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Joshua Gabriel Lontoc and Pamela Therese Isleta BLL 101, WF 8:30-10:00 October 12, 2012

Introduction Statement of the Problem If someone asked you which variety of English do you speak-American English or British English-what would your answer be? Are you even aware that American English and British English are two national varieties of English? (Algeo, 2006). If you are aware of it, then that's great, because not all people are aware that American English isn't to be confused with British English. They are different when it comes to vocabulary, phonology, and in some aspects of grammar such as the parts of speech (Algeo 2006). Did you know that in British English underwear is called pants, and sneakers are called trainers? And have you noticed that the Americans rarely say bloody hell or cheers mate in contrast to the Britons? So you see, American English is indeed different from British English. Here in the Philippines, English is a widely spoken language, but most of us don't bother to know whether we speak American English or British English. This is because for us Filipinos, basically it's just plain English. This mindset of ours must be corrected. When analyzed briefly, the English of the Filipinos leans toward the American variety, but when it is scrutinized, it can be discovered that the Filipinos somehow have their own unique variety of English-Philippine English (which will be discussed later). Filipinos may use English words in such peculiar ways that both the American and Briton can't understand. Objectives Not only does this paper aim to enlighten the reader regarding the basic differences between American English and British English, it also aims to make the reader aware that there is such a language called Philippine Englishwhich is neither comprehensible for both the

Americans and the Britons. Review of Related Literature Not surprisingly, we the researchers aren't the only ones interested in studying the differences between American and British English. We discovered a thesis written in the year 2011 by Lingyu Qiu, entitled British English VS American English. She chose to write about about the differences between American and British English because according to her, not only is English an international and very useful language, it is a language that she loves. She also became interested in American and British English when she met a Briton (who of course spoke British English) and a German man who spoke American English. She was just learning to speak English during that time (she's Chinese), so consequently she couldn't understand some of the words used by the the Briton and the German man. Lingyu Qiu's thesis is somewhat similar to our own research paper in that it tackles the areas of grammar, vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation. But her thesis mainly focuses on the historical background, dialects, accents, and varieties of both American and British English. She also discusses how Americans and Britons write differently from each other. Her research is extensive and concise regardless of the fact that English isn't her first language. In its totality, her thesis deserves a round of applause. Scope and Delimitation Even though the Filipinos were greatly influenced by the Americans and Britons, they are very creative and unique in a lot of things, including their use of the English language. Thus, it is only fair for this paper to have a discussion concerning Philippine English. However, this research paper will not be covering all of the differences between American English and British English, since they are numerous and too complicated to discuss, nor will it be giving an extensive account on Philippine English. This research paper will also not be focusing on the historical background

of American and British English, nor will it tackle the area of writing differences. Now, you may be wondering why this paper will be only discussing American English and British English, despite the fact that there are many other varieties of English in the world like Spanglish (Spanish English), Singlish (Singaporean English), etc. Well, we chose these two varieties of English for three reasons: firstly, ...these two varieties are the ones spoken by most native speakers of English and studied by most foreign learners. (Algeo 2006) In other words, American English and British English are the dominant varieties of English. Secondly, these two varieties of English, compared to others, contain more observable and comprehensive material to work on. ...they have a special status as the two principal national varieties of language simply because there is more material available in them... (Algeo 2006, 1) And thirdly, we Filipinos use (relatively) American English and British English and often treat them as one language out of sheer ignorance. The other varieties of English are thus meaningless to include in this paper, since we are observably unaware of them and consequently don't use them. Overall, this paper will be discussing the main differences between American English and British English, as well as a brief and concise introduction to Philippine English. Methodology We gathered the data needed for this paper mainly by means of the internet: e-books, academic articles, handbooks, and online dictionaries. We didn't conduct interviews, nor did we issue surveys and questionnaires. Please remember that this paper will not discuss every aspect of American English and British English differences, like all of the vowels, consonants, vocabulary terms, grammar, etc. Thesis Statement: Filipinos shouldn't consider or treat American English and British English as one language, since they differ (though not completely) in the aspects of pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar; Filipinos may use these two national varieties of English, but they also

have their own variety-Philippine English. Results and Discussion American and British English Pronunciation Differences One reliable method of identifying a person's nationality is by asking him/her to speak. And why is that? Well, because when a person speaks, you will be able to listen to his/her tune of language-the intonation that accompanies their utterances (Algeo 2006). This tune is commonly known as accent. By a person's accent you can know if he/she is from Germany, France, Japan, etc. This is because accent is intricately connected to nationality or race. Therefore, it is legitimate to say that Americans and Britons are distinguishable through their accents. Though both language groups speak English, the manner in which they speak it isn't the same. We Filipinos usually understand American English without difficulty, especially when it comes to movies or TV shows. On the other hand, when we watch movies or TV shows whose characters speak British English, we sometimes find ourselves scratching our heads in frustