenth century. and this name is remarkably suitable. revives the heart and maintains youth. although there is no mention of it at so early a date. clears away ill-humours." The early distillers were so much impressed with the marvellous qualities of distilled wine that they imagined it contained some attributes of the fire which had helped to make it. left us the following description of distilled wine : " Some people call it Eau de Vie.

in Germany.J Lievin Lemnius. at Bamburg. and. as well as by druggists and other merchants. of a treatise by Michel Schreik. so as to put a stop to their abuse and excessive consumption. in 1493." he says. is either lighter or more piercing. for our daughter. at Augsburg. From the publication. in the street or elsewhere. a decree issued then forbidding the sale of '' distilled waters " on Sundays and other holidays. in private houses.Mahaut reads thus : " For wine bought by Girard to make burning water of. in 1483. bestows loud praises on aqua vitse in his Secrets of Nature^ written in the first half of the sixteenth century. in their shops. or more preserveth and defendeth all things from corruption. of a poem on the subject of the advantages and disadvantages of this liquor. Verzeichniss der ausgebranden Wasser."}" In 1496. ten deniers. it is evident that. a Hollander." and this writer . Ortholaus gives very exact directions for the distillation of wine and for rectifying the alcohol obtained at first. in his Pratica Alchimica."* In 1358. on the market. "No liquor. the use of spirits was at this date no longer restricted to medicinal purposes. the municipality of Nuremberg was already taking measures to check the excessive consumption of alcohol. ten sous. "which is ministered unto any use to man's body.

" p."t But no record has been found to show that spirit. to have been appreciated in England before the sixteenth century. 31.gives an early record "Pour vin que mestre Girard avait achet6 pour faire iaue ardente pour no[tre] demoiselle. f Dowell. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. they take and drink of it. a little before the joining of batayle. History of Taxation and Taxes in England. under any name whatsoever. The inventor of the Universal Art had great faith in ** the marvaylous use and comoditie of burning water even in warres. 227. during the reign of Edward III.. however. of excess in spirituous liquors where he states that " the use of aqua vitse hath grown so common with the nether Germany and Flanders. 158. Some knowledge of the art of distilling wine may have been brought to this country by Raymond LuUi. myndes. Reber. that freelier than is profitable to health. Histoire de la Medecine et des Sciences naturcUes. was consumed in England before the sixteenth century. J B. Journal des Collectionneurs de Geneve. No."* The virtues of aqua vitae do not appeal. Vol. IV. although it was known and freely . p. to styr and encourage the souldiours.

A History of Taxation and Taxes in England from the Earliest Times to the Year 1886. p.sixteenth century. *' for the help and profit of surgeons. Jewell of Health. " Aqua vit89. in this country. however. the use of which w^as. 214. In 1525. a. at certain times and in small quantities. 1o70. pothecaries. although it was known and freely indulged in. for it easeth the diseases coming from cold." This appears to have been the earliest important publication. in Ireland.. Chapter on Aqua Vitse. and causeth him to have a good memory and remembrance. The Vertitose Boke bestowed great praises on aqua vitae. It giveth also young courage in a person. Vol. IV. Treasure of Evony-mous. 1559. and all manner of people. at a considerably earlier date. p. It purifieth the five . 168. to render the science of distillation more general and more popular. under the title of The Vertuose Boke of Distyllacyon of the Waters of all maner of Herbes. only recommended as a medicine." quoting from the Vertuose Boke^ ''is commojily called the mistress of all medicines. physicians.d. 10. p. by Stephen Dowell. t >Iorwyng. a translation of Jerome Braunschweig's important work on distillation was published in London. Baker.

that is to understand five or six drops in the morning. with a spoonful of wine .. translated . whose trade consisted in distilling alcohol from winelees and unsound wine obtained at very low prices from vintners and coopers. In 1559. • ." etc. but wyth us out of the wyne lies (lees) onely. when Peter Morwyng published his Treasure of Evonymous^ wine was no longer distilled solely by apothecaries for medicinal purposes . if it be distilled often it shal be made the more efEectuall (that is to say) hotter and drier . specially of them that sel it. yea."* The most remarkable and varied qualities are attributed to aqua vitaB. and by this onely almost get their livyng. there were already a certain number of " distillers" in London. . when it is drunk by reason and measure . It comforteth the heart and causeth a body to be merry . No blame appears to have been attached to this practice. .. or aqua vitse. It purifieth the five wits of melancholy and of all uncleanliness. is drawn oute of wyne. And peradventure it is never a whit the worse that it is drawne oute of lees. the virtues and excellence * A New Booke of Destillatyon I Evonymous. and Morwyng does not doubt that the spirit obtained from either bad or good wine is equally good. fasting. for LuUus teacheth that it may be wel destilled of corrupt wine. " Burning water. .good memory and remembrance.

the harte and the liver . It maketh men merry and preserveth youth. etc. . . witty. . . It expelleth poyson. it chaungeth the afEectione of the mind. in health and sickness alike. . The smell thereof burnt. " It is most wholesome for the stomake. home-made spirit spread in England is evidenced by . It is merveylous profitable for frantic men and such as be melancholy. are to us more than surprising. be it never so evil or corrupt. it taketh awaye sadness— pensiveness. It cureth the palsy if they be onoynted therewith. it bringeth a good smell and taste also to any wine. " To conclude."* The rapidity with \vhich the popularity of the crude. translated by Peter of Waters. it maketh men merit. killeth flies and cold creeping beasts. it restoreth memori. It sharpneth the wit. It putteth away fracins. 15. It is good for them that have the falling sickness if they drink it. . called the Treasure of | Morw3mg. and good wine also it makes it better. 77. 76.* A New Booke of Destillatyon I Evonymous. It restoreth wine that is turned or putrified. . . . ring worms and all spots of the face. pp. it nourisheth blood . of which.19. . Yea. . and encreaseth audacitie. it agreeth mervelously and most with man's nature . " It helpeth read and duskish eies.

and out of wine Alsatico. is not so commendable an aqua vitae distilled. " The burning water. it was called the Newe Jewell of Healthy and was translated and published by George Baker from Conrad Gesner's book on distillation. as the whyte or the red. however. Treasure of Evonymous. 84. but out of the lees of wine. is sometimes distilled out of pleasant and good wine. when out of pure wine a water of life is distilled. A little later. a much [greater] yeld and quantity [is] gathered . 85. another work on the same subject achieved a very rapid success.tlie numerous editions of tlie works on distillation. before the reign of Elizabeth and . 88. two editions of the Treasure of Evany.""}" It was not. or water of life. in 1576. Gesner) that out of a great quantity of good wine. known as Le Aqua Vite Howse. but oftener drawn out of the wine lees. a little yeld or quantity of burning water is to be distilled . In 1572. Barking. I hear (says C. pp. we read that good wine was sometimes used for distillation. but this process was considered very wasteful. there was a tavern in Petie Wales. of a certain eager savour or corrupt wyne " Further. 83. mom having been printed in 1559.* In the Jewell of Health.

hog's wash and such articles for making aqua vitae. **In their endeavours to meet the increasing demand for cheaper spirits. where the best was made. m. developed by communication with that nation of potent drinkers. up to that time. in drinking power equal to the German. 257. Montaigne. satisfied with ale and beer. pp. they brought with them a taste for spirituous drinks Chronological Index to the I t Baker. Henceforth. as well as directly from France. observes that the only nation in which drinking to excess was considered laudable was that of the Almains. our distillers now commenced to use in lieu of wine and wine lees. and they continued to do . 42. in his Essais sur Us Mceurs^ published in 1588. 212. that the taste for strong alcoholic beverages became prevalent amongst the lower classes who had been. before the reign of Elizabeth and the expedition to the I^ow Countries in 1585. a supply of aqua vitse was kept up through Flushing. the Hollander was. and when English soldiers returned from the campaign in the Netherlands. however. in the time of Elizabeth. perhaps. No. " The Dutchman for a drunkard. which was held as security for the money advanced to the Dutch. | 211. Hustings Deeds." was a proverb in the sixteenth century . Jewell of Health.It was not. since the rise in the price of wine had forced them to give up drinking the juice of the grape.

therefore. IV. and spices. aqua composita. described in 1527. Vol. or herbs.articles for making aqua vitae. under a patent. and other waters. to any source other than that filth of the people and their dwellings which fostered it. for a monopoly of the sale of spirits. pp. but this patent was subsequently abolished with the other monopolies. A History of Taxation and j Times to the Year 18S5. in 1601.160. they were 'rectified. 1888. On this occasion the distillers were accused ot having. 158. who were said to have poisoned the wells. and they continued to do so until 1693. or all of these combined. bv Stephen Taxes in England. on announcing the abolition to the House of Commons in a humorous speech. a kind of strong aromatical liquor of the kind of gin or other flavoured spirit. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IX ENGLAND. congratulated those who had cold stomachs on the liberty they had acquired of free indulgence in aqua vita?. the year of the plague. in effect. indeed. It must have been. granted to Drake. or."* The aqua composita mentioned in this speech was an old favourite. in the Virtuose Boke^ as made of strong wine \dthout lees. . by the Queen.. from theEarJiest | Dowell. or roots. and Cecil.' as it was termed. poisoned the aqua vitae that was frequently used as an antidote. In former ages it had been usual to attribute a visitation of the plague to the Jews. Accordingly.

" etc. described by . one of the most fascinating of these was called spiritus dulcis^ and was made of Sack. nutmeg. to provoke appetite. t Other cordial or aromatised wines. ginger. were drunk before meals. Such was the Vinum Raspoticum^ or Rappis. galingale. like the crhne de menthe and Curasao of the present day. In Baker's Jewell of Health. is advocated. more wonderful still. or of distilled wine and aromatical plants.251 The more general use of distillation and the gradual improvement in the methods of distilling." they might bring him back to reason. etc. fennell. The use of these cordial mines was strongly recommended in most peculiar instances. thus. and sugar candy. either with or without the addition of spirit. made up of spirit. roots or seeds. these concoctions are qualified of laudable^ comfortable^ commendable and singular cordial wyneSy and the use of borrage. opened the way to an almost unlimited number of new liqueurs.. they are said to have restored the sight of blind people. wine. and spices. if a man be " wholly mad.* Some of these spirituous liquors were also made with the addition of sugar. long pepper. they also dispelled evil thoughts and prevented all " evyl cogitations comming to minde ". and they " strengtheneth any weake member of man's body. as we now use bitters. spirit of roses. cloves. sage. endives.

that is whych biteth the tong with a certayn sharp biting. or something very much like it. February 6th. it provoketh appetite. as galangal. described by Morwyng as follows: " Raspish wyne." Further on he adds: " Some put spices also to the raspish wyne. 229. 257. but their popularity seems to have suffered during the sixteenth century . stomack. of either two drachms. at Syon House. 1608. hippocras and clarre. p. cloves.* Even the much maligned absinthe.the Vinum Raspoticum^ or Rappis. bindyng the heates of the * Baker. Two of the latter." etc. cinamon. being made up of dried leaves of wormwood in equal parts of Malmsey and " burning water thrice distilled. t The MSS. enjoyed a very ancient J and solid reputation. of His Grace the Duke of Northumberland. in the Sixth Report of the Royal Commission on Historical MSS. Jewell of Health. pp. five ounces. "t Aromatical wines were made in great variety.. 250. either with spices alone or with spices and honey or sugar. was known in England during the sixteenth century. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND.

was as follows:—" For a galon and a pynt of red wyn. Henrv MIL. hippocras was given as a present at Cambridge. 392. IV. 1)11. 380. t Idem.. 38 Hen. a q'rt of an imce. p. edited by Mary Bateson for the Cambridge Antiquarian Society.§ In 1537."^ The Ressaite to make YpocraSy according to Arnold's Chronicle.. .. we read in the Rutland MSS. clones and masys."** Clarre was made as follows:—" For xviii Morw>nig. November. Anthony Digby paid 6s. at the christening of Prince Edward. suger ii lb. Treasure of Evony-mouH. I. II Gairdner. Vol. gynger dryed an unce. " for ypocras when my Lorde was syke.|| and. pp. p. everyone in the church was served with hippocras and sweet wine . Part II. In 1522. VIII. { Grace Book B. 340. spignard a quatir of an unce.from the introduction of many new varieties. greynes and longe peper di unce. in 1546.* 390. 8d. Part II.. Vol.. J See History of the Wine Trade in England. No. take synamon iii uncis. 108. p. T[ Rutland MSS.

ii unce calamose aromaticus. with the wine. ventured to direct their readers how to make all sorts of wines. must have been abominable. etc. and bruise all these not too small. otherwise called Arnold's Chronicle. an unce safron. an ounce of cinnamon. galons. a q'rt of a lb. di a pute gynger. greynes.. the old doctors who wrote these early books on distillation. to imitate foreign wines." etc. and who knew probably as little about wine as the average doctor of the present time. The only redeeming point of these recipes is that they are . but it cannot be so good as the first. and a quarter of an ounce of greynes. to our modern taste.f Not satisfied with giving detailed directions how to concoct liqueurs and cordials which. synamon. and half a pound of sugar. and then put them in a bag of woollen cloth made for it. with the help of " burning water" and spices. and a half an ounce of ginger. And after thou mayest break the spices smaller and put new wine thereto." The directions for making either of these beverages are also given :— The Crafte to make Ypocras and Braket* and Clare: —" Take a quart of red wine. and make more with the same stuff. q'rt of a lb. [). and let it hang over a vessell till the wine has run through. a quatir of an unce colyaundir. 187.The Customs of London. pepir.

which shall have the taste of Rhenish. I f Arnold's Chronicle. 40. hange a linnen cloth full of • Braket was made with ale. . The spices are thies :— Cinamon. and fill it with burning water."* Treasure of Evonymous. whiche the wyne shal be powered into afterward. 187. ginger. p. HIST0B7 OF THE WI2fE TRADE IN ENaLAND. p. of every one half a dram when they are sumwhat gros beaten let them be mixt and after be tied in the liimen cloth. When thou wouldest use it. whilst those for the manufacture of Rhenish. cloves. honey and pepper.'). wring out ye linnen cloth into some gret glas.redeeming point of these recipes is that they are usually so difficult to understand or execute that they could not have been largely patronised. which are by far the most lucid. and let it stande at the lest xii houres. stop it diligently. Then power in the wyne. In a vessell of glass or of earth glased. | the spices hereafter folowyng. so that the sydes of the pot may be wet with that spiced burning water or else ye liquor crushed out into the bottom by lening and rooling ye glas a syde. The directions to make Malmsey are the most incomprehensible. may moyste the sydes everywhere. are as follows:— ** A wyne that tasteth lyke RJienish wyne.

1401 ti I40r> I) >j ** II u ft >> 1406 .255 APPENDIX A. PKICES OF WINE IN ENGLAND DURING THE XVth AND XVlTH CENTURIES. Date.

Quality or Origio of the WiDe. Price per Gallon. .1406 }> >> M 1408 1409 » >» >» Sales or Purchases. Price per Tuu.

Town where deal took place. Sweet wine Wine Gascony and Rochelie wines Oseye - . £ 8. 927770 968 9 13 4 Wine >i n >i Red wine White wine Vemage Osey -Vinegar Wine >» " " Red and white wine. d.

Wine Authorities. Bastard.Malmsey. Ro-meney. Oxford tt Bexley »» War>*ick »» II If II Beverley Oxford II Salisbury 'I .

Tnorold Rogers. 157. p.'I Oxford London II »i Oxford Thorold Rogers. }f >i >i . History of Agriculture. VoL III. » f) »» It Beverley MSS. VoL III.

Vol. Price per Tun. Prices of Wine in England during the XVth and XVIth Centuries — eont. 76b. 8aIeB or Purchases. . Date. Price per Gallon. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. II i» Thorold Rogers. f o.111.II Letter Book I. Quality or OriffiD of the Wine.

Authorities. d. 1410 )i )) 1411 1412 1413 1414 )} If 1} » »f »» f} 1416 1417 1418 :» 1419 1420 £ 8.Wine. . Town where deal took place.

7 10 0 4 0 0 5 13 4 Sweet wines Wine >» >» }> *> Wine of Al garves (Por tu^al). »» " ' . Romeney. Wine Gascony or Kochelle Oseye • Malmsey. Bastard W^ine Eomeney Ossey Wine .

Gascony or Rochelle Wine »} Romeney Wine • London Cambridge Oxford »» >» >» London Oxford London » Cambridge •J Oxford » London Norwich }) Oxford .

fo. fo. Letter Book I. Tiiorold Rogers. »» »» Thorold Rogers. Vol. " Issaes of the Exchequer. >> . 329. 133. Vol. IIL >* »» it Devon. Thorold Rocers. 328." pp. Vol. 96b. III.}) Oxford London Oxford Letter Book I. III.

if >» Letter Book I. fo. III. m0m0 I • Thorold Rogers.it >» ff }> Letter Book I. fo. Vol. 257 Prices of Wine in England during ti?e XVth and XVIth Centuries— r/^w/. 18ob. Date. Thorold Rogers. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IX ENGLAND. . Vol. III.

all«)n. Price per (. £ 8.Date. Price per tun. (1. 8. Wine JJ if . Town where deal took place. Sales or Purchases. 300 Quality or Origiu oi the Wine. d.

568 Gascony or Rochelle Sweet wines Wine Ked vdne Sweet wine »» Red wine Reil wine and Ba-stard Red wine and Tyre Wine j» »» Red wine J* Viine J) Sweet wine B&.stard-Red wine Wine -Sweet wine Oxford .

