Background Report on Land Use in Ithaca’s West End

_________________________________ Background Report on Land Use in Ithaca’s West End __________________________

For Introduction to Planning Methods and analysis City and regional planning Cornell University Directed by Rolf Pendall

By Daniel Budish Seth Eden Meghan Thoreau Jacquet Nicole Moore William Palmquist November 6, 2008

Table of Contents
Summary of Major Findings…………………..………………..…1 Definitions………………………………………………………..…2 Land Use Background……………………………………….……4 Methods……………………………………………………………10 Major Findings………………………………………...………….13 Assets……………………………………………………..14 Challenges………………………………….…………….22 Existing Plans and policies…………………………......25 Future Actions………………………………………...….33 Endnotes…………………….…………………………………….34 References………………………………………………………..35 Appendix………………………………………………………..A - F

Summary of Findings
Business Use As Primary Asset The neighborhood assets in regard to land use are overwhelmingly the businesses and the buildings in which the businesses operate. According to key informants the businesses provide sufficient amenities to residents, workers, and West End users but lack cohesive identity. Parking Options Are Available The neighborhood has parking available but like the businesses, it is fragmented and not clearly understood by users. Natural / Manmade Water Features Attract Users The water is well controlled and visually appealing. The idea of the Cayuga Waterfront Trail has significant support. Challenges The major challenges to expressing cohesive identity and access through land use are the established transportation infrastructure (streets and train tracks) and creating a service node that can compete with Collegetown and Downtown. Strategy Action Do not allow private development along the waterfront. Create public / open space in this area which allows access to the water. This will creates demand along the open space. Buffering the water (the areas greatest asset) facilitates greater use by the public and will add value to the adjacent land along the open space. Parking Solutions Examine existing parking with the idea of creating a cooperative parking until a final solution to the parking can be developed/built. Develop Mixed Use Residential or mixed use opportunities are grossly underdeveloped. Create incentives for builders willing to build to this use. A possible typology is a live/work studio building with retail in the lower levels and studios in the upper level.


Land Use We have chosen to evaluate land use in a regulatory/institutional capacity which includes zoning, environmental regulations and geographic regulation. Zoning is the primary tool that municipalities try to use to ensure that the land is used for the benefit of the wider economy and population as well as to protect the environment. Environmental regulations include building restrictions and specifications resultant of environmental concerns such as contamination or dangers associated with floodplains. Geographical restrictions include building restrictions and specifications resultant of the geography such as water bodies, slopes, and soil conditions. Ithaca’s West End We found that the definition of the West End differed greatly from person to person. For the purpose of this report we have accepted the boundaries depicted in the map below. [1]


Ithaca’s West End We found that the definition of the West End differed greatly from person to person. For the purpose of this report we have accepted the boundaries depicted in the map below. [1]

Created by: William Palmquist, November 2008


Land Use Background
The West End as an Industrial Center Ithaca became incorporated in 1821 with 1000 residents. The 19th century as a whole marks a time of industrialization both throughout the country and in Ithaca as well, and it brought intense industrial use to the West End’s inlet waterways and surrounding land. Ithaca’s West End became a transition point for cargo being shipped on both rails and waterways and much of the buildings from that period that remain today reflect the water and rail-based economy of this period. Large industries in the West End area included tanneries, machine fabrication, shipping, transmission equipment fabrication, paper and lumber mills, and coal transportation, and all converged at the Inlet. As such, the area was seen primarily as a heavy industrial zone not desirable as residential district; therefore, in was the lowest class citizens that settled in the West End and resided in poorly built shanties constructed around the waterfront. Besides industrialization, two other significant events occurred during the 1800s that influenced use policies in the area. One was the 1857 flood (which submerged the entire village) and the other was the Civil War the following decade. Images depict the growing industrialization of the West End land-use.[2] Perhaps the lack of policies and actions during this time speak to the city’s general avoidance of the area and neglect of diversifying the waterfront amenities and resources to the general public. The only development seen in the next few decades, which was industrial in nature, further alienated people from the space. Transition to Service Based Center While the 1800s brought industry to the West End, the 1900s brought new policies that favored developing improved services and urban amenities. The founding of Cornell University in 1868 and Ithaca College (previously named the Ithaca Conservatory of Music) in 1892 changed the dynamics of city life. The infill of cultural activity within the exisiting industrial context created a tenuous environment. New attitudes regarding the Inlet area began to emerge. We see the Social Service League educating and encourage upward mobility of the West End residents, which also led to actions of building the West Side House further community organizing, socializing, and strengthening the citizenship of the residents and promoting a strong residential use of 4 the land. [3]

Grace Miller White, local writer, begins publishing her novels set around Cayuga Lake at beginning of the century and starts examining the Inlet culture against the outside Ithacans’ perceptions. The Inlet Beautification Campaign ousted the remaining squatters who had been building shacks around the shoreline (the last three families found residence on Floral Avenue.)[4] Mayor Edwin Stewart was determined to allow the public to have access to the waterfront and pushed the city to buy an old amusement park and create public park. The city project entailed a major waterfront clean up and backfill operation that opened in 1921 to the public as Stewart Park. A new accepting waterfront culture begins to emerge. New policies were quick to follow the Typhoid Epidemic of 1903 that was in many ways a direct result of the unchecked growth that occurred the previous decade, especially in regard to the large number of privies that failed in the area. As a result, new sewer infrastructure began to develop throughout Ithaca. The lowest class of residents, those living in the West End, came to see social changes reflected in the Inlet’s changing landuse. [5] The land use was changing from private industry to public amenities. The first Methodist Church was built on lower Cliff Street directly across from the West End in 1883. Trolleys were built in 1899 which greatly improved street life with less horse and buggy traffic. There was also an airport constructed directly south of the West End that complemented the transportation themes of the Inlet. [6] Importantly, the public perception of the West End began to change with the new improvements. The 19th century Inlet connotations of dirty industrial and low-class residential activity gave rise to a perception of a more middle-class culture as local policies became orientated towards amenities over industry. The 1910s marked the arrival of silent filmmakers The Wharton Brothers, who glamorized Cayuga Lake and brought new interest to the waterfront resource. Seeing Cayuga Lake as a public resource that needed to be accessible, the City purchased land to develop Stewart Park, which allowed then and even now for one of the few places the public can enjoy and access the waterfront. The Inlet Beautiful Campaign began in 1925, and the West End was beginning to be seen as


a community investment area. But a violent flood in 1935 put the whole West End underwater and a year later the Great Depression hit Ithaca hard. It seems the West End has a history being constantly challenged by economic downturns and natural disasters when the district is on the rise. [7] Major Land Use Changes alter Priorities After War World II, the West End’s property values started to increase as the West End finally had a residential appeal. However, the 1960s made a number of policy decisions that altered land use. There were four major changes to land use during that time: 1) the Federal Flood Control Act, which prompted the city and state to claim 185 parcels in the Inlet area, on which they razed 32 houses, 2 barns, and 37 garages (including the Beebe Chapel and West Side House landmarks); 2) the end of passenger train service, which altered not only transportation but also removed a reason for citizens to frequent the area; 3) the Octopus construction of the transportation system; and 4) the Inlet realignment project. These changes, all occurring in a relatively short period of time, dramatically affected the land-use patterns in the area. The residential community was almost destroyed, as well as the heavy industry almost entirely removed, and the commercial businesses were stricken with low pedestrian activity and heavy traffic congestion.[8] West end becomes “Studied to Death” The decades that followed 1970 to the present day mark an era of planning studies designed to guide new policies for development of the West End. The 1974 Cayuga Inlet Study concludes that a public square be proposed in the Inlet to support mixed-use development; commercial shops with residential uppers wrapping around the public square. The Inlet Study stressed the importance of using the waterfront-associated amenities to support more local business that would cater to visitors and residents attracted to the lake area.


The study even suggested a public terrace to highlight the views from the area. [9] Two years later the Ithaca Waterways Study was performed which, challenged the city to enhance its surface water activities. The study found that changing the land-use would directly enhance the water-use. According to the study, the land-use needed to cater to the water-based economy by making six major changes, that the city : 1) acquire 60-acres of land between Inlet and levee for park purposes; 2) support a new Southwest Parkway from Clinton Street (an area of traditional industrial use); 3) turn wooded area on the channel into docking space and increase pedestrian access from West Clinton; 4) create a waterfront park with boardwalk on the west bank of Inlet Island while pushing for more recreational development on the eastside of shore; 5) move the DOT garage complex and DPW gravel storage out of area and move sewage treatment plant to eastside of Route 13; and 6) turn Third Street into a hotel and mixed-use commercial residential center. Alas, most of the study’s land-use prescriptions remain unrealized. [10] A follow up study called the Cayuga Inlet and Island Project was completed in 1982 and put forth four observations for guiding improvement to the West End: 1) Waterfront public access is essential; 2) the site is not ideal for industrial or low density housing and retail use; 3) supported mixed commercial development such as hotel, specialty retail, renovation of existing commercial structures for office space, maintain existing marina activities, as well as creating an associated waterfront elongated park system; and 4) State Street should be diversified through proposed small pedestrian-friendly parks. Much of the findings were agreeable at the time, but no project followthrough has occurred. [11] Ten years later, in 1992 the Inlet Island Land Use Committee put out a comprehensive report that evaluated Buffalo Street, the Flood Control Channel, and the Inlet. The study gave an intense look at historical buildings, land-use, and ownership patterns. Three main proposals came forth: 1) promote green space along channel, 2) align the city with the private sector for joint development efforts, and 3) several amenity traffic improvement recommendations that have been incorporated into DOT construction


projects. Each study seems to reinforce the previous studies, but the 1992 study pushes for a combination effort between private and public sector to improve the West End. [12] Tompkins County Waterfront Plan was designed in 1997 that instructs development and land-use of the Inlet. The plan tries to attract residents, visitors, investors, and entrepreneurs to the area by stressing development of Inlet Island. The property is controversial because of the toxic clean up required from old industrial uses and the limited space for multi-desired uses for the site. The plan against speaks to the under-developed resource the Inlet could mean to the city, but again, no action has occurred.[13] A West End Urban Design Plan came out in 1998. The plan shares a vision of the West End that echoes past studies and supports denser mixed-use development to protect established residential neighborhoods east of Meadow Street, and to create a pedestrian-friendly atmosphere by enhancing street corridors. The plan discusses design details, such as height, setbacks, pedestrian barriers, and allowed uses, which, if written in zoning ordinances, can alter future land-use in accordance to the plan.[14] The only noted zoning changes to have occurred were in 2000 (when Ordinance 325-5 was amended), but no significant changes were made besides minor commercial setback and height regulations for new construction.[15] The early 1990’s has the West End experiencing a growing waterfront concentration of eateries and restaurant attractions that appeared to be making the West End a destination district again; however, the eateries slowed and the vibrant comeback is yet to be realized. A few of the remaining eateries include the Boatyard Grill, Felicia’s Atomic Lounge, Gepetto’s Pizzeria, Ithaca Bakery, Kelly’s Dock-side Kafe, Lehigh Valley House, Maxie’s Supper Club, Taste of Thai Express, and Joe’s Restaurant. There have been some new private land-use projects, such as the Medical Center, Island Fitness, and few minor renovations, but nothing significant has happened to bring the community together. Perhaps, a more balanced mixed-use would create more of a community awakening. Many residents recently interviewed in our focus group believe the West End still has a unique spirit that needs to be preserved. The West End is not the commons or a big box shopping area; it is a ‘go to community’ that resembles its


traditional hustle and bustle route of the shipyards, the train station, and its waterfront activities. All of the policies within the existing plans mirror one another in that the waterfront is a neglected resources that needs land uses that capitalize on the location and cultural history of the Inlet area.


This work is the result of the collaborative efforts of five researchers using qualitative, quantitative and spatial research methods to identify land use patterns in Ithaca’s West End. The mixed method research approach was chosen to develop a compressive understanding the historic, current, and future land use of the study area. The study was conducted as part of a requirement of Cornell University’s City and Regional Planning course Introduction to Methods of Planning Analysis. The study was approved by Cornell’s Institutional Review Board. Qualitative Methods The purpose of the qualitative study was to identify professional and community perceptions of land use patterns in Ithaca’s West End. Field Research - The initial step of the qualitative research was informal non-participant site reconnaissance. For the first visit, researchers approached the site with no specific research questions. Researchers walked the study site in small groups recording initial observations. After the first site visit researchers divided into focused planning groups, each with a specific planning topic, in this case, the topic was land use. In subsequent visits to West End, researchers identified the variable to be observed that relate specifically to land use such as zoning, concentrations of certain uses and actual land uses. Furthermore researches noted non-conforming uses or outliers among the land use patterns (vacancy included) and speculated as to why the outliers may exist. Photographic Research – Like the field research, initial photographic survey began without a specific research question. The images resultant of the initial site survey will be noted as such. Once the research group focused on land use researcher Meghan Jacquet systematically photographed buildings, structures, streets, objects, and (people) at each intersection of the site area. The eye-level images from this survey were used to survey and inventory the condition and location of business, residences and infrastructure in the study area.


