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MODIFY

ASH FUSION TEMPERATURE


OF R & Q SEAMS LATI AREA

Dudi Setiabudi

Geology & Development Department


August 2000

Summary

The mineable Lati coal reserves for R and Q seams excluded mine out March 2000 which in
stripping ratio below 7 are 24.84 million metric tonnes, consist of 14.85 million metric tonnes R
seam and 9.99 million metric tonnes Q seam.

66.10% of mineable coal reserve or 16.42 million metric tonnes within ash fusion temperature
value below and equal 1300oC and 24.84% of mineable coal reserve or 8.42 million metric
tonnes within ash fusion temperature value upper 1300oC. Both are ash fusion temperatures in
flow reducing condition.

Where, the long-term market to Jawa Power with the spec of reducing ash fusion temperature is
1,050oC initial deformation, 1,200oC softening, 1,280oC hemisphere, and 1,300oC flow. Rejection,
when a coal supply within ash fusion temperature below 1,300oC flow in reducing condition.

Based on statement above, for the long-term coal supply to Jawa Power is used upgrading ash
fusion temperature content. The study has addressed to consent "how to upgrade ash fusion
temperature of a coal in Lati Area."

Generalize, increases ash content in a coal correlated with increases ash fusion temperature
value and the ash fusion temperature is assumed under influence of the composition ash mineral
in ash of a coal. From 20% minimum contains of Al2O3, CaO and Fe2O3 of R and Q seams Lati
area that showed the increases Al2O3, CaO to followed increases ash fusion temperature, while
the increases Fe2O3 to followed decreases ash fusion temperature.

The upgrading ash fusion temperature of R and Q seams Lati Area can do as follows:

Blending between Low ash fusion temperature and high ash fusion temperature of a coal.

Adding percentage of ash in coal with high Al2O3 and or CaO contents.

Adding percentage of ash in coal can do with blending system between fine coal and non-coal,
and spraying black wall paint to fine coal. Spraying system its better than direct blending.

Although spraying black wall paint to fine coal that caused increases ash fusion temperature but
its not economics. Therefore, upgrading ash fusion temperature of R and Q seams Lati area for a
while just can do blending both of a coal.

Content
Page
Summary

Content

ii

1.

Introduction

2.

Ash Fusion Temperature

3.

Blending System

3.1

Coal

3.2

Non Coal

Conclusion

15

References

16

Table Content :
Table 1

Comparison of Ash Fusion Temperature Blending Between Composite Calculation

Table 2

Mineable Coal Reserve of R & Q Seams With Composite Ash Fusion Temperature

and Analysis Result


7

Table 3

Mineable Coal Reserve of R & Q Seams With Diversified Ash Fusion Temperature Value

Table 4

Common Minerals Found in Coals

8
10

Table 5

Ash Fusion Temperature Value of Mudstone

11

Table 6

Repeatability and Reproducibility of Ash Fusion Temperature

12

Table 7

Melting Temperature of Ash Components

13

Table 8

Ash Fusion Temperature and Others Quality Result Coal Spray with Black Wall Paint

14

Table 9

Ash Fusion Temperature and Others Quality Result Feasible Economic Sprayed by

14

Black Wall Paint

Graphic Content :
Graphic 1

Relationship between Ash Fusion Temperature and Ash Mineral of R Seam

Graphic 2

Relationship between Ash Fusion Temperature and Ash Mineral of Q Seam

Graphic 3

Relationship between Ash Fusion Temperature and Ash Mineral of R&Q Seams

Graphic 4

Relationship of C Ash Fusion Temperature (Initial Deformation - Reducing)

and % CaO/SiO2+Al2O3 of R & Q Seams


Graphic 5

Relationship of oC Ash Fusion Temperature (Initial Deformation - Reducing)

and % MgO/SiO2+Al2O3 of R & Q Seams


Graphic 6

Relationship of oC Ash Fusion Temperature (Initial Deformation - Reducing)

and % Fe2O3/SiO2+Al2O3 of R & Q Seams


Graphic 7

Relationship of oC Ash Fusion Temperature (Initial Deformation - Reducing)

and % SiO2/Al2O3 of R & Q Seams


Graphic 8

Relationship of C Ash Fusion Temperature (Initial Deformation - Reducing)

and % SiO2+Al2O3/Fe2O3+CaO+MgO+Na2O+K2O of R & Q Seams


Graphic 9

Relationship Between Million Metric Tonnes Mineable Coal Reserve and C Ash
o

Graphic 10

C Ash Fusion Temperature in Flow Reducing Condition of R & Q Seams


o

Relationship of C Ash Fusion Temperature (Initial Deformation - Reducing) and


% Ash in air dried basis of R & Q Seams

Appendix 1
ii

1. Introduction

The mineable Lati coal reserves for R and Q seams excluded mine out March 2000 which in
stripping ratio below 7 are 24.84 million metric tonnes, consist of 14.85 million metric tonnes R
seam and 9.99 million metric tonnes Q seam. Mineable coal reserve calculated based on
topographic map scale 1:1,000, drill holes data up to 1999, < 3% Na2O Free SO3 and < 0.8%
Total Sulfur in as received basis. The coal reserve can be changed by additional data or
calculation parameter.

66.10% of mineable coal reserve or 16.42 million metric tonnes within ash fusion temperature
value below and equal 1300oC and 24.84% of mineable coal reserve or 8.42 million metric tonnes
within ash fusion temperature value upper 1300oC. Both are ash fusion temperatures in flow
reducing condition.

Where, the long-term markets to Jawa Power with the spec of reducing ash fusion temperature
are 1,050oC initial deformation, 1,200oC softening, 1,280oC hemisphere, and 1,300oC flow.
Rejection, when a coal supply within ash fusion temperature below 1,300oC flow in reducing
condition.

Based on statement above, for the long-term coal supply to Jawa Power is used upgrading ash
fusion temperature content. The study has addressed to consent "how to upgrade ash fusion
temperature of a coal in Lati Area."

2. Ash Fusion Temperature

Ash fusion Temperature describes the softening and melting characteristic of ash and are
measured according to standard procedures by gradually heating a prepared sample in the shape
of a cone and observing it profile. The critical profiles at which temperature measurement are
made and defined as (after Bruce Proudfoot & others, 1999) :

Initial Deformation, the temperature at which the first signs of rounding of the tip or edges of
the piece occur.

Softening, the temperature at which the cone has fused to a spherical lump (i.e. height equal
to base diameter).

Hemispherical, the temperature at which the test pieces forms approximately a hemisphere
(i.e. height equal to half-base diameter).

Flow, the temperature at which the ash is spread out, the height of which is one third that at
the hemisphere temperature.

The condition is carried out either completely reducing (a mixture of hydrogen with carbon
dioxide) or completely oxidizing (air or carbon dioxide). The specimen is heated at 5oC per minute
from 900oC to a maximum of 1600oC.
Ash Fusion temperatures are regularly measured under both oxidizing and reducing conditions.
Those measured under oxidizing conditions are normally higher to an extent depending on the
presence of certain components of the ash, such as iron oxide, which have different fluxing
effects when in the oxidized and reduced forms.

Ash fusion temperature is one of others of physical ash property, while ash as determined in coal
analysis, may be defined as the non-combustible residue that remains when coal is burned. The
composition of the ash gives in ash analysis, a useful guide to the type of mineral present in a
coal, there are:

Silicon as SiO2
Titanium as TiO2
Sodium as Na2O
Phosphorus as P2O5

Aluminum as Al2O3
Iron as Fe2O3
Potassium as K2O
Sulfur as SO3.

Calcium as CaO
Magnesium as MgO
Manganese as Mn3O4

Of the above minerals, silicon, aluminum and titanium are considered to be acid, while the
remainders are regarded as basic (after Bruce Proudfoot & others, 1999).

The relationship between ash mineral present in ash of a coal and ash fusion temperature in Lati
Area that showed in graphic 1 to 3, within 89 data points of R seam and 105 data points of Q
seam.

Based on the third graphic within increases from 20% minimum contains of Al2O3, CaO and
Fe2O3, that showed increases Al2O3, CaO to followed increases ash fusion temperature, while
the increases Fe2O3 to followed decreases ash fusion temperature.

The value of ash fusion temperature is assumed under influence of the composition ash mineral
present in coal, but the exactly correlated is difficult presented on the formula.

Carabodgan, Singer and Panoiu, 1964 (in Teichmuller and others, 1982) They have studied the
influence of mineral in coal on the fusion temperature and defined a factor :

CaO, MgO, Fe2O3


R = -----------------------SiO2 + Al2O3
With increases value of R the fusion temperature also increases, such as sample of R and Q
seams in graphic 4 to 6, and the fusion temperature decreases with increases ratio between SiO2
and Al2O3 values, such as sample of R and Q seams in graphic 7.