Exeter York London j» Otterton Bicester Cambridge Norwich j» JJ Otterton Oxford >j Chichester Norwich Oxfortl »» JJ >i .

of the City of Exeter. Letter Book K. f) Thorold Rogers^ Vol. VoL III. Thorold Rogers.>i *} London Authorities. Antiq. 10b. IIL Rem. HI. Vol. »i »> »» ij »» tt . fo. Thorold Rogers.

Date. p. . Prices of AVine in England during the XVtu and XVIth Centuries — eont.»» If if ft j> I* >f t) J) Chronicon Preiio* sum. 101. it R HISTORY OP THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. Sales or Purchaaes.

259 Prices of Wine in England during the XVtu and XVIth Centuries—cow*. HISTORY OP THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. Price per Gallon. Sales or Purchases. Date. Price per tun. Town where deal took place. Authoritiea.Sales or Purchaaes. Quality or Origin of the Wine. Price .

-6 . 1433 i 4 gallons 5(5 „ 3 barrels i» I) 1434 5 gallons s.Price per Oallun. Price per tun. nS^"iI*«? ?L Town where deal Anthoritiea. -8 -8 2 10 0 Wine }> £ 8. il. (I.

}> Malmsey. Muscadell Red wine Malinsey^ Wine »i i» II t> II II II It ti II Red wine Wine it >i . Romeney.

>> >» Red wine Malmsey Olterton Pershore Winter ton Norwich II Trevarthen Otterton Oxford II Otterton Bicester Otterton Oxford Ripyngton i» .

>> II II II »» i> . III.j« Cambridge Otterton London Oxford I'ershore St. Ives Norwich II Thorold Rogers. Vol.

102. Thorola Rogers. p.i> II i» >i II i* II >> 11 If »i i» Chronicon Preoiosoni. >> . Vol. III.

Date. Prices of Wine in England durino the XVth and XVIth Centuries— ronf.f» It II K2 HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. 1443 >t »i 11 >» 11 }> 1444 It .

Price per Tun.It i» i> It 1* It 144^ j» •» >' »» Sales or Purchases. Price per Oallun. .

54 gallons 30 tans.Quality or Origin ot the Wine. 1 pil>e . It 2 gallonH 72 „ 10 „ 8 tuns 12 pii>e0. 1 pipe 1 butt (36 gallons) 1 gallon 1 quart 12 pipes. Town where deal took place. 54 gallons 3 tuns.

10 .s 2i 4 1 4 »» *i it 11 131 1 s.6i -7 15 . d.1 fatte (5 ohms) 8 tuns 10 „ 3 quarts 3 „ 4 gallon.

81 4 11 1447 ! 8 11 »» 14 10 .81 4 -6 -t -8 -8 £ R.81 4 .15 . d. 788 .

600 6 11 3 2 11 0 Red wine Wine 11 Gascony It 600 6 11 3 2 11 0 768568 Rhenish Wine -Malmsey Wine Gascony wine Rhenirth Red Gascon}' »» .

Malmsey Ronieiiey Red wine Tyre and Bastard Red wine Sweet wine Wine • M M Red and white wine Norwich Oxford Bristol Writtle »> Exeter It AVrittle .

Vol III. Thorold Rc»gerf>. >» .It AVrittle »» It »» >? Exeter It Cambridge »> Norwich >« Otterton Oxford Pershore Cambridge Authorities.

>> »» »» It » Shillingforth Letters. Vol. »» Thorold Roffert*. *i 11 91 >> Shillingforth Letter&i. »» . VoL III. >) Thorold Rogers. III.

Quality or Origin of the Wine. . d. 261 Pricks of Wine in Enuland during the XVth and XVIth Cknturies— foni.»> f» ti 19 91 9' HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. Town where deal took place. Price per Tun. £ 8.

III. 500 G 13 4 700 Tyre -Red wine Wine ».* Red Gascony wine Wine Red and white wine Sweet wine Wine »» " Red wine Wine Camhridge Thorold Rogers. Oxford Otter ton .Authoi ities. Vol.

Vol. III. Norwich Oxford ii Cambridge Otterton Oxford .Oxford Beverley Cambridge »» »> )f ft )« Beverley MSS. p. 123.. Tiiorold Rogers.

263 PiacEs OF Wine in England during the XVth and XVIth . Pricks of Wine in England during the XVth and XVIth Centuries -ro»^ HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND.Oxford »« 5 17 6 l» »» »» If *i it tt tt HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IX ENGLAND.

Authorltiee. 121i „ . Prices of Wine in England during the XVth and XVIth Centuries— #•<«»<. HISTORY OP THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. I Town where deal took place. Date.Centuriks— row^. 1465 33 gallonH 1466 . Price per Tnn. Sales or Porchases. Quality or OrifiTio of the Wine.

ii j» I pipe 1 hogshead 49) gallons 6J 19} 1467 7J-8 )) » it a It a »» }i » 1) >» .

>» >> >j }» }) 12 1 hogshead 1 gallon 4 gallons „ 25J „ 1468 i lOi „ „ 1 hogshead „ 24} gallonH 1469 7 1} . 66 „ >> » j> )) .

7i .10 1 4 £ H.8.10 .9ii 1 01 I ~1 . -6 -8 1 10 I . cL -6 .81 -6 . d.

8i.81 1 . .8. I12 .8 I -10 I Wine >f }f Sweet wine 4 0 0 Wine 568 .I .8I I .10 I .

Red wine Wine «> it 6 17 4 400 Red wine tt Red and sweet wines Red wine New red wine Wine it It tt Red wine Wine -Red wine White wino Wine »» .

Oxford . \ Oriel College) Cambridge ti Howard accounts Ormesbv Oxford (Oriel College) i Oxford I Cambridge '.»» Oxford »» Thorold Rogers. Vol. I tt Dover London I Otterton j Oxford I (Oriel College). III.

>» »» (KingVCollege)' Cambridge f« >« f» >» '» tt >f tt tt »» .Cambridge ! Ormesby Oxford (Oriel College) i Cambridge .

»» >t >t >> »t <» 1* »» »» «• i» I* tt HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. 265 Prices of Wine in Encjland during the XVth and XVIth .

1469 28 gallona » Not specified 1470 1 riindlet (16 gallonn) „ 47^ gallons )> 19$ 1471 ' 19J II 1472 24 53 . Price per Gallon.Prices of Wine in Encjland during the XVth and XVIth Centurii%s—/'om^ Date Sales or ' I Purchases.

4 8 62 }) ii ii 11 n 1> J> >» >> }1 u f) 11 }1 .

}1 )) 1473 68 1 pipe 1 gallon 20 gallons 1474 Ii „ 11 f) )> It )i 26i 1475 I 24 1476 25 1 >j j> it .

-8 1 11 -6 -8 -8 -8 .10 .10 -6 -6 .10 . d.10 .>i >» ]i 8.

81 Price per Tun. Authorities. Quality or Origin of the Wine. Town where de&l took place.10 1 4 1 4 1 4 -8 -8 . £ 8. d. 400 500 968 Wine .-8 .

lied wine Red and white wioe Red wine Wine >» Oxford (Onel College) London Norwich .Wine Bordeaux wine Sweet wine Wine »» »» )t >* Ked wine Wine .

Vol. p. Thorold Rogers. Vol. XL. IIL nth Report Hist. IIL Rymer's Fcedera. . 225.Oxford ((3riel College) It Oxford Cambridge Norwich Oxford St. Ives Cambridge Norwich Oxford Thorold Rogers. Thorold Rogers. p. Vol.. 674. Part III. Vol. III. MSS..

Oxford (Uriel College) Oxford Camliridge .^"/."" I to«kpl«*.Vol. Price Tar "^P. it a Pkices or Wine ix Enoland duri!J(i the XVth ash XVIth CEsrVBJEB—eont. 10 5 I 44g»Hoi 1 tun MalmHej Red vine Sweet wine Wine Ked G&itcon Red wine Sweet wine Wine . III.

1482 : 122 (luarts 22 gallons 106 „ 127 quarts 11 i> . KolU. 267 Prices of Wine in England during the XVth and XVIth Centuries— con/. m. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. ISd. 18 Ed.. Part II. Date. IV. P>t. Halea or Purchases..Camliridge Saliabnry Oxford (Oriel College} Oxford Otterton Cambridge :al.

>» 1484 >? i> I) It « 63i gallons 1 gallon 126 quarts : 132 1485 »> » 1486 }} 1488 .

1488 )) >j »> 11 11 11 83 „ 24 gallons 122 quarts 24^ gallons 47 quarts 18 gallons 29i 53 2 )) 11 1 11 ii 1 pint I hogshead 60 gallons .

10 1 0 1 0 -8 -8 . . d.81 4 .10 10 .10 .10 1-8 -8 -8 .Price per Gallon s.

d. £ s.10 .. Town where <ieal took place.81 4341 4 -8 Price i>er Tun. Authorities 600 Wine i> f* M 11 . Quality or Origin of the Wine.

11 Hastard Red wine ji It Wine )) }) 11 Wine 11 Red. white and claret Sweet wine Hippocraa Bastard Claret • Wine . .

Oxford 11 11 (Oriel College) Oxfonl 11 (Magdalen j College) Oxtord )) 11 (Magdalen College) Oxford Thorold Rogers. 11 11 (Oriel College) Oxford (Magdalen College) Oxford (Oriel College) Oxford . III. Vol.

(Magdalen College) Oxford (Oriel CoUege) Cambridge 11 11 11 11 Farley Oxford 1* It » >» ft It .

Prices of Wine in England during the XVth and XVIth Centuries — cont. .»» If It »» it 11 11 ti «) t> It >f It HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND.

Price per Gallon. Date. Town where deal took place. Sales or Purchaflea. 1495 »' »> . 269 Prices of Wine in England during the XVtii and XVIth Centuries— ron<. Price per Tun. Authorities.HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. Soality or Rin of the Wine.

. d.'J 1496 »» >? »y 1497 »t >' 1498 j» »» »> » >» )) £ 8.

645 800 per sex-tary 645 5C8 4 12 3 354 300 4 13 4 4 10 0 Gascony wine Oseye -Rhenish Wiue • Gascony wine Red wine Gascony wine Sweet wine -Wine jj ' " >j " >! f> Red wine Gascony wine Claret -White wine -Sweet wine -Gascony wine Wine -Sweet wine -Hippocras Red wine Wine Wardrobe Accounts .

It it Oxford (Oriel College) Wardrobe Accounts Cambridge »> j» Thorold Rogers. Vol. Oxfonl It »» (Oriel College) Oxford It (Oriel CoUege) Sion Wardrobe Accounts Battle i» 11 Cambridge . III.

Cambridge It »i »» tt It II »» It It tt It It It It It It 11 II .

It II 1) It It tt HISTORY OF THE WISE TRADE IN SNOLAND. Prices of Wine in England during the XVth and XVIth Centuries— ron/. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. 273 . HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. F Wine is Exiii. 271 Prices of Wine in England during the XVth and XVIth Centuries— ron/. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND.AN-i> i>L-mso thk XVth and XVtrii Centuries— (« *.

Pricks of Wine in England during the XVth and XVIth Centuries— ron/. Muscadell Malmsey Claret -Bastard Wine -Gascon wine Sweet wine Kochelle wine Wine -Rhenish Gascony wine Sweet vdae »> »> Red. white and claret Wine >> Rhenish Malmsey Red wine Wine -Gascon wine . Oualitv or Orittin of the Wine. Authorities. Town where ileal took place.

London Hick ling >i II >> London Wardrobe Accounts »> Canterbury Norwich London Wardrobe Accounts »» it » London Devonshire London »f Cambridge .

Parti. No. lb. 1935. IL. Thorold Rogers.)i Henley-on-Thames Oxford Letter Hook M. 2l9b. Vol. III. Vol. Thorold Rogers.. . Vol III. Henry VIIL. ii a >» »t Brewer. Letter Book N. IIT. fo. fo. Thorold Rogers. Vol. ii Letter Book N.

IIL a *i )) s HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. Vol. 275 Prices of Wine in England during the XVth and XVIth Centuries— con<.Letter Book N. fo.iles or PurchAses. Thorold Rogers. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. 55b. Price . Date. Prices of Wine in England during the XVth and XVIth Cbnturils—^oii/. s.

Authoritiei.per Qallon. 1522 »» 11 »» » )i j» f) . Quality or Oririnof the Wine. Town where deal took place. Price per Tan.

1523 »> 1524 1 butt 146 gallons 1 butt 1 » Assize price > jj jj »> 1525 1526 » 1527 » it .

8 1 -1 4 .10 4 2 .it >» "i 1 tun 4^ gallons Not specified >» }} 11 11 11 12^ gallons Not specified )} Assize price 2 hogsheads 7^ gallons 1 hogshead 1 gallon 8. d. 12 .

10 4 2 10 £ 8. d.. 4 4 0 (per butt) 5 16 8 1 16 6 (per butt) 10 0 0 14 -8 1 3i 16 400 5 0 0 (per butt) 3 0 0 (per butt) 2 13 4 (per pipe) 5 13 8 .

4 18 2 (per butt) 500 600 Malmsey Singing wine • Malmsey Romeney Gascon and French Malmsey Romeney and other sweet wines Red and claret Gascon wine Malmsey Hippocras - .

Gascon wine -Ckret -Malmsey Romeney Muscadeli Wine -Gascony wine Sweet wine -Gascony wine Wine Malmsey wine Claret -Malmsey Oxford Sion }) London Thorold Rogers. Vol. 11 11 11 London Cambridge Devonshire )} }} f) 11 Warwick . III.

Wardrobe Accounts 11 London Bardney )i Hunstanton 11 11 11 11 Letter Book N, fo. 184. 11 11 Rutland MSS., Vol. IV., p. 262. Thorold Rogers, Vol. III. Bateson, Grace Book B, Part IL, p. 108.

p. 108. Brewer, Henry VIIL, Vol. IVT, PartL,No.77L Thorold Rogers, Vol. III. 11 11 Letter Book N, fo. 299b. Thorold Rogers, Vol. III. )) )) )) S2 HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. Prices of Wine in England during the XVth and XVIth Centuribs — cont. Date.' Salefi or Purchases.

Salefi or Purchases. Price per Gallon. Price per Tun. Qaality or Origin of the Wine. Town where deal took place. Anthoritiea. 1528 1529 }) }) }) 1530 11

1530 -31 1531 }) £ s. d. 417 5 15 5 576 610 3 IS 10 (per butt) 5 11 4 580 800 7 14 8 7 13 4 724 6 13 4

668 600 616 400 Red, claret, and white wine Orleans wine-Gascony wine Sweet wine -Malmsey Claret -Red wine Wine Malmsey Crete White GaUlac wine Rhenish wine Red and claret wine >» i> j> >»

Red and claret wine 11 Gascon wine-Sweet wine at Bordeaux in London London Wardrobe Accounts 11 London Oxford 11 (Magdalen CloUege) London Oxford London 11 Durham

Wardrobe Accounts It IJ Brewer, Henry VIIL, VoL IV^ Part II., Nos. 5082, 5109. •» Thorold Koeen, VoL III. fi 91 >t f> »» 1* 11 Privy Parse Exp., Henry VIII., p. 24. Letter Book O, fos. 122, 123.

Durham Household Book (Sur-tees Society), pp. 3, 4, 49. i» 11 >» II II Thorold Hosers, Vol. m.

HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. 277 Prices of Wine in England during the XVth and XVIth Centuries—cow^. Bate. Sales or PorchMes. Price per Gallon. Price per tun. Quality or Origin of the Wine. Town where deal took place. AuthorltioB. 1531 >> ))

}) It it II 1532 11 I) II II II II }} II 1533 II II 11 II

II 32 gallons Assize price 38} gallons 21 „ 1 cask 1 butt 4| gallons Assize price II 2 hogsheads 1 16 46gaUons 1 hogshead 39 cades 21 sextaries 3 hogsheads 2 gallons 2 tuns 2 hogsheads 7 gallons 36i „ s. d - 10 -8 - 10 1 2

568 4 10 0 (per butt) . d.10 16 0 (per ctide) 4 0 -8 1 li .10 1 2 ?i II 1 0.81 0 £ s.10 6 13 4 680 4 13 4 600 per sex-tary 4 13 4 326 ..

468 Red and claret French and Gascon Wine Crete Wine Malmsey Wine Ga-scony. French Sweet wines • Red wine Wine • Wine and red wine Malmsey Claret Crete Rhenish . Guyenne.

Claret and red wine II Wine II ' * Rhenish Malmsey London II II Oxford 11 (Magdalen CoUege) Oxford 11 London ji Durham j> II London 11 Oxford London Durham .

fo. Henry VIIL. VoL . MSS. of the Duke of Rutland. 174b. 135.II Hunstanton II 11 London Soyer. III. Thorold Rogers. c. Durham Household Book. II 11 » II ' Statute 23. III. p. p. 360. Vol. Letter Book 0. Pantro-plieon. Vol. Vll. >i 11 Thorold Rogers.

Sales or Purchases. II Durham Household Book. p. VoL IV. p. Vol. 273. 11 I? >} HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND.. Prices of Wine in England during the XVth and XVIth Centuries— «»»<. Vol.of Rutland. III. 279 Prices of Wine in England during the XVth and XVIth Centuries— con<. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. Thorold Rogers. II Thorold Rogers. in. Price . 228. Date.

1537 > }\ >j j» >» 1538 » n >» . Authorities. Price per Ton. Quality or Origin of tlie Wine. Town where deal took place.per Gallon.