Key Informant Interviews - The purpose of the key informant interview was to “elicit professional insight regarding land use and intensity”[16]. The interview questions were developed by the research group and approved by the review board. (Appendix A). Interview Participants include two members from the community but for privacy measures numbers will be used to refer to interviewees. The interview with resident 10 was conducted by Seth Eden and Meghan Jacquet on October 17th, 2008 at the Tompkins County Chamber of Commerce. The interview with resident 11 was conducted by William Palmquist and Nicole Moore on October 26th, 2008. Interviews were recorded and summarized by researchers. The results of the interviews are documented in the Major Findings portion of this report. Focus Group – The purpose of the focus group was to gain insight into the perceptions and desired future use of the West End’s business owners, residents, site users, and Ithaca student population. A script template was provided to the planning groups by the instructor Rolf Pendall. Researchers developed an issue specific script with the intention of capturing the sense of how the community perceives the current land use and the direction they would like to see land use move (if any). (Appendix B). Due to time constraints and a small population size, researchers combined with the Water and Open Space planning group to conduct a joint-topic focus group. The groups combined to create a new focus script (Appendix C). The focus group took place at 7:00pm on October 30th, 2008 at the Cornell Cooperation Extension. Open Space and Waterways Group joined with Land-use and Intensity Group to facilitate a nine member focus group composed of City of Ithaca residents to discuss their concerns with the West End. For privacy measures numbers will be used to refer to participants.


Meta- Analysis – Researchers gathered data from City zoning maps and tax parcel maps to determine on a large scale how the land is politically divided by use and gain better understanding of the associated monetary values of the land. The evaluation technique employed was a manifest approach. Researchers employed an open reading analysis of the documents to identify and define the boundaries and definitions of land uses dictated by the city and county of Ithaca and Tompkins respectively. Guided by John and Sharon Gaber’s work, Qualitative Analysis for Planning and Policy: Beyond the Numbers, researchers defined the variables of the research to include only institutionally regulated land use data. [17] In addition, researchers gathered data reports outlining the history, environmental conditions, and prior comprehensive plans of the study area. Testing of the validity of the above data is yet to occur and the testing method is to be determined. Quantitative Methods Researchers gathered data from the 2000 Census and plotted the data in graphic forms such as histograms and pivot tables. Researchers employed this method to identify patterns and trends of social and economic factors in the West End. (Appendix E) Spatial Methods Researcher gathered information from the 2000 Census and ESRI to create spatial representations of physical and political patterns. This data allowed researchers to associated trends and patterns with a place. (Appendix F)


Major Findings

Major Findings - Assets
Overview of Findings from Site Reconnaissance Ithaca’s West End neighborhood is a diverse and unique area of the city, possessing some very significant assets, both known and unknown by the community-at-large. These assets should be protected and in other cases enhanced and brought into more productive use. Not surprisingly, the majority of these assets are in the form of restaurants and businesses, as this represents some of the more successful features in the West End and are the most recognized by the community. However, other assets exist in the neighborhood in the form of non-profit organizations and community services. Also, the most significant natural asset of the area goes almost completely unseen, which is Six Mile Creek, bordering the neighborhood to the south, and the Cayuga Inlet, bordering the neighborhood to the west. Asset Businesses in the West End Byrne Dairy * # CFCU Community Credit Union # Friends of the Library * # Greenstar Co-op # Alternatives Federal Credit Union Asset Restaurants in the West End Zaza’s Cuicina # Maxie’s Supper Club Pancho Villa Purity Ice Cream Co. Joe’s Restaurant Ithaca Bakery Cayuga Lumber Co. * # Ithaca Stove Works Remax Real Estate Offices Cayuga Ski & Cyclery C&C Tobacco Outlet * #

Asset Community Services and Organizations in the West End Bang's Ambulance Greyhound Bus Terminal # Cancer Resource Center Recycle Ithaca Bikes # Int'l Brotherhood of Electrical Workers * Community Housing of Ithaca, Inc. * United Way * # Laborers Int’l Union of North America * #

* = Building of low architectural/design quality – Based on the added value from materials, form and or function. Aesthic determination as well (subjective). # = Building of less efficient land use – Based on the highest and best use.


These businesses, restaurants and community services/organizations are important assets to the West End neighborhood, serving both neighborhood residents and greater Ithaca. In many cases they are individually owned and have been in operation for a number of years with a well established clientele. Many, including some restaurants and businesses, function as community space, helping to foster a sense of place in the neighborhood and the City. Many of these uses are located along the main thoroughfares of Meadow and Fulton streets, usually on corner lots, which help to anchor the form and function of the neighborhood. The majority of these uses have fairly small footprints on relatively small plots of land, using space in the neighborhood fairly efficiently. However, some businesses and restaurants have large parking lots adjacent to them, resulting in less intense/efficient use of the land. Examination of specific parking needs, along with opportunities for shared and on-street parking areas should be explored to free up land for other development. These uses in many cases represent a high degree of architectural quality, either in the form of new construction or the reuse of more historic structures. Buildings of high architectural quality with efficient/intense use of land should be protected to the highest degree possible when redevelopment is under consideration. Other uses that are of lower architectural quality and/or make less efficient use of land should work with redevelopment efforts so that the actual business/restaurant/organization can be present after redevelopment occurs. Specific uses that could be enhanced and brought into more productive use include the Greyhound Bus Station, which could be transformed into a multi-use transit hub with some commercial uses present. Currently, the building does not make efficient use of its parcel, and more intense use of the site could be seen. Cayuga Lumber Co. may not be present in the long-term future of the neighborhood, as speculated Tim Cullenen (former City of Ithaca Planning board member) during an interview conducted on October 25th 2008, because of intense competition with Lowe’s and Home Depot in the Route 13 shopping corridor. This site is a prime crossroads of W. State and Fulton streets, as well as Cascadilla Creek and the Cayuga Inlet. Efforts should be made to enhance the quality and efficiency of the site in the event that Cayuga Lumber Co. does not stay in business.


