SORTING THE ELEMENTS

The Story of the Periodic Table

CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 Elements and Atoms CHAPTER 2 Discovering the Elements CHAPTER 3 Rows and Columns CHAPTER 4 Common Elements CHAPTER 5 Metals CHAPTER 6 Nonmetals CHAPTER 7 Elements into Compounds FULL PERIODIC TABLE GLOSSARY FURTHER INFORMATION INDEX 4 8 14 20 26 32

38 42 44 46 48

chapter one

Elements and Atoms
What is an element? Elements are all around us. The element iron is in everything from bridges to safety pins. Electric wire is made from the element copper. Cans are made from the element aluminum. The lead in pencils is not really lead. It is graphite. This is the element carbon. Even the air we breathe is made of elements. It is mostly nitrogen and oxygen.

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įThese wires are made from the element copper. Copper is a metal. It is used for wires because it conducts electricity well.

įIronbridge is built mainly from the element iron. It was the first bridge ever to be built of cast iron. It was built across the River Severn in England, in 1779.
But many things around us are not elements. Plastic is not an element. Wood, glass, and cloth are not elements, either. So how do we tell elements from other substances? To find the answer, let’s look at atoms. Everything is made of atoms.
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and electrons. You need a special microscope to see an atom. ver y t i n y e l e c t r o n s . The parts are protons. Ar ound this is a cloud of ver y. T h e v a r io u s e l e m e n t s h a v e a d i f f e r ent number of pr otons. They ar e made fr om smaller parts. An element is something that is made up of just one kind of atom. neutrons. The middle of the atom is called the nucleus. Some others have been made artificially. Electrons Neutron How Many Elements Are There? About ninety-two elements have been found on Earth.) 6 . ATOMIC STRUCTURE Atoms ar e not solid balls. and Nucleus e l e c t r ons. They are very tiny. ǠThe main parts of an atom. or particles. It is made fr om pr otons and neutr ons. (See page 19. that make up everything. Proton n e u t r ons.Atoms and Elements Atoms are the bits.

is C. Element Symbol aluminum Al arsenic As carbon C chlorine Cl cobalt Co copper Cu fluorine F gold Au helium He hydrogen H iodine I iron Fe magnesium Mg mercury Hg Element Symbol nickel Ni nitrogen N oxygen O phosphorus P platinum Pt potassium K silicon Si silver Ag sodium Na sulfur S tin Sn titanium Ti uranium U zinc Zn 7 . for instance. for example . Oxygen is O. the symbol is not s o e a s y t o f i g u r e o u t . is Fe. w h i c h i s f e r r um. and aluminum is Al. Often. This symbol comes fr om the Latin name for i r o n .ELEMENT SYMBOLS E v e r y element has a symbol. Sometimes. Carbon. Ir on. it is the f i r s t o n e o r t w o l e t t e r s o f t h e e l e m e n t ’ s name.

earth. He is using a furnace to heat a water bath.chapter two Discovering the Elements It took a long time for scientists to understand what elements are. most people believed these ideas. and water. 8 . fire. Ancient Greeks such as Aristotle thought that there were only four elements—air. For many years. ǠThis picture from 1545 shows an alchemist at work.

he proved that there are many elements. B u t t h e y u s e d t h e m t o t r y t o t u r n on e substance into another. most people who studied chemistr y wer e alchemists. In the 1650s. But they made useful scientific discoveries along the way. 9 . not just four. Among įA picture of Antoine Lavoisier in them were light his laboratory. The list included the elements known at the time. Then in 1789. an Irish chemist. We now experiment to try and separate know these are not water into its elements. Tur ning common metal into gold is one example. a n d i t sounds funny now. ALCHEMISTS Until the 17th centur y.But then came Robert Boyle. Lavoisier also defined what an element is. French chemist Antoine Lavoisier made the first list of elements. It didn’ t w o r k . elements. Alchemists w o r k e d w i t h e l e m e n t s l i k e t o d a y ’s c he m is t s d o . He is doing an and heat. He said it is a substance that can not be broken down into simpler substances.

calcium. Many of them were found using new methods. For example. įHumphry Davy was one of the first scientists to discover new elements using batteries.More and More Elements Lavoisier’s work helped show what an element was. 10 . He discovered six elements (sodium. and barium) this way. Chemists found a good use for it. strontium. the first battery was made in 1800. more were discovered. They discovered that they could use electricity to separate many substances into their elements. After that. potassium. magnesium.