3 gallons 1 hogshead lOi gallons 9 pints 41^ gallons 8 „ Not specifieti 1538 -9 >» )) 1539 »> M >» »> 1510 >» >» Assize prio3 ?> »> »i .

40 10 20 10 14 8 10 10 13 £ 8. . d. d.Not specified >j 5 hogsheads Assize price 1 hogshead ^ot specified 3 gallons s.

lOJ Hippocias Claret • » 480 4 5 11 (per butt) 600 500 600 564 4 0 0 (per butt) Malmsey Crete -Wine Gascony wine . d. 568 445 4 2 11 (per butr) 3 0 0 5 13 4 .£ 8.

and claret Malmsey and sweet wines Rhenish Sack Gascony wine Sweet wine Wine French and Ga8con Claret Gascony wine Sweet wine Gascony wine Norwich Tottenham ff }} .Sweet wine Prize wine (claret) Prize wine (Komeney) Red. white.

of the Duke of Rutland. 277.. III. Thorold Rogers. MSS. p. Vol.Oxford it (Magdalen College) Wardrobe Accounts )) Hastings Chepstow London »» »> Wardnbe Accounts }) Leeds London Wardrobe Accounts Nor>» ich Thorold Rogers. Vol. Vol. IIL . IV.

. IV..»> >] )) Gairdner. »i »> » Thorold Rogers. 172b..Vol. Vol. Letter Book P. 347. MSS. 295. 131b.. Vol.XIV» Part IL. f o. 171b. No.Vol...Xin. III. Thorold Rogers. 922. Vol IIL >» i HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. No. p. 782. Letter Book P. Idem. Rutland. >f Gairdner. Henry Vin. No. fo.. Part II. Part I. Henry VIIL.

HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. Authorities. Date. Pricks of Wine in England during the XVth and XVIth Centuries — cont.HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. lo42 6 hogsheadH . 281 Prices of Wine in England during the XVth and XVIth Centuries— con/. Sales or PurchaBee. Price per Gallon. Quality or Origin of the Wine. Price per Ton. Town where deal took place.

1543 1 butt „ Xot speciiied 8. it II II II 1544 Assize price }} it 1545 1546 »i Not specified II 11 II . d.

II II II II 10 buitH 2S 2 •8 II II II Not specified 1547 II 1548 II II 1549 96 butts Not specified .

£ s. 8 0 0 4 13 4 4 9 10 4 1 4 6 10 0 800600 5 12 10 4 0 10 (per butt) 3 19 6 (per butt) 3 15 0 (per butt) 3 6 8 (per butt) 5 0 0 (per butt) 3 6 8 (p<»rbutt) 6 1 10 466 (pei: butt) 4 9 6 4 0 0 (per butt) 4 7 10 5 0 0 (per butt) 4 1 8 (per butt) . d.

320. p. p. white and claret wine Malmsey Gascony wine Sweet wine -Inferior wine Best Gascony French wine -Gascony wine Sweet wine London 11 }} Sack 11 Wardrobe Accounts Rutland 2iJSS.4 1 8 (per butt) 4 1 8 (per butt) Red. II Alnwick i» . '' Idem. Vol.. Vol.. III. 340 Thorold Roirers. IV.

XVIII. II II Wardrobe Accounts II II Malmsey Sack .. III. 156. VoL XIX. No. 11 II Wardrobe Accounts II . Vol. Part I.. London i Idem. No. Henry VIII. Vol.. Gascony Sweet wine -Gascony wine Sweet wine -Gascony wine Sweet wine -Malmsey Sweet wine Navy Accounts 11 II Thorold Rogers. 637.i» Gairdner. Part I.

.II 11 II II II Navy Accounts Wardrobe Accounts 11 II II II II II II n II HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND.

HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND.Prices op Wine in England during the XVth and XVIth Centuries— <ron^. 285 Prices of Wine in England during the XVth and XVIth Centuries—cow/. Sales or ParohaMB. Price per Gitllon. 283 Prices of Wine in England during the XVth and XVIth Centuries—«o»I. D*te. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENOLAND. Prices of Wine in England during the XVth and XVIth Centuries— «m#. ES OP Wise in Enolakd dthunc the XVth and XVIth Centubies —eemt HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. BISTOSY OF THE WIME TRADE IN ENGLAND. .

1571 )) u i1 11 11 11 1572 1573 91 »t 11 »> 11 1674 11 11 . Authorities. Quality or Onffin of the WiDe. Price per Tan.Gitllon. Town where deal took place.

8 6 8 6 10 0 5 16 4 790596 20 0 0 17 0 0 13 11 9 6 10 0 21 0 0 20 0 0 12 10 0 Gascon or French Mine London )) Muscadel Mnlmsey Sack Sack Gascony.n 91 11 11 1576 11 £ 8. Bur ffundy. Graves Sweet wines - . d. Or leans.

Gascony wine Sweet wines White wine Claret Sack • Muscadel Claret Sack Spanish Gascon Gascony wine Sweet wines -French wine -Gascony m ine Gascony wine 11 11 11 11 KingBton-on-Thanies London Wardrobe Accounts 11 11 Oxford .

p.11 11 11 11 11 11 London Wardrobe Accounts 11 London Wardrobe Accounts Letter Book X. 192. fo. »> >» 11 Thorold Rogers Vol. Rutland MSS. Vol. Vol. I. III.. It . Thorold Rogers.. 94. III.

3(51 b. Vol... III. Sales or Purchases. III. i> Thorold Rogers. Price .>» 11 »> >f Letter Book X. 1* Thorold Rogers. fo. >» Rutland MSS. 103. 287 Prices of Wine in England during the XVth and XVIth Centuries— ron^. p. Vol. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. Date. Vol. I.

1575 i» 1576 » M >1 Not Rpecified Asriize price Not 8pecified n 2 casks 70 tuns Assize price 1577 7 hogsheads „ 20 gallons if Not specified .per Gallon. Town where deal took place. Quality or Orlyin of the Mine. Authorities. Price per Tun.

gallons if Not specified 8. d. »» 1578 >j >j » »i >j M 1 hutt 2 hogsheads 1578 Assize price -81 »» >i J) 1579 >» j» .

1 butt 28 1412 £ s. 6 5 10 0 7 14 6 4 10 0 7 7 10 0 90 74 ..)) Not specified jj u »» >» a 2 tuns 2 . d.

62 7961 10 0 10 0 60600800 000000 Sweet wines -French wines Gascony wine Sweet wines -Wine 12 0 10 0 6 16 60 14 0 17 0 10 0 Gascony wine Claret and Whit© wine Sack .

Gascony wine Sweet wine Gascony wine Sweet wine Sack Wine Gascon wine Rochelle wine 0 Gascon wine 00000 Roohelle wine Gascony wine Sweet wines -Wine Gascon wine -Sack Wardrobe Accoants London Wardrobe Accounts Cambridge Hatfield Bristol Kirling » .

Vol. Letter Book Y.» Wardrobe Accounts ») It >» Kirling » London i> )) )) Wardrobe Accounts }) Ipswich Kirling Thorold Rogers. >i 9> . Thorold Rogers. VoL III. fo. 5b. in.

Prices of Wine in England during the XVth and XVIth . ) Letter Book Z. 289 Prices of Wine in England during the XVth and XVIth Centuribs—«w/ r|t HISTORY OP THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. 283. ft 91 »» PEiCES OF Wise is England durimo the XVth asd XVIth Chsturies—m«(. p. fo. Thorold Rogers. Tovey. fo. Thorold Rogers. 47. 9. p. Vol. 215. IV.. 8. 105b. HISTORY OP THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. fo.I Vth Report Hist. III. ti »} »» f} 9f I) t> Letter Book Y.. 7b. Vol. 105. MSS.

that no merchant Englishman should traffick or merchandise by himself or others by any manner of covine but only in that he should chuse before the Feast of Candlemas last past. 1363. and that they should meddle with no wares or merchandises than only in such as they should so chuse. 291 Prices of Wine in England during the XVth and XVItu Cen ruRiES—con^ T2 APPENDIX B.. perceiving that the merchants Englishmen did not come there but only to buy wines . as in the said ordinances is contained more at large. Know ye that amongst other things ordained in the last Parliament it was for certain causes and purposes in the same Parliament ordained. to the Vintners' Company OF London.Prices of Wine in England during the XVth and XVIth Centuries —con/. and the merchants and others of that country. HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. Dated July 15th. John the Baptist next coming. and now it is shown unto us and to our council that in Gascoigne was no other merchandise for profit to our realm of England than only wines. Edward. Lord of Ireland and Aquitain. greeting. by the Grace of God King of England. 37 Edward III. which they might put to sale before the Feast of the Nativity of St. To all whom these Presents shall come. Charter of King Edward III.

people of divers trades brought into Gascoigne great and divers sums of money and wares and would not or could not attend to put to sale reasonably their wares. the Company of the Mistery of Vintners are and were disturbed. that they could not buy wines at a reasonable price and for that the Gascoignes could sell their wines at so high prices in their own country. the wines were holden and set at a much higher and dearer price and for that. they did not care to come and travel hither with their wines to the great detriment of us and all our realm. have by the assent of the Commons and others of our . and perceiving that when the vintners of England did go into Gascoigne in old times to buy wines the navy was well maintained and then wines were bought by good advice and at reasonable pricea and that which the Englishmen would not suffer to be brought into England.Englishmen did not come there but only to buy wines and by the great multitude of people of divers trades resorting thither. so that then the country was well served with wines and wares by buying of the same wines and by the multitude of divers people that have gone for a long time past to buy wines in Gascoigne. and likewise could not be rulers of the same wares as those that only by the sale of wines and for that the wines coming to divers hands were so much the dearer. We. they set a price upon their wines by barter and exchange which amounted to a very excessive sura by the ton above that which the ton should be reasonably sold for. understanding the aforesaid things. upon which price the Gascoignes agreed together and held with the people that used other merchandise and meddled in buying and selling of wines so that they had no need to sell their wines but at their will. the Gascoigncs brought.

have by the assent of the Commons and others of our Council towards maintaining and preserving the said ordinances. most sufficient. and present them to the Mayor of the said City of London and of other cities. nor bring into England. for their store and dispenses in their proper houses and to the said merchant vintners. such as have skill and knowledge in the same mistery. as they shalt see good for their profit. boroughs and towns. nor meddle therewith. shall sell by wholesale by the ton or by the pipe and not by retail. for a reasonable price and gain. nor by little parcels to the nobles or others our Commons. which they shall bring into England. and that the said merchants of the said Mistery of Vintners shall chuse every year four persons. be sold by retail in the tavern at a . that all manner of wines. ordained and granted that no merchant or others of our said realm shall go into Gascoigne or beyond that to buy wines. or to the bailiff or president to survey. that is to say. whatsoever they be. nor use. most expert and most knowing in the same mistery who do not keep a tavern. who will buv the same and that no private person or stranger after he hath brought any wines into our said realm of England shall carry them out of the same realm upon any colour without our special licence. nor haunt merchandise of wines. and We likewise will that the merchants of Gascoigne and other strangers and foreigners of their own proper wines. none but such as are enfranchised in the said Mistery of Vintners and likewise in other cities. to whom it is lawful to buy wines there and bring into England and to sell of their own proper wines by wholesale or retail to the nobles and others. boroughs and towns. where such Mistery of Vintners s used. in London.

and we will also that all manner of wines coming to London be discharged and laid on land above London Bridge towards the west and towards the vintry. bailiff or president. but by wholesale by the tons and pipes. we will and give licence to the said merchant vintners of England that they may buy cloth and to the merchants Gascoignes bringing wines into England. as is aforesaid. so that always they do not sell or cause to be sold by themselves or others any cloth. and that the taverner be ruled by the said four persons and likewise that the same four persons do correct and amend all defaults that shall be found in the exercise of the said mistery and inflict punishments by their good advice and consideration (if need be) without the said Mayor. and that the Gascoignes or other foreigners or strangers do not sell any wines in England by retail nor by parcels.reasonable price for such wine and of such condition as they be known and named. and to the interest the less money may go put of the realm and that money may be better regarded and retained in the same. fish or herrings in our realm of England or without but in the parts of Gascoigne and in other parts there. that they may buy dry fish in the Counties of Cornwall and Devon and herrings and cloth in all our realm at their pleasure and carry them out of this our realm to the parts of Gascoigne and further towards the said parts to sell there for their profit and with the money arising from the same to buy wines there and bring into this our realm and there to sell them and make their profit without disturbance. so that our butler and our ganger and searchers may have the sight and knowledge of the places where they shall be harboured and take the customs and prices and do that which to their office appertaineth. and that no .

d. cloth. fish. cloth and herrings in all cities.) For as moch as many gret now a dayes and long tyme her to fore bothe Englisshmen and aliens in comone harms of alle the Peple and gret sclaundre of J?is Citee naught charginge her owne iintrou]?e and disceyt daylych usyn within J^is Citee Jjair Wyne of Spayne Rochelle and o}?er remenauntz of brokyn sodyn reboyllid and unthrifty wynes of oJ>er contrees whan J^ei are feblyd in colour and noght in value to put yn divers buttys and oJ?ir vessels ]?at are here rasyd and gummyd with picche code and o]>\i horrible and unholsome J^inges for to reduce and bryng ay en in disceyt e of J^e peple a plesaunt colour to ]?e sight and a lykly manere drynkyng of Romeney to J^e smell and tast and noght only for exclusion and puttyng a wey J^is opyn and sclaunderouse deceyt here with yn ]?is . An Ordinance against the Adulteration of Wine. jo.which to their office appertaineth. fish or herrings in any other manner than is aforesaid under the pain of imprisonment. and to lose their wines. 227. and we will that the ordinances and subsidies of wines. fish and herrings. 1419. a. (Letter Book /. so bought and sold. and that no merchant or other denison or foreigner of what condition soever he be shall sell or buy wines cloth. boroughs and towns enfranchised within this realm. In witness whereof we have caused these our letters to be made patents. be firmly kept and preserved in all points to the said vintners and their successors always in the form aforesaid. Given at Westminster the fifteenth day of July in the thirty-seventh year of our reiiin.

hole with brokyn. or corrupt Rochel with Renysshe ne none o}? ere wyne of divers kyndes ne growynges to gidir but selle hem hole and trewe cwyw as J?ei growyn up peyne of Juysse of J)e pillorye as oft as he may be convict in }?e contraire . Wherfor )?e Mair and Aldirmen J^at now are be good deliberacion and assent of J?e Comons knowyng wele ]?at al J?e gret€ multitude of wynes ]?at are clepid Romeneyes wi]? in this Citee are but contrefetid of Spaynissh wyne and Rochelle and oj^er remenauntz of wyne forseyd al beit Y in colour and tast be the deceyvable menys forseyd it scmith o]?er. And also J?at no Coupcr ne none oj^ir man with yn ]>q fraunchise of J^is Citee be so hardy fro }?is day forward in his own persone or by his servaunt to . old wath newe. And also J?at fro this day forward no man with yn J?ia Citee ne ]?e liberte ]?erof fre ne forein coloure ne medle no manere wyn ]?at is to sey no white wi]? rede. Willyng also the stable amendement of J?e deceyt and fals contrefetyng and untrewe medlyng forsayd and ]>sX eche wyne be sold hole in his degre and kynd as he growith hav ordeynid and establisshyd ]>at no man with yn J^is Citee or J>e liberte ]?erof fro this day forward selle a galon of ]?e best such wyne contrefetid that J?ei calle Romeney no derer J^an vjd on pe\'Tie of forfaiture of all }?e vessel 1 and wyn wherof he sellith oght in J^e contrarie . The peticion of }?e Comons hath oftyn here to for requirid a covenable remedie. but also for ))e redy remevyng of grete multitude of such wynes deceyvablych contrefetyd and medlid on )?e other syde of J^e see and broght hydir to selle.J^is opyn and sclaunderouse deceyt here with yn ]?is Citee late practisid and bygonne.

that the mistery aforesaid. and that the same masters. Dated August 23rd. and that the same Company every year shall and may chuse. four masters or wardens. to all to whom these presents shall come. and commonalty shall and may have perpetual succession. by the Grace of God King of England and France. and make out of themselves. and in name.. and one perpetual Company. Charter of 15 Henry VI. ai. one body. that We of our special grace have granted to the freemen of the mistery of Vintners of the City of London. greeting. Know ye. And more overe for }? accomplissement of sikerer holdjmg and continuaunce of ]na ordeynaunce the Maior and Aldermen have ordeynid ]?at every man of what degre astatc or condicioun ]?* he be }>at can aspye or enfourme )?e Chamberleyn of Jris Citee of eny persone ]?at in ony wise sellith ony romeneyes or eny oJ>er wynes or hem medlith or colourith in eny wyse ayens J?e manere and forme above expressid shal have ]>e thrid parte of ])e fortaiture }?erof demyd for his labour. and a common seal to serve for the business of the said commonalty. and that they and their successors for ever shall and may be persons able and capable in law to purchase and . to oversee. rule and govern the mistery and commonalty aforesaid.gumme rase bynde setyn hede or in any o]?er wyse contrefete or medle with ]>e undewe makyng or contrefetyng of eny manere wyn up peyne of the same Juysse of pyllory to have as oft as he is lawfully convict or atteynt J?er of. 1437. and all men and business of the same for ever. and Lord of Ireland. Henry.d all men of the same from hencefort h may and shall be in deed. or wardens.