1400
MgO

1300

Al2O3

C AFT

K2O

1200

CaO

Fe2O3

P2O5

SiO2

TiO2
Mn3O4

SO3

1100

Na2O

1000
0

10

20

30
40
50
% Ash Mineral R Seam

60

70

Graphic 1 Relationship between Ash Fusion Temperature and


Ash Mineral of R Seam Lati Area

1400

Mn3O4

1200

CaO

TiO2MgO

C AFT

1300

SO3
K2O

1100

Na2O

P2O5

SiO2

Fe2O3
Al2O3

1000
0

10

20

30
40
50
% Ash Mineral Q Seam

60

70

Graphic 2 Relationship between Ash Fusion Temperature and


Ash Mineral of Q Seam Lati Area

1400
Al2O3

1300
CaO
P2O5

1200

TiO2
Mn3O4

MgO

C AFT

K2O

SO3

1100

Na2O

Fe2O3

SiO2

1000
0

10

20
30
40
50
% Ash Mineral R&Q Seam

60

Graphic 3 Relationship between Ash Fusion Temperature and


Ash Mineral of R&Q Seams Lati Area

70

While, Elmer John Badin, 1984, defined factor :

Al2O3 + SiO2
R = ----------------------------------------------Fe2O3 + CaO + MgO + Na2O + K2O
With increases value of R correlated with increases value of ash fusion temperature, such as
sample of R and Q seams in graphic 8.

3. Blending System

Obviously, that ash fusion temperature is one of others of physical ash property but it is assumed
under influence of the composition ash mineral in ash of a coal. Therefore, it is acceptable that
the low ash fusion temperature to blend with high ash fusion temperature but the produce is not
an acceptable product, for example is showed in table 1.

The upgrading value of ash fusion temperature can do to blend between low ash fusion
temperature and high ash fusion temperature of a coal. Beside that, can do to add percentage of
ash in coal with blending between low ash fusion temperature of a coal and high ash fusion
temperature of non-coal material.

3.1. Coal

The mineable coal reserve of R and Q seams excluded mine out March 2000 which in stripping
ratio below 7 are 24.84 million metric tonnes, consist of 14.85 million metric tonnes R seam and
9.99 million metric tonnes Q seam. Mineable coal reserve calculated based on drill holes data up
to 1999, < 3% Na2O Free SO3 and < 0.8% Total Sulfur in as received basis. Both are quality
parameters, it's coal spec for supply to Jawa Power. The mineable coal reserve can be changed
by additional data, such as drilling, topographic map, coal quality parameter and stripping ratio.

The ash fusion temperature value of mineable coal reserve R and Q seams is showed in table2,
such as :

14.85 million metric tonnes of R seam consists of 14.68 million metric tonnes with ash fusion
temperature 1,312oC in flow reducing condition and 0.17 million metric tonnes without ash
fusion temperature value.

9.99 million metric tonnes of Q seam consists of 9.99 million metric tonnes with ash fusion
temperature 1,244oC in flow reducing condition and 0.002 million metric tonnes without ash
fusion temperature value.

1,400

1,200

C AFT

1,300

1,100

1,000
0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

6.00

% CaO/SiO2+Al2O3
o

Graphic 4 Relationship of C Ash Fusion Temperature (Initial Deformation - Reducing)


and % CaO/SiO2+Al2O3 of R & Q Seams Lati Area

1,400

1,200

C AFT

1,300

1,100

1,000
0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

1.60

% MgO/SiO2+Al2O3
o

Graphic 5 Relationship of C Ash Fusion Temperature (Initial Deformation - Reducing)


and % MgO/SiO2+Al2O3 of R & Q Seams Lati Area

1,400

1,200

C AFT

1,300

1,100

1,000
0.00

0.50

1.00

1.50

2.00

2.50

3.00

3.50

% Fe2O3/SiO2+Al2O3
o

Graphic 6 Relationship of C Ash Fusion Temperature (Initial Deformation - Reducing)


and % Fe2O3/SiO2+Al2O3 of R & Q Seams Lati Area

1,400

C AFT

1,300
1,200
1,100
1,000
900
0.00

5.00

10.00

15.00

20.00

25.00

30.00

35.00

% SiO2/Al2O3
o

Graphic 7 Relationship of C Ash Fusion Temperature (Initial Deformation - Reducing)


and % SiO2/Al2O3 of R & Q Seams Lati Area

1,400

1,200

C AFT

1,300

1,100

1,000
0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

6.00

7.00

% SiO2+Al2O3/Fe2O3+CaO+MgO+Na2O+K2O
o

Graphic 8 Relationship of C Ash Fusion Temperature (Initial Deformation - Reducing)


and % SiO2+Al2O3/Fe2O3+CaO+MgO+Na2O+K2O of R & Q Seams Lati Area

Composite of R and Q seams is 24.67 million metric tonnes with ash fusion temperature
1,285oC in flow reducing condition and 0.17 million metric tonnes without ash fusion
temperature value.

Based on statement above in table 2, the amount of 24.67 million metric tonnes combine of R and
Q seams within ash fusion temperature value 1,285oC in flow reducing condition, it's save for coal
supply to Jawa Power. The ash fusion temperature is in ranges of reproducibility value, it's80oC
for flow in reducing condition (ASTM, 1998). Be considered the composite produce of ash fusion
temperature is not an acceptable product, for example is showed in table 1.

Table 1
Comparison of Ash Fusion Temperature Blending
Between Composite Calculation & Analysis Result

A. Blending Between Coal & Coal ( 1 : 1 )

Reducing
Deformation
Spherical
Hemisphere
Flow

Coal
MS-R-V
Ash = 4.19 pct

Coal
MS-Q-VIII
Ash = 3.97 pct

Composite
Calculation
Blend 1 : 1

Analysis
Result
Blend 1 : 1

1090
1100
1170
1240

1190
1260
1300
1350

1139
1178
1233
1294

1060
1080
1110
1150

B. Blending Between Coal & Mudstone ( 97 : 3 )

Reducing
Deformation
Spherical
Hemisphere
Flow

Coal
ROBBY-106
Ash = 4.86 %

Mudstone
MS-RF-99
Ash = 84.5 %

Composite
Calculation
Ash = 7.25 %

Analysis
Result
Ash = 7.22 %

1080
1110
1120
1180

1200
1240
1310
1340

1122
1155
1186
1236

1140
1160
1240
1360

Table 2
Mineable Coal Reserve of R and Q Seams
With Composite Ash Fusion Temperature
Lati Area
o

Identification

With Coal Quality


R
Q
Su Total
Without Coal Quality
R
Q
Su Total
Grand Total

Mineable Reserve
(metric tonnes)

14,681,409.21
9,988,357.07
24,669,766.28

167,530.48
1,773.07
169,303.55

C Ash Fusion Temperature

Reducing

Oxidizing

1,183
1,141
1,166

1,235
1,182
1,213

1,254
1,199
1,232

1,312
1,244
1,285

1,262
1,206
1,239

1,306
1,270
1,291

1,324
1,283
1,307

1,375
1,344
1,362

24,839,069.83

The mineable coal reserve of R and Q seams with diversified ash fusion temperature value based
on rejection point <1,250oC, critical point between 1,250oC to 1,300oC, and save point 1,300oC<
are showed in table 3. All of ash fusion temperature value in flow reducing condition. The amount
of 0.17 million metric tonnes both are R and Q seams, that without ash fusion temperature value
is assumed as <1,250oC.

Within table 3 can be explain, such as:

32.06% of mineable coal reserve R and Q seams or 7.96 million metric tonnes of a coal that
rejection point for coal supply to Jawa Power.

34.04% of mineable coal reserve R and Q seams or 8.45 million metric tonnes of a coal that
critical point for coal supply to Jawa Power.

33.90% of mineable coal reserve R and Q seams or 8.42 million metric tonnes of a coal that
save for coal supply to Jawa Power.

Based on statement above in table 3, the amount of 33.90% of mineable coal reserve R and Q
seams or 8.42 million metric tonnes within upper 1,300oC, it's save for coal supply to Jawa Power.
66.10% of mineable coal reserve R and Q seams or 16.42 million metric tonnes within below and
equal 1,300oC, it's critical to rejection point for coal supply to Jawa Power. Both are ash fusion
temperatures in flow reducing condition.

Table 3
Mineable Coal Reserve of R and Q seams
With Diversified Ash Fusion Temperature Value
o

Coal Seam
R
Q
R&Q

C AFT - Flow - Reducing


<1250
1250 - 1300
1300 <
2.34
5.62

5.52
2.94

Total

6.99
1.43

14.85
9.99
24.84

7.96

8.45

8.42

32.06%

34.04%

33.90%

100%

Mineable reserve in million metric tonnes

Relationship between mineable coal reserve of R and Q seams and ash fusion temperature value
is showed in graphic 9. R seam within great quantities of high ash fusion temperature and the
other way of q seam within great quantities of low ash fusion temperature.

Mineable Reserve (MMT)

8
7
6
5

R Seam

Q Seam

3
2
1
0
<1250

1250 - 1300
o

Graphic 9

1300 <

C AFT - Flow - Reducing

Relationship between million metric tonnes mineable coal reserve and


o
C ash fusion temperature in flow reducing condition of R & Q seams
Lati area

3.2. Non Coal

Non-coal describes as a material that has high ash content. In graphic 10 that showed with
increases ash content also increases ash fusion temperature. Therefore, upgrading value of ash
fusion temperature can do to add percentage of ash in coal within high contents of Al2O3 and or
CaO, which in clays or carbonates group mineral type. The more common minerals found in coal
are showed in table 4.

1600

1500

1400

C AFT

1300

1200

1100

1000

900
0

10

12

% Ash

Graphic 10

Relationship of oC Ash Fusion Temperature (Initial Deformation - Reducing)


and % Ash in air dried basis of R & Q Seams Lati Area

The blending coal and non-coal (clays or carbonates group) beside can do to increase ash fusion
temperature value but another parameter quality will be decrease especially calorific value.