In 1868. scientists found helium on Earth. Scientists Joseph Lockyer and Pierre Janssen did this. They used a prism to split the light coming from a burning object.” Scientists are able to tell what elements the star is made of by the position of the dark lines. Elements in the Sun Spectroscopy was also used to look at the light from the Sun and stars. ǠThis image shows a spectrum of light coming from the star “Arcturus. The new element was called helium. Later. Bunsen and Kirchoff discovered the elements cesium and rubidium this way. Then they looked at the lines that were produced (called a spectrum). The method is known as spectroscopy. too. Gustave Kirchoff and Robert Bunsen were German chemists. they looked at the Sun’s spectrum during an eclipse. 11 . They found lines for an element they did not know.Chemists also discovered new elements by looking at the light that substances gave off as they burned.

12 . That way. ǠThis photo shows Mendeleev working in his study. had things in common. He put the elements in order of their atomic weight. They had similar properties. chemists had named more than sixty elements. he could rearrange them. Some of these. Was there a pattern to the groups? The answer came in 1869. He made a few changes and grouped together elements with similar properties. they saw.Mendeleev’s Table By the 1860s. It came from a Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev. Mendeleev wrote the name of each element on a card. The elements could be grouped by these.

13 . ǠThis picture shows a large lump of the chemical element. He was right. Mendeleev made a table of elements showing the groups he saw. This is known as the periodic table. Elements discovered since now fill the gaps. gallium. So how do we measur e a n e l e m e n t ’s a t o m i c m a s s ( w e i g h t ) ? I t i s t h e weight of a cer t ain a moun t of th at e lem en t compar e d t o t h e w e i g h t o f t h e s a m e a m o u n t of anot her element. or weights. He was sure some had not been discovered yet. he left gaps. These marked places where Mendeleev thought an element was missing.ATOMIC WEIGHT Atoms of dif f e r ent elements have dif f e r e n t masses. It is one of the elements that Mendeleev rightly predicted would be discovered in the future. When he made the table.

(The number of protons or electrons in an element’s atom is called its atomic number.) Each row holds a different number of elements. They are often put in a separate block at the bottom. The table starts with the lightest element. And it ends with the heaviest. (Elements 57-70 and 89-102 are very similar. The periodic table has seven rows. and so A helium atom on. Hydrogen is the lightest element. Two electrons zoom around the nucleus. (See pages 42-43.) 14 . Lithium has three protons and electrons. The next two rows have eight elements each. The first row has two elements—hydrogen and helium.chapter three Rows and Columns The periodic table shows the elements by atomic mass. It has one proton and one electron. It has two protons and two electrons.) ǠA helium atom has a nucleus with two protons and two neutrons. Next is helium.

OTHER PERIODIC TABLES The periodic table is often shown in r ows and c o l u m n s . Th er e ar e cir c u l a r v e r s i o n s a n d s p i r a l v e r s i o n s . t h e r e ar e m a n y w a y s t o s h o w i t . B u t . Circular Periodic Table 46 110 78 24 H He 23 73 Nb 89 V Ta 70 22 Br I 53 85 7 Cl 35 Ne Ar Kr 36 54 86 Li K 3 11 19 Be 4 12 20 38 56 88 21 Na Rb Cs Fr Mg Sc Y Ti F 39 Uu At s 11 Ca Ce Tn 90 87 Pr Pa 91 59 69 Nd 60 67 Pm61 66 o 6 H 65 63 64 Sm 2 U 92 99 Dy E 93 b u T Gd Np 98 s 94 E 97 95 96 Pu A m Cm Bk Cf Lr 58 Yb 102 68 Tm 1 No 10 Er 00 d M 1 Fm 10 3 Uuo 118 Ra Lu 71 Xe Rn 37 55 Sr Ba La Zr 40 Hf 7 2 Rf 1 04 57 Ac Db 105 41 Mn 43 r C Tc 75 42 o M Re 107 74 W Bh 106 Sg 25 Hs O s 10 Ru 8 76 Fe 44 lr Mt 26 Rh Co 109 77 45 27 Uun Pd Ni Pt 28 Z n 48 29 80 Cd Cu 12 47 Hg 1 Ag 79 b Uu 30 Au 111 Uuu B C N Uu t 1 13 81 Ti Sn 50 In 49 Ga 31 Al Pb Uuq 114 82 Ge 32 As Si P Sb 51 Uup 115 Bi 83 33 O S 34 Se 52 Te Po 84 11 6 Uu h L A 15 . Som e ar e s h o w n i n t h r ee dimensions or as a chemical galaxy.

They melt at a low temperature. It is stored in oil to avoid this. When they burn.įDiamond is the strongest natural material found on Earth. or whether an element is reactive or not. Each column is a group of elements. Potassium. for example. This drill bit is made of diamond. are soft metals. The elements in Group 1. These elements also react quickly. They have properties that are similar. for example. hardness or softness. 16 . they have a colored flame. boiling point. catches fire and burns if it touches water. Properties are things like melting point. It is used in the oil industry to drill through rock. Looking at the Groups Look at the periodic table on pages 42-43.

helium (It does not f r eeze even at ver y l o w t e m p e r a t u r es. smokes. 17 . It fizzes.192°F (3. ) įPutting the element potassium in water is dangerous.422 °C). then starts to burn with a purple flame.RECORD-BREAKING ELEMENTS Har dest element: Densest element: Lightest element: Highest melting point: L o w e s t f r eezing point: carbon (diamond) osmium h y d r ogen tungsten at 6.

When Mendeleev created the table. the Scottish chemist William Ramsay discovered the first noble gas.Discovering the Noble Gases Mendeleev’s periodic table was missing a whole group of elements. When electricity passes through the gas. Different noble gases produce different colors. none of these gases had been discovered. it glows brightly. He suggested there must be a whole group of these gases. This was Group 18. Since they do not react with anything. Most of the lights in this city street have a small amount of a noble gas in them. (See pages 42-43. Ramsay saw that it did not fit with the table’s other groups. 18 . The others were discovered over the next six years. they were hard to identify. He was right. It was argon. They are colorless gases. They do not react with other elements. they can produce very bright colors. In 1894.) The elements of this group are very different from those in Group 1. These are the noble gases. ǠAlthough noble gases are colorless.

But the periodic table shows 118 elements. Some may exist for only a moment. The extra elements have been made by scientists in the laborator y. 19 .t w o d i f f e r e nt ele me nt s ar e found on E a r th.NEW ELEMENTS N i n e t y .

1% Oxygen 47% Iron 5. This substance is a combination of silicon and oxygen. Most elements are found only in small quantities. 20 . But only a few are very common.6% Sodium 2.8% įOxygen and silicon are the most common elements in the ground. This is because many rocks are made mainly of a substance called silicon dioxide.1% Others 0.1% Potassium 2.0% Calcium 3.chapter four Common Elements There are ninety-two elements found on Earth. What Is the Earth’s Crust and Core Made From? Aluminum 8.6% Silicon 28% Magnesium 2.

Other elements are found in small amounts. Many rocks are made from a mix of silicon and oxygen.Earth Elements The ground beneath our feet is made mostly from just eight elements. calcium. aluminum. iron. potassium. They make up the air in the atmosphere. They are oxygen. Sodium and chlorine are found in small amounts in seawater. 21 . Water Elements The main elements in the ocean are hydrogen and oxygen. These are the elements that make water. Metals such as iron and aluminum are found in rocks called ores. and magnesium. magnesium. the water in the sea. They make the sea salty. sodium. įThe 92 elements found on Earth combine together in different ways. The Earth’s core is mostly iron. Rocks such as chalk are mostly calcium and oxygen. too. calcium. silicon. and potassium. and the rocks beneath us. These include sulfur.

22 . Another 1 percent is argon. H o w ? A l l living things depend on plants. Carbon dioxide is one of them. T h e g r een color in plants is chlor ophyll. This is the main substance for absorbing light. There are also small amounts of other gases in it. What Elements Are Found in Air? Oxygen 21% Others 1% Nitrogen 78% ESSENTIAL ELEMENT Magnesium is impor t a n t t o a l l l i f e .Air Elements Air is nearly 99 percent nitrogen and oxygen. Magnesi um is an essential par t of chlor op h y l l . Plants can make t h e i r o w n f o o d f r o m s u n l i g h t .