lands. In witness thereof. or wardens. the statute of lands and tenements not to be purchased in mo^main. as ako for the state and souls of the men of the said mistery and commonalty. in the fifteenth year of our reign. or to be ordained. made. The above Charter was confirmed in its entirety by letters patent of Henry VILj dated from Westminster. tenements. and suburbs of the same. we have caused these our letters to be made patents. and rents within the City of London. and commonaltv in this behalf to be made. towards the better support as well as of the poor men of the same commonalty. of our more abundant grace. by the name of the master or wardens of the commonalty and mistery of Vintners aforesaid. notwithstanding. rents. and commonalty of the said mistery shall and may be able to purchase lands. Witness Ourself at our Castle of Kenilworth. and other possessions whatsoever . and for the souls of all our ancestors.possess in fee. or w^ardens. And further. to celebrate divine service for ever daily. according to the ordinances of the said masters. shall and may be able to implead and be impleaded before any judges whatsoever in any courts and actions whatsoever. and the souls of all the faithful deceased. to the value of twenty pounds a year. to be had and holden to them and their successors for ever. for our state whilst we live. . and that they the w^ardens. We have granted that the masters. and for our soul when we are departed. as of one chapel. which are held of us. perpetuity. tenements. the twenty-third day of August.

in the 2Uh year of his reign. Wherefore at the prayer of the sayd comyns the kynge our sovereyne lorde by the advyse of the lordes spyrituell and tem-perell in this sayd present parliamente assembled and by auctorite of the same It is enacted orde}iied and established that noo maner of persone of what degree or condycion that he be of bye nor selle wythin this sayd reame Irlande. and that upon pejme of forfeiture of the same wynes soo broughte or solde contrary to this acte. the 2ith day of October. And that the marjmers of the same englisshe. Calays or the marches thereof or Berwyk from the fest of Myghelmas next now comyng any maner wynes of the growynge of the duchie of Guyen or of Gascoygne but such wynes as shall be aventured and broughte in an englisshe. cap.. For Operadons of the Navee. the one halfe of that forfeiture to be to the Kynge our sovereyn lorde and that other halfe to the f}'Tider of that forfeiture. Statute.letters patent of Henry VILj dated from Westminster. Or men of Calays or of the marches of the same. 1 Henry VII. Wales. bi the whiche this noble ream^ within short processe of tyme wythoute reformacion be had therein shall not be of habylite and power to defiende it selfe. Irysshe or Wsalsshe mannys shyppe or shyppes. This acte and ordenaunce to . and idlenesse of the maryners within the same. Irysshe or Walshe men fyne the more parte. 8. Item in the sayd parliament it was called to remembraimcc of the grete mynysshynge and decaye that hath be now of late tyme of the navye within this reame of Englande.

as well such as be free of the Company of Vintners as of other Companies. as amply as if they were free of the Vintners. January. now using the trade of retailing of wines. That whereat at the humble suit of the body of this (^ty with the assent and furtherance of the said Company of Vintners. This acte and ordenaunce to endure bytwin this and the begynnynge of the next parliamet. LeUer Book Z. and such other as in the said letters patent are limited to sell wine by retail. Ordynance for Vintners. Savyng alwaye to the Kyng his prerogative. and that no one person should by virtue thereof keep any more taverns at once than one.f}'Tider of that forfeiture. as by the said letters patent more at large may appear since the day of these letters patent. fos. there has been hitherto . and be chargeable to obey and keep all such good ordinances of the Vintners as your Lordship and Worships shall so make to be generally kept. Humbly shew to your good Lordship and Worships the Wtizens of London. And whereas in the said letters patent there is contained a special limitation to what persons the same • should extend. 1583 (25 Elizabeth). 117119. and also a special commandment to the Lord Mayor and Aldermen to see that the number of such taverns do not inordinatelv exceed and that they be situated only in places convenient. It pleased the Queen's most Excellent Majesty to grant the most gracious letters patent of license bearing date the 13 day of October in 19th year of Her Majesty's reign for all citizens brought upon the said trade. nor should set up in that trade without the allowance of the Lord Mayor and Aldermen.

and that from henceforth . to the great hurt of the commonwealth and of the freedom of the City. By reason thereof great multitude do daily set up taverns not only such as might be or ought to be allowed by the said license. but also forains and strangers and in excessive numbers. and to such manifest disorder and breach of Her Majesty's commandments as may grow to very great peril of bringing the whole license aforesaid in question and of Her Majesty's and her most Honorable Council's indignation and displeasure towards your good Lordship and Worships. and of the ordinances and good orders herewith exhibited on pain to be disallowed and that otherwise their allowance shall be void. for reformation whereof.the day of these letters patent. in places inconvenient and without being charged to the keeping of goods ordinances. It may please your good Lordship and Worships to cause the intent of the said letters patent to be duly exacuted and that the limitations and commandments therein contained may be set down in the Repertory of your Court to be observed and duly remembered and that the names of such persons as be herewith exhibited with the Citizens lawfully using the said trade. there has been hitherto no allowaiuc made of any persons according to the said limitations. which God forbid. and to the intend Her Majesty most gracious license aforesaid to the body of this City. and to the danger of their own undoing. may remain in good lyking and allowance. And that they may be called and commanded to observe the contents of the said letters patent. and which have contributed to the City's charge in altering of the said license may also be entered as persons allowed with the several places of their taverns.

to inform what they can by way of exception to the person so praying to be allowed and further 300 HT.their allowance shall be void. and that before such allowance your Lordship and Worships will first send to the Wardens of the Vintners for the time being. and that from henceforth none be suffered to keep taverns by virtue of the said license. that it will please your good Lordship and Worships to cauf>e the order herewith exhibited to be set down in the Repertory to the intent that the same may be observed and kept according to the provisions and commandments in Her Majesty's letter patent and your said Orators shall daily pray to Grod for your Lordship and Worships in prosperous Estate long to continue. it may extend and no further. and that from time to time the names of all such persons so to be allowed may be sent in writing to the wardens of the Vintners that they may accordingly from time to time see to their good obedience and the correction of such as shall presume to use the trade without the allowance. but such as be licensed by the said letters patent and shall present themselves. and that this allowance be always made to extend so far as by the liberties of this City and by virtue of the said letters patent. before your Lordship and Worships and be entered into the Repertory. Inprimis it is ordained and established that the Master and Wardens or their deputies shall have all such .<^TORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. Ordinances for the Wardens to Search.

Also it is ordained that the Master and Wardens of the . And the moiety of the value thereof to be to the Chamber of the said City and the other moiety to the said Company. and also to bring in the whole number of every sort of wines as they should find in their search and present the same into the Present Master as well of the good wine as of the wine that be defective.and Wardens or their deputies shall have all such searchers as they in times past according to the law and lawful customs of the City of London have had used and made of all them and everyone of them that hereafter shall sell any wines in retail and otherwise within the franchise of the said City of London and in especially such search as hereafter ensueth. that twelve of the discreet persons of the said fellowship will be yearly sworn before the Mayor and Aldermen of the said City duly and truly to search in the presence of two officers of the said Master all such old wines as have been within the said City and the franchise of the same. and after their power and learning shall duly present all such manner of wines as been good and hable for man's drink. And also to visit and search all manner taverns and houses wherein wine be retailed by the measure of divers pots within the said City and franchises and see that their measures be justly and truly sealed and that every measure that in such taverns and houses of retail is found unsealed to distrain and bear awav to the common hall of the said Com-pany. whereupon it is further ordained as of ancient customs hath been used. To Assemble the Company together for abating Prices of Wines.

mark nor buy any mamier of wine in hindering the Queen our Sovereign Lady and her liege people on payne to pay to the use aforesaid for every tun so bought and . whereof the Master and Wardens of the said Company may have knowledge to the intent that by their good reason a politic policy they may drive and make prices reasonable to the most profit to the Queen. there to forestall. shall go send nor procure no other man to go within any part of the Thames nor within the Queen's streams. our Sovereign Lady and of her subjects. Also it is ordained that no mamier of person whatsoever he be occupying the said trade of Vintners. and he that maketh default. to pay to the said Company at every time without a reasonable excuse the sum of 13d. It is ordered and appointed that this calling be only for abating the price of wine. once every fortnight or oftener if need be from the going of the Mayor of London to Westminster until Easter if time of need require it. and especially in the meantime that new wine be brought to the said City. For Foreaiallinq. Wardens upon a reasonable warning shall call the Company together to the Hall every month or oftener if need be. and retailing of wines within the said City of London or the franchise thereof.Also it is ordained that the Master and Wardens of the said Company of Vintners of the City of London for the time being shall have all the Company together use retailing of wines within the City of London or the liberties thereof. and from Easter unto Michaelmas the said Master.

Nor that no manner of persons as is above said.marked 40s. Also it is ordained that no manner of persons as aforesaid within the said franchise of London shall buy sell maintain nor receive any wines any strange person foreign by which the Queen may be hurt in her customs. 4d. That no person colour any stranger's goods. upon pain to forfeit for every such quart. . nor halfpint pot. and in manner and form above written. and so after the rate. Also for the avoiding of the losses of potte that be lent unto divers persons and for divers other inconveniences that hath grown about the same. Nor no manner of persons as is above declared shall scrape nor shave any man's mark. nor suffer to be taken ny pot or pots of any other man's instead of his own on pain to pay to the use of the said Company of Vintners for every pot so taken Ss. or change the lid of his pot or pots upon pain above said. 4d. as often as it can be proved to the use aforesaid. For wines brought to the City to be Cellared and lay three days before they be bought. take. and half-pint so lent. For PoUe. pint. it is also ordained that no manner of person or persons that now doth or hereafter shall occupy the said trade of retailing of wines within the said City of London and the franchise thereof shall lend no quart pot. upon pledge nor without pledge. shall assent. 3s. the franchise of the City minished the profit and the weal of the fellowship hindered and impaired upon to pay to the use of the same Company five pounds. pint.

but only in his own mansion and dwelling house upon pain to forfeit to the said Company for every man so doing a hundred shillings. Nor that any person or persons. That none shall keep any more taverns than one. from henceforth shall set up any tavern or cellar to utter wine by retail within any other man's house or cellar. Also it is ordained that no person or persons occupying the retailing of wine within the said City of London and the franchise thereof shall from henceforth keep or by any means have or occupy any more taverns than one and that in convenient place upon pain to forfeit to the said Company for man's so doing the contrary. of every tun to be paid to the said Company of Vintners for every time by him that so buyeth. . so always that the said Butler or provider shall make no provision to the contrary. Nor no wine after it be cellared and gauged be put unto sale nor shown unto no person before it has laid three days in the cellar to the intent that the buyer thereof may have the more exact knowledge of the goodness thereof on the pain of 20s.three days before they be bought. five pounds. It is also ordained that no wine brought into the City of London to be sold shall be bought till the same be discharged and lodged in cellars or cellars within the same City except to the Queen's use or to the Lords of the Council and that by her Butler or provider only. And every vessel of wine so brought to the said City shall be marked with the ganger's mark before it be sold to the intent every buyer may know he has his full gauge. but only to the Queen's own use.

That none shall take any more apprentices than such as he may honestly guide and set on work in his own service. Also it is ordained that no person or persons occupying the said trade of Vintners in retailing of wine within the said City of London or the franchise thereof. year. Nor shall take or receive any journeyman to be hired by the day. This ordinance is expounded by the Lord Mayor and Aldermen that an apprentice to the trade of Vintners be understood to be an apprentice to any lawfully using the trade of retailing wine although they be not of the Company. Also that no manner of person of what trade or degree be he occupying the said trade of Vintners and retailing of wine within the franchise of London by himself nor by any other man shall hire nor procure to be hired no man of the same trade or being a brother out of his house that he dwelleth in. That no man shall hire out another of his house. upon pain to pay and forfeit . or week or otherwise to draw his wine or to take the charge of his wine unless he has been an apprentice to the said trade of Vintners upon pain to for feit and pay to the use of the said Company of Vintners the sum of a hundred shillings. shall take or receive any apprentice to the said state of Vintners unless he be presented before the Masters and Wardens of the Company of Vintners nor shall keep or receive in his house any more apprentices at once to be learned in the said mistery than such as he may honestly guide and set on work in his own service.

And if any of them be summoned by the Master and Wardens for the time being or any of them or by the Clerk or Beadle of the said Company for to come unto the said Master and Wardens at a certain time by them appointed and cometh after the hour so appointed. upon pain to pay and forfeit to the indweller a hundred shillings and to the use of the same Company a reasonable fine according to the discretion of the Master and Wardens. without a reasonable excuse imfeigned or untrue. and the franchise thereof and shal obey all manner of summons and warnings at any time to be made by the Committee of the Master and Wardens of the said Company of Vintners for the time being for any manner of cause or matter concerning the weal and worship of the said Company or the good rule and guarding of the said Company. withdraw or cause any man's servants of the said fellowship or any apprentice being within his apprenticehood to withdraw himself out and from the service of his said service or apprenticehood. For withdrawing of apprentices and servants.house that he dwelleth in. for Disobedience of Sumnums. he shall pay for every time so making default . that then the person so causing the voydance of such servant or apprentice shall pay to the use aforesaid forty shillings. procure. Also it is ordained that all and every person or persons occupying the said trade of Vintners and retailing of wine within the said City of London. Also it is ordained that if any person of what trade so ever occupying the said trade or mistery of Vintners within the said franchise of London.

John HoUyngshead Thomas Trayford. That none shall set up before he hath served two years as journeyman. at the Horse Heady by Durham House* Mercer. And thereupon ordered that the same shall be entered into the Repertoire.twelve pence. Also it is ordained that no person or persons that is to occupy retailing of wine within the said City of London or the liberties thereof after he is first made free set up any tavern or retailing of wine to occupy for himself before he hath been two years journeyman without special licence of the Court of the Lord Mayor and Aldermen upon pain of forfeiture of five pounds to the use aforesaid and be put from such occupying for the said year. . Persons allowed to retail wines according to the Queen's Majesty's letter patent. And if he absent himself at any such time and come not having no lawful excuse as above said. thereof granted to the City of London so far as the said letter patent do extend and for the taverns in the place here mentioned. at the Emperor^s Head^ in the Vintry. It is expounded by the Lord Mayor and Aldermen that this order touching obepng of summons be understood to charge such as be of other Companies to obeying of summons only for matters touching the general weal of the City or the observing of the ordinance here allowed and limited to be generally kept. Drapers. he shall pay two shillings. George Lucas.

at the Dolphin. at the Sun. by Powell's Chaine. Thomas Martin. by the Royal Exchange. without Temple Bar. Bryan Chason. at the Bell. Robert Chaderton. Clothworkers. at the Red Lion. in Newgate Market. Humphrey Daukyn. in Gracechurch Street. at the White Lion. Clement's Lane. at the King's Head. Gregory Shorter. Richard Olyffe. in Dystaff Lane. at Battle Bridge. Josyas West. Robert Good. Thomas Langley. Michael Blaye. at the Horshead. Fishmongers. at the Blue Anchor. Merchant Tailors. in Cheape. U Chaundeler. at the King*8 Head^ in Fish Street. Distaff Lane. Roger Richardson. Thomas Nokes. at the Boll. at Billingsgate. at the Eagle. at the Ship. Haberdashers. John Pycker\Tige. William Wobbe. in Thames Street. at the Rose. . in Shoreditch. at St. within Ludgate. at the King's Heady in Westminster. by Leadenhall. within Cripplegate. in Eastcheap. at the Pyckerell.Grocers. in Wood Street. Anthony Percival. at the Queen's Head. William Gierke. at the Princes Arms. Richard Athercksych. at the Snyte. Robert Dodd. Robert Adams. Richard Holland. in St. at the Horsehead. within Aldgate. Anthony's. William Maior. Edward Sagge. at the Rose. in Newfish Street. at the Pheasant. Anthony Radcliff.

without Bishopsgate. Flanders. Counts of Haspurg. Girdlers. Cooj>er8. late King of England. in Gracechurch Street. dated July 30th. at the Greyhound. Stephen Heath. at the Ship. 1558. William Tybalde. in Tower Street. We have inspected the Letters Patents . at the Horsey Lombard Street. and Ireland. made in these words : Henry. at the Horsehead. by the Grace of God King of England and France. Philip and Mary. Widow Whittingham. to all to whom these presents shall come greeting. John Dowell. Milan. Barber Surgeon. Defenders of the Faith. Salter. Dukes of Burgundy. and Brabant. Archdukes of Austria. Richard Hunt. Thomas Taylor. at the Bell. France. Jerusalem. and Mary. in Leadenhall Street.Dyer. of the Spains. and Lord of Ireland. Francis Barnard. at the Greyhound^ in Holbom. 5th and 6th Phil. Cook. at the Harrow. our most dear grandfather. to all to whom these presents shall come greeting. Charter. and Tirol. We have inspected the Letters Patents of confirmation of the Lord Henry the Seventh. by the Grace of God King and Queen of England. and of both the Sicilies. Thomas Mason. within Holbom. in Old Bailey.

come greeting. and all men of the same from henceforth may. rents. made in these words : Henry. rule. the wardens. King of England and France. we have granted that the masters or wardens and commonalty of the said mistery shall and may be able to purchase lands. and govern the mistery and commonalty aforesaid. our most dear uncle. that we of our special grace have granted to the freemen of the mistery of Vintners of the City of London. and that they and their successors for ever shall and may be persons able and capable in law to purchase and possess in fee and perpetuity. We have inspected the Letters Patents of the Lord Henry the Sixth. and suburbs of the same which are held of us to the value of twenty pounds a year. or actions whatsoever. late King of England. to be had and holden to them and their successors for ever. and other possessions whatsoever. and that the same masters or wardens and commonalty shall. lands. and that they. and further of our more abundant grace. and shall be in deed and in name one body. towards . to all to whom these presents shall come. that the mistery aforesaid. by the name of the masters or wardens of the commonalty of the mistery of Vintners aforesaid. shall and may be able to implead and be impleaded before any judges whatsoever in any courts. and a common seal to serve for the business of the said commonalty. and may have perpetual success. by the Grace of God. and that the same company every year shall and may chuse and make out of themselves four masters or wardens to oversee. tenements. and Lord of Ireland. and all men and business of the same for ever. tenements. greeting. Know ye. and one perpetual company. and rents within the City of London.