Six Mile Creek/Cayuga Inlet The waterways that border the West End neighborhood are perhaps its most overlooked and neglected asset. Six Mile Creek runs along the southern edge of the West End neighborhood, its waters flowing west and intersecting with the Cayuga Inlet, which flows north and borders the neighborhood to its west. Access and clear vision to these waterways are extremely limited because of existing buildings, bridges, and fences. Whatever redevelopment that occurs along the waterways must take full advantage and provide some visual or physical access to the waterways. These are prime assets that can be symbolic of the West End neighborhood, which at the same time ties back to the largerIthaca context of gorges, waterfalls, and creeks. The following maps with corresponding pictures offers greater visual understanding of the above identified assets.


Created by: William Palmquist, October 2008






Major Findings - Challenges
Overview of Findings from Site Reconnaissance The main challenge to development in the West End will be to gain consensus on a direction for development in this contested space. The residents, business owners, and “users” of the West End and the surrounding neighborhoods each have different hopes and visions for the area. Even if an overall vision can be procured, challenges will present themselves with implementation. Questions such as where development will occur, how to induce development, and who will undertake the development will prove contentious. These challenges more specifically lie in three categories: *Transportation *Competing and Fragmented Land Uses *The Existing and Surrounding Neighborhoods We will examine the contents of these challenges below. Transportation It is difficult to discuss land use in the West End without addressing traffic and parking. The West End is one of the most heavily trafficked places in Ithaca. The site is segmented by the large North-South automobile arteries of North Meadow Street and North Fulton Street. The site is also a corridor in which people access the commercial Inlet Island and the residential areas west of the city attributing to the additional congestion in the East-West traffic. The West End is certainly used as a cut through to other parts of Ithaca and beyond, but it is also used as a destination point. The area has many businesses, but they are not cohesive enough in type or concentrated enough to produce a true shopping district. Instead, people take advantage of the available street infrastructure and drive from place to place. This creates a certain car culture that distinguishes the West End from the Commons. The heavy traffic in the area creates several challenges when thinking about the future land use in the area. Firstly, because these streets are so heavily used, it would be difficult to make them smaller. The streets are also fairly close to the frontages of the structures lining the streets in the area rendering street expansion difficult as well. Rerouting the streets to other areas in the city would also be extremely challenging if not impossible. These factors combine to enormously limit the development flexibility surrounding these transportation arteries.


The car culture of the West End also impacts the land use directly, requiring a large portion of land reserved for parking. Overall, the West End depends immensely on the car. More intense uses of the area would increase traffic flows and parking needs, exacerbating existing issues and would be inevitable without a corresponding increasing in alternative transportation solutions. Competing and Fragmented Land Uses Having the water at the doorstep of the West End is a tremendous asset for the area but t also represents a challenge for future development of the community. Not only does the water limit any westward expansion of the area, but there are conflicting visions as to how the waterfront should be utilized. How should access to the water be facilitated? Should apartments be built or restaurants with waterfront patios or should the waterfront be “greened” and made into a formal community asset? The ownership of the land in this highly contested strip will definitely pose a challenge as to the possible uses of the waterfront. Also, there is a smattering of homes within the largely commercial West End. The homes are primary located east of North Meadow Street. The homes bled into the West End from the residential neighborhoods to the east but are now severed from this core by Meadow Street. Infil and unchecked development around the homes contributes to the confusion surrounding the identity of the West End. According to residents the West End did at one point have a strong community feel. Allowing a broad range of use around these homes has effectively isolated the residents and lowered the value of their homes. Lastly there are currently interesting and historically significant buildings in the West End. A major challenge facing planners is the desire to develop the area while preserving the existing fabric that distinguishes the area. As an additional challenge, even buildings that are not historically significant embody energy that would be wasted if torn down. Weighing the costs and benefits of new development is no small task.


The Surrounding Neighborhoods The West End is highly interconnected to the bordering neighborhoods through transportation and services. The people in these neighborhoods have a stake in the future of the West End and incorporating their visions will be necessary for the successful implementation of any plan. Adding more intense use in the West End will bring more people to the area and through the surrounding areas. Any spillover from development in the West End will occur in these communities as well. A plan for the West End will need to address the challenge of preserving the character of these surrounding areas. A plan for the West End will need to take into account the role of not only the West End, but the role of the other areas of Ithaca.


Existing Plans and Policies
Major Findings Meta-Data – West End Policies, Actions, and Projects The policy of the 1800s was industrialization of the waterfront and the Inlet, which extended throughout the West End. Industrial actives dominated the land-use of the Inlet. There were minor residential land uses occurring by some of the poorest citizens of the community, including informal settlement around the southern shoreline. There were class tensions between the poor Inlet people and the rest of middle-class Ithacans. However, towards the end of the century an obvious shift in interest begins to occur for the Inlet area. The Social Service League formed in 1904 to improve the social and economic situation for the Inlet people. Policies to improve the quality of life through developing land use to better address the community’s needs became evident, especially through the construction of the West Side House (a community center), which became the residential focus point for the West End in 1918. The 1950s marked the climax of residential use in the area, which has tapered ever since. Four major policies changed in the 1960s that altered the Inlet for evermore. The first was the Flood Control Act of 1960 that was finally put into action four years late by the city and state, as they reclaimed over a hundred parcels of land and razed dozens of residential homes in the flood zone drastically reducing the residential land use in the area. The second major policy change was the end of passenger train service in 1961, which changed the area’s to and from culture and took away another destination source to the West End. Third was the transportation policy that caused the creation of the Octopus and the opening of West State Bridge in 1968. And finally the fourth policy change was that of realigning the Inlet and Inlet Island. The policies’ actions changed land use, by changing the activities and the to and from routes to travel through the neighborhood. The 1970s begins the planning study policy that is still practiced today. The irony of this period is that projects are repeating several of the same policy outcomes proposed for the West End, but no actions are in line to begin project work. The 21st century may be a turning point into action and projects. There have been recent zoning amendments to the area that are designed to encourage urban mixed-use development that happened at the beginning of 2000. The amendment came directly after the completion of the West End Urban Design Plan in 1998, which encouraged development that is mindful of the existing built environment. There is also speculation regarding the future of Inlet Island particularly since private developers were having a difficult time sorting through design requirements. The Inlet Island Land Use Committee reported back in 1992 that there is a need for the city and private sectors to merge together in developing the West End. City policy needs to turn into city action to truly being the project work described in the decades of planning studies.