For example. Other important elements include carbon and nitrogen. Oxygen 61% 23 . carbon. and hydrogen.4% Nitrogen 2. In humans. So they are important elements. Animals and plants also need small amounts of several other elements.6% Hydrogen 10% Carbon 23% Ǡ94 percent of the human body is made up of the key elements oxygen. And iron is needed for Others 1. Phosphorus 1.1% Calcium 1.Elements of Life All living things are made up of just a few elements. Two of these are calcium and iron. all living things have a great deal of water. Oxygen and hydrogen make water.0% the blood. calcium is an important element Percentages of Various for teeth and Elements in a Human Body bones.

Every one of these stars is made mostly of the element hydrogen. įOur Sun is just one of billions and billions of stars in the universe. Also. This is the fuel that keeps them burning. Stars are huge balls of it. huge clouds of hydrogen gas float in space. Most of the rest is helium. Hydrogen is also found in stars. More than 92 percent of the universe is hydrogen.Elements in Space On Earth. 24 . Beyond Earth the most common element is hydrogen. Other elements make up only about one tenthousandth of the universe. oxygen is the most common element.

These happen w h en a l a r ge star comes to the end of its life. and ir on.000 5 neon 2. ǡThe table shows the number of atoms of each element per 10 million hydrogen atoms. n i t r ogen.000 3 oxygen 6.000 2 helium 1.000. The fourteen most common elements in the universe 1 hydrogen 10. A few giant stars make elements that ar e h e a v i e r t h a n i r on.ELEMENT FACTORIES S t a r s b u r n hydr ogen. The heaviest elements. o x y g e n .400. 25 . ar e made in explosi ons called supernovas. such as gold and uranium.800 4 carbon 3. It is conver t e d i n t o elements such as carbon.800 6 nitrogen 910 7 magnesium 290 8 silicon 250 9 sulfur 95 10 iron 80 11 argon 42 12 aluminum 19 13 sodium 17 14 calcium 17 all other elements 50 įThis photo of the Orion nebula shows reddish clouds of hydrogen.

These are metals and nonmetals. 26 .chapter five Metals The periodic table can be divided into two main types of elements. Metals in the Periodic Table 3 4 Li 11 Be 12 13 Na 19 Mg 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Al 31 K 37 Ca 38 Sc 39 Ti 40 V 41 Cr 42 Mn 43 Fe 44 Co 45 Ni 46 Cu 47 Zn 48 Ga 49 50 Rb 55 Sr 56 Y 71 Zr 72 Nb 73 Mo 74 Tc 75 Ru 76 Rh 77 Pd 78 Ag 79 Cd 80 In 81 Sn 82 83 Cs 87 Ba 88 Lu 103 Hf 104 Ta 105 W 106 Re 107 Os 108 Ir 109 Pt 110 Au 111 Hg 112 Ti 113 Pb 114 Bi 115 Fr X naturally Ra Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Uun Uuu Uub Uut Uuq Uup occurring elements 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 La 89 Ce 90 Pr 91 Nd 92 Pm 93 Sm 94 Eu 95 Gd 96 Tb 97 Dy 98 Ho 99 Er 100 Tm 101 Yb 102 X synthetic elements Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No įThis shows only the metals in the periodic table. Most elements are metals.

Many are strong. It can be made by mixing two metals together.Metals conduct electricity and heat. This means they can be drawn out to make a thin wire. ǠThis blacksmith is hammering an iron bar to shape it. too. This means they can be shaped. But. Some. ALLOYS A n a l l o y i s a m e t a l . Mercury is a metal. such as sodium and potassium.b a s e d m i x t u r e. They can be bent or hammered into new shapes without breaking. Some are also ductile. Many metals are malleable. For example. Chr omium is not str ong. It can also be made by adding a small amount of n o n m e t a l t o a m e t a l . However. because heating the iron makes it softer and easier to shape. T h e p r oper t i e s o f a l l o y s ar e dif f e r e n t f r om the pur e me ta l s th ey a r e made fr om. They are often hard to melt. The end of the bar is red hot. 27 . ir on r usts easily. It is liquid at room temperature. shiny materials. are soft. not all metals are like this. T h i s m a t e r i a l i s s t r ong and does not r u s t . if you alloy ( m i x ) i r o n w i t h a t l e a s t 1 0 p e r c e n t c h r omium y o u g e t s t a i n l e s s s t e e l .