Witness ourself at Westminster the second day of October in'the twenty-fourth year of our reign. the 23rd day of August in the 15th year of our reign. our heirs and successors. accept. our heirs and successors of the said Queen. and the souls of all the faithful deceased. do. In witness whereof. duly regarding the said Letters Patents. and for the souls of all our ancestors. and for our soul when we are departed. Now we. we have caused these our letters to be made u2 patents. now masters or warders of the . Now we also. In witness whereof. Witness ourself at our Castle of Kenelworth. and ratify and grant and confirm to our well beloved John Strelley. to our well beloved John Hatfield. as well of the poor men of the said commonalty as of one chapel to celebrate divine service for ever daily. for us. Alexander Carlell. and ratify. as much as in us is. William Basse. according to the ordinances of the said masters or wardens and commonalty in this behalf to be made the statute of lands and tenements not to be purchased in mortmain made. John Scrace. we have caused these our letters to be made patents. duly regarding the said Letters Patents. as much as in us is. and all the grants and confirmations aforesaid. Thomas Derlove. for our state whibt we live. approve. or to be ordained notwithstanding. by these presents. accept. and all and singular the matters therein contained. by these presents. as also for the state and souls of the men of the said mistery and commonalty.the better support. and Richard Sm}'the. and John Sandell. approve. and all and singular the matters therein contained. do. for us.

do will. one body corporate and politic in deed. and grant. We therefore at the humble request. ordain. And that by the same name from henceforth for ever they may have perpetual succession. and commonalty of the mistery of Vintners of London. for us. and that the freemen and commonalty of the misterv aforesaid. shall . and their successors. and successors of the said Queen. and by these Presents for us our heirs and successors of the said Queen. and declare that the mistery of Vintners of the City of London aforesaid shall hereafter for ever be and remain a mistery of itself. have willed. and establish them. ordained^ constituted and granted. constitute. and freemen and commonaltv of the misterv of Vintners of London. to be had and holden to them and their successors for ever. by the name of the master and wardens. our heirs. and that they. make. ordain. do erect. one body corporate and poUtic for ever really and fully. wardens. and that we would be pleased. are and shall be from henceforth for ever. fact and name. by the name of the master. as well of the said freemen of the said mistery of Vintners of the City of London. And we by these Presents. and commonaltv of the misterv of Vintners of London. and freemen. now masters or warders of the misterv aforesaid. certain knowledge and mere motion. And whereas the freemen of the mistery of Vintners of the City of London aforesaid have now humbly besought us that we would vouchsafe freely and liberally to shew and extend our royal munificence and grace to them. to make. reduce. by the name of the master and wardens and freemen. of our special grace. for the rule and better government and support of the same mistery. as of the master or wardens and commonalty of the same mistery. and create the same freemen into another body corporate and politic.Richard Sm}'the.

and commonalty of the mistery of Vintners of London they shall and may be able to plead. receive. and to have purchase. and hereditaments of what kind. wardens. condition. nature. liberties. give. privileges. and before any justices and judges whatsoever. answer. of what kind. tenements. receive. and commonalty shall and mav have a common seal to serve for the doing of the affairs and business. answer and be answered. as our other subjects of this our kingdom of England are able and capable in law to plead and be impleaded. and be answered. and that by the name of the master and wardens. 309 liinds. and demise. and their successors in fee and perpetuity. or pleas whatsoever. and be defended in any courts. in manner and form. or sort soever they shall be. and defend. and that the said master. nature. teneme its. suits. matters and demands whatsoever. and that it shall and may be lawful for the said master. and possess* HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. freemen. grant. whatsoever of them and their successors. places. and other officers of us. defend and be defended. or sort soever the same be. and other psrsons whatsoever in all and singular actions. shall and may for ever hereafter be persons able and capable in law to have. and be impleaded. to them. wardens. and also to give. demise. causes. and hereditaments as well purchased as to be purchased. purchase. and freemen.commonalty of the mistery of Vintners of London. complaints. our heirs or successors of the said Queen. . grant. and to do and execute all and singular other matters and things to be done by the name aforesaid. possess. and assign the same lands. jurisdictions. franchises.

do assign. and further of our more abundant grace. and for us. we assigned. certain knowledge. and commonalty. and ordained out of themselves in manner as hereinafter is specified in these our Letters Patents. appointed. willing that the said John Strelley shall and may b » continued in the office of master of the same mister3% from the date of these Presents until the Feast of Saint Martin the Bishop. our heirs and successors of the said Queen. of the said Queen. ordain. our heirs and successors of the said Queen. constituted. change. by these Presents do grant. in winter then next following.freemen. and make our well beloved John Strelley. and Richard Smythe. and their successors from time to time. and that they shall be and remain in the office of wardens of the same mistery from the date of these Prese its until the said Feast of Saint Martin the Bishop. freemen of the mistery aforesaid to be the first and present wardens of the mistery aforesaid. and mere motion. to be the first and present master of the said mistery. Also we have assigned. and made. now one of the wardens of the mistery aforesaid. we will and . constitute. name. do assign. that from henceforth for ever there shall be only one master of the mistery aforesaid. And for the due execution of this our will and gfant in this behalf. to be chosen. we will.. named. in winter then next ensuing. and for us. named and constituted. and make new that seal at their pleasure. and three wardens of the freemen of the mistery aforesaid. Thomas Derlove. by these Presents. our heirs and successors. and for us. who has first been warden of the said mistery. constitute. to break. as they shall see fit. and make our well beloved Alexander Carlell. And further.

liberties. or by whatsoever incorporation or pretence of any corporation they heretofore had held. liberties. had. or enjoy by reason or pretence of any charters. exemptions and jurisdictions which the master or wardens and commonalty of the mistery aforesaid or any of them. privileges. and appurtenances. and also the aforesaid customs.grace. that it shall and may be lawful to them the said master and wardens. and of our more abundant grace for us. tenements. immunities. prescription. use. certain knowledge. And we will and by these Presents ordain. and jurisdictions above recited or specified. liberties. immunities. our heirs and successors of the said Queen by these Presents. with all and singular their rights. hold. or title whatsoever used. and appoint a certain council house within our City of London. hold. and their successors. used. by these Presents do grant to the said master and wardens. and their successors for ever. custom. or confirmed. and also all and singular the same and such lands. or enjoyed. or any of the freemen of the said mistery by whatsoever name or names. to have. and freemen and commonalty of the mistery aforesaid. customs. use and enjoy the mistery aforesaid. or accustomed. or in any other lawful manner. hereditaments. in any manner whatsoever heretofore made. right. and that the . retain. or ought to have. by us. acquittances. acquittances. franchises. franchises. or any of our progenitors of the said Queen of this kingdom of England. and freemen and commonalty of the mistery of Vintners of London aforesaid and their successors. and mere motion. do grant to the said master and wardens. exemptions. granted. use. privileges. our heirs and successors of the said Queen. we will and for us. or Letters Patent. that they shall and may have. and freemen and commonalty.

that the said master and wardens. or the major part of them for the time being.council house within our City of London. so often as they shall see fit and necessary. and others occupying that mistery according to the good discretions of them or the njajor part of them assembled for the time being. and authority and faculty to frame. within the same house. constitute. and in the same assembly or meeting to treat about. and freemen and commonalty of the mistery aforesaid. and that the same master and wardens. do grant to the said master and wardens. a certain assembly or meeting of the same master and wardens. articles. and ordinances touching and concerning the mistery aforesaid. state. and freemen and commonalty of the mistery aforesaid. rights. and the good rule. consult. and of the freemen of the same mistery. our heirs and successors of the said Queen by these Presents. or the major part of the assistants and elders of the freemen of the said mistery for ever hereafter. And further of our abundant grace we will. and decree of statutes. ordinances. have full power. shall and may by these Presents. shall and may call together and hold. and for us. make. laws. and . refer. and freemen and commonalty of the mistery aforesaid for the time being or the major part of them met or assembled in the assembly or meeting aforesaid. and freemen and commonalty of the mistery aforesaid and their successors. advise. and establish from time to time (until they shall have a mandate or command from us. and government thereof. statutes. ordain. or of the major part of them. or heirs or successors of the said Queen to the contrary thereof) such laws.

or assigned. shall and may make. and their successors. or hereafter to be given. And for the bet^^er preservation. and the officers and ministers of the same for the time being. publick and conmion profit. statutes. and of all and singular other the men of the said mistery. as to them or the major part of them shall seem good. and all and singular other the ministers. as often as such laws. disposition. how they demean and behave themselves in their offices. and of other things and causes whatsoever anywise touching or concerning the mistery aforesaid. and imprisonments of body^ . freemen's apprentices. and the freedom thereof. granted. And that the master and wardens. and freemen and commonalty of the mistery aforesaid. officers. and otherwise for the further good. limit. wholesome. or the major part of them. rights. and for the declaration and order of the said master and wardens. and necessary according to their good discretions for the good rule and government of the master and wardens. and the statutes. trades. and freemen and commonalty. profitable. possessions. letting. ordinances. and provide such pains. or established in form aforesaid. granted. framed. and constitutions shall be made. and good rule of the mistery aforesaid. and hereditaments to the said master and wardens. given. duties. and commonalty of the mistery aforesaid. tenements. rights and interest of the same mistery. honest. penalties. fimctions. and freemen.constitutions. or assigned. and servants of that mistery. punishments. ordain. revertions. artificers. government. ordained. and freemen and commonalty of the said mistery for the time being. and demising of all the lands. and business touching and concerning the mistery aforesaid.

for one whole year or two then next ensuing. so as such laws. statutes. rights. or the major part of them shall be thought requisite and necessary. towards and upon all delinquents. against such laws. constitutions. ordinances and constitutions. so as aforesaid to be made we will to be observed under the pains therein contained. that the said master and wardens and freemen and commonalty of the mistery aforesaid for the time being or the major part of them from time to time for ever hereafter shall and may have full power and authority on the Feast of Saint Martin the Bishop. and they shall and may chuse and name one amongst themselves. after he shall be chosen and named as aforesaid . or by either of them. ordinances. our heirs or successors of the said Queen all and singular. rights and statutes. in winter yearly and every year (if they shall see fit) to chuse and name. our heirs and successors of the said Queen. which laws. ordinances. do grant to the said master and wardens and freemen and commonalty of the mistery aforesaid and their successors. penalties. and shall and may levy and have the same fines and amerciaments without the let of us. and imprisonments of body^ or by fines and amerciaments. who has first been one of the wardens of the mist^rv foresaid who shall be master of the said mistery and commonalty. as to the said master and wardens and freemen for the time being. statutes and constitutions be not repugnant or contrary to the laws nor statutes of our kingdom of England. Nevertheless. or any of them. ordinances. And that he. and constitutions. And further we will and by these Presents for us. our heirs or successors of the said Queen.punishments. for the better observing of the said laws. or any of the officers or ministers of us.

by these Presents do grant to the masters and wardens and freemen and commonalty of the mistery aforesaid and their successors. we will and for us. from time to time for . our heirs and successors of the said Queen. And that after such oath shall be so taken he shall and may execute the office of master of the mistery aforesaid for one whole year or two (if it shall seem meet to them) then next following. and that he so chosen and admitted shall and may have and exercise that office during the residue of the same year. to be master of the said mistery. moreover. And moreover. and for us. on the same feast day before the last preceding master in the presence of all those other freemen of the mistery aforesaid then present. he first taking his corporal oath in form aforesaid and in like manner as often as the case shall happen. freemen and commonalty of the mistery aforesaid for the time being. before he shall be admitted to execute the office aforesaid. after he shall be chosen and named as aforesaid master of the mistery aforesaid.he. well and truly to execute that office. shall take his corporal oath. to chuse and admit another of the commonalty aforesaid. or be removed from his office at any time within one or two years after he shall be admitted and sworn as aforesaid into the office of master of the mistery aforesaid. or the major part of them. that then it shall and may be lawful to and for the said wardens and freemen and commonalty of the mistery aforesaid for the time being. our heirs and successors of the said Queen by these Presents do grant to the said master and wardens and freemen and commonalty of the mistery aforesaid and their successors that the said master. or the major part of them. And. that if the said master of the mistery aforesaid shall happen to die. we will.

we will. in the presence of all those other freemen of the mistery aforesaid. yearly and every year (if they shall see fit) to chuse and name on the said Feast Day of Saint Martin the Bishop. that then it shall and may be lawful to and for the said wardens and freemen and commonalty of the mistery aforesaid for the time being or the major part of them. but if the said master of the mistery aforesaid shall happen to die. And that he. and they shall and may chuse and name one amongst themselves. on the same feast day before the last preceding master. or the major part of them. or be removed from his office at any time within one or two years after he shall be admitted and sworn as aforesaid into the office of master of the mistery aforesaid . and freemen and commonalty of the mistery aforesaid and their successors . or two then next ensuing. do grant to the master and wardens. and for us. from time to time for ever hereafter shall and may have full power and authority. then present. after he shall be chosen and named as aforesaid master of the mistery aforesaid. he shall and may execute the office of master of the mistery aforesaid for one whole year or two (if it shall seem meet to them) then next following. And that after such oath shall be so taken. by these Presents. to chuse and name. who shall be master of the said mistery and commonalty for one whole year. our heirs and successors of the said Queen. before he shall be admitted to execute the office aforesaid. .being. moreover. shall take his corporal oath. And. well and truly to execute that office. who has first been one of the wardens of the mistery aforesaid. to chuse and admit another of the commonalty aforesaid to be master of the said mistery. in the winter yearly and every year (if they shall see fit).

And. to chuse and name on the said Feast Day of Saint Martin the Bishop. then and there present well and truly to execute the office of wardens of the mistery aforesaid. that the said master. in the winter. then next ensuing. and these three after they shall be so chosen and named as aforesaid. he first taking his corporal oath in form aforesaid and in like manner as often as the case shall happen. they shall and may execute the office of wardens of the mistery aforesaid for one whole year then next following. shall take their corporal oaths on the same Feast Day of Saint Martin aforesaid. from time to time for ever hereafter.commonalty aforesaid to be master of the said mistery. in every year (if it shall seem meet to them) before the last preceding master and wardens in the presence of them and all the freemen of the mistery aforesaid for the time being. or two (if it shall seem meet to them). our heirs and successors of the said Queen by these Presents do grant to the said master and wardens. and that they shall and may chuse and name three of the aforesaid freemen to be wardens of the mistery aforesaid for one whole year or two (if it shall seem meet to them). and for us. freemen and commonalty of the mistery aforesaid for the time being. and . before they shall be admitted to execute the office of wardens. or the major part of them. and that after such oath shall be so taken. and that he so chosen and admitted shall and may have and exercise that office during the residue of the same year. moreover. we will. and freemen and commonalty of the mistery aforesaid and their successors. shall and may have full power and authority yearly and every year (if they shall see fit).

or the major part of them.and their successors. and for us. . as much as in us is. and for us. and so in like manner. reversions. do grant and give special licence. power. use and enjoy manors. it shall and may be lawful to and for the said master. first taking his corporal oath in form aforesaid. And we being further willing to show our more abundant grace to the said master. shall happen to die. wardens. of the mistery aforesaid and their successors. and authority. freemen and commonalty towards the pious uses and intents aforesaid. and freemen and commonalty. and that he or they. or be removed from his office at any time within one or two years after he or they shall be admitted and sworn as aforesaid wardens of the said mistery. shall and may have and exercise that office during the residue of the same year. receive. freemen and commonalty of the mistery of Vintners of the City of London aforesaid. faculty. wardens. to chuse and admit another or others. for the time being. to the said master. rents. that then as so often. tenements. or any or either of them. beyond . out of the number of the said freemen of the mistery aforesaid to be warden or wardens of the said mistery. freemen and commonalty of the mistery aforesaid. that they and their successors shall and may at one time or at several times purchase. our heirs and successors of the said Queen by these presents do grant to the said master and wardens. that if the said wardens of the mistery aforesaid. of our certain knowledge and mere notion. have granted and given licence.moreover we will. as often as the case may happen. by these Presents. lands. and other hereditaments and possessions whatsoever to the yearly value of forty pounds. so chosen and admitted. our heirs and successors of the said Queen.

and in like manner we have given licence. and for us. by whatsoever services. cause. towards the better support of the poor men and women of the commonalty of the mistery aforesaid. our heirs or successors of the said Queen in capite. or any other statute. provision. or elsewhere to our use. the statute of lands and tenements not to be purchased in mortmain. or by knight's service. release. or any other thing. and to the . citizen and vintner of London. and successors of the said Queen. ordained. so as the same lands and tenements be not held of us. or matter whatsoever in any wise notwithstanding. beyond reprisals. to give.whatsoever to the yearly value of forty pounds. or to any of our letters executory. or restraint to the contrary thereof. and their successors for ever in fee and perpetuity. bequeath. do give special licence to the said Stephen Mason. great or small. or confirm the same to them. and this without any fine or fee. act. in any manner to be rendered. as also of and from any other person or persons whomsoever willing. to be had and holden to the said master and wardens and freemen and commonalty of the mistery of Vintners of the City of London aforesaid. ordinance. our heirs. published. or any part thereof. enfeoff. paid or made for the same to us. and this without any writ of ad quod dampnumy or any other writ or inquisition to be taken or returned thereupon in our Chancery. our heirs or successors of the same Queen. assign. although the same. made. or provided. grant. as well of and from Stephen Mason of Wevering Street in the county of Kent. be held by us. in thehanaperofour Chancery. bargain. or of our heirs or successors of the said Queen thereupon to be done or prosecuted. or any other persons whomsoever.

or provided. reversions. and without any fine or fee. rents. to the said master. or any other person or . ordained. assign. beyond reprisals. wardens. cause. or elsewhere to our use. freemen and commonalty of the mistery of Vintners of the City of London aforesaid. or restraint to the contrary thereof. bequeath. lands. to be rendered. release or confirm the same manors. provision. ordinance. and other hereditaments and possessions whatsoever with the appurtenances to the yearly value aforesaid. and this without any writ of ad quod dampnum. rents. in anywise notwithstanding . enfeoff. paid or made for the same to us in our hanaper. or freemen or commonalty of the mistery of Vintners of the City of London. or their successors. lands. for ever by the tenour of these Presents. tenements. willing that the said master and wardens. act. or any other thing. or of our heirs. grant. bargain. bequeath. published. and to the same person or persons. or any other writ or inquisition to be taken or returned thereupon in our Chancery. to the yearly value of forty pounds beyond reprisals. made. that she or he shall and may lawfully and freely give. to the said master and wardens and freemen and commonalty of the mistery aforesaid. services and other hereditaments whatsoever.special licence to the said Stephen Mason.or to any other of our letters executory. the said statute of lands and tenements not to be purchased in mortmain or any other statute. assign. or successors of the said Queen. reversions and services. great or small in any manner. release or confirm such manors. and their successors as aforesaid. tenements. bargain. willing to give. enfeoff. or matter whatsoever. whatsoever thereupon to be done or prosecuted. grant.