Major Findings from Key Informant Interviews – Key Concepts in Planning
Resident 10 She highlighted some of the more established businesses in the West End being Purity, Agway, Remax, Maxies, and Alternatives, but added the absence of chamber participation between chain stores in the West End, such as Dunk'n Donuts. When asked to describe the major land-use advantages/ disadvantages of the West End for businesses, resident 10 responded with the railroad and density as a disadvantage. Transportation in the West End is another disadvantage. The State tried to fix the problem with dividing Route 13 in one-way streets, but there is still congestion. Resident 10 would like to see another bridge across Court Street. She stated that if you built a bridge over the whole area and railroad you would need a steep grade to break the plane and meet the height regulations. She also commented that the north-bound traffic through the site is not problematic, the problem is the congestion from south-bound traffic which bottlenecks at the arterial intersections. She found another disadvantage is the construction of single-family homes and their characteristics in relation to their current unattractiveness and having no cohesion in terms of planning a mix mash arrangement. Resident 10 also mentioned the desire to build a waterfront trail, but problems in getting everyone a board with the plan failed and said she would be surprised if it was finished in her lifetime. When asked if mixed-use zoning, residential and commercial, work well in the West End, she said the zoning is not the problem; the problem is the absence of foot traffic and the general unattractiveness and neglect of the buildings, difficulty with the parking, and a need for more residential housing in denser townhouse style construction. When asked how long have vacant lots been observed in the West End, resident 10 indicated it was a long time, more than the forty years she has lived in Ithaca. However, she has seen some vacant lots become developed and gave the example of the ReMax building. In addition, she felt that W. State Street has done extremely well with Gimme Coffee and other businesses on the corridor of town, i.e. Maxies, and the bike shop. She believes Inlet Island is the future of the West End. The space gives the fell like it is the size of Manhattan, but its actually quite small. There is not enough land to provide the space for the needs of mixed housing and parking being proposed. The city does not understand how, design wise, the Inlet Island will work.


She believes the City Council is trying to make the area all-inclusive to Ithaca in terms of amenities, but she does not see social needs like affordable housing working on the Island since high construction costs and foundation requirements will only support market rate or luxury apartments. One key developer in the area mentioned was Steve Flash, who owns a large portion of the island and such establishments as the Boatyard Grill. Other establishments that have benefited from the site are Chemung Canal trust and Island Fitness, which are heavily invested in the West End. She believes people need to be educated on how much land is actually there and what is buildable, as well as the traffic that comes with more development. Mickey Roof is also committed to the West End’s future. Resident 10 strongly believes that the starting point to revitalizing the West End should begin with Inlet Island. Another land-use concern was open/ green spaces in the West End and their availability; resident 10 saw the trail behind the railway as a possible place for people to meet. There is a lot of traffic in the area so it is difficult for people to cross the street and meet in the West End. She also mentioned the lack of trees, hot concrete, and no shade make using the open space undesirable. The possibility to building pocket parks behind the railway was a recommended exploration. Some businesses have put nice green vegetations in from of their stores. Good examples are Sparrow Wines’ use of flowers and landscaping and Purity outside seating which provides people a pleasant area to socialize while they eat ice cream. Resident 10 was asked if she knows of any tax incentives for businesses in the West End and responded with the waterfront trail funds, where certain funds can be acquired through a waterfront initiative program. The Empire Zone gives money and other incentives to businesses that create jobs. Businesses also get money in blighted communities such as the West End. When asked to describe her observation of isolation or connectivity factors experienced in the West in, she said, isolation in the West End can be overcome with such projects done on State Street with the brick road with which was constructed and has a good long standing businesses like Ithaca Bakery, Felicas and Gimmie Coffee as draws, she stated that to fix the problem of isolation in the West End one needs to find someway to connect the West End with the Commons through a cohesive corridor and added that crossing Route 13 is scary. She added that there are lots of gas stations along Route 13, but sees them as a necessity to the area, not only for cars, but for sales tax revenue, but as a result we are pushing traffic through instead of people. Resident 10 believes the West End has strong cornerstone businesses, but traffic is dividing the development and land-use in the area. Her future vision for the West End is to add traffic calming devises to the area, there are many


different routes that cut through the area, but initiatives need to be taken now, because the future will only have increases to the traffic patterns. With new development and mixed-use housing forecasted for the future more pedestrian traffic is encouraging. The neighborhood feeling needs to be brought back, it currently feels very institutional. The waterfront trail would greatly contribute to the area and welcome more pedestrians. People need to feel they live in an area, have ownership over that area and make it more then a drive thru scene. [18] Resident 11 When asked to define the West End in relation to the larger Ithaca context, Resident 11 responded that the area is a commercial node, because of its location and history. It located in conjunction with Route 13 and the waterfront, and because of that, resident 11 sees more potential for the area, especially for higher density or lower-impact commercial, but certainly not big-box, not industrial by any nature, but sort-of, maybe there’s a lot of demand in the city for mixed-use development? When resident 11 was asked what direct land-use should take, he was uncertain because of the change he has seen already. He gave the Boatyard Grill and the rec-center as examples of change and mentioned current talk of a possible hotel in the area. Resident 11 believes in broadening the definition of the West End to includes the waterfront, the back of W. Seneca Street and other identifiable or significant spots that fall outside the official boundary on W. State Street. He mentioned that the brick surface added to State Street was an unofficial gateway to the commons (not the West End) and does not know the cause and effect of the construction. The area on Seneca Street for the most part was residential and still is residential. There has not been a lot of new construction in the area. He did say a restaurant was built, but it replaced an older restaurant and an office space was rebuilt into a retail space. He did feel people’s perceptions are changing and said Washington Park has more desire for residential use. Some of these changes he believed are a result of rising property prices in neighborhoods like Fall Creek or Cayuga Heights. Resident 11 said there are come very nice homes on Seneca Street, and some more along State Street. Green Street’s housing stock is average to marginal, which is a result of the traffic.


Resident 11 described the highest and greatest land-use for the West End as mixed-use opportunities, such as apartments. He feels the Commons is built out and Collegetown planned out leaving the West End as the obvious site for new development, but with the economic timetable in mind. The West End has existing assets that can be rebuilt or fixed up over new construction. The waterfront will define new construction. Resident 11 also sees potential in the Southwest Project as a draw for the area. He also believe its important to realize that the Commons and Collegetown serve a particular function and do not exactly compete with the potential for the West End, which could serve as an art/ entertainment, food, waterfront activity culture. When questioned about the empty spaces in the West End, resident immediately reserved the areas for a future parking debate as development occurs. The community will have to make decisions on where to park and how far to walk. There are a couple of vacant buildings, a couple smaller vacant lots around Meadow Street and Fulton Street, but parcels may have to be combined for them to be economical to develop. When asked how to build incentive to development in the area, resident 11 firmly believes that the city has to step in and do some facilitation, purchase some land either through development bonds or the Development Corporation to start development and target smaller scale development, nothing over four stories. Resident 11 admits that many people drive thru the area without taking it, but some of the assets, like Greenstar, Alternative, other banks, and the bus station are making the West End more of a destination. He did state that the railroad does cause some division issues, as well as heavy truck traffic. Resident 11 see a lack of enforcement or a need for enforcement of large truck traffic on Seneca and Green Street to support more residential use. [19]


Focus Group Major Findings Nine residents participated in a Open Space & Waterway and Land use & Intensity focus group held 30 October. A rich variety of residents joined the group to discuss the West End. All of the participants provided a wealth of information regarding the West End. The backgrounds of the participatory residences range from the education, local businesses, community organizations, and planning sectors of the Ithaca community. Memories We asked several questions regarding the West End. The first was to describe a memorable event or experience at the Inlet or the West End Area. None of the residents hesitated to respond, one of the women recalled herself at work pruning trees around Purity when the owner came outside and gave her a muffin and coffee on the house. Another resident was attracted to the area due to the migration corridor for bird watching in the Inlet. A man remembers years of fishing and finally catching his first fish. Another was drawn to the canoeing activities and driving through the neighborhood to get to the dog park northwest of the West End. A woman mentioned her enjoyment riding her bike with her son. When the farmer market was mentioned many agreed it was a highlight to go to the Inlet. A resident recalled her friendly impressions of the people at the market, boat trips taken, and took a picture of her nephew’s traveling doll as a place to remember. And last was a resident’s amazement when walking around the neighborhood by foot and taking in all of the periods of history and relishing the fact many of the uses did not fit together, most memorably was the rail yards and the residential mixture to the area. The response reflected on the diversity land uses, historic and current, as a draw to the West End. There was a history and a centering that made all of the residents attracted to the area. There was a draw from the quality of people that lived and worked in the area, a pride of the waterfront activities and wildlife in the area, others enjoyed traveling through the area to visit destinations around the West End, such as the dog park, the farmers market, and marina destinations, and last was the piecemeal history the land-uses contained, like the train station, industrial buildings, historic homes, and renovated restaurants that made the West End memorable destination.


Physical & Emotion Values When the focus group was asked to state which areas hold value for them in the West End the geography of the West End widened and space began to be discussed. One of the residents believed that Route 13 is an issue for the area because it divides space and uses dramatically, and sees business as cut off from the water and surrounding areas, such as W. State Street, which has established business like Gimme Coffee. The area is described as fragmented, by another resident and big box developments to the south, adding more traffic and cuts the space more noticeably. Another resident observed the outside development as messing up the intimate areas within the West End. Saying that the West End is a unified phrase, but not a unified space; and needs organic unification followed the comment. One resident found physical markers, such as the Framers Market, Greenstar, and the Library Book Sale building, served as identity markers in addition to their roles as reliable income generator of the site; as a result she felt very connected to these areas. Another resident admits that the West End has lots of little hot spots that hold value, very precise enclaves that outsiders may not know or find easily, because of the one-way or alley accesses and gave the Record Shop as an example she values. The over all comments appear to show that the West End has many valuable areas that may need a more unified context to unite them. A few residents mentioned areas outside the official boundary as value areas to the West End, which led to a brief discussion on the unofficial boundary that defines the West End. Ideal Vision When the group was asked to define their ideal vision for the West End they began to discuss what they value today. A resident strongly liked the fact that the West End was not a shopping district, not a ‘commons’ or a ‘big box’ area, but more of a ‘go to community.’ She described the community as full of interesting places that are not conventional. There are cultural places where people are fixing the boats at the docks mixed with economical places were errands can be done quickly. Another resident values the rustic quality to the area and wants that to remain a vision of the future design. Another resident values the West End as a destination and to go place because a person does not need to park a car; go to places are convenient and she would like that feel to remain.


One resident valued the mixed-use to the area and believes more should be done to support more development, like condominiums and multi-use housing of all incomes. Another resident even suggested a sky bridge connecting the second stories across the street. One of the women strongly stated that many of the older homes are structural sound and are good opportunity for re-use. She uses the Cancer Resource House as a good example of keep the character of the area intact, respectful urban renewal. Another resident values the existing single family dwellings and sees them remaining in the future vision of the West End and finds W. State Street full of charming old homes that should be preserved. One resident questioned the kind of mixed-use to build and where and supports the Jane Jacobs approach to planning. He strong stated his vision is to keep the buildings through creative reusing them. The overall vision for the West End was unanimous in that the land-use needs to support mixed-use throughout the area, but the exact approaches varied. Many of the residents saw preservation of buildings and homes essential to the future vision of the West End, while still wanting mixed-use within preserved buildings. Many made comments at the end that showed a desire for more pedestrian friendly measure to be taken that would allow for better access and unity of the area. And a short discussion was led on destination making to not recreate what the West End is, but reestablish and clearly define what it already means. One resident recalls very fondly her neighbors kayaking from there home to Wegmans for their weekly groceries. The destination will attract a certain types of people and businesses to the area that need to be preserved and supported in the future vision and in the redevelopment process.