Non coal materials that easy to get in mining area are interburden and overburden materials of
the coal seams, such as : soil, mudstone (clay), sand, coally shale (that usually found in roof or
floor of the coal seams) and scoria. Those material qualities are showed in appendix 1 included
others material thats not found in mining area.

A Coal blending with soil or scoria which have high ash fusion temperature, such as about
1,370oC deformation and 1,560oC flow of soil and about 1,380oC deformation and more than
1,600oC Flow of scoria, while values of hemisphere and spherical between values of deformation
and flow. Both are ash fusion temperatures in reducing condition. Disadvantages of soil and
scoria, both are nil of calorific value that caused calorific value of coals blending will be high
decrease. Beside that, the colour of scoria is red that caused contras with color of a coal.

A coal blending with coaly shale, the advantages of color is like a coal, but source of coaly shale
is very little so difficult to get it in great quantities. The ash fusion temperature of coaly shale in
reducing condition is about 1,200oC deformation and 1,500oC flow and calorific value is about 565
kcal/kg in air dried bases, the assumed of the calorific value will be able more than it.

Table 4
Common Minerals Found in Coals
(J.Sligar)
Group

Clays

Carbonates

Sulfides

Accessory
Minerals

Species

Formula

Specific
Gravity

Kaolinite
Illite
Montmorillonite

Al2O3.2SiO2.H2O
K2O.3Al2O3.6SiO2.H2O
Al2(Si4O10)(OH2)

2.60
2.90
2.30

Siderite
Calcite
Dolomite

FeCO3
CaCO3
Ca(CO3).Mg(CO3)

3.96
2.94
2.86

Pyrite
Marcasite

FeS2
FeS2

5.01
4.88

Quartz
Hematite
Biotite
Rutile
Orthoclase (Feldspars)
Albite (Feldspars)

SiO2
Fe2O3
K2O.MgO.Al2O3.3SiO2.H2O
TiO2
K2O.Al2O3.6SiO2
Na2O.Al2O3.6SiO2

2.65
5.26
2.63
2.63

Mudstone has calorific value between 275 to 600 kcal/kg in air-dried bases and ash fusion
temperature between 1,030oC to 1,330oC deformations and 1,250oC to 1,500oC flows, both are in
reducing condition.

10

The advantages of mudstone to blend with a coal if compared with another materials of
interburden and overburden of the coal seams are:

Mudstone has a calorific value, therefore calorific value of a coal blending will be lower
decrease than soil and scoria. While, ash contents at all of materials relative the same are
about 80%.

Mudstone has a great quantity of source and very easy to get it, caused its majoring
material removed in mine operation.

Another material that can do to upgrade ash fusion temperature is zeolite. Zeolite is a group of
tektosilicates within contains of SiO2, Ca, K, Na, Ba. The show powerful properties of Base
Exchange clay minerals with occur of volcanic rocks (after Whitten & Brooks, 1972).
Ash fusion temperature of zeolite is 1,200oC deformation and 1,500oC flow in reducing condition.
Within source of zeolite is out of mine area and the value of ash fusion temperature is almost the
same with mudstone, therefore a coal blending with zeolite is not effective.

Generalize, mudstone is better than another materials that can do to blend with a coal for
upgrading value of ash fusion temperature, while disadvantages of mudstone to blend with a coal
are describe as:

Within high ash content that caused calorific value of a coal blending decrease.

The property of mudstone is sticky when wet and will be able to make clotting with a coal.

The mixture of mudstone is about 1% from about 5000 tonnes of coal. It's very difficult to
make homogenous blending.

Obviously, mudstone is sticky when wet and will be able to make clotting with a coal and varieties
value of ash fusion temperature (table 5), with ranges over than reproducibility value by ASTM
1998 (table 6).

Table 5
Ash Fusion Temperature Value of Mudstone
o

Identification
Deformation
Sherical
Hemisphere
Flow

Reducing C

Oxidizing C

Min

Max

Min

Max

1,030
1,130
1,180
1,250

1,330
1,450
1,470
1,500

1,230
1,380
1,450
1,460

1,400
1,500
1,530
1,560

11

Based on statement above, when a coal blending with mudstone is needed additional handling,
such as:

Mudstones before blending with a coal must be crush or screen which in loose less than
50 millimeter (mudstone size must be less than top coal size).

Its needed mudstone storage and its better close to coal processing plan.

Caused coal blending with mudstone is very difficult to make homogenous, so to take another
alternative. It is adding mineral present in a coal, which in liquid form and spraying to a coal in
stockpile processing together with a liquid that use to preventive self-combustion of a coal and
decreases air pollution of fly ash or spraying to a coal its self.

Table 6
Repeatability and Reproducibility of Ash Fusion Temperature
(ASTM - D 1857, 1998)
Repeatability
Identification
Deformation
Sherical
Hemisphere
Flow

Reproducibility
o

Reducing C

Oxidizing C

Reducing C

Oxidizing C

30
30
30
30

30
30
30
30

75
55
55
80

55
55
55
55

With in the assumed that the value of ash fusion temperature under influence of ash mineral in a
coal and Al2O3 and or CaO is one of others mineral that caused ash fusion temperature
increases with increases both are of ash minerals. Therefore, within to add percentage contains
of both are minerals in coal is expressly increased value of ash fusion temperature.

Al2O3 is a simple oxide with the white powder form and it's not soluble in water. One of others
compound of Al2O3 that soluble in water is Al2SO4. The form of Al2SO4 like Al2O3 is white
powder. Ash fusion temperature of Al2SO4 is less than 900oC of deformation in reducing
condition, while a melting simple oxide of Al2O3 is 2,043oC. Low ash fusion temperature of
Al2SO4 may be that caused by sulfur in SO4.

CaO like Al2O3 is a simple oxide with the white powder form. One of others compound of CaO
that soluble in water is CaCO3. Ash fusion temperature of CaCO3 is more than 1,600oC of
deformation in reducing condition, while a melting simple oxide of CaO is 2,521oC.

Interaction takes place at elevated temperatures producing complex salts that have entirely
different physical constants from the simple oxides. Among other changes, the melting

12

temperatures of the compounds are usually lowered to simple oxides temperature is showed in
table 7 (J.Sligar).

Base on the assumed of the increases Al2O3 and or CaO to followed increases ash fusion
temperature and black wall paint with the majoring made of Kaolinite (Al2O3.2SiO2.H2O),
Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) and others chemical composition. Therefore, it's tried to spray black
wall paint to fine coal.
Table 7

Melting Temperature of Ash Components


(J. Sligar)
Identification

Melting
o
Temperature ( C)

Oxide
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
MgO
Na2O
K2O
TiO2

1715
2043
1565
2521
2799
(Sublimes 1277)
(Decomposes 349)
1838

Compound
Na2SiO
Na2OTiO2
CaSiO2
CaAl2O3
FeSiO2

849
1032
1538
1600
1149

The experiment result to be indicated that ash fusion temperature increases with spraying black
wall paint to fine coal and affect another qualities, such as: increases calorific value, sulfur content
and decreases inherent moisture (table 8). The increase calorific value may be caused by
decrease inherent moisture.

The feasible economics spraying black wall paint to find coal is about one liter liquid solution for
one ton find coal with composition 2% liquid solution, but it's impossible that caused increases
ash fusion temperature. Therefore, in liquid solution to add 0.02% mudstone powder from total
sprayed of find coal.

Based on statement above is tried 25 kg find coal sprayed by 250 ml liquid solution with
composition 5 ml black wall paint, 245 ml water and 5 gram mudstone powder. The tried result to
be indicated that ash fusion temperature is not increase (table 9).

13

Table 8
Ash Fusion Temperature and Others Quality Result
Coal Spray with Black Wall Paint
Sample
Code

Mixing
Ratio

AFT ( C)
Reducing
S
H

D
A
B
C
D

Normal
1:1
1 : 10
1 : 20

Sample
Code

Mixing
Ratio

A
B
C
D

Normal
1:1
1 : 10
1 : 20

Note :
Normal
1:1
1 : 10

1,020
1,270
1,070
1,080

1,080
1,280
1,090
1,130

1,100
1,300
1,100
1,140

Proximate (adb)
Ash
VM
%
%

IM
%
19.72
15.58
17.76
17.32

3.80
6.08
4.38
3.84

Oxidazing
S
H

1,120
1,320
1,140
1,160

1,120
1,320
1,190
1,180

1,170
1,340
1,230
1,220

1,190
1,360
1,290
1,230

1,230
1,380
1,330
1,240

Ash
%

daf
TS
%

4.97
7.76
5.63
4.87

1.20
1.24
1.27
1.27

adb
FC
%

37.72
40.61
39.25
38.81

TS
%

38.76
37.73
38.61
40.03

CV
kcal/kg

0.92
0.97
0.99
1.00

5,470
5,536
5,569
5,657

CV
kcal/kg
7,152
7,067
7,153
7,175

= Original sample
= 100 milliliter water and 100 milliliter black wall paint
= 20 milliliter water and 200 milliliter black wall paint

1 : 20
= 10 milliliter water and 200 milliliter black wall paint
Each fine coal (1 kg size 4.75 milimeter) to spray 200 milliliter by mixture of water and black wall paint