Baylyefes and Burgesses of yo"^ Graces Towne and Porte of Sowthehampton. or of any gift or grant by us. or provided. or in anywise aggrieved by reason of the premises. and Bur(jesses of Southampton.. In witness thereof we have caused these our letters to be made patents. or by any of our progenitors. to the said master and wardens. The Mayor. ordinance. ordained. and imto w*^** Towne all Marchaut Straugers of long tyme were accustomed to . vexed. or any of them. or predecessors of the said Queen. Petition of the Mayor. because express mention of the true yearly value. molested. That where the sayd Towne ys an Auncyent Boroughe and Towne scytuate upon the seasyde over agaynst the coaste of Normandye. hindered.'etc.. cause or matter whatsoever in any wise notwithstanding. is not at all made in these Presents. or in any statute. RECITING A Grant of Philip and Mary for Monopoly op Sweet Wines. by us. the thirtieth day of July in the fifth and sixth years of our reign. and freemen and commonalty of the mistery of Vintners of the City of London aforesaid and their predecessors before this time made. proclamation. or of any other value or certainty of the premises. disturbed. or any other thing. provision. act. Witness ourselves at Richmond. or any of them. published. our heirs or successors of the said Queen. In most humble wise shewethe unto yo' most excellent Maj"®. made.persons whatsoever be not in any manner howsoever impleaded. or restraint to the contrary thereof.

Bailiefes and Burgesses and all th'inhabitantes of the sayd Towne then being were well hable not onely to paye yerely to yo' most noble progenitors for the tyme being a greate Fee ferme of the said Towne. yet nevertheles they of late yeres seeking to lande the said wines at divers other places and creekes w^**in this Realme. laden w*** Malmesies and other swete wynes of the growth of Candye and Kotymo. shott. But also were hable to maintaine. w^*^ all their shippes and other vessels. and have dischardged and unladen the sayed wynes at the sayd Towne and Porte of Sowthampton and at none other place w^Mn thys Realme. and to have in a readines for defence against the forreine ennemies greate plentis of Armo^ weapons. And olthoughe the said Merchante Strangers were ever well used and intreated at the sayde Towne and ports of So ^thampton. By reason wherof yo' said subjectes as well for the redresse thereof as also for the relief of the said Towne and porte and th'inhabitantes of the same. or in any other place w*^4n the pties of Levant byonde the Straightes of Marrock w*"*' hathe been transported or brought by them into this Realme. powder and other artilarie and thinges nedeful.make theyr coinon accesse and repayre. and dayly landed theyr said wines at dyvers other Creekes and places where they might best doo the same without payeing the just Custome and Subsidie due for the sayd wynes. upholde and repaire at their onely costes and charges the Walles. By reason whereof and during all w*** tyme The sayd Mayor. dyd make . dyd for the most parte departe horn the said porte of Sowthampton. Seabanckes and Diches aboute the same Towne. Ordinance.

Denizen and Straunger That they nor any of them shoulde dischardge the sayd wynes in any other porte or place of this Realme then onely in the said Towne and Porte of Sowthampton upon payne of forfeiture to the said late Queue her heires and successoures for every Butt of the said wynes that shoulde bee put on land contrarie to the saide grante Twentye shillinges of laufull moneye of England. aforesayde whiche from the feaste of St. dyd make their complaynte and humble peticon to yo' Majt*** most deere Syster the late Queene Marie. amongest other thinges. And further the sayd late Queue Marie by her sayd Ires patentes dyd prohibite every marchant. Bailiefes and Burgesses of the sayd Towne of Sowthampton and to theyr successoures. dyd by her most gracious Lres Patentes under the Great Scale of Englande grante unto y**' sayd Orato" by the name of the Mayo'. who graciously hearing and considering their humble peticon and sute for the redresse of all the premisses. but onely at the sayd Porte and Towne of Sowthampton. Over and above the subsidye and ciistome of the same .and porte and th'inhabitantes of the same. John Baptyst nexte following the date of the said Ires patentes shoulde bee transported from the parties beyonde the Sea into this Realme of Englande. or in any other porte of Levante. shoulde in no parte of the sayde Realme of Englande bee put to land. That all manner of Malmesies and other sweete wines growyng in the Islandes of Candye and Kotymo within the pties of Levant beyonde the Sea.

And th'other moietie therof unto the sayd Mayor. And forasmuche as some ambiguities. Therefore maye yt please yo' highnes. wher they thinck good themselfee and for the most parte wher they may best deceyve yo' highnes of the Custome and subsidie due to bee payde for the same By reason wherof yo' Majt* dothe not onely sustayne greate losse and hynderance. as by the same was well ment. And that one moyetie of the sayd forfeyture should bee unto the sayde late Queue. Bailiefes and Burgesses hathe not hitherto taken suche effecte. that yt maye bee enacted That all wynes called Malmseys and other swete wynes of the growthe of Candye and Kotymo aforesayd in the . But also yo' sayde Towne and Porte of Sowthampton ye therby like to fall in greate ruyne and decaye.and above the subsidye and ciistome of the same wynes before that time due and accustomed to be payde. w*^ th'assent and consent of the Lordes Spirituall and Teraporall and the Comons in this presente Parliament assembled and by aucthoritee of the same. dowtes and Questions have growen upon the said grante and whether the same bee good in lawe to chardge the sayd Strangers w^ such penalties as bee therein conteyned or not. and Intended. And therfore the sayd Strangers that doo dayly bring the same wines into this Realme verye contemptuouslye and agaynst the purpose and effecte ot the sayd grante doo lande theyr sayd wynes at dyvers Roades and Creekes w***in this Realme. her heyres and successoures. Therefore the said grante made by the said late Queue to the said Mayor. Bailiefes and Burgesses and theyr successoures from tyme to tyme when soever the same shoulde happen as by the Letters patent«s more playnely yet dothe and maye appeare.

of the growthe of Candye and Kotymo aforesayd in the said parties of Levante beyond the Straightes of Marrock. byll. demande and sue for the same by action of Dett. Bailiefes. Vessell or botome any of the said wynes called Malmeseys or any other Swete wynes of the growthe of Candye or Kotymo aforesayd or of any other place . in w^** Sute. And that the same Mayor. and th'other moyetie therof to the sayd Mayor. and bee yt further enacted by th'aucthoritee aforesayd. That yt shall and maye bee laufull to and for every naturall borne subjecte of this Realme w^** shall transporte or bring in any Englishe Shyppe. no Essoigne proteccon or wager of Lawe shal bee allowed or admitted for the partie defendant. Baliefes and Burgesses and theyr successoures. Realme of Englande or Wales upon payne of forfeyture of Twentye shiUinges of laufull money of Englande for every Butt of the said wines that shal bee otherwise or at any other place landed w^'in this Realme of Englande or Wales. Over and above the Subsydyes and Customes that shal bee due to bee payde for the same and that th'one moyetie of the sayd forfejrture may bee unto yo' highnes yo' heires and successoures. or of any other place w'^in the parties of Levante aforesaid w^*^ from the firste daye of August next coming shal bee brought into this Realme by any Marchante Strangers whatsoever shal bee landen and dischardged at the sayd Towne and Porte of Sowthampton and at none other place w*4n this 320 HISTORY OF THE WINE TRADE IN ENGLAND. playnte or Informacon in any Courte of Recorde. Provided alwayes. and Burgesses may aske.

. Pari (Chanc. and bee yt further enacted by th'aucthoritee aforesaid That from the making of this acte yt shall bee laufull for euery Burgesse and Inhabito' of the sayde Towne of Sowthampton. This acte to continue untill thende of the next Parliament. Provided also. and also for every Englyshe Merchante dwellyng in any Citie or Towne wythin this Realm of Englande to buy any of the sayd swete wynes at the sayd Towne of Sowthampton at theyr willes and pleasures.w***in the parties of Levante or from the sayd parties of Levante into this Realme to lande and dischardge the same at any Porte or Haven w^''in this Realme at their will and pleasures in suche like maner and fourme as theye shoulde or might have doon yf this acte had never been hadd nor made any thing conteyned in this acte or in the sayd Ires patentes to the contrary notw"'-standing. Rot. Cui quidem petitioni perlecte et ad plenum intellecto. predicta Domina Regina ex aucthoritate parliamenti predicti sic Respoiisum est. Soit fait come il est Desire. any acte or statute heretofore made to the contrarye in any wise notwithstanding. and the same to retayle or otherwise to sell againe.) 5 Eliz.

d. 119. 1582. a.d.d. 88.) BeU. fo. No. 1. 257. (Hustings.) BeU. in St.) Bear. a. Angel. (Hustings. (Letter Book Z. (Letter Book Z. a.) Aqtta Vit(B Hawse. fo. No. No. m. 236. in Friday Street. m.d. a. a.Rot. (History of Signboards. Barking. near Old Fish Street. 1421.d. in Aldersgate Street.) Bdknappea Inn. 1572. in Westminster (King Street). m. No. (Letter Book Z. at London Bridge. p. (Hustings.) BeU. in Holbom. 29. within Aldgate. 149. in Distaff Lane.d. fo. 42. m. 153. 1579 and 1583. 56. (Hustings.d. 132. 144. 267b. m. p. 1463. 34. (Hustings. (Letter Book Z. a.) BeU. fos. a. No. 13b and 119.) BeUe Savage. 133. APPENDIX C. a. a. Martin's. 478. 1404.) 5 Eliz.d. 185b. in Fleet . An Alphabetical List of London Taverns. 1466. in Eastcheap.d.d. 1583. Pari (Chanc.) BeU.) Angd. 1404.) Angd. No. a. 1416.d. a. 1581. (History of Signboards. 1511. m.

(Letter Book Z.) Blossoms Inn. a. 282. fos. m. in Cheapside.) Blue Anchor. 102. 297.) .) BosonCs Inn. 97 . a. (Letter Book Y. 1374. Martin's Gate. 1578. fo. 1392. No. (Letter Book Y.d.d. No. fo. a. Lawrence. 102.d. fo. in Southwark. m. 1563. St.) Blue Anchor. 1401. 1517. in Westminster. 481. a. in St. 120.d. 282. (Letter Book Z. 120. in Distaff Lane. 109 and 268. (Letter Book Z. p. a. ra. No. fo 185b. (Hustings. Battle Bridge.) BulTs Heady in Comhill.) Bishop's Head. etc. 103. Cheapside. fo. 111.) BulFs Head. 1581. 252. m. No. fo. fo. 129.d. 49. a. Lawrence. (Letter Book X. No. 119.(Letter Book Z. a. (History of Signboards. in Fleet iStreet.d. in Comhill. 1583. a. 1578. 1522.d. 185b. a.d. 258.) X BuU. a. (Letter Book Y.d. 1580 and 1582. (History of Signboards.d. Jewry. No. 282. 37 .) BulTs Head. at St. (Hustings.) BuU. 1573. 1375. m. p.) BeUe Savage. m. 121.

d. 109. 109. m. Houndsditch. fo. 1583. 267b. p. New Fish Street. a. 56.) Goat. fo. fo. 1568 and 1582.d. (Letter Book Z. (Letter Book Z.) Crown. 227.d. 1581. a. a. 251.d. 56.) CardinaVa Hat. a. 1581. fos. (Hustings.d.) Greyhound.) Castel. 1580 and 1583. (History of Signboards.CardinoTs Hat. 151. 1517.d. a. a. 1517. 101. (Letter Book Z. 109b and 119. 24.) Dolphin. a. 119. a. p.109b. (Letter Book N. a. a. (Letter Book Z. a. and 268.) Emperor^s Head in the Vintry. fo.the Strand. fo. a. 109. No. (Letter Book Z.) Dolphin.) CardinaCa Hat without Newgate. in Lombard Street. 119. 1579. 108. (History of Signboards. m. (Letter Book Z. fo. 1467.d. 1561. 26) .d. fo. fo. (Letter Book Z. 185. Westminster. 13b. 1580 and 1582. in Cheapside. 1422.) Castel.d. 1581 and 1583.d. a. Oornhill. No.d. (Letter Book N. 185. Holborn.d. in .) Castel. . 1580. Smithfield East. (Letter Book Z.d.d. a.) Greyhound. fos.) Cross KeySy in Aldgate. (Hustings. in Cheapside. by Leadenhall Street.

m. 119. by Durham House. p. Lombard Street. 13b.d. fo. a. No. etc. (Letter Book Z. Strand. Ill. 79. 1369. a. 258. a.d. Cheapside. m. fo. (Letter Book Y. No. 103. No. 1382. 1557. a. 1397. 109b. and 119. by London Bridge. 125. a. 1583.) Harrow. a. a. fo. 103. fos. fo.(Letter Book Z. m.D. No.d. 51. (Hustings. m. 282.) Horse's Head. Vedart. Margaret Bridge Street.) Horns.d. a. in the parish of St. No. fo. 21 . Mary Colechurch. 1379. No.d. fo. in the parish of St. 1577 and 1583. 171b and 282 . No.d. m.) Hart. (Letter Book Z. 1577-78-83. (Letter Book Y. 1580. (Letter Book Z. m.d. 1583. 101 . 191b . 1375. 119. Z.) Hart.) Horse's Head. 1580. 119. 98. a. in St.d. 113. 131. Z. a. Fleet Street. 166.) Horse's Head. 206. (History of Signboards.) A. 108. V. Westchepe. 109. a. (Hustings.) . Tower Street.d. (Letter Books Yr fos. fo. (Letter Book Z.d.) Horaces Head. (Hustings.d.) HoUeler Tavern. 119. and 185 . 109. (Letter Book Z. 119. 99. m. fo. 1579 and 1583. 1578.) HarCs Horn. fos.) Horn on the Hop. fo. etc.

and 119. fo. 13b. 119.) King's Head. a. a.d.d. a. a. a. 126. 109 and 268. Mary at Hill. 1583. (Letter Book X. (Hustings.) King's Head.> Martin. Fenchurch Street. 1573.d. 1573. (Letter Book Z. fos. 115.d. 1452.) King's Head. fos. 1575. (Letter Book Z. Paul's Chain.) King's Head.) King's Head. 1580 and 1582. (Letter Book 0. 1582. a. a.d. 1528. fo.d. (Letter Book Z. 1578.) Maiden Head. 119. a.) Lamb. fo. m. fo. Westminster.) King's Head. 1566. (Letter Book Y. fo. 303. Fleet Street. Holbom Conduit. 255.d. a.d. (Letter Book Y. fo. Fenchurch Street. New Fish Street. Temple Bar.) Kind's Head and Castle. (Letter Book V. a.) King's Head.d. 1583. (Letter Book Z. (History of Signboards.) King's Head. fo. 8 and 9.d. at St. fo.d. a. 282. 206. a. 1588. (Hustings. 1558. in Holborn. m. p.(Letter Book Z. Thames Street. 258).d. fo. a. 1583.d. (Letter Book Z. a. (Letter Book X. 7. 119. 185. a.) King's Head. fo. . 1583. fo.d. 1581. Fish Street. 258.267b. fo. Aldgate. No. (Letter Book Z. 119. a.) Mackworth Inn.d. Steel Yard.) Horse's Head. (Letter Book Z. Holbom. No181.d.

