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By Dr.A Rehman Dr.R.M.

Sarviya Rajesh Kumar Pandey

Department of Mechanical Engineering MAULANA AZAD NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (Deemed University) Bhopal (M.P

INTRODUCTION

Till date -basic requirements Food, Water and Shelter Now- fourth Energy Energy Important input in all sectors of countries economy India imports about 70% of petroleum demand ( Rs 80000 crores per annum) Environment effect ( Air Pollution) CO2 , , CO, SOx ,, Nox Alternate fuel Minimum /without engine modifications - Renewable - Less Pollute Bio-fuels Tree based oils or Vegetable oils are promising alternatives to Diesel Advantages of Liquid Bio-fuels Easy transport & Ignition.

INTRODUCTION Vegetable oil Edible - Non- Edible Problems in Vegetable oil High Viscosity Harmful smoke - Fuel Modification India 31 million hectare of waste land - Tropical advantage can grow pongamia, Mahua, Jatropha or Ratanjyot or wild castor oil content 25-35% - 10% of waste land can produce 4-5 million tonnes of Bio diesel which is about 10% of current diesel demand of 46 million tonnes. BIO-DIESEL: - Methyl or ethyl ester of fatty acid made from virgin or used vegetable oil can be used pure form Blended with vegetable oil- Diesel engine properties are Comparable.

INTRODUCTION

In this work Karanja and their Bio-Diesel in pure and


Blended at different proportions

Performance Parameters: BP, BSFC, BSEC , BTE,

Emissions-, HC

ECOLOGICAL REQUIREMENT It can grow gravelly, sandy and even saline soils. Minimum water requirement (200mm rainfall) Can withstand draught for long periods.
Uses of Karanja As ornamental plant As a fence As a potential oil crop As raw material for industrial use Potential as medicinal plant For enrichment of soil As potential feed stock As insecticide/pesticide As non conventional energy crop As profitable agro forestry crop As raw material for dye

As oil crop Oil can be used as fuel in pre-combustion chamber engine (for efficient combustion) - Lubricant - soap production - Oil Cake as good organic fertilizer - Insecticide. BLEND PREPERATION KBD20 KBD40 KBD60 MEKO D

Karanja as an alternate to diesel


Karanja oil as promising and commercially viable alternate to diesel,

Since properties and performance characteristics are comparable to diesel.

Crude Karanja Oil

NEED OF BIO-DIESEL Crude vegetable oils high viscosity choke fuel filter High viscosity poor atomization Large droplets High spray jet penetration fuel don't mix properly with air. Poor combustion Loss of power & economy. In small engines- fuel spray may impinge on cylinder wallswashing away lubricant oil film dilution of crank case oil excessive wear and tear. Kinematic Viscosity at 400C Vegetable oil - 35-50 cst Diesel 4 to 6 cst Simple esters of fatty acids in vegetable oils greatly reduces viscosities in the range 2.4 to 7.2 cst at 400c.

Problems during Engine Tests

Operational a. Starting ability b. Ignition c. Combustion d. Performance

Durability a. Deposit formation b. Carbonization of injector tip c. Ring sticking d. Lub.oil dilution.

These problems can be solved by 1. Engine modification - dual fuel mode operation - Employing high injection pressure - Heated fuel lines 2. Fuel Modification - Blending - Transesterification - Cracking/ Pyrolysis.

Engine Modification such as dual fueling and injection system expensive viscosity of Karanja oil at 1580 c become equal to viscosity of diesel at ambient temperature. conversion of vegetable oil to simple esters of Methyl i.e, Bio-Diesel solves almost all problems associated with vegetable oil. Dilution of vegetable oil with other fuels like alcohols and diesel oil (i.e.,Blending ) Bring the viscosity to the near specification range Out of these methods- Fuel modification by transesterification - simple & suited process ( Reduces viscosity and removes impurities).

Production steps

Mix Alcohol + catalyst

Heat Vegetable Oil

Transesterification Alcohol Recovery

Separation of Co-products Crude Glycerin Refining Waste Water Treatment Glycerin Biodiesel Biodiesel Water Washing

Mechanism of Transesterification Reaction

CH2-OOC-R1 CH -OOC-R2 CH2-OOC-R3 Triglyceride 10 Kg Oil Karanja

+ 3ROH At Temp + Alcohol


1.13 Kg Alcohol

Catalyst

R1-COO-R R2-COO- R

CH2-OH

+ +

CH2-OH CH2-OH glycerol

60 to 70C R3-COO- R Esters

0.10Kg 9.6 Kg 1.08 Kg KOH Biodiesel Glycerin

Properties of the oil


Colour Odour Refractive index at 40oC Specific gravity at 30oC Iodine value Saponification value Unsaponifiable matter Fatty acids Palmitic acid Stearic acid Arachidic acid Oleic acid Linoleic acid Lignoceric Eicosenoic Behenic Dark brown Repulsive 1.4734 -1.4790 0.925 -0.940 80 - 96 117 -195 0.9 -4.2 % Percentage 3.7-7.9 2.4-8.9 2.2-4.7 44.5-71.3 10.8-18.3 1.1 - 3.5 9.5-12.4 4.2-5.3