Future Actions
Informal Accepted Policies (action required)
Preserve Historic Buildings through Mixed-use– implement zoning requirement to maintain residential/ commerce character and history of the dynamic corridor where traffic, residents, commerce, and amenity space moves through and around the West End New Construction Mixed-use– implement zoning maintain mixed-use guidelines to new construction within the West End Vacant Lot Development Incentive– Implement guidelines incentive for owner(s) to add purpose and active to undeveloped lots within West End Enhance Multi-use Street Mobility Options – city implement bike lane within right-ofway. Pedestrian Friendly Corridors – implement more detailed frontage requirements on Meadow and Fulton Street in respect to landscape and street furniture

Proposed Policies (more analysis required)
New Construction Allowance in Floodplain– look to control density and type of new construction from least dense to intense and allow basic shelter type to permanent type structures; allowance greatens the further away from flood source Cooperative Parking Lot– suggest amendment to zoning regulations to support a cooperative parking plan for entire West End area, to eliminate single-use property off-street parking requirements and better overlap over land-use space Owner occupied Incentive – attempt to strength owner occupancy of residence and commercial sites through incentive plan Waterfront business Incentive – look to develop incentive plan to cater to or support waterfront activities Brownfield Redevelopment/ Environmental Clean-up – due to heavy industrial use in the West End’s history, numerous contamination sites exist that limits land-uses, more investigation needs to occur to define an policy action plan to start mitigation of these toxic sites; many of which are highlighted on toxicology map in Appendix [20]


[1] Author of Map. Ithaca’s West End. Introduction to Planning Methods. Cornell University, New York. 2008. [2] Sisler, Carol U., Margaret Hobbie, and Jane Marsh Dieckmann. “The Inlet”. Ithaca’s neighborhoods: the Rhine, the hill, and the goose pasture. Dewitt Historical Society of Tompkins Country: Ithaca, New York. 1988: 134. [3] “Ithaca: History: Ithaca Before the Civil War”. Advaneg, Inc. 2008. Retrieved 1 November 2008. <> [4] Sisler, 135. [5] Ibid, 133. [6] Ibid, 134. [7] “Flight, Film, and Public Works”. Cayuga Waterfront Trail. Data Monentum, Inc. 2005. Retrieved 1 November 2008. < public_works> [8] Sisler, 134-139. [9] Department of Planning & Development. “Cayuga Inlet Study 1974”. City of Ithaca, New York 1974. [10] Department of Planning & Development. “Ithaca Waterway Study 1976”. City of Ithaca, New York 1976. [11] Trowbridge, Peter and Roger Trancik. “Cayuga Inlet and Island Project”. City of Ithaca, New York. 1982. [12] Inlet Island Land Use Committee. “Report of the Inlet Island Land Use Committee”. City of Ithaca, New York. 1992. [13] Tompkins County Planning Department. “Tompkins County Waterfront Plan”. City of Ithaca, New York. 1997. [14] Department of Planning & Development. “West End Urban Design Plan”. City of Ithaca, New York 1998. [15] Department of Planning and Development. “West End Rezoning Ordinance Amending Section 325-5”. City of Ithaca Common Council. March 2000. [16] Daniel Budish, et al. 2008. Final Interview Questions – Land Use and Intensity. Land Use Packet for CRP 5280. Cornell University: Ithaca, NY.


[17] Graber and Graber. Qualitative Analysis for Planning and

Policy: Beyond the Numbers [18] From Interviewed script taken 17 October 2008, 13:00 by Meghan Jacquet and Seth Eden at the Tompkins County Chamber of Commerce, 904 East Shore Drive, Ithaca, NY 14850 [19] Performed on Sunday 10/26/08, from approximately 1:00 p.m. to 1:45 p.m. by Will Palmquist and Nicole Moore . [20] The City of Ithaca has to implement policies and incentives

for future business development in the West End. More importantly, through the revitalization of Brownfield's sites such as the one adjacent to the Boatyard Grill on Old Taughannock Blvd, refer to toxicology map in Appendix for detailed toxic sites in the West End. Action plans need to be implemented to curb the environmental degradation and lead to the future sustainability of the West End. With the City being focused on cleaning up and redeveloping abandoned, underutilized, and potentially contaminated properties in the City, it would set a precedent for future environmental development. In addition, once underutilized vacant lots would provide a definite new pattern of land use and intensity in the West End. H.R. 1424 was signed into law on October 3, 2008 this bill provides for expensing of environmental remediation costs extending the current Brownfield’s tax incentive till December 31, 2009, and is effective for expenditures paid or incurred after December 31, 2007. The tax incentive allows taxpayers to receive a current federal income tax deduction for certain qualifying remediation costs that would otherwise by subject to capitalization. The extension is a timely benefit for companies seeking to acquire or dispose of environmentally impaired properties such as in the West End.


Will Palmquist. Ithaca’s West End. Introduction to Planning Methods. Cornell University, New York. 2008. Sisler, Carol U., Margaret Hobbie, and Jane Marsh Dieckmann. “The Inlet”. Ithaca’s neighborhoods: the Rhine, the hill, and the goose pasture. Dewitt Historical Society of Tompkins Country: Ithaca, New York. 1988: 134. “Ithaca: History: Ithaca Before the Civil War”. Advaneg, Inc. 2008. Retrieved 1 November 2008. <> “Flight, Film, and Public Works”. Cayuga Waterfront Trail. Data Monentum, Inc. 2005. Retrieved 1 November 2008. < public_works> Department of Planning & Development. “Cayuga Inlet Study 1974”. City of Ithaca, New York 1974. Department of Planning & Development. “Ithaca Waterway Study 1976”. City of Ithaca, New York 1976. Trowbridge, Peter and Roger Trancik. “Cayuga Inlet and Island Project”. City of Ithaca, New York. 1982. Inlet Island Land Use Committee. “Report of the Inlet Island Land Use Committee”. City of Ithaca, New York. 1992. Tompkins County Planning Department. “Tompkins County Waterfront Plan”. City of Ithaca, New York. 1997. Department of Planning & Development. “West End Urban Design Plan”. City of Ithaca, New York 1998. Department of Planning and Development. “West End Rezoning Ordinance Amending Section 325-5”. City of Ithaca Common Council. March 2000. Daniel Budish, et al. 2008. Final Interview Questions – Land Use and Intensity. Land Use Packet for CRP 5280. Cornell University: Ithaca, NY.


Appendix A
Final Key Informant Interview Questions – Land Use & Intensity Mission Statement In contrast to the focus group, the goal of the one-on-one interviews is to elicit professional insight regarding Land-Use and Intensity. These informants should provide information regarding the historical, current, and future conditions of the West End. This professional knowledge will provide a supplement to information not found in primary sources, and will complement input received from the focus group. Key Informants: Planning professional (JoAnn Cornish, John Schroeder, David Kay, Nels Bohn, possibly) Real Estate professional Civic Leader (Doug Levine or Jeanne McPheeters, Ithaca Chamber of Commerce, possibly) Interview Questions: What role does the West End play in the larger Ithaca context? How is this role evolving? What is the current development trajectory of the West End in terms of landuse? (Commercial, Residential, Industrial, Green Space, Mixed-use, etc). What land-uses should be employed in the future? What level of density/intensity would be most successful? There seems to be underutilized/empty space in the West End. Why is this the case? What do you think is the highest and greatest use for such space?