The price of black wall paint is about Rp 20,000 per liter, while the feasible economic price is
about Rp 400 per ton of fine coal sprayed excluded mudstone powder price. Fine coal spraying
within feasible economics price is not caused ash fusion temperature increase yet. Although
sprayed by black wall paint that caused increases ash fusion temperature but its not economics.
Table 9
Ash Fusion Temperature and Others Quality Result
Feasible Economics Sprayed by Black Wall Paint
Sample
Code

Mixing
Ratio

AFT ( C)
D

AF1
AF2

Normal 1,100
2%
1,090

Reducing
S
H
1,120
1,110

Sample
Code

Mixing
Ratio

arb
TM
%

IM
%

AF1
AF2

Normal
2%

25.60
25.50

19.04
19.77

Note :
Normal

1,170
1,120

Oxidazing
S
H

1,260
1,250

FC
%

TS
%

CV
kcal/kg

Ash
%

daf
TS
%

CV
kcal/kg

38.43
38.54

0.80
0.78

5,413
5,352

6.33
6.25

1.05
1.03

7,109
7,088

Proximate (adb)
Ash
VM
%
%
4.82
4.72

37.71
36.97

adb

= Original sample

Fine coal sprayed by 2% liquid solution black wall paint and 0.02% mudstone powder from total srayed of find coal

14

4. Conclusion

The value of ash fusion temperature is under influences ash mineral composition in coal. Coal
properties of R and Q seams in Lati Area, from 20% minimum contains of Al2O3, CaO and
Fe2O3, that showed with the increase Al2O3, CaO to followed increase ash fusion temperature,
while the increase Fe2O3 to followed decrease ash fusion temperature.

The upgrading ash fusion temperature of R and Q seams Lati Area can do as follows:

Blending between Low ash fusion temperature and high ash fusion temperature of a coal.

Adding percentage of ash in coal with high Al2O3 and or CaO contents.

Adding percentage of ash in coal can do with blending system between fine coal and non-coal,
and spraying black wall paint to fine coal. Spraying system its better than direct blending.

Although spraying black wall paint to fine coal that caused increases ash fusion temperature but
its not economics. Therefore, upgrading ash fusion temperature of R and Q seams Lati area for a
while just can do blending both of a coal.

15

References :

1. Annual Book of ASTM Standards (1998), Volume 05.05 Gaseous Fuels, Coal and
Coke, Easton MD USA.
2. Bruce Proudfoot & Others (1999); Coal Quality Course March 15 - 17, 1999, PT.
Geoservices Bandung Indonesia.
3. Colin R Ward (1983), Coal Geology And Coal Technology, Blackwell Scientific
Publications Melbourne Oxford London - Edinburgh Boston Palo Alto.
4. D.G.A. Whitten and J.R.V. Brooks (1972), The Penguin Dictionary of Geology, Hazell
Watson & Viney Ltd., Great Britain.
5. Elmer John Badin (1984), Coal Combustion Chemistry - Correlation Aspect, Elsevier
Amsterdam - Oxford - New York - Tokyo.
6. J. Sligar, Coal Properties and Their Effect On Power Station Design, Institute of Coal
Research, Coal Characterisation and Utilisation Course for Novacoal Australia.
7. Stach, Taylor, Mackowsky, Chandra, M. Teichmuler and R. Teichmuler (1982), Stach's
of Texbook of Coal Petrology, Gedbruder Borntraeger - Berlin - Stutgart.

16

APPENDIX

Flow Procedure of
Fine Coal Sprayed By Black Wall Paint

4 kg
4.75 mm

1 kg
4.75 mm
Normal
AFT Analysis
Ok
Analysis :
Proximate
TS
CV
Ash Analysis

1 kg
4.75 mm

1 kg
4.75 mm

1:1

1:10

AFT Analysis

AFT Analysis

1 kg
4.75 mm
1:20
AFT Analysis

Ok

Ok

Ok

Analysis :
Proximate
TS
CV
Ash Analysis

Analysis :
Proximate
TS
CV
Ash Analysis

Analysis :
Proximate
TS
CV
Ash Analysis

Note :
Normal

= Original sample

1:1

= 100 milliliter water and 100 milliliter black wall paint

1 : 10

= 20 milliliter water and 200 milliliter black wall paint

1 : 20

= 10 milliliter water and 200 milliliter black wall paint

Each fine coal (1 kg size 4.75 milimeter) to spray 200 milliliter by mixture of water and black wall paint

Ash Mineral Present in Ash and Ash Fusion Temperature of R Seam


Ash Fusion Temperature (oC)

Ash Minral Present in Ash (% db)


No.