all metals form salts when they combine with acids. For instance.Metal Reactions Metals have some chemical properties in common. Table salt is only one of many salts. When an acid and a metal react together. cinnabar was used to make vermilion. It is a salt of the metal magnesium. Cinnabar is a reddish kind of rock. Epsom salt. It is the most common ore of mercury. 28 . for instance. Sodium will react with the acid hydrogen chloride to make sodium chloride (table salt). It is a salt of mercury. they produce another substance besides a salt. is a medicine that helps heal scratches and rashes. The other product is hydrogen gas. The reaction is dangerous. It happens fast and produces lots of heat. In the past. ǠCinnabar is a salt containing mercury and sulphur (HgS). a brilliant red paint.

better known as r u s t . Ir on r eacts with oxygen in the air. They for m substances called oxides. Other steel or iron parts of the car are covered with a thin layer of zinc to stop them from rusting. The paint on a car or truck protects the steel body from rust for years. 29 . the oxide for ms a thin. har d co ating on the sur face. too. ” įThis truck has reached the end of its life and is covered in rust. in some metals.RUSTY METALS Most metals r eact with oxygen. This coating pr o t e c t s t h e m e t a l f r om fur t h e r “ r u s t i n g . O t h e r metals “r ust” in air. It r esults in a r eddish. But. such as a luminum. powder y oxide.

too.Different Metals Different metals have things in common. cobalt. It is lighter than iron. 30 . ǠCopper conducts heat as well as electricity. Iron is very strong. This is why these pans are made from copper. there are many differences between them. and other structures. Aluminum is strong. such as airplane frames. bridges. They are used to make magnets. So iron and steel are often used to build skyscrapers. too. and nickel are the only elements that are magnetic. Iron. It is often used for electric wires. But. It is used in structures that need to be both light and strong. Copper is a good conductor of electricity.

Then it will return to its original shape. These can be treated so that they “remember” their shape. Mer cur y is a liquid at r oom temperatur e. it can be heated. too. but afterwards the frames spring back to their original shape. AMAZING METALS S o m e m e t a l s h a v e i n t e r e s t i n g p r oper t i e s . įThese spectacles are made from memory metal. Potassium and lithium catch fir e in water. The metal bends when it is squashed. If the alloy is bent or twisted. Certain alloys are called memory metals. 31 . Gold ca n be bea ten into a sheet f ou r -hundr ed times thinner than a human hair. like chocolate.Some alloys (metal mixtures) have special properties. Bismuth alloys melt in hot water.

Nonmetals do not 1 2 form salts with H He acids. Nonmetals and Metalloids they break. But they do have some things in common. One (bromine) is a liquid. If you shape or stretch them. Solid nonmetals are rigid. Nonmetals are a varied group.chapter six Nonmetals There are eighteen nonmetals. 32 . Twelve are gases. They are insulators rather than conductors. This means electricity and heat do not easily pass through them. 5 6 7 8 9 10 B C N P 33 O S F Ne 18 14 15 16 34 17 Si 32 Cl 35 Ar 36 Ge As 51 Se 52 Br 53 Kr 54 Sb Te 84 I 85 Xe 86 Po 116 At 117 Rn 118 Uuh Uus Uuo X naturally occurring elements X synthetic elements ǡThe elements colored pink in this section of the periodic table are nonmetals. Five are solids.

They are called metalloids. T h i s m ea ns th e y a r e poor conductors of electricity when they are pure. when small amounts of other materials ar e added. They are not quite metals or nonmetals. NOT QUITE METALS One small gr oup of elements is ver y i n t e r esting. (These ar e color ed blue in the table on page 32. such as s i l i c o n. 33 . they can conduct electricity. Nine of the ten most common elements in the universe are nonmetals. Hundreds of identical chips are made all together on a thin sheet of very pure silicon. įMicrochips are made mostly from silicon and other semiconductors.Nonmetals are more common than metals. a r e s em i co nd u c t o r s . However.) Some metalloids. Silicon and other semiconductors ar e the basis of micr o c h i p s a n d o t h e r e l e c t r o n i c d e v i c e s .