KARANJA SEEDS AND KARANJA BIODIESEL

Steps involved in transesterification 1. Filtering to remove solid particles warming oil at 350 C to run freely cartridge filter used for the same. 2. Removing the water- Heated to 100 0C maintained this temp to allow the water to boil off- when boiling slower temp is increased further to 1300C for 10 min cool the oil. 3. Preparation of sodium methoxide about 6 gms of catalyst (NA0H) pellets dissolved in 200ml of methanol to prepare metho-oxide solution by vigorous stirring. 4. Heating and mixing-oil is preheated to about 500C (<650 C) Sodium methoxide solution added while stirring stirring is done for 50 min to 1 hr at same temperature- this separates the methyl ester from glycerin. 5. Settling and separation- mixture allowed to settle overnight by gravity in separating funnel two distinct layers formed semi liquid glycerin (dark brown color) at bottom- Bio-diesel is honey colored/ light yellow colored at top glycerin is separated from Bio-diesel. 6. Washing and drying water washing to remove moisture and emulsions -water about 30% by volume of ester is added Heat the mixture to 1200C for 1hr- mixture transferred to separating funnel water with emulsion settle at bottom upper layer is pure methyl ester or Bio-dieselready for the use in Diesel Engine.

VEGETABLE OIL Triglyceride of fatty acid (Molecular Wt 700-1000)

BIODIESEL Alkyl esters of Fatty acid Molecular Wt~260 to 300

DIESEL FUEL Saturated Hydrocarbon (C12C14) Molecular Wt~200

IIT Delhi 10% less heating August 18, 200410-12 % less heating Major hydrogen
value than diesel because it contains Oxygen value than diesel

and carbon (SOx, NOx, PAH)

Kinematic viscosity is higher (35-45 cSt at 40oC)

Kinematic viscosity is in same range of that of diesel

Kinematic viscosity is lower (3.8 -5 cSt at 40oC) High volatility

Less volatility

Less volatile than diesel

Advantages of Vegetable oils or Bio-fuels 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Renewable source of Energy Easily mixed with diesel Environmentally friendly High flash point Economical Global warming potential Green House effect.

PRESENT WORK
To prepare the bio-diesels of Karanja oil. To run a typical diesel engine on neat diesel. To run diesel engine on neat Karanja oil separately. To run diesel engine on neat Karanja bio-diesel. To run diesel engine on blends of jatropha oil and their bio- diesel with diesel. To evaluate the performance in regard to BP, BTE, BSFC, BSEC, and emissions such as HC. To compare the all parameters of Karanja oil and their and different blends with neat diesel. biodiesel

PERFORMANCE TEST ON VARIABLE COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE

SEPARATE TANK FOR BIODIESEL PETROL TO DIESEL CONVERSION CLEANED AND CHANGED OLD TUBES CLEANED COOLANT TANK MAINTAINANCE OF THE ENGINE SMOKE METER

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

Schematic Diagram of the experimental setup

Test Engine specification

Make Class Power output, kW Compression Ratio Speed, rpm Fuel Bore, mm Stroke mm Swept volume, cc Filter farryman Valve timing

TD43F COMLETE HEAD VCR Single cylinder, 4-stroke direct injection type 7 kW 5:1-11:1( for petrol ),12:1-8:1(forDiesel) 1000 to 2500 Diesel / petrol 95 82 582 0540.00.0.456 IVO-50 BTDC IVC-27. ATDC EVO-290 BTDC

EXPERIMENTAL OBSERVATIONS AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS 1. The engine was started and allowed to run for some time to attain steady state conditions. 2. The engine was run at no load. 3. The three way valve was opened and fuel allowed the fuel to flow from burette to engine via. injector. The time taken for c.c. of fuel consumption was noted down. 4. The engine was loaded electrically by switching on the bulbs. 5. The loading was made from zero to maximum at different steps. 6. For all load conditions the readings of Ammeter, voltmeter, time for 10 cc of fuel consumption, the values of HC were noted down. 7. The experiments were repeated for all fuel combinations. 8. The observations were recorded in tabular column and calculations are made using appropriate equations.