Hole
CaO

Reducing
H
S

Oxidizing
H
S

SiO2

Al2O3

Fe2O3

1 HD-97-105

10.33

14.03

8.30

17.60

5.19

11.65

0.84

0.02

0.67

0.86

30.21

1,140

1,170

1,190

1,210

1,270

1,280

1,300

1,310

2 HD-97-106

18.99

17.88

9.46

19.05

7.54

3.36

0.62

0.04

0.86

1.91

19.91

1,160

1,180

1,190

1,200

1,240

1,320

1,330

1,350

3 HD-97-112

15.18

11.64

10.24

17.12

6.60

0.60

0.46

0.66

0.33

0.44

36.49

1,080

1,100

1,110

1,120

1,190

1,200

1,210

1,230

4 HD-97-117

25.70

16.57

13.44

17.28

5.78

1.49

0.47

0.05

1.00

0.33

17.69

1,100

1,110

1,120

1,130

1,200

1,210

1,220

1,250

5 HD-97-146

19.03

25.09

12.44

15.76

6.79

1.50

0.26

0.74

1.48

3.06

13.62

1,160

1,230

1,260

1,340

1,250

1,280

1,310

1,400

6 HD-97-149

43.42

35.48

7.43

4.18

0.89

0.67

0.31

0.02

1.66

0.33

5.31

1,070

1,100

1,260

1,200

1,240

1,270

1,280

1,310

7 HD-97-151

15.43

21.33

5.87

14.15

5.42

12.09

0.46

0.02

1.28

1.56

22.18

1,140

1,160

1,180

1,190

1,250

1,300

1,320

1,340

8 HD-97-155

15.65

14.90

9.67

26.45

12.18

0.44

0.40

0.08

0.47

1.53

17.95

1,260

1,280

1,300

1,320

1,300

1,320

1,340

1,380

9 HD-97-156

9.74

16.68

20.42

16.23

7.23

0.74

0.35

0.74

0.83

0.82

26.01

1,140

1,160

1,180

1,240

1,270

1,330

1,340

1,410

10 HD-97-163

22.95

14.85

18.85

12.70

7.76

0.80

0.50

0.43

0.08

0.43

20.33

1,070

1,090

1,110

1,140

1,190

1,210

1,230

1,290

11 HD-97-166

23.55

23.38

14.22

12.55

4.83

0.60

0.52

0.83

0.99

0.89

17.44

1,120

1,200

1,220

1,250

1,260

1,280

1,290

1,320

12 HD-97-168

14.32

19.35

9.04

18.80

6.93

2.50

0.38

0.08

0.67

0.85

26.48

1,130

1,140

1,170

1,240

1,170

1,230

1,240

1,390

13 HD-97-169

20.23

21.60

18.15

16.11

6.64

0.97

0.35

0.23

1.02

1.57

12.80

1,070

1,110

1,120

1,160

1,180

1,190

1,200

1,250

14 HD-97-44

21.67

22.35

9.49

10.27

5.16

0.47

0.28

0.45

0.92

0.75

28.08

1,230

1,280

1,330

1,350

MgO

Na2O

K2O

Mn3O4

TiO2

P2O5

SO3

15 HD-97-46

26.20

19.97

26.88

7.71

2.29

2.70

0.67

1.33

1.33

0.33

10.27

1,170

1,240

1,340

1,370

16 HD-97-56

38.66

12.28

5.30

8.93

2.81

7.20

0.61

1.55

0.55

0.15

21.66

1,040

1,100

1,130

1,170

1,090

1,130

1,150

1,240

17 HD-97-64

45.32

8.60

8.81

10.55

4.71

11.58

0.34

0.04

0.39

1.26

8.08

970

1,010

1,040

1,070

1,120

1,180

1,210

1,280

18 HD-97-70

15.95

13.55

9.20

11.77

4.35

10.98

0.60

0.04

0.50

0.92

31.99

1,020

1,030

1,040

1,050

1,190

1,210

1,220

1,240

19 HD-97-83

25.06

17.56

10.43

13.29

4.22

1.23

0.41

1.51

1.11

0.25

24.65

1,270

1,290

1,300

1,340

1,290

1,300

1,310

1,360

20 HD-97-88

44.02

26.06

11.71

5.48

1.32

1.35

0.36

0.05

0.67

0.13

8.68

1,210

1,510

1,520

1,550

1,470

1,510

1,530

1,560

21 HD-97-89

19.49

34.63

13.63

6.36

1.39

0.34

0.68

0.07

0.91

2.57

19.70

1,450

1,570

1,590

>1600

1,480

1,590

>1600

>1600

22 HD-97-94

11.06

20.88

32.74

7.56

3.13

0.33

0.49

0.42

0.49

1.57

21.20

1,160

1,260

1,280

1,400

1,390

1,410

1,430

1,500

23 HD-98-11

35.32

32.15

13.69

5.89

2.02

0.30

0.29

0.31

0.94

1.88

7.01

1,140

1,320

1,340

1,360

1,230

1,390

1,400

1,410

24 HD-98-14

20.29

11.76

7.72

16.45

5.78

10.67

0.68

0.07

0.82

1.21

24.15

1,090

1,130

1,140

1,150

1,200

1,230

1,250

1,270

25 HD-98-15

25.87

39.99

18.91

3.52

0.75

0.44

0.22

0.07

1.29

3.16

5.58

1,300

1,410

1,440

1,490

1,390

1,470

1,500

1,520

26 HD-98-16

37.73

29.80

13.69

6.72

2.02

0.53

0.24

0.23

1.37

1.24

6.03

1,170

1,360

1,370

1,390

1,260

1,400

1,430

1,450

27 HD-98-17

37.67

25.88

9.95

11.10

2.37

0.45

0.33

0.64

1.25

1.49

8.58

1,230

1,240

1,260

1,300

1,260

1,270

1,290

1,320

28 HD-98-20

8.31

2.75

10.75

21.66

7.14

11.53

0.42

0.05

0.12

0.09

36.84

1,160

1,220

1,230

1,250

1,260

1,210

1,240

1,270

29 HD-98-24

13.79

5.19

15.43

16.93

5.72

12.52

0.44

0.05

0.35

0.13

28.05

1,110

1,120

1,130

1,150

1,140

1,160

1,170

1,200

30 L-84-06

33.30

29.20

9.46

9.45

3.81

0.43

0.84

0.23

0.98

1.40

10.00

1,250

1,330

1,330

1,570

1,190

1,310

1,320

1,500

Ash Mineral Present in Ash and Ash Fusion Temperature of R Seam


Ash Fusion Temperature (oC)

Ash Minral Present in Ash (% db)


No.

Hole
CaO

Reducing
H
S

SiO2

Al2O3

Fe2O3

31 L-84-07

34.80

30.20

13.80

7.48

3.05

1.63

0.78

0.16

1.14

1.17

6.33

1,100

1,320

32 L-85-05

17.70

19.20

8.76

19.60

6.48

1.00

0.61

0.24

0.89

1.80

24.70

1,260

33 L-86-17

34.50

14.70

6.70

16.30

4.10

6.00

0.90

0.08

0.90

0.39

13.96

1,050

34 L-86-19

15.90

20.50

9.90

21.90

5.85

10.85

0.42

0.05

0.59

0.09

13.07

35 L-86-24

26.30

20.50

11.50

13.90

5.50

1.08

0.99

0.52

1.15

0.07

36 L-86-25

16.50

8.00

7.50

24.50

5.50

13.80

0.21

0.11

0.30

0.08

37 L-86-41

16.00

21.00

15.90

17.40

6.95

0.67

0.21

0.50

1.00

38 L-86-55

59.00

18.80

6.90

3.95

2.68

1.15

1.58

0.26

1.10

39 L-86-56

29.30

40.00

11.70

6.25

2.60

0.78

0.24

0.11

40 L-86-58A

36.50

29.30

10.30

8.25

3.25

0.70

0.63

0.42

41 L-86-63A

27.50

18.60

7.80

13.88

4.78

13.88

0.73

42 L-87-108

31.50

39.10

14.50

3.68

0.64

0.33

0.25

43 L-87-116

22.30

17.70

9.63

17.50

7.00

0.57

0.28

MgO

Na2O

K2O

Mn3O4

TiO2

P2O5

SO3

Oxidizing
H
S

1,320

1,570

1,280

1,380

1,380

1,420

1,260

1,260

1,300

1,260

1,270

1,270

1,300

1,100

1,100

1,160

1,120

1,200

1,220

1,420

1,230

1,330

1,350

1,520

1,260

1,390

1,400

1,580

16.67

1,040

1,080

1,100

1,480

1,090

1,200

1,230

1,300

22.03

1,070

1,100

1,120

1,180

1,110

1,170

1,170

1,200

0.02

19.10

1,200

1,250

1,270

1,360

1,230

1,320

1,380

1,560

0.18

3.86

1,160

1,190

1,210

1,250

1,170

1,280

1,290

1,330

0.89

0.48

6.32

1,330

1,340

1,360

1,450

1,320

1,340

1,370

1,450

1.58

0.30

7.17

1,210

1,270

1,300

1,440

1,240

1,270

1,280

1,340

0.03

0.51

0.06

10.93

1,110

1,130

1,140

1,160

1,260

1,310

1,320

1,340

0.23

1.70

3.55

2.85

1,180

1,330

1,350

1,420

1,230

1,470

1,470

1,510

0.17

0.63

1.65

21.56

1,160

1,190

1,190

1,370

1,180

1,210

1,210

1,260

44 L-87-120

12.80

16.40

8.25

16.60

5.00

11.60

0.73

0.07

0.71

3.30

22.75

1,170

1,280

1,290

1,440

1,270

1,430

1,430

1,580

45 L-87-20

29.90

46.50

13.00

3.91

1.25

0.30

0.38

0.23

0.67

2.49

2.88

1,270

1,340

1,380

1,530

1,310

1,440

1,440

1,510

46 L-87-24A

31.04

12.91

12.42

14.13

7.41

1.39

0.51

0.10

0.52

0.91

18.91

1,590

1,590

1,590

1,590

1,590

1,590

1,590

1,590

47 L-87-41

38.10

32.50

11.80

6.00

2.15

0.49

0.98

0.24

1.16

1.75

3.69

1,100

1,320

1,330

1,380

1,240

1,280

1,290

1,420

48 L-87-42

30.70

27.10

14.30

10.20

3.58

0.54

0.72

0.28

1.29

0.35

9.14

1,210

1,250

1,270

1,370

1,280

1,290

1,310

1,350

49 L-87-57

42.80

35.90

9.20

3.05

0.91

0.47

0.69

0.06

0.83

3.00

1.45

1,220

1,590

1,590

1,590

1,560

1,590

1,590

1,590

50 L-87-58

18.40

16.30

9.63

16.60

8.75

1.31

0.63

0.07

0.50

1.40

24.59

1,260

1,310

1,320

1,560

1,190

1,320

1,350

1,580

51 L-87-64

25.50

16.90

7.60

15.30

4.00

10.80

0.68

0.07

0.57

2.10

14.39

1,030

1,070

1,070

1,090

1,200

1,290

1,300

1,310

52 L-87-80

24.70

17.30

8.38

14.70

4.90

15.30

0.48

0.05

0.48

0.26

12.22

1,070

1,090

1,090

1,100

1,230

1,320

1,320

1,340

53 L-87-84

27.20

19.50

9.75

15.20

5.40

2.56

0.25

0.06

0.81

0.30

17.63

1,160

1,200

1,200

1,280

1,270

1,320

1,320

1,330

54 L-87-86

30.00

20.30

19.80

9.80

4.18

0.80

0.44

0.47

0.94

0.40

12.20

1,150

1,200

1,200

1,230

1,250

1,350

1,380

1,560

55 L-95-07

14.88

21.27

8.26

19.20

8.00

8.16

0.39

0.07

0.08

0.09

18.74

1,118

1,130

1,138

1,151

1,320

1,384

1,389

1,396

56 L-95-13

21.11

14.19

13.07

20.34

4.79

9.06

0.33

0.10

0.71

0.79

15.72

1,096

1,100

1,106

1,120

1,188

1,260

1,268

1,280

57 L-95-20

19.81

3.24

9.96

28.82

6.37

11.20

0.32

0.17

0.04

0.01

18.18

1,070

1,120

1,128

1,137

1,190

1,197

1,200

1,210

58 L-95-39

29.90

25.42

6.77

11.82

4.07

9.70

0.87

0.04

0.69

0.53

9.89

1,090

1,098

1,103

1,120

1,273

1,317

1,330

1,345

59 L-95-56

44.62

34.82

5.29

4.47

1.25

0.52

2.13

0.12

1.12

0.47

3.78

1,470

1,550

1,556

1,570

1,550

1,600

1,600

1,600

60 L-95-58

11.99

21.88

9.71

26.44

6.14

0.05

0.47

0.36

1.17

0.88

20.48

1,196

1,263

1,278

1,285

1,260

1,271

1,280

1,293

Ash Mineral Present in Ash and Ash Fusion Temperature of R Seam


Ash Fusion Temperature (oC)

Ash Minral Present in Ash (% db)


No.