It is the simplest element and the lightest gas. It is almost as light as hydrogen. For safety. helium is now used instead. but it is unreactive. Helium is used in modern airships because it does not burn. 34 . Common Gases Only nonmetals are gases. The most common one is hydrogen.įAt one time airships were filled with hydrogen. hydrogen can burn quickly. However. there were a few terrible accidents in which airships burned up. But. because it is the lightest gas. At one time. hydrogen was used in balloons and airships.

Nothing would burn. Reactive substances such as explosives are often stored in nitrogen for safety. 35 . No other element can be made to combine with a noble gas. Oxygen is the most common element on Earth. About a fifth of the air is oxygen.) Fluorine and chlorine ar e r eactive gases. Fluorine is so r e a c t i v e t h a t chemists have been able to make it r e a c t w i t h the noble gas xenon. The other four-fifths of the air is nearly all nitrogen. and iodine is a solid. nothing could live. nitrogen is not reactive. įMost aircraft fly so high that the air is too thin for breathing. The pilot has to take a supply of oxygen to breathe at high altitude. Without oxygen. (See pages 42-43.THE HALOGENS The halogens ar e elements in Gr o up 1 7 of the periodic table. Like helium. Br omine is a liquid.

Carbon is found in two different forms. A huge variety of other substances. It can form hard. are also made mainly from carbon. ǠDiamond (right) and graphite (below) are very different materials. including coal. but they are both pure carbon. clear diamonds or soft.Solids The most important solid nonmetal is carbon. 36 . Carbon is an important part of all living things. oil. and plastics. gray graphite.

sulfur is in all kinds of chemicals. it pr obably has sulfur in it. White phosphorus is a waxy solid that glows in the dark. Stink bombs ar e usually made fr om sulfur chemicals. SMELLY STUFF If something smells bad. The rotting smell comes from chemicals containing sulfur. or corpse flower. and cleaning products. Some tr o pica l flo wer s ha ve a “ r otting” smell that comes f r om sulfur. 37 . ǠThis giant flower is a titan arum. It is used to harden rubber. The chemicals in skunk spray.Phosphorus comes in three colors: white. This may b e t h e w o r l d ’s worst smell. In the past. It is used to make useful products. all contain sulf u r. and black. red. It can kill plant fungi. such as fertilizers. When it opens the flower smells of rotting meat. Today. it was used to fumigate houses. Sulfur is a soft yellow solid. weed killers.

Table salt is even simpler. Many common substances are simple compounds. Often they are made from just a few elements. This means that Hydrogen Hydrogen water molecules are made of atom atom two atoms of hydrogen joined to one atom of oxygen. ǠA molecule of water (H2O). A compound is made of two or more different atoms joined together. Most of these come from compounds. Elements are the building blocks for compounds. It is the elements sodium and chlorine joined together—NaCl. This means they are mixes of two or more different elements. for instance. 38 Oxygen atom . is written as H2O. But there are millions of different substances.chapter seven Elements into Compounds We have seen that Earth has only ninety-two elements. Joining Up Atoms There are many ways to join two or even three different elements together. Water.

o r D N A .But some compounds are more complex than salt and water. BIGGEST MOLECULE T h e b i g g e s t m o l ec u l e i s p r o b a b l y d e o x y r i b o n u c l e i c a c i d . It is made of two very long chains of atoms. twisted together in a spiral. D N A i s w h a t o u r g e n e s a r e made f r om. In humans. ǠThis model shows a short section of a DNA molecule. compounds can have very large molecules. for instance. a DNA molecule holds over t h i r teen billion atoms. Proteins. 39 . In living things. can contain thousands of atoms.

we find new ways of using elements. Potassium. Reacting With Other Elements We have seen that some elements are reactive. 40 . The noble gases do not react with anything. The wires being wound here are made from the elements titanium and niobium. They are used to make special magnets. for instance.įAs new kinds of technology develop. reacts violently with water. Others are not.