m. Little Wood Street. (History of Signboards. a. a.d.) Pole's Head. Comhill. (Letter Book Y. 1578. in Comhill. 126. a.d. fo. 1573. a.) A. 109 and 119.) Queen's Head. (Letter Book Y. fo. p.. (Letter . 317.) a.D. fo.) Mitre. 1580 and 1583. fo.d.X2 Mermaid. (Hustings. Aldersgate. in the parish of St. 119. 1583. 258.) Pyckerell. 1464 and 1603. 1475. a. Cheapside. (Letter Book O. 1578.) Mitre.d. 1578.d. a.d. (Letter Book.d. p.) Mermaid. (Letter Book V. 310. a. 226. 282.d. (History of Signboards. (Letter Book Y. 281b. 1578. No. 1568. in Paternoster Row (History of Signboards.) Pope's Head. a. Bread Street. 1464.d. a. 313. p. 282. p. Wood Street. a.) Pheasant. 1528. fo. a. (History of Signboards. fo. 282.d. (Letter Book Z. (Letter Book Y. Paul's Chain. Z. 126.) Pope's Head. fo.) Mermaid.) Queen's Head. Shoreditch. 24.d. fo. Lombard Street.d. Nicholas Olave. 1572.

fo..d. 1583.d. Clement's Lane.d. fo. 115: Z. 1583. (Letter Book S. (Letter Book Z.) Queen's Head. (Letter Book Z. fo. 206. (Letter Book Y. 1581 and 1583. a.) Red Cross.d. 1578.p.) Rose^ at Newgate. in St.) Queen's Head. fo. fos.) .) Red Lion. at Barking.) Queen's Head. 1568. a.) Queen's Head. a. at Charing Cross. a. 258.d. a. Martin's. fo.) Rose. (Letter Book Y. 282. fo. fo. 1578.) Rose. 1575. 115.) Ram.) RosCj without Temple Bar. 1573. a. 119. fo. (Letter Book Z. 115 and 282. a. fo.d. by Fleet Bridge. fo. 258. (Letter Book V. (Letter Book Z. (Letter Book X. a. Y. in Fleet Street. 109. 1573. 1580. 8 . fos. 119. a. 119. in Red Cross Street. 119 and 185. (Letter Book X. a. 1575.d. 1575 and 1583. 1554 and 1578. (Letter Book Y. fo. 310. in Leadenhall. in Comhill.d. 285b.d. Y. a. fo. in St.d.d.

d.) Spread Eagle. a. 1577.) Star. in Gracechurch Street. 282. a. a. 258 . 115. fo. fo. fo.fo. 1517.d. 13b.d. fo. (Letter Book Z.1583. (Letter Book Y. fo. 1573. (Letter Book N. a. 119. 1583. X.d. (Letter Book X.282 .d. at the Old Bailey.) Ship. 185.foB. 258 .d.d. 191b. fo. 56.1573. 1573. fo. 1581. 1578. (Letter Book Z. (Letter Book Y. 1578.) Ship. in Fenchurch Street.d. Z.ll9.St.) Ship. 119 and 185. by the Exchange. 1581. 191b. fo. 282. in Gracechurch Street. a. fo.d.d. a.) Star. 1575.) Salutation^ in Billingsgate. fo. fo. Z. a. a. 258 . 206. fo. fo. 115.1578. in Chancery Lane.) Swan.) Sun. a.) Star. 1575.d. Y. in Gracechurch Street. fo. a. 1581.) Salutation^ in Thames Street. (Letter Book Y.1583.d.) Sun. (Letter Book Y. 1579. 1577. in Cheapside. a. 185. a. (Letter Book Z. (Letter Book V. 282. (Letter Book X.d. fo. fos. a. Y. 1581. in Dowgate. Z.) . 1578. 1568. fo. (Letter Book Y. 185b. JohrCs Head. in Cripplegate. in Tower Street. (Letter Book Z.

282.Swan. a. Z. 113. 1580. (Letter Book Y. a. a. fo. without Aldgate. 1568. 1578. fo. in the Strand. a.d. fo. in Old Jewry. a. 185.) Three Cranes.d. fo. a. a. a. at Crossfriars. fo. Z. fo.) White Hart. a. in the Vintry. 206. 109.) The Tavern. in White Cross Street. 1578.) White Cross. at Newgate. 282 . 1528.d. (History of Signboards. fo. m. 282. 1589. in the Vintry. 1578. (Letter Book Y. 282 .) . 1578. in Gracechurch Street.d. (Letter Book 0.) Three Tuns. (Hustings.d. fo. fo. 1580. 1581. 126.d. at Smithfield Bars.) Windmill. 126. No. (Letter Book Z.d.) White Hart. 109. fo. (Letter Book V.) Three Tuns.d. 268. (Letter Book Y. (Letter Book Y. (Letter Book 0.d.) Three Swans. a. 1528. 12.d. a. fo. (Letter Book Z. in Old Fish Street.) Three Tuns. 109. 1570. p. 270. a. in the Vintry. fo. 1582. 1580.) Three Tuns.d. (Letter Book Z.d.

(1811. edited by Ed. 1578. in Aldgate. 119. The Customs of London. 113. in Bishopsgate. a. 112.d. a. Vicomtc G.d. (1720. 113. fo.) White Hart. 282b. or. depuis Han 1200 jusqu' en Van 1600. d'. Avesbury. High Street.) . Hearne. (History of Signboards.) White Horse. 1480.Signboards.d. and XL VIII. (Letter Book Y. in Friday Street. des denrees et de tous Us prix en general. (Letter Book Z.) (1579-1664. II. p. (Letter Book Z. a. p. 1583.) LIST OF AUTHORITIES. in St. 1450.d. ArcJuBologia Cantiana. a. 268. and IX. Vols. p. Robert of. Histoire economique de la proprietet des salaires. Analytiail Index to the Scries of Records known as the Remem-hranda.) ArchcBologia. Be mirilibus gestis Edwardi tertit. fo. Arnold*8 Chronicle.) White Lion. fo.) Avenel. Vols.) White Swan. Michael's Lane. III.) White Hart. a. Borough.d. 1582. (History of Signboards.

) Bergenroth. John. Rome. (See State Papers. (Rolls Series. Mary. Andrea. Mediceval England.) Baker.) Baurein. Calendar of Letter Books in the Guildhall. (1596. Bateson.) Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland. (See Sir N. Theodore. A History of Inventions. Hearne. (1846. {Luard Memorial Series. Hatnburgische Gesischten und Denkwiirdigkeiten. . (1576. Beckington. Varietes Bordeloises.) Barnard. Nioalas. Companion to English History. De NaturcUi Vinorum Historia. Grace Book By Part II. IV. (1893. Letters and Documents ilhistrating the Reign of Henry VIII. Vol.) Beckmann. and Origins. Early Voyages and Travels to the Levant. translated by William Johnston. The Newe Jewell of Health (being an English translation of Conrad Gesner's work on distillation). (Jeo. Bent. G. edited by Dr.edited by Ed.) Brewer.) Beiieke. H. (1720.) Baccius. Discoveries. F.

. VI. A. Chronological Index to the Hustings Deeds. 1 Ed. 1 Ric. Moore. VL.R. Denis. 5 Hen..) Chronique de St. 2 Ric..) Calendar of Patent Rolls .. Ed. IV. H. Documents historiques inedits.) Chronicon Preciosum. IV. IV. . IV. .. VL . IV.. IV. (Rolls Series. Life and Reign of King Henry VIII. (1707.. 15 Ed. 11 Ed.. or. 1 Hen. 4 Hen. IV. 18 Ed. 12 Ed.. IV. IV. Letter Books E.. 2 Ed. IV. Cherbury. Letters and Papers of John Shilling ford. IV. the Price of Com and other Commodities for the last 600 Years. 5 Ed. 20 Ed. 1447-1450. 2 Hen.) Campbell. (See also Letter Books. Lord Herbert of. 3 Hen. IV.. V.) Champollion—Figeac. An Account of English Money. 5 Hen. VL . . . 6 Hen. Sharpe.. Edited by S. Letters and Documents illustrative of the Reign of Henry VII. . Lettres des rois ei reines de France.—1 Hen.. VI. 4 Hen. 3 Ed. G. XXL Camden Society Publications. (1871. IV. 6 Ed. IV. 2 Hen. 9 Ed.. VL.. IV. IV.. . IV. 8 Ed. (Rolls Series.. 6 Hen. 7 Ed. . III. IV. R. Chronica Johannis de Trokelowe et Henrici de Blaneforde. 3Hen. IV. Mayor of Exeter.

The Growth of English Industry and Commerce during the Early and Middle Ages. D.Chronological Index to the Hustings Deeds. J. De face imperii publica.) Craik. B.) Datt.) Cunningham. I. Histoire de Bordeaux. Chronique Bordeloise. (Ulm. 1606. 1706. Philippe de. Geo. (1657. W. Comines. (Edit. R. G. Vol. being a History of the British Mercantile Marine from the Earliest Times to the Present Day. L. The British Merchant Service. Supplement des Chroniques de Bordeaux. Devienne. Trait6 de la Police. An Exact Abridgement of the Records in the Tower of London. MSmoires. Devon. (1898. De la Mare. (1905. .) Cotton.) Darnal. Fred. Delurbe.) Croce. Issues of the Exchequer. che nella MorUagna di Torino si fanno. (Torino. Delia eccelenza e diversita de i vini. 1698. (1844.) Cornewall-Jones. The History of British Commerce from the Earliest Times. Collection of Ordinances for the Government of the Royal Household.

Devon, Fred. Issues of the Exchequer. Durham Household Book. (Surtees Society Publications.) Freville, E. de. Memoire sur le commerce maritime de Rouen depuis les temps les plus recules jusqu' a nos jours, Gairdner. Letters and Documents illustrative of the Reign of Henry VIII. (Rolls Series.) Hackluyt. Voyages. Hall, H. History of the Custom Revenue in England. Hartmeyer, Hans. Der Weinhandel im Gebiete der Hanse im MiUelaUer. Hazlitt. The Livery Companies of the City of London. Henderson, A. The History of Ancient and Modern Wines. (1824.) Hentzer's Travels in England during the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, translated by Horace, late Earl of Orford, and first printed by him at Strawberry Hill (1797). Herbert. The Twelve great Livery Companies of the City of London. Hingeston (Rev. F. C). Royal and historical Letters durifig the Reign of Henry IV. Hirsch. Danzigs Handelsgeschichte. Historical

Hirsch. Danzigs Handelsgeschichte. Historical Manuscripts Commission : The MSS. of His Grace the Duke of Rutland, preserved at Belvoir Castle. Calendar of the MSS. of the Most Honourable the Marquis of Salisburyy preserved at Hatfield House. Report on the MSS. of the Corporation of Beverley. The MSS. of the Earl of Lonsdale. Fourth Report; Appendix. MSS. of the Most Honourable the Marquis of Salisbury. Fifth Report. Appendix. MSS. of the Parish of Mendlesham, Co. Suffolk. MSS. of Sir Alex. MaJet, Bart., at Queensberry Place^ Kensington. MSS. in Pembroke College, Cambridge. MSS. of the Corporation of Rye. MSS. of the Corporation of New Romney. Sixth Report Appendix; MSS. of His Orace the Duke of Northumberland, at Syon House. MSS, of F, Bacon Frank, Esq,, of Campsall Hall, Co. York. Ninth Report; Appendix. The Records of the City of Canterbury. Tenth Report; Appendix. MSS. of G. F. LuUreU, Esq., of Dunster Castle, Archives of the Town of Galway, Eleventh Report; Appendix. MSS. of the Borough of

Eleventh Report; Appendix. MSS. of the Borough of King*8 Lynn, MSS, of the tatvn of Southampton, Huillard Br^holles. Histoire Diplomatique de Frederic II. Kohl. Der Ratsweinkeller in Bremen. Landau. Beitriige zur Geschichte des Weinbaues in Hessen, Larwcod J. and J. C. Holten. TJie History of Signboards from the Earliest Times to the Present Day (1866). Letter Books in the Guildhall of the City of London (MSS.), Letter Book /., a.d. 1409, 1410, 1411, 1414, 1416, 1419; LetUr Book K, A.D. 1422; Letter Book M, a.d. 1512, 1513; LetUr Book N, A.D. 1515, 1516, 1517, 1518, 1520, 1522, 1527 ; Letter Book 0, A.D. 1530, 1531, 1532 ; Letter Book P, a.d. 1533, 1534, 1536, 1537, 1538, 1539 ; Letter Book Q, a.d. 1541 ; Letter Book R, A.D. 1550, 1551, 1552, 1553 ; Letter Book F, a.d. 1566; Letter Book X, a.d. 1571, 1572, 1573, 1574, 1575; Letter Book Y, a.d. 1575, 1577, 1578 ; Letter Book Z, a.d. 1579 to 1584. L'Hermite de Soliers. Le Cabinet du Roy Louis XI, Liintzel, (rcschichte der Diucese und Stadt Uildesheim, Macpherson. Anncds of Comm'^rce, Madden, Frederick (edite:l by) : Privy Purse Expenses of the Princess Mary, daughter of King Henry VIII.,

afterwards Queen Mary ; with a Memoir of the Princess^ and Notes, Memoires sur les questions proposees par VAcademic de BruxeUcs en 1777. (Bruxellea, 1778.) Michel, Francisque. Histoire du Commerce etdela Navigation a Bordeaux^ principalement sous VAdministration Anglaise. (184r>.) Morwyng, Peter. A New Booke of DestiUatyan of Waters, called the Treasure of Evonymous, e'c. (1559.) Nicolas, Sir Nicholas Harris. A History of the Royal Navy from the Earliest Times to the Wars of the French Revolution, (1847.) Nicolas, N. H., edited by. The Privy Purse Expenses of King Henry VIIL, from November, MDXXIX to December, MDXXXIL (1827.) The Privy Purse Expenses of Elizabeth of York: Wardrobe Accounts of Edward /F., with a Memoir of Elizabeth of York, (1830.) A Journal by one of the Suite of Thomas Beckington, during an Embassy to negotiate a marriage between Henry VI. and a daughter of the Count of Armagnac, a.d. 1442. With notes and illustrations. (1828.) Nimety. Memoria sul vino chiamato Presmore di Tokay (1846.) Nordoff, J. B. Der vormalige Weinbau in Norddeutschland, Munster, 1877.

Norddeutschland, Munster, 1877. Niibling, Eugen. Ulm's Weinhandel im Mittelaher. Ordonnances des rois de France, etc. Vol. XIV. Owen and Blakeway. A History of Shrewsbury. Paulmier, Jnlien de. Traite du vin et du cidre. (De vino et pomaceo), traduit par Jacques de Cahaignes. (1589.) Pegge, S. The Forme of Cury; a Roll of Ancient English Cookery, compiled about a.d. 1390, by the Master Cooks of King Richard II., presented afterwards to Queen Elizabeth, by Edward Lord Stafford. (1780.) PriviUges des bourgeois de la v^iUe et cite de Bourdeaux. (1667.) Proceedings and Orditianees of the Privy Council. Vols. 1. and II. Reber, B. Ilistoire de la medecine et des sciences naturelles, in No. 31 of the Journal des CoUectionneurs de Geneve. Registres du port de Bordeaux. Regulations and Establishnent of the Household of Henry Algernon Percy, the Fifth Earl of Northumberland, at hi^ Castles oj Wresill and Lekinfield, in Yorkshire, begun a.d. 1512. (1827.) Remarkable Antiquities of the City of Exeter. (1681.) Rogers, Prof. Thorold. History of Agriculture. Rotuli Clausarum (Close Rolls), I Hen. IV.

Rotuli Clausarum (Close Rolls), I Hen. IV. Rotuli Francorum (French Rolls). 35 Hen. VI.; 1 Ric. III.; 1 Hen. VII.; 3 Hen. VII.; 1 Hen. VIII.; 2 Hen. VIII.; 3 Hen. VIII.; 4 Hen. VIII.; 5 Hen. VIII.; 6 Hen. VIII. Rotuli Normannonim (Norman Rolls). 7 Hen. V. Rotuli Parliamentorum (Parliamentary RoUs), a.d. 1393, 1399, 1400, 1405, 1410, 1413, 1414, 1416, 1444. Rotuli VasconifiB (Gascon RoUs), 2 Hen. IV.; 3 Hen. IV.; 9-10 Hen. IV.; 11-14 Hen. IV.; 4 Hen. V.; 2-3 Hen. VI.; 21-22 Hen. VI. Rymer's Faedera. Sattler. Handelsrechnungen des deutsche Ordens. Schanz. Englische Handelspolitik gegen Ende des MiUelaUers. Sdect Remains of the Learned John Ray, etc. (1760.) Sheahan, J. J. History of the Town and Port of Kingston-upon-Hull. Soniner. TJie Antiquities of Canterbury. (1703.) Spont, Alfred. Letters and Papers relating to the War trith France, 1512-1513. (Navy Records Society Publications.) State Papers : State Papers published under the Authority of H.M. Commissioners. King Henry VIII. Brown. Calendar of State Papers, Venice. Gayangos, Pascual de. Calendar of Letters and State Papers relating to the negotiations between England and Spain.

Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series, Edited by Robert Lemon, 1547-1580; 1591-1594; 1595-1597; 1598-1601; 1601-1603. Addenda, Mary, Elizabeth, Vol. XII.; James I., Vol. XLIII. Calendar of State Papers, Foreign Series, Ed. VI. Statutes of the Realm. 2 Hen. V.; 2 Hen. VI. ; 18 Hen. VI.; 23 Hen. VI.; 28 Hen. VI. ; 1 Ric. III. ; 1 Hen. VII.; 4 Hen. VII.; 7 Hen. VIL ; 7 Hen. VIII.; 21 Hen. VIIL ; 23 Hen. VIII. ; 24 Hen. VIII.; 26 Hen. VIII.; 27 Hen. VIII.; 28 Hen. VIII.; 34-35 Hen. VIII. ; 37 Hen. VIII.; 1 Ed. VI.; 5-6 Ed. VI.; 7 Ed. VI.; 1 Mari© ; 1 Eliz. Surtees Society PubHcations. The Durham Household Book. Syllabus to Rymeis Fcedera. Troyes, Jean de. Histaire de Louys XL, dicte Chranique Scandaleuse. (1714.) Waurin, Jehan de. Recueil des Chraniquea et anchiennes istories de la Grant Bretaigney a present nomme Engleterre, edited by W. Hardy. (Rolls Series.) Wehrmann. Der RatsweinkeUer zu Liibeck, Whitaker. History and Antiquities of Craven. Wright, Thomas. Political Poems and Songs. Vol. II. Adulteration of wine, 93, 94. Algarves, wine of, 214. Alicante, wine of, 49. Alnwick, 123. Alsace, wines of, 200, 213. Andalusia, wines of, 103, 109, 114. Angoul^me, 66. Anjou, wines of, 19, 26, 102,

167, 195. Antwerp, 68, 202. Aqua vitse, 127, 245, 246, 247, 249, 250. Aquitaine, 17, 21. , wines of, 18,25,185. Athenry, 5. Austrian wine, 203. Auxerre wine, 168, 198. Ay, 199. Ayr, 124. Bagneux, wine of, 198. Bardney, Appendix A. Bastard wine, 15, 49, 83, 89, 111, 127, 137, 214, 240. Battle, 110. Appendix A. Bayonne, 17, 25. Beaulieu, 108. Beaumaris, 124. Beaune, wine of, 145, 168, 198. Belvoir Castle, 117, 142, 143, 144, 158. Bergerac, 66, 67. Berwick-on-Tweed, 123. Beverley, 117,121,122. Appendix A, Bexley, 112. Appendix A.

Bexley, 112. Appendix A. Bicester, 126. Appendix A. Bolton Abbey, 120. Bordeaux, 6,* 7, 8, 12, 16, 18, 24, 25, 29, 32, 36, 42, 56, 65, 66, 130, 162, 167, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190,191. , merchants of, 7, 20, 24, 109,182,183, 191. , wines of, 17, 20, 41, 48, 77, 102, 130, 163, 167, 190,191. Boston, 116, 117, 143. , merchants of, 25, 30, 117. Bremen, 202. Brest, 21, 42, 132. Bridgenorth, 133. Bridgewater, 103, 136. Bridlington, 118. Bristol, 41, 69, 102, 107, 125, 132, 133, 137, 150, 166, 197. 210. Appendix A. V , merchants of, 15, 25, 26, 29, 31, 102, 166. Brittany, 11. , merchants of, 4, 15. 19, 21, 26. •, ships of, 15, 16, 19, 21, 32, 33, HI.

-, wine of, 18. Brives, 67. Bruges, 201. Brussels, 95. Buckingham, Duke of, 141. 335 Burgos, merchants of, 212. Burgundy, wine of, 48, 67, 145, 198, 199. Butler, the King's, 57,130,133. Butlerage, 51, 52, 54, 108,114. Cadiz, 206, 207, 210. Calais, 32, 35. Cambridge, 116, 150, 203. Appendix A. Campelyte, 242. Canary Islands, 213. , wine of, 49, 213. Candia, 44, 55, 107, 218, 230, 231, 2.36, 239. , wines of (<See Malmsey). Canterbury, 1, 111, 112, 150, 175. Appendix A,

Canterbury, 1, 111, 112, 150, 175. Appendix A, Cassel, 204. Castile, 4, 11. Castre, 125. Appendix A. Catharine of Aragon, 138. Chablis, 67. ' Champagne, 67. , wine of, 199. Charente, 56. Charles V., the Emperor, 35. Charles VIII., of France, 24. Chartres, 66. Chaucer, 136. Chepston, 103. Cherbourg, 5. Chester, 122, 124, 125. Ap-pendix H. Chichester, 59, 110. Appendix A. Chios, 240.

142. Coleshill. 130. 99. 124. 57. Cirencester. 15. 17. 213. 91. Cinque Ports. Dordrecht. Appendix A. 143. 20. 6. 150. 122. 52. Durham.Christchurch. Customs. 104. 244. 111. 163. 108. Sir F. 120. 99. 133. 53. 122.. Crete (See Candia). Edward II. 112. Appendix A. 47. 59. Drake. 112. wine of. Cumberland. 127. 55. 175. 99. Dover. 140. 103. Appendix A. 98. 43. merchants of. 49. Diana. 68. 20. 110. 202. 56.. wine of. 58. Corsica. Dynas. 228. 243. 70. Edward IV. 150. 128. . Appendix A. Colchester. 60. 101. Edward III. 192. 201. 76. 159. 92.. 123. . 55.. 12. 106. 249. Clarr>^ 254. Edinburgh. Darlington. Duties. 247. Distillation. 137. Duke of.. 243. Claret. Cumberland. 164. Edward VI. 158. Dartmouth. Cologne. 61. 145.

Gaillac. 54. 36. 33. 150. 91. 145. 55. Flanders. Earl of. 59. Exeter. Elizabeth. 201. 105. 175. 91. wine of. 9. 189. 72. Appendix A. French wines. ships of. 143. Frankfurt. Appendix A. 19. 146. Epernay. 11. 82. 127. INDEX. 145. 29. Appendix A. 46. 48. 102. 89. 44. Queen. 125. Appendix A. 134. 55. 43. 213. 112. Eton. 15. 4. . 76. 56. 30. 203. 5. Elizabeth of York. 36. 131. 20. 88. 33. 150. wine of. 197. Farley. 27. 91.Edward VI. 100. Florence. 122. 61. 104. 128. Finchale. . 47. Francis L. 144. 43. Embden.150. 79. 31. Galicia. Flanders. 41. Falmouth.. 6. 134. 49. 138. 85. merchants of. 77. Essex. 46. 45. merchants of. Appendix A. 31. 92. 148. 48. 60. 99. Evesham. Fowey.

139. 36. Gloucester. Gosford. 140. 34. 6. 29. 117. 32. 1. 69. Genoa. 42. 171. 174. 31. Galway. Gasconv. 25. 141. 26. 47. 186. 143. 105. 132. Gauge. 30. 88. 66. 116. 21. Greek wine. 89. 209. 65. . 45. wines of. 66. 76. 35. 112. 145. 89. 110. Gawthorp. 30. 163. 173.Galicia. 150. 63. 68. 127. 7. 49. 142. 143. Royal. see Rhenish Wine. 181. 144. 85. . 5. Appendix A. 169. 92. 220. 62. 64. 144. 83. wine of. wine of. 213. 82. 182. Duke of. 33. 42. Germany. 91. merchants of. 187. wines of. 48. 43. Graves. 84. Grantham. 5. . merchants of. Ganger. 128. 125. 147. 189. 72. 108. 67. 172. 144. 124.54. 108.

4.22. Hull. 136. 78. 2. 116. Ap^ pendix A.. 179. 31. 144. merchants of the. wine of. Hickling. Appendix A. 150. 213. 11. 6. Appendix A. Hamburg. 85. 126. 102. 26. 141. Hatfield. 48. 126. Hastings. Hawkins. Henrv VII. 133. 9. 22. 252. 253. Guernsey.117. ships of. 177. 140.. 54. 197. Har^^-ich. Sir Richard. Greenwich. 32. 10. Henry VIII. 28. 125. . 42.. 13. 38. 140.* 41. Henry VI. 39. Hay. 146. 150. Henrv V. Hereford.. 110.132. 135. 4. 39. 77. Appendix A.. 203. 105. 144.Greek wine. 35. 27. Heidelberg. Hesse. 134. 107. Hippocras. 23. 20. Guienne. 187. Henrv IV. Hanse. 135. 49. Gresham. Henley-on-Thames. Hartlepool. 201.

118. 133. 14. . 117..197. 191. . 34. Coimtess of. Huntingdon. 211. Appendix A.150. 112. 146. Kirling. James V. 127. 184. Hunstanton. Kemerdvn. Kingston . Huhne. Ked welly. 203. 134. 126. ships of. 120. 20. Jerez de la Fontera. Kenflve. merchants of. 128. Italian wine. merchants of. . Appendix A. 134. Jersev. 105.on . Ipswich. 113. 158. . 122. 119. Appendix A. 207. 137. Kirkby Stephen. Appendix A. Hungarian wine. AppendixA^ .Thames. 127.

107. Leicester. Appendix A. 128. 34. 26. 41. . and Appendix C.132. Lille. Leeds. 44.197. taverns. •. 21. 48.69. Appendix A. 214. 6.136. merchants of. 67. . 124. 218. 42. 52. 31.Kirling. 156. 157. merchants of. 153. 159. 150. 114. Lincoln. see Vintners. 134. .59. 215. 214. 337 Kirtling. 25. 53. 48. 127. 150. 77. 152. 124. London. 85. 154. 76. 35. Levant wines. 29. Lampedervaur. Lancaster. 15. Appendix A. Liverpool. London vintners. 119. 151. 155. Lisbon.

Mendlesham.127. Lynn. 136. 7. 64. 141. merchants of. 197. 144. Malmsev. 158. 212. 91. 201. Medina. 200.128. 54. 49. 128. 55. 144. Montelimar. 136. 111.Lubeck. Minehead. Mavence. Appendix A. 89. Melcombe. 233. 82. 66. 113. 113. 220. 218. Morpeth. Queen. 29. Malaga wine. 218.139. 84. 219. Moselle. 114. 221.55. 31. Mmiv. Mendhara. Madeira wine. 44. 107. 159. 125. 104. 123. 174. . 236. 222. 65. 112. 109. 202. 35. 201. 103. 105. Maiden. 168. 197. wines of. Micheldever.

21. Newhaven. 196. Muscadine. Appendix A. 4. 145. . wine of. 131. 133.202. Norwich. 196. 150. 113. Nottingham. Ormesby. Newcastle-on-Tyne. 15. 67.. 198. 216. 164. 173. 122. 242. 195. Newport. 95. Normandy. 157. 66. 49. 142. Appendix A. . 195. 242. 15. Mon. 120.143. 107. Northumberland. Nuremberg. 144. 240. . 113. Muscadell. 91. 113. Duke of. 45. 90. Norfolk. Nantes. 215.148. 18. 49. 141. 120. 112. Oporto. . 83. 6. Orleans. Duke of. ships of. 66. wine of. Appendix A. 176. 105. 5.

17. 84. 111.37. 131.11. 194. Paris. 19. Plymouth. Pershore. 120. 108. 89. 64. Prussian ships. 157. 121. 5. 130.112. 86. 169. 82. 171. 53. Portsmouth. 216. 167. Prisage. Appendix A. 105. 67. 20. Price of wine. 210. 202. Mary. Portugal. 174. Poole. 163. 126. 116. Sir Walter. 4. 12. Appendix A.OrweU. 49.49.214. 168.141. Appendix A.197. . 110. 150. Otterton. 175. merchants of. 251. 87. Appendix A. 137. 88.24. 215. 122. 117. 83. 42.168.213. 4. 172. Rappis.162. Raleigh.18. Poitou.173. 150. 18. 92. 114. Rhenish wine. INDEX. 91. Oxford. 170. 90. 164. . 110. 102. . Port St. 109. 58.56. 115. 6. 50.44. wines of. 204. Oseie. 116. 69. 115.217. 16.104. 94.

83.136. 159. 2. Earls of. 31. . 25. 82. Roraeney or Romaney. 142.208. 141.113. 202. Sack. 49. 195. Romney. 203. 200. Rye. 197. 82. 254. 60. 110.45. 165. 111. 112. 127. 49. 16.92. 25. merchants of. 69.. HO. 194.175. 83. 195. 199.215. 144. 159. 68. 6.96. 64. 111. 131. 143. 18. 66. Roanne. 145. 66. R}^^ere wine. ships. 84. 12. 89. 96. Richard III. . 84.95. 110. 83. 196. 91. Rypington. wines of. 56. .210. 17. 54. 11.89. 21. 211. 59. Richard II. Appendix A." 66. 158. 207. 18. 198.99. 117. 61. 52. 141.96..100. 209. 1. 48. Rochelle. . 48. Saintes. 127. 100. 210. 67.104. 49. 132. Appendix A. 5. 128. 142. 7. 201. 175. 99. Rutland. 158. 138. 76. 240. 176. Rouen. 144.

Soissons. .Salamanca. 110. 5. Appendix A. 197. 125. Salisbury.150. Appendix A. 144. 107. Dennis. Sluys. 67. 18. 21. St. 59. Skidam. 127. San Martyns. 66. Ives. Osith. wine of. 109. 5. 157. 76. 106. 212. 132. Appendix A. Sandwich. Jean d'Angely. Southampton. 138. 5. Spain. 4. 212. Appendix A. St. St. merchants of. Shrewsbury. 150. 108. 150. 201. 195. . Seaford. 141. Sittingboume. 103. 19. 167. 105. 108. Earl of. 165. St. 104.

99. 116. 29. 54. 33. 152. 44. Taverns. Stamford. 48. 103. Appendix A. 211. 187. 76. 127. 206. Tarragona. 95.18. Appendix A. Romeney. 138. -. Topsham. Stonor.154. 242. 205. 67. Taxes. Treves. 150. 109. 207. Toro. 115. Ver-nage. 78. Stoke. Subsidies. 157. 201. Titchfield. 115. Bastard. 104. 111. 111. ships of. 105. Sweet wines.. 47. merchants of. Muscadine. 155. 97. 56. Tyre. 106. 20. 98. See also Malmsey.210. Appendix A. 212. Spanish wine. . 122. 153. 45. wine of. 158. 127. 55. 339 Trevarthen. 127. 107. 113. 156. 54.241. MuscADELL. 116. 92. 240. 21. 48. 151. 113. Appendix C. 67. Appendix A. Troyes. 9. 100. Tokay. Tente (wine). 66. 127. 115. 26. wine of.

Vippach. 97. merchants of. Venice. 205. 75. 150. 71. 141. ships of.105. .Utrecht. Westminster. 78. 221. . merchants of. Ware. 106. 76. Venice Ambassador. 220. Vintners of Leeds. 34. 150. Valeadoleta. 222.30. 18. 84. 78. 102. Countess of. 26. 119. Salisbury. 241. 98. 74. 75. 203. 80. 48. 18. Appendix A. 158. Vernage (Vemachia). 35. 20. 31. 76. 70. 16. Warwick. 55. 150. 95.144. 77. 212. Vilacho. Vintners' Company. Weymouth. London. 69. 205. 71. 44. 142. 73. Winchester. 202. Westchester. Wilding. 7. 72. 240.

Writtle. . Wormleighton. 141. 133. Appendix A. Essex. Appendix A. Limited. merchants of. Windsor. 120. 120. Appendix A. Appendix A. 128. Printed by Wyutan and Sonn. 142.Winchester. 117. Appendix A. Appendix A. Winterton. 150. 113. Appendix A. 127. 125. WresiU. .udon and Reading. . L'. 113. 150. especially from tbe . Earl of. Bishop of. York. ADVERTISEMENT. York. Yarmouth. THE MUTUAL LIFE Insurance Company of New York. 133.175. Worksop. Appendix A. 133. 113. 136. 150. Tbe progress of the Company in the year 1906 has been eminently satisfactory. Wymondham. Worcester.

958 4 6 . rents.609 19 1 IN GAINS FOR POLICY HOLDERS THE COMPANY HAS BROKEN ALL RECORDS.714 9 2 Reserve for dividends on existing policies as dividend periods are completed .515 8 0 Reserve for possible depreciation of securities and other contingencies .974.935. 17.551.13.921 5 3 The total funds held in trust for policy holders aggregated 101.250...84. d.787 5 5 The company had in force at the end of the year 311.3..256 11 9 THE TOTAL LIABILITIES WERE AS FOLLOWS:Net reserve on outstanding policies and other £ s..442..^ .820.571..standpoint of tbe policy bolder. legalliabilities . The new paid-for business was .416 15 6 Reserve for dividends payable in 1907 827.. It earned in interest.782 6 10 The amount received in premiums during the year was 11. d. investment profits 4.299. and net miscellaneous i s..

over those of 1 906." theni^te^d^K^niS'o^: 16.C.379 14 9 Total . loading.337 19 3 This is over fifty-six per cent.710. with a surplus over for policy holders of . a remarkable showing. The expenses of the year were paid entirely from £ s. LONDON.138. . approximated by any other company. of the entire premium income. the loading provided for that purpose. & 18. surrender charges and annuities were 2. 17. The Expense Ratio to Premium income shows a reduction of over 7 per cent.£6.958 4 6 Its gains from mortality. IN ECONOMY OF MANAGEMENT THE COMPANY TO-DAY STANDS PRE-EMINENT.601.184 3 9 The Annual Bonuses declared in 1 907 show an increase averaging more than 20 per cent. if ever. d.investment profits 4. CORNHILL. E. Send for particulars of " 1907 " Form of Contract providing for ''Annual Cash Bonuses" with ''Annual Options. rarely.571.

HMRRiSON HOQGE. </. E. Qtntnl Manager.C.LONDON. . I#.