Hole

61 L-96-101

SiO2

Al2O3

Fe2O3

CaO

31.04

27.18

10.81

13.32

MgO
3.60

Na2O
0.55

K2O
1.23

Mn3O4
0.12

TiO2
1.33

P2O5

SO3

0.27

10.79

1,208

Reducing
H
S
1,280

1,310

1,380

1,290

Oxidizing
H
S
1,305

1,315

1,390

62 L-96-103

37.89

23.80

8.97

9.34

1.89

1.10

1.05

0.17

1.23

2.75

11.57

1,185

1,256

1,272

1,330

1,250

1,352

1,372

1,435

63 L-96-104

41.70

20.92

5.90

13.41

3.50

0.47

1.83

0.09

0.07

0.32

9.89

1,180

1,220

1,270

1,370

1,220

1,250

1,280

1,390

64 L-96-107

4.36

15.37

9.85

32.44

6.88

0.60

0.21

0.20

1.30

0.79

28.75

1,210

1,240

1,270

1,310

1,280

1,310

1,320

1,330

65 L-96-112

23.07

25.35

18.89

12.97

2.89

0.47

0.47

0.39

1.22

0.84

12.47

1,300

1,305

1,310

1,320

1,325

1,330

1,335

1,340

66 L-96-118

12.93

16.26

13.94

23.60

6.44

0.50

0.75

0.24

0.75

0.47

24.64

1,150

1,180

1,200

1,220

1,250

1,270

1,280

1,294

67 L-96-61

39.72

26.65

12.86

7.11

1.98

0.31

0.92

0.22

0.82

1.79

7.38

1,309

1,329

1,339

1,380

1,320

1,335

1,340

1,400

68 L-96-63

25.88

32.77

9.29

15.88

3.82

0.83

0.48

0.15

1.17

0.87

9.18

1,330

1,340

1,350

1,380

1,340

1,348

1,359

1,393

69 L-96-67

3.31

17.14

12.91

33.89

8.82

0.91

0.28

0.17

0.61

0.48

20.85

1,175

1,247

1,292

1,320

1,275

1,323

1,337

1,381

70 L-96-73

23.81

22.42

7.32

21.81

5.97

4.30

0.64

0.07

0.96

2.56

9.65

1,182

1,195

1,198

1,225

71 L-96-81

9.37

15.03

7.98

35.42

6.98

1.33

0.41

0.13

0.41

0.20

23.43

1,210

1,276

1,285

1,320

1,298

1,320

1,330

1,340

72 L-96-86

37.07

27.16

11.68

6.76

2.03

0.59

0.77

0.39

1.10

3.00

9.35

1,190

1,250

1,271

1,310

73 L-96-88

28.45

19.34

6.07

18.15

4.64

4.63

1.70

0.08

0.62

0.01

16.91

1,110

1,120

1,130

1,160

1,272

1,312

1,322

1,350

74 L-96-92

13.69

17.35

7.89

27.92

7.34

5.30

0.50

0.12

1.33

0.50

18.19

1,240

1,250

1,260

1,280

1,290

1,335

1,350

1,360

75 L-96-GT3

35.94

25.54

4.85

9.52

2.57

4.43

0.81

0.09

1.11

0.63

14.30

1,135

1,195

1,231

1,315

1,262

1,281

1,305

1,368

76 L-97-07

19.59

23.67

7.99

20.11

5.03

4.44

0.52

0.10

1.28

0.49

17.00

1,120

1,150

1,170

1,190

1,250

1,350

1,370

1,410

77 L-97-15

18.53

24.67

7.59

18.99

5.77

5.87

0.51

0.08

1.31

0.97

14.37

1,130

1,145

1,160

1,180

1,315

1,375

1,390

1,405

78 L-97-26

20.04

19.48

7.82

22.39

7.32

1.33

1.19

0.07

0.83

0.31

20.19

1,130

1,140

1,160

1,190

1,180

1,190

1,200

1,230

79 L-97-34

32.29

33.36

6.79

9.47

3.59

0.68

1.25

0.21

1.13

0.80

9.08

1,300

1,350

1,370

1,400

1,310

80 L-97-41

41.49

32.16

8.91

4.88

1.74

0.60

0.45

0.58

1.35

0.86

6.65

1,201

1,513

1,523

1,545 -

1,360
-

1,390
-

1,420
-

81 L-97-42

25.43

23.64

6.69

14.00

4.86

6.40

1.36

0.06

1.68

0.08

14.25

1,120

1,130

1,140

1,180

1,248

1,330

1,380

82 L-97-44

31.96

18.79

9.63

9.30

3.14

11.01

0.86

0.06

0.98

0.28

13.82

1,074

1,089

1,117

1,125

1,466
-

83 L-97-51

9.38

20.57

8.44

27.92

8.08

2.10

0.42

0.08

1.04

1.04

19.73

1,250

1,280

1,290

1,305

1,264

1,290

1,300

1,318

84 L-97-56

15.16

14.18

10.86

15.23

4.99

11.50

0.22

0.09

1.24

0.29

25.68

1,171

1,192

1,197

1,205

85 L-97-58

15.33

5.13

7.22

15.24

4.37

7.46

0.59

0.04

1.33

0.02

43.03

1,130

1,160

1,170

1,197

86 L-97-64

21.66

2.35

12.84

15.83

4.57

10.58

0.39

0.05

0.12

0.07

31.38

1,120

1,130

1,140

1,160

1,280

1,330

1,350

1,370

87 L-97-66B

28.13

3.39

10.72

16.25

6.45

13.66

0.35

0.03

0.31

0.57

19.78

1,106

1,115

1,122

1,150

1,330

1,370

1,376

1,390

88 L-97-68

4.02

19.74

8.13

24.95

7.24

11.18

0.45

0.08

1.68

1.27

20.56

1,260

1,280

1,290

1,340

1,360

1,376

1,390

1,410

89 L-97-72

30.71

5.09

19.51

11.49

3.70

0.67

0.52

0.06

1.44

0.10

26.53

1,160

1,170

1,190

1,210

1,180

1,190

1,200

1,230

Ash Mineral Present in Ash and Ash Fusion Temperature of Q Seam


Ash Fusion Temperature (oC)

Ash Mineral Present in Ash (% db)


No.