they explode! (Francium. In Group 1. the periodic table helps to understand the whole of chemistry. you go. By simply organizing the elements in a particular way. or group. Metals are more reactive the farther down the column. Gr oup I elements ar e called alkaline metals. Nonmetals get less reactive as you move down the group. is less reactive. They can tell if it is a metal or a nonmetal. potassium is more reactive than sodium and lithium. Organizing Chemistry Chemists can tell a lot about an element by looking at its place in the periodic table.Scientists have found patterns in the reactivity of elements. Rubidium and cesium ar e l o we r d o wn G r oup I. Potassium is not the most r eactive alkaline metal. Chlorine. which is below cesium in Gr oup I. ) 41 . They can get some idea of how reactive it is. When these elements ar e mixed with water. is radioactive and too unstable for chemical r e a c t i o n s . however. They can tell if its atoms are large or small. for example. which is below it. fluorine is the most reactive of the halogens. They know what elements it might react with. For example. DANGEROUS IN WATER! Potassium is in Gr oup I of the periodic table. We have alr eady seen that potassium bursts into flames if you put it in water.

Nonmetals. and Metalloids Group 1 1 2 3 Period 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 H 3 4 Li 11 Be 12 Na 19 Mg 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 4 5 6 7 K 37 Ca 38 Sc 39 Ti 40 V 41 Cr 42 Mn 43 Fe 44 Rb 55 Sr 56 Y 71 Zr 72 Nb 73 Mo 74 Tc 75 Ru 76 Cs 87 Ba 88 Lu 103 Hf 104 Ta 105 W 106 Re 107 Os 108 Fr metals Ra Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs 57 nonmetals metalloids 58 59 60 61 62 La 89 Ce 90 Pr 91 Nd 92 Pm 93 Sm 94 Ac Th Pa U Np Pu 42 .Full Periodic Table All Metals.

Group 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 2 He 5 6 7 8 9 10 B 13 C 14 N 15 O 16 F 17 Ne 18 Al 27 28 29 30 31 Si 32 P 33 S 34 Cl 35 Ar 36 Co 45 Ni 46 Cu 47 Zn 48 Ga 49 Ge 50 As 51 Se 52 Br 53 Kr 54 Rh 77 Pd 78 Ag 79 Cd 80 In 81 Sn 82 Sb 83 Te 84 I 85 Xe 86 Ir 109 Pt 110 Au 111 Hg 112 Ti 113 Pb 114 Bi 115 Po 116 At 117 Rn 118 Mt Uun Uuu Uub Uut Uuq Uup Uuh Uus Uuo 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 X naturally Eu 95 Gd 96 Tb 97 Dy 98 Ho 99 Er 100 Tm 101 Yb 102 occurring elements elements Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No X synthetic 43 .

but have some similar properties to metals molecule (MOL uh kyool) — a combination of two or more atoms. It is given an atomic weight of 12. Carbon is used as the standard today. and how to turn other metals into gold atomic number (uh TOM ik NUHM bur) — the number of protons or electrons that an atom of an element has atomic weight (uh TOM ik wate) — the weight of an atom of an element compared to the weight an atom of another element. joined together by chemical bonds neutron (NOO tron) — a tiny particle with no electric charge found in the nucleus of the atom 44 . atoms (AT uhms) — extremely tiny particles that are the basic building blocks of all substances conductor (kuhn DUHKT tur) — a substance that allows electricity or heat to pass through it easily electron (i LEK tron) — a tiny particle with a negative electric charge. strong acids can burn. element (EL uh muhnt) — a substance that is made up of just one kind of atom fumigate (FYOO muh gate) — to treat with fumes to disinfect an area or get rid of pests insulator (IN suh lay tur) — a substance that does not allow electricity or heat to pass through it easily metalloids (MET uhl oids) — elements that are not metals. which is used as a standard. Weak acids are sour-tasting. Electrons are parts of an atom. alchemist (AL kur mist) — a type of ancient scientist who did chemical experiments to try and find the secret of eternal life.Glossary acid (ASS id) — a substance that turns litmus paper red and makes salts with metals.