AUTOMOTIVE EMISSIONS Tailpipe emissions: The products of burning fuel in the vehicle's engine, emitted from the vehicle's exhaust system. The major pollutants emitted include: Hydrocarbons: This class is made up of unburned or partially burned fuel, and is a major contributor to urban smog, as well as being toxic. They can cause liver damage and even cancer. Nitrogen oxides (NOx): These are generated when nitrogen in the air reacts with oxygen under the high temperature and pressure conditions inside the engine. NOx emissions contribute to both smog and acid rain. Carbon monoxide (CO): a product of incomplete combustion, carbon monoxide reduces the blood's ability to carry oxygen and is dangerous to people with heart disease. Carbon dioxide (CO2): Emissions of carbon dioxide are an increasing concern as it's role in global warming as a greenhouse gas has become more apparent.

Estimated Diesel Demand and Biodiesel Requirement in India


Year Diesel, MMT Biodiesel Demand, MMT 5% 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 46.97 49.56 52.33 55.26 58.35 61.62 2.35 2.48 2.62 2.76 2.92 3.08 10% 4.70 4.96 5.24 5.52 5.84 6.16 20% 9.40 9.92 10.48 11.04 11.68 12.32

Redwood Viscometer

Mini biodiesel plant

PROPERTIES flash point of diesel and karanja methyl ester 65 C and 170 C As per BIS standards and ASTM D-6751 standards Rehaman et al - flash point of karanja oil found to be greater than 100 C, which is safe for storage and handling. Gopalakrishnan and Surywanshi et al for kranja and jatropha oil 165 C

Specific gravity - 0.895 At 28 C for MEKO 0.84 for DIESEL


Specific Gravity for MEKO ,DIESEL and their BLENDS
0.9 0.89 0.88 S P E C IF ICG R A V IT Y 0.87 0.86 0.85 0.84 0.83 0.82 0.81
20KBD 40KBD 60KBD MEKO DIESEL

FUEL

Kinematic viscosity DIESEL- 4.17 cSt, MEKO- 8.8 AT 28 C Rehman et al 2.9 times diesel Suryawanshi et al and Senethil et al reported similar pattern
Effect of temperture on kinematic viscosity
10.0

MEKO

60KBD

40KBD

9.0
20KBD D

8.0

7.0

V i s c o s i t y (c S t )

6.0

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

0.0 28 35 40 50
0

60

70

Temperature

Calorific value - 44.805 MJ/kg for diesel and MJ/kg. found 11.29 percent lower

36.76

Gopalkrishnan et al reported heating value of linseed oil is about 10% lower than diesel due to higher oxygen content in it. Antony et al 42700and 39976 value (KJ/Kg)

EFFECT ON ENGINE PERFORMANCE

VARYING ENGINE SPEED COMPRESSION RATIO 18 AND 15

TEST PARAMETER
Power output Specific fuel consumption Specific energy consumption Exhaust gas temperature Exhaust smoke

RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS


Experiment conducted to evaluate performance and emissions of Diesel engine

EFFECT OF ENGINE SPEED ON BRAKE POWER AT CR 18


7.5 7

Brake Power (KW)

6.5 6 5.5 5

20 KBD 40 KBD 60 KBD MKEO

4.5 D 4 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400

Speed (RPM)

DISCUSSION WITH REFERANCES 6.7% power increased at 1600 rpm Complete combustion High cetane number higher cetane numbers of biodiesel shortens the ignition delay Usta et al 3.13% higher than the power with the diesel fuel Peterson et al showed 1.8% less power, and 8.9% less fuel economy Cardonea et al ) reported Carinata biodiesel performed very similarly to Diesel

EFFECT OF ENGINE SPEED ON BSFC AT C R 18


0.55

20KBD
0.5

40KBD D

60KBD

MKEO
B SFC (K g/K W hr) 0.45

0.4

0.35

0.3 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400

ENGINE SPEED (RPM)

DISCUSSION WITH REFERANCES Biodiesel contains 1012% oxygen in weight basis which results in less calorific value and higher sp gravity may be the reason for higher consumption Puhan et al The specific fuel consumption is higher (20%) than that of diesel Raju et al The higher density of esterified fuel has led to more discharge of fuel for the same displacement of the plunger in the fuel injection pump. increase in injection pressure from 210 to 320 bar Peterson et al showed 8.9% less fuel economy increase in injection pressure from 210 to 320 bar

Effect of Engine speed on BSEC AT CR 18


22

20

18 BSEC (MJ/kWhr)

16

14 20KBD 12 60KBD D 10
1200 1400 1600 1800 Engine Speed (rpm) 2000 2200 2400

40KBD MKEO

DISCUSSION WITH REFERANCES Biodiesel has 10 to 12 % built up oxygen Calorific value is less Compared with energy content Comparable energy utilization. Suryawanshi et al suggested SFEC is reliable parameter , SFEC is comparable for jatropha ester

Effect of engine speed on Exhaust Gas Temperture at CR 18


650

20 KBD
600

40 KBD D

60 KBD

MEKO

Tem perture (0C )