Hole
SiO2

Al2O3

Fe2O3

CaO

29.37

15.26

MgO
7.06

Na2O
2.29

K2O
0.44

Mn3O4
0.07

TiO2
0.23

P2O5
0.37

SO3
25.62

D
1,170

Reducing
H
S
1,180

1,190

1,210

1,140

Oxidizing
H
S
1,270

1,290

1 HD-97-11

15.74

3.44

1,350

2 HD-97-12

19.91

3.25

9.55

22.48

5.75

10.68

0.89

0.08

0.70

0.56

25.93

1,040

1,050

1,060

1,090

1,220

1,230

1,240

1,250

3 HD-97-122

8.12

2.15

16.02

21.08

6.32

10.75

0.78

0.05

0.20

0.06

34.16

1,180

1,240

1,260

1,290

1,250

1,340

1,360

1,390

4 HD-97-144

11.68

18.42

17.13

11.54

16.46

3.11

0.45

0.44

0.00

0.55

19.36

1,060

1,110

1,130

1,180

1,200

1,230

1,250

1,290

5 HD-97-149

26.45

10.29

16.53

11.50

9.20

4.14

1.08

0.08

0.46

0.55

20.37

1,090

1,100

1,110

1,120

1,120

1,130

1,140

1,150

6 HD-97-150

50.40

11.18

16.63

6.58

3.25

1.09

0.48

0.22

0.16

0.19

9.71

1,040

1,170

1,180

1,210

1,210

1,290

1,300

1,310

7 HD-97-153

24.57

1.63

6.78

19.28

5.74

5.24

0.51

0.07

1.79

0.13

32.23

1,060

1,070

1,090

1,130

1,130

1,150

1,160

1,220

8 HD-97-156

28.79

1.08

10.39

13.88

17.05

2.20

0.26

0.04

0.00

0.73

25.54

1,120

1,140

1,150

1,160

1,170

1,180

1,190

1,210

9 HD-97-157

29.42

5.99

14.47

15.56

4.20

5.34

0.36

0.04

0.70

0.90

22.85

1,060

1,080

1,120

1,130

1,160

1,170

1,190

1,290

10 HD-97-160

38.90

9.79

15.37

12.37

5.06

0.54

0.41

1.10

4.99

0.03

11.38

1,300

1,390

1,400

1,420

1,360

1,420

1,430

1,460

11 HD-97-161

67.84

13.61

10.40

2.57

0.80

0.84

0.70

0.04

0.27

0.10

2.46

1,100

1,270

1,350

1,390

1,230

1,350

1,390

1,420

12 HD-97-164

46.99

6.45

28.18

4.96

4.24

0.67

0.43

0.26

0.27

0.26

7.08

1,040

1,060

1,090

1,190

1,170

1,260

1,280

1,300

13 HD-97-169

43.97

1.43

10.40

13.30

3.56

13.02

0.51

0.04

0.16

0.09

13.34

1,000

1,010

1,020

1,030

1,100

1,120

1,130

1,140

14 HD-97-170

19.23

3.73

12.67

20.41

12.78

1.02

0.12

0.55

0.00

0.82

27.84

1,160

1,170

1,190

1,210

1,190

1,200

1,210

1,230

15 HD-97-171

14.76

13.61

30.05

11.95

7.36

0.76

0.37

0.40

0.20

0.38

19.82

1,140

1,150

1,160

1,190

1,220

1,230

1,250

1,310

16 HD-97-172

42.71

9.26

22.18

8.77

4.21

0.47

0.79

0.50

5.49

0.56

5.01

1,100

1,110

1,130

1,140

1,110

1,240

1,270

1,320

17 HD-97-25

7.16

5.50

39.32

16.32

7.14

0.99

0.77

0.43

0.16

0.57

21.48

1,160

1,200

1,230

1,270

1,200

1,420

1,440

1,490

18 HD-97-26

36.95

7.27

16.67

8.62

5.74

4.81

0.46

0.39

0.27

0.43

18.04

1,020

1,050

1,080

1,110

1,180

1,170

1,180

1,250

19 HD-97-27

8.76

4.33

13.52

13.83

19.82

5.05

0.40

0.05

0.12

0.36

33.46

1,080

1,100

1,120

1,170

1,150

1,290

1,310

1,420

20 HD-97-28

45.12

25.86

20.92

2.90

0.91

0.43

1.37

0.07

0.58

0.32

1.32

1,070

1,150

1,310

1,330

1,200

1,380

1,390

1,400

21 HD-97-29

10.94

8.72

45.92

10.68

5.21

0.61

0.42

0.43

0.31

0.56

15.93

1,120

1,230

1,240

1,310

1,240

1,460

1,470

1,520

22 HD-97-30

5.47

3.44

17.17

19.98

5.87

11.45

0.37

0.04

0.08

0.06

35.89

1,140

1,150

1,160

1,180

1,260

1,230

1,250

1,340

23 HD-97-36

12.33

12.36

25.34

9.61

5.82

8.48

0.54

0.28

0.20

0.29

24.61

1,060

1,070

1,080

1,110

1,150

1,160

1,170

1,220

24 HD-97-38

13.42

5.09

13.77

22.24

6.27

12.22

0.33

0.03

0.39

0.19

25.78

1,190

1,220

1,230

1,270

1,150

1,330

1,350

1,450

25 HD-97-45

24.72

7.16

11.20

14.21

6.07

11.84

0.74

0.04

0.31

0.29

23.22

1,040

1,060

1,080

1,100

1,120

1,130

1,140

1,150

26 HD-97-49

9.01

3.78

9.50

20.08

4.89

6.82

0.84

0.06

0.50

0.33

41.97

1,020

1,040

1,050

1,060

1,120

1,130

1,140

1,150

27 HD-97-52

13.82

2.35

9.38

24.11

7.62

15.98

0.64

0.05

0.16

0.04

25.50

1,060

1,090

1,120

1,170

1,120

1,150

1,170

1,220

28 HD-97-54

17.71

2.86

13.13

16.98

5.82

12.48

0.43

0.04

0.39

0.25

29.73

1,060

1,070

1,080

1,090

1,100

1,110

1,120

1,130

29 HD-97-55

8.77

2.15

10.40

23.70

7.11

12.77

0.48

0.04

0.23

0.21

33.88

1,230

1,300

1,310

1,330

1,250

1,320

1,330

1,340

30 HD-97-56

15.65

6.54

16.00

17.43

4.75

13.10

1.72

0.06

0.80

0.67

23.17

1,000

1,010

1,020

1,030

1,110

1,140

1,150

1,170

Ash Mineral Present in Ash and Ash Fusion Temperature of Q Seam


Ash Fusion Temperature (oC)

Ash Mineral Present in Ash (% db)


No.

Hole
SiO2

Al2O3

Fe2O3

CaO

MgO

Na2O

K2O

Mn3O4

TiO2

P2O5

SO3

Reducing
H
S

Oxidizing
H
S

31 HD-97-58

20.32

4.30

21.66

14.06

3.92

9.83

0.53

0.04

0.39

0.31

24.41

1,050

1,060

1,070

1,080

1,240

1,250

1,260

1,270

32 HD-97-60

10.92

6.45

12.60

20.65

4.79

14.38

1.00

0.06

0.40

0.22

29.32

1,140

1,180

1,190

1,210

1,190

1,200

1,220

1,260

33 HD-97-63

36.41

9.45

17.21

10.89

3.74

8.15

1.08

0.04

0.55

0.32

11.99

950

1,000

1,010

1,040

1,060

1,100

1,130

1,160

34 HD-97-64

9.81

2.15

13.07

19.84

6.19

13.44

0.46

0.04

0.47

0.12

34.27

1,220

1,270

1,280

1,310

1,230

1,290

1,300

1,330

35 HD-97-73

16.97

7.88

37.15

10.71

5.15

2.94

0.96

0.53

0.39

0.50

16.74

1,020

1,030

1,040

1,060

1,150

1,160

1,170

1,200

36 HD-97-74

12.02

1.63

12.05

14.32

18.91

4.69

0.34

0.06

0.12

0.64

34.71

1,080

1,090

1,100

1,110

1,210

1,220

1,230

1,300

37 HD-97-82

21.53

1.43

20.77

18.88

6.38

3.95

0.56

0.04

0.27

0.09

25.86

1,090

1,120

1,130

1,150

1,160

1,170

1,180

1,200

38 L-84-07

10.50

4.01

12.70

18.90

5.28

12.20

0.37

0.11

0.14

0.07

33.60

1,170

1,220

1,240

1,280

1,280

1,330

1,330

1,410

39 L-86-04

17.00

5.10

16.00

22.30

6.60

9.20

0.54

0.11

0.27

0.01

22.47

1,190

1,240

1,250

1,280

1,290

1,320

1,320

1,590

40 L-86-10

18.20

8.50

37.00

16.50

3.00

0.34

0.66

0.30

0.27

0.01

14.77

1,030

1,070

1,080

1,110

1,120

1,320

1,370

1,510

41 L-86-17

17.00

5.10

16.00

22.30

6.60

9.20

0.54

0.11

0.27

0.01

22.47

1,060

1,200

1,220

1,290

1,240

1,270

1,270

1,580

42 L-86-18

11.20

2.80

14.70

24.50

8.40

9.90

0.26

0.09

0.08

0.00

26.24

1,260

1,320

1,320

1,350

1,080

1,320

1,330

1,580

43 L-86-19

5.20

1.42

15.90

25.50

6.63

11.80

0.19

0.06

0.07

0.01

32.02

1,080

1,204

1,240

1,330

1,200

1,260

1,280

1,580

44 L-86-20

3.80

1.12

15.80

23.50

6.30

13.80

0.19

0.05

0.07

0.01

34.68

1,150

1,210

1,210

1,260

1,070

1,300

1,320

1,580

45 L-86-24

10.90

1.72

9.70

23.60

6.35

15.70

0.20

0.05

0.06

0.07

30.88

1,280

1,330

1,330

1,380

1,000

1,230

1,280

1,580

46 L-86-25

10.40

7.89

11.70

18.80

5.30

15.10

0.40

0.06

0.20

0.00

29.20

1,160

1,190

1,190

1,210

1,100

1,220

1,230

1,560

47 L-86-41

11.50

3.90

13.70

30.95

8.35

1.00

0.43

0.87

0.15

0.10

30.00

1,220

1,290

1,310

1,350

1,300

1,340

1,350

1,560

48 L-86-55

41.50

11.00

15.80

10.00

4.78

0.60

1.21

0.29

0.52

0.05

12.53

1,120

1,140

1,150

1,180

1,180

1,190

1,200

1,270

49 L-86-56

16.50

5.60

22.10

21.00

6.65

1.02

0.24

0.49

0.19

0.03

24.59

1,160

1,190

1,190

1,200

1,190

1,240

1,260

1,350

50 L-86-58A

43.00

22.50

18.70

6.10

1.58

1.01

0.61

0.23

0.31

0.11

5.18

1,020

1,120

1,140

1,320

1,270

1,330

1,340

1,440

51 L-86-63A

20.50

2.92

8.90

15.10

5.60

14.88

0.54

0.04

0.07

0.01

30.75

1,230

1,240

1,240

1,270

1,140

1,160

1,170

1,200

52 L-86-68

26.50

13.00

0.29

11.50

4.40

0.71

0.57

0.25

0.32

0.05

13.23

1,010

1,030

1,030

1,140

1,140

1,240

1,240

1,430

53 L-87-01A

32.00

15.60

35.50

5.40

2.94

0.74

0.82

0.16

0.58

0.08

5.14

1,050

1,090

1,090

1,130

1,210

1,310

1,340

1,390

54 L-87-108

58.50

4.00

18.60

5.50

2.00

0.58

0.32

0.29

0.18

0.13

10.10

1,020

1,110

1,360

1,410

1,100

1,320

1,330

1,410

55 L-87-116

21.00

3.19

24.00

16.60

5.95

1.30

0.21

0.66

0.10

0.08

25.24

1,130

1,200

1,200

1,270

1,120

1,200

1,210

1,310

56 L-87-121

31.30

6.20

11.30

13.30

4.40

19.50

0.76

0.11

0.25

0.01

15.10

1,010

1,050

1,050

1,070

1,170

1,180

1,180

1,180

57 L-87-14

43.00

23.40

14.80

5.67

1.97

3.19

1.87

0.09

0.38

0.17

4.65

1,170

1,210

1,230

1,320

1,220

1,390

1,390

1,410

58 L-87-33

18.00

3.60

6.30

25.30

8.50

5.50

0.33

0.07

0.14

0.03

31.20

1,250

1,290

1,300

1,360

1,210

1,330

1,330

1,590

59 L-87-41

17.70

3.72

12.20

17.70

4.83

15.40

0.50

0.05

0.11

0.05

26.04

1,060

1,130

1,130

1,140

1,140

1,160

1,160

1,210

60 L-87-42

37.00

16.40

15.00

10.80

4.90

1.65

1.16

0.23

0.38

0.15

13.23

1,010

1,110

1,110

1,190

1,130

1,210

1,210

1,360

Ash Mineral Present in Ash and Ash Fusion Temperature of Q Seam


Ash Fusion Temperature (oC)

Ash Mineral Present in Ash (% db)


No.