or sodium chloride. spectroscopy (SPEK tross kuh pee) — a way of finding what elements are in something that is glowing or burning. is the most common salt. all gases. Other salts are the result of a reaction between a metal and one or more nonmetals. that do not react with other elements nucleus (NOO klee uhss) — in chemistry. by looking at the spectrum of the light it gives off spectrum (SPEK truhm) — the pattern of colors and dark areas you get when you split light with a prism supernova (soo pur NOH vuh) — a massive explosion that happens when a very big star runs out of fuel 45 . the nucleus is the central part of a atom ore (or) — any kind of rock that is rich in a metal oxide (OX ide) — a compound combining oxygen with one or more metallic elements periodic table (pihr ee OD ik TAY buhl) — a way of arranging the elements so that elements with similar properties are grouped together prism (PRIZ uhm) — a specially shaped piece of glass that can split light into separate colors proton (PROH ton) — a tiny particle with a positive electric charge found in the nucleus of the atom reactive (ree AK tiv) — an element is chemically reactive if it easily combines with other substances salt (sawlt) — table salt.noble gases (NOH buhl GASS iz) — a group of elements.

nndc.Further Information Books A History of Super Science: Atoms And Elements. Twenty-First Century Books. Sally Morgan. 46 . 2007. Elements: What You Really Want to Know. Andrew Solway.webelements. Heinemann Library. From Greek Atoms to Quarks: Discovering Atoms. Raintree. Periodic Table: Elements with Style! Adrian Dingle.gov/content/HistoryOfElements.com/webelements/scholar/ index. Kingfisher Books. http://www. 2006. Websites to visit http://www.html Select any element from the periodic table to find out all about it.bnl. 2007. 2006. Ron Miller.html National Nuclear Data Center Who discovered chromium? How did dubnium get its name? You can find out all about the history of the elements on this website.

http://www. http://education.html All kinds of ways that the periodic table has been organized.com This site provides a periodic table of the elements in pictures.php Jefferson Lab This site offers an array of games and puzzles based on the elements. http://www. 47 .org/indexpages/elementgames.wlonk.meta-synthesis.com/webbook/35_pt/pt. http://elements. from simple tables to an element galaxy.jlab.edu/Projects/Chemcomics/ The Comic Book Periodic Table Click on an element and find all the comic book pages that mention that element.uky.

8 artificial elements. 21. 13. 21. 42 nitrogen. 27. 27. Pierre. Antoine. 25. 4. 22. 11. 27. 31 aluminum. 14. 20-25. 37 universe. 7. 41 boiling points. 27. 29 salt. 18 reactivity. 11 calcium. 17. 40 gold. 12. 4. 25. 25. 21. 5. 31. 22. 25. Robert. 38 phosphorus. 38. 23. 7. 17. 11 magnesium. 30 sulfur. 18. Dmitri. 10. 30 malleability. 25 oxygen. 29. 39 air. 38. 9. 25. 34. 16. 28. 29. 23. 28 magnetism. 25. 32. 13. 37 potassium. 40. 7. 36 cinnabar. England. Humphry. 17. 21. 20. 28. 17. 30 Davy. 20. 33 element symbols. 36 helium. 27. 4. 27. 12. 34. 32. 23. 20. 31 Mendeleev. 14. 16. 21. 23. 40. 39 conductors. 28. Gustave. 16. 21. 28. 38 insulators. 24. 31. 29. 25. 22. 32 melting points. 10. 4. 22. 4. 31 halogens. 39 ductility. 24. 4. 39. 11 Kirchoff. 41 rust.Index acids. 25. 33 copper. 6. 4. 20. 25 carbon. 35 hardness. 23 hydrogen. 43 atomic weight. William. 16. 30. 13 gases. Joseph. 24. 30. 32 iron. 4. 9. 41 Ramsay. 6. 8. 16. 35. 23. 27. 33 water. 25. 17. 16. 19. 16 Boyle. 30 Ironbridge. 11. 7. 25. 21. 28 compounds. 32. 7. 31 electricity. 35 noble gases. 38. 33. 21. 10 diamond. 18. 7. 18. 17. 5. 35. 10. 7. 21. 40 Orion nebula. 35 human body. 23. 29. 7. 11 Lavoisier. 18 metalloids. 29. 10. 9 Bunsen. 25 strength. 7. 23. 42. 20. 18. Robert. 38-41 48 . 42 atoms. 25. 7. 9. 7. 34. 31. 13. 5 Janssen. 7. 35. 39 silicon. 32. 35 alloys. 7. 35. 33 stars. 7. 17. 36 DNA. 10 Lockyer. 24. 30 Aristotle. 20. 42 gallium. 14. 7. 31 memory metal. 8. 21. 25. 27. 16. 32.