550

500

450

400 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400

Spe e d (RPM )

DISCUSSION WITH REFERANCES Complete combustion due to extra oxygen present Higher energy release Higher temperature Higher exhaust temperature Reduction in emissions CO, HC Rehman et al -Exhaust temperature for blends varied between 260C and 360 C higher than diesel. could be due to complete combustion of fuel as compared to diesel Surywanshi et al- exhaust gas temperature is similar to diesel Senethil kumar et al higher exhaust temp for jatropha ester

EFFECT OF ENGINE SPEED ON ENGINE SMOKE


HARTRIDGE SMOKE UNIT
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

DIESEL

MEKO

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

2200

2400

ENGINE SPEED (RPM)

Discussion with references Raheman et al reported the reduction in emissions (CO, smoke density and NOx) could be due to complete combustion of fuel as compared to diesel Suryawanshi et al-The maximum reduction in smoke by 35% in case of neat biodiesel operation as compared to diesel. due to soot free and complete combustion because of oxygenateted fuel of biodiesel blends. Cardonea et al-showed lower levels of CO and smoke emissions with respect to petroleum diesel at each engine load level,

Effect of Engine speed on BSFC at different compression ratio (18 AND 15).
0.55 18C40KBD 18 MEKO 0.5 18D 15C40KBD 15MEKO

BSFC (kg/kWhr)

0.45

0.4

0.35

0.3 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 Engine speed (rpm )

Lowest sfc for diesel at 18 CR

Highest sfc for biodiesel and blend at 15 CR

Intermediate position for biodiesl at 15 CR

poor performance at lower compression ratios shown by biodiesel and blends.

EFFECT OF ENGINE SPEED ON BSEC AT DIFFERENT COMPRESSION RATIO AT (18 AND 15)
22

20

BSEC (MJ/kWhr)

18
18C40KBD

16
15C40KBD 18 MEKO 15MEKO

14

12

18D

10
1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400

Engine Speed (rpm )

Economics of Biodiesel

S.No. 1. 2. 3.

Item/Expenditure 10 Kg Seeds @ 5/- per Kg Oil Extraction and other charges @ 1/- per Kg. Trans-esterification Cost @ 8/- per Kg. of oil Total

Amount, Rs. 50/10/24/84/-

Sale 1. 2. 3. 7 Kg. oil cake @ 2/- per Kg. Glycerol .3 Kg. @ 20/- per Kg. Total
Net Expenditure incurred to get 30 Kg/33 Liters Oil

14/6/20/64/19.40/-

Cost of biodiesel ( per litre)

CONCLUSIONS NON EDIBLE OIL SHOULD BE PREFFERED FOR BIODIESEL PREPERATION TRANSESTERIFICATION REDUCESD VISCOSITY OF KARANJA OIL INVENTED, TRIAL AND ERROR METHOD IS MOST SUITBLE FOR HIGH FATS CONTENT OIL USE OF KARANJA OIL METHYL ESTER INCRESED THE BRAKE POWER SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION FOR MEKO AND BLENDS SLIGHTLY HIGHER THAN DIESEL IT MAY BE DUE TO LOWER CALORIFIC VALUE SPECIFIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION IS RELIABLE PARAMETER FOR COMPARISON THAN BSFC.

SMOKE REDUCED FOR MEKO IT MAY BE DUE TO COMPLETE COMBUSTION OF OXYGENATE FUEL EXHAUST GAS TEMPERTURE IS SLIGHTLY HIGHER FOR MEKO WHICH INDICATE COMPLETE COMBUSTION OF FUEL. AT LOWER CR BIODIESEL AND BLENDS SHOWS POOR PERFORMANCE BIODIESEL IS EMPLOYMENT RENEWABLE ENERGY,PROVIDE

SOLUTION TO THE RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROBLEM PROVIDE WOMENS PROMOTION

Future scope
Further reduction in viscosity can be obtained by addition of additives Other vegetable oils can be tried Pyrolysis or thermal cracking are other methods to reduce viscosity To see the environmental impact of MEKO should studied on gas analysis should be done engine modification may be tried to suit for veg oil economics of biodiesel storage handling engine deposits, performance , crank oil dilution

RECOMMENDATION FOR FURTHUR IMPROVEMENTS Use of heterogeneous catalysts such as sulfated zeolite, metal Oxides for production of biodiesel to reduce cost. Heating of biodiesel by engine exhaust gas to reduce viscosity. Coating of piston, cylinder, cylinder head by anti corrosive coatings to reduce corrosion. Use of EGR (Exhaust gas recirculation), advanced catalytic to converter reduce emission Effect of bio-diesel on spray characteristics in diesel engines using CFD. Development of additives for Bio-diesel-Diesel blends

Thank You

Rajesh Kumar Pandey