Hole
CaO

MgO

Na2O

K2O

Mn3O4

TiO2

P2O5

SO3

Reducing
H
S

Oxidizing
H
S

SiO2

Al2O3

Fe2O3

61 L-87-53

36.00

20.90

19.20

9.80

3.03

0.32

0.63

0.38

0.27

0.26

7.32

1,100

1,130

62 L-87-58

15.80

4.19

16.00

13.80

4.60

14.63

0.38

0.05

0.16

0.08

29.16

1,130

63 L-87-61

26.00

25.80

24.60

8.50

3.75

0.35

0.44

0.63

0.20

0.68

7.57

1,060

64 L-87-63

11.80

5.20

35.00

16.40

5.95

1.31

0.32

0.47

0.18

0.05

21.93

65 L-87-64

19.50

6.38

11.50

14.60

4.25

13.40

0.84

0.35

0.18

0.03

27.36

66 L-87-80

28.90

4.38

10.60

15.00

4.00

12.50

0.05

0.04

0.12

0.10

22.54

67 L-87-84

22.20

3.69

14.60

14.90

4.20

14.00

0.39

0.05

0.12

0.13

23.85

1,070

1,150

1,150

1,160

1,150

1,190

1,190

1,230

68 L-87-98

39.20

3.38

9.38

12.20

3.75

12.10

0.47

0.04

0.08

0.12

17.97

1,010

1,010

1,030

1,080

1,140

1,170

1,180

1,250

1,160

1,370

1,240

1,270

1,290

1,350

1,190

1,190

1,200

1,070

1,210

1,220

1,330

1,200

1,240

1,480

1,330

1,340

1,350

1,480

1,190

1,260

1,290

1,580

1,110

1,350

1,350

1,590

1,020

1,060

1,060

1,070

1,170

1,170

1,170

1,210

1,170

1,200

1,200

1,220

1,130

1,250

1,270

1,320

69 L-95-18

9.35

6.49

11.34

24.45

6.35

9.52

0.62

0.10

0.33

0.01

32.10

1,160

1,172

1,180

1,190

1,196

1,220

1,230

1,260

70 L-95-20

16.27

11.78

11.09

18.53

5.27

11.40

0.31

0.07

0.12

0.06

24.57

1,140

1,170

1,175

1,185

1,230

1,240

1,250

1,265

71 L-95-26

58.35

16.58

8.76

3.60

4.04

2.53

0.71

0.06

0.38

0.03

4.14

1,154

1,177

1,310

1,396

1,182

1,295

1,355

1,550

72 L-95-39

26.12

9.72

11.20

17.28

5.55

9.59

1.42

0.60

0.33

0.01

19.51

1,060

1,070

1,075

1,090

1,165

1,182

1,190

1,205

73 L-95-40

21.33

20.95

34.11

8.52

4.49

0.47

1.00

0.43

0.38

0.01

6.51

1,108

1,116

1,120

1,163

1,310

1,380

1,390

1,410

74 L-95-58

10.86

6.13

16.68

18.21

5.15

8.53

0.61

0.10

0.39

0.06

32.93

1,160

1,175

1,180

1,185

1,205

1,230

1,245

1,273

75 L-96-101

6.13

2.17

13.35

31.96

7.03

5.25

0.29

0.17

0.21

0.10

33.92

1,240

1,260

1,270

1,280

1,260

1,270

1,280

1,290

76 L-96-107

28.26

2.18

10.71

23.22

5.63

4.57

0.27

0.09

0.25

0.01

24.16

1,040

1,120

1,150

1,180

1,148

1,171

1,180

1,190

77 L-96-111

6.34

5.77

24.19

18.29

16.51

0.46

0.19

0.62

0.19

0.40

16.20

1,250

1,250

1,250

1,275

1,232

1,318

1,323

1,353

78 L-96-112

4.76

1.26

14.56

30.08

6.60

4.25

0.31

0.12

0.04

0.01

36.83

1,180

1,240

1,250

1,266

1,200

1,277

1,280

1,290

79 L-96-118

6.15

2.18

13.04

29.06

6.89

6.06

0.33

0.13

0.08

0.01

35.94

1,190

1,260

1,265

1,270

1,240

1,250

1,275

1,285

80 L-96-120

8.77

4.95

18.17

33.46

9.46

0.67

0.46

0.32

0.24

0.05

23.04

1,289

1,289

1,289

1,315

1,303

1,310

1,325

1,335

81 L-96-61

11.59

2.17

13.30

29.82

7.18

6.12

0.43

0.09

0.08

0.01

28.71

1,230

1,240

1,250

1,260

1,249

1,260

1,265

1,270

82 L-96-67

3.93

3.22

14.18

26.53

6.75

9.19

0.45

0.09

0.16

0.01

35.79

1,160

1,170

1,206

1,230

1,290

1,295

1,302

1,310

83 L-96-73

7.08

3.18

12.47

30.22

6.95

8.37

0.38

0.11

0.04

0.01

30.29

1,230

1,240

1,250

1,257

1,225

1,305

1,333

1,415

84 L-96-74

14.34

5.61

26.91

19.77

6.89

0.61

0.43

0.73

0.38

0.05

24.03

1,196

1,210

1,215

1,218

1,227

1,295

1,323

1,330

85 L-96-81

6.14

2.18

14.67

29.03

6.89

5.91

0.30

0.11

0.12

0.01

33.84

1,180

1,250

1,256

1,267

1,200

1,260

1,268

1,280

86 L-96-86

11.72

3.31

17.49

20.35

6.45

2.61

0.72

1.69

0.11

0.05

34.92

1,163

1,198

1,211

1,224

1,185

1,365

1,382

1,455

87 L-96-98

17.78

2.14

11.34

24.95

5.97

5.00

0.28

0.09

0.08

0.01

31.83

1,119

1,150

1,170

1,210

1,130

1,190

1,200

1,210

88 L-96-GT3

11.73

2.31

17.04

20.31

6.31

9.49

0.86

0.10

0.15

0.10

31.26

1,190

1,210

1,224

1,230

1,236

1,240

1,243

1,280

89 L-97-04

11.79

7.50

28.87

19.51

5.96

0.73

0.29

0.39

0.42

0.63

25.60

1,194

1,205

1,222

1,245

1,281

1,305

1,312

1,340

90 L-97-07

33.73

2.06

20.40

12.10

3.76

4.56

0.11

0.10

0.27

0.08

22.37

1,065

1,095

1,120

1,150

1,195

1,199

1,201

1,219

Ash Mineral Present in Ash and Ash Fusion Temperature of Q Seam


Ash Fusion Temperature (oC)

Ash Mineral Present in Ash (% db)


No.

Hole
SiO2

Al2O3

Fe2O3

CaO

MgO

Na2O

K2O

Mn3O4

TiO2

P2O5

SO3

Reducing
H
S

Oxidizing
H
S

91 L-97-15

9.23

9.03

9.31

18.79

6.18

9.44

0.49

0.09

0.04

0.03

37.09

1,245

1,250

1,255

1,270

1,224

1,250

1,260

1,269

92 L-97-21

47.84

11.64

6.74

6.40

2.07

3.70

1.32

0.03

0.83

0.40

18.99

1,191

1,201

1,215

1,240

1,227

1,260

1,264

1,269

93 L-97-30

8.89

3.25

20.83

20.71

6.29

9.66

0.50

0.10

0.27

0.02

28.98

1,220

1,234

1,246

1,266

1,295

1,305

1,315

1,332

94 L-97-40

11.30

1.76

9.75

21.36

7.10

11.42

0.27

0.03

0.44

0.24

36.15

1,190

1,197

1,210

1,223

1,233

1,255

1,271

1,301

95 L-97-41

10.36

5.80

24.07

13.79

4.39

5.57

0.46

0.06

1.66

0.35

33.22

1,243

1,272

1,276

1,280

1,352

1,550

1,550

1,550

96 L-97-42

56.49

1.92

6.68

5.68

2.56

4.80

0.49

0.04

0.88

0.03

20.21

1,001

1,012

1,067

1,120

1,160

1,196

1,205

1,217

97 L-97-44

35.39

4.50

7.36

8.73

3.27

7.43

0.78

0.05

0.99

0.06

31.19

1,001

1,115

1,136

1,150

1,267

1,325

1,359

1,378

98 L-97-51

17.84

6.49

12.22

12.35

4.07

0.88

0.53

0.11

1.89

0.13

43.29

1,001

1,021

1,037

1,051

1,125

1,155

1,160

1,163

99 L-97-56

6.89

3.89

15.49

11.84

3.77

8.44

0.34

0.04

0.78

0.27

47.97

1,068

1,121

1,125

1,130

1,287

1,342

1,354

1,375

100 L-97-58

9.67

1.93

14.96

13.28

4.51

11.07

0.63

0.44

0.33

0.17

42.79

1,015

1,080

1,095

1,106

1,312

1,373

1,383

1,393

101 L-97-64

6.05

5.16

8.25

18.18

5.57

9.94

1.16

0.44

0.66

0.08

44.38

1,056

1,065

1,074

1,077

1,149

1,185

1,190

1,199

102 L-97-66B

15.33

13.93

8.12

15.34

3.88

9.01

0.66

0.07

0.82

0.64

32.08

1,015

1,063

1,085

1,100

1,145

1,165

1,175

1,200

103 L-97-68

28.11

2.17

13.35

12.18

4.44

8.10

0.36

0.03

1.62

0.11

29.29

1,038

1,055

1,065

1,075

1,143

1,170

1,175

1,190

104 L-97-71

29.42

21.61

20.25

8.24

3.96

1.75

0.46

0.95

0.14

0.09

12.90

1,128

1,155

1,168

1,181

1,276

1,305

1,313

1,329

105 L-97-72

13.75

2.34

9.99

18.33

5.20

11.59

0.31

0.03

0.22

0.17

37.86

1,147

1,156

1,160

1,167

1,123

1,162

1,189

1,225