There seems to be underutilized/empty space in the West End. Why is this the case? What do you think is the highest and greatest use for such space? What kinds of positive or negative effects would this (envisioned future) have on the character of the area as a whole? How would this (envisioned future) shape the role of the West End within the larger Ithaca context? What policies currently exist that either encourage or discourage businesses from locating in the West End? Has this created a well-balanced or imbalanced mix of businesses?

Appendix B

Focus Group Script – Land Use
I. Introduction A. Background 1. Graduates from the Cornell Planning Department with the cooperation from the City of Ithaca to better understand the dynamics of Ithaca’s west end. B. Purpose 1.Explain topic issues within the West End, while our group is focusing on land use and density 2. Refer to visual material, i.e. map, to define project boundaries 3. To better understand what residents/ business owners/ renters/ people employed in the area etc. would like to see happen in this space C. Explain Recording and Ground Rules 1. We will be recording the session using a recording device. 2. Explain how we will use the recordings and what it means to the participants. Insure confidentiality 3. Reiterated confidentiality 4. One person speaks at a time 5. Be respectful of others thoughts, feelings and opinions. There are no right or wrong answers 6. The focus group is planned to meet for an hour if anyone needs to take a break please do so, because of our short meeting time there is no assigned break times, the restrooms are xxxx, and help your self to food and coffee II. Warm up A. Please introduce your name, where you are from, and one place you enjoy going to in the West End? B. Poll each individual for the above information III. In-Depth

Focus Group Script – Land Use, Continued…
A. Ask the individuals to go up to the map and identify three areas of the West End each are drawn to and want to discuss. B. After focus points are complete, identify groupings or lack there of, discuss map briefly C. Start were groupings may exist, and ask: 1. What about this area interests you? 2. Take the positive/ negative opinions and expand upon it, more so they negative opinions. 3. Do you feel that the West End is moving towards a certain distinct use being residential, commercial, or a mix between the two? Do you feel that this is the best use for the West End? 4. What is your vision for the West End? IV. Wrap Up A. What was one thing you will take away from this session that was most important to you? B. Thank you once more for your participation, your comments are invaluable. If you would like to learn more about the results of this morning/afternoon/evening’s discussion we can be contacted ___________(offer contact information). C. As you leave please pick and fill out (or send in) a comment card.

Appendix C
Focus Group Script – Open Space and Waterways / Land Use
Questions and topics Introduction and warm up I) Introduction a) As people enter the room, welcome them. Point out the videoconference equipment is on and that we are being observed, if relevant. b) Encourage people to write name cards. c) Introduce yourself and others helping with facilitation. d) Review agenda e) Reason for the focus group I) We are meeting today to explore your ideas about… f) I need to tell you a few things about how we are collecting your thoughts. I) We are making an audio recording/video recording. II) The tape will be used to create a transcript and to verify or clarify comments. It will not be used in any other context. III) We have observers listening to our discussion through the magic of video conferencing. g) Reporting: I will write a report that presents and explains the findings from this session and others. I) I will report the information and ideas you share today to [insert group] which is sponsoring this focus group. II) They will use your ideas to help shape… h) I have a few discussion guidelines/groundrules to share before we begin: I) There are no wrong answers. All remarks are valuable. II) Disagreements are fine. We aren’t looking for consensus or one point of view. We need all points of view in order to get a useful picture. III) Even though focus groups are structured and I have specific questions to ask you, discussion and interaction among the members of the group is expected and encouraged. Feel free to comment on or follow up on what others say! IV) Use your paper and pencils to jot down ideas as they come to you so that you don’t lose them if you don’t have a chance to speak right away. Name cards Markers Agenda and timing on the board. Turn on recording device if not already on. Props and Facilitator’s Notes

Appendix D
Focus Group Script Continued…
I) Warm up a) Who you are: Name and organization. Warm up question or exercise: What is a memorable event or experience you have had near the Cayuga Inlet/West End area? a) Share around In-depth investigation Have the following questions split up on pieces of paper. Each member picks out of a hat for the question set and writes a brief response. Share around of what your question set was and the answer. (This can be done in discussion pairs as well: so each pair would pick a question set and discuss/respond and share with the group) Questions are combined with Land Use: 1. Sometimes a place has both a physical and emotional value. What is the area’s meaning to you: as a place you use and a place you value? Responses could be framed as: a. “As a place I use, it means: (physical)____________________________ b. “As a place I value, it means: (emotional)___________________________” 1. How have you seen the area being used by others? In your opinion which of these are the most efficient/appropriate uses? 2. What is your opinion of its meaning as a place in the community (as a place for use and value to others)? 3. In some areas, there is a water “culture”/attraction. To what extent do you see it as an attraction for Ithaca’s West End as a space for locals and visitors? If it should be more of an attraction, what can we do to make it so? 4. What work has been done before that you have witnessed or heard about? In your opinion, how successful were the results? 5. What is one thing that is great about the area (you may offer more than one thing if you’d like)? 6. What is one thing you’d like to see improved should a plan be made? 7. Offer one suggestion of how to poll public opinion on the area if you were in our position. Land Use Specific Questions 1. Do you feel that the West End is moving towards a certain distinct use being residential, commercial, or a mix between the two? Do you feel that this is the best use for the West End? 2. What is your vision for the West End? Closing Closing Exit Ticket: After hearing others' viewpoints, it would be good for policy makers and/or planners to know.... Thank you once more for your participation, your comments are invaluable. If you would like to learn more about the results of this morning/afternoon/evening’s discussion we can be contacted ________________________________ (offer contact information). Express gratitude for their attendance and collect their exit tickets as they leave. Each question set should have one or two common questions and one or two individual questions. Time given for response and pair sharing. Discuss and share with the whole group.

Created by: Open Space/ Waterways Group and Land-use & Intensity Group, November 2008

Appendix E

Created by: William Palmquist, October 2008

Created by: William Palmquist, October 2008

Created by: Seth Eden, August 2008

Created by: Meghan Jacquet, August 2008

Created by: Meghan Jacquet, August 2008

Toxicology of Ithaca’s West End

Source: Retrieved August 2008

Created by: William Palmquist, October 2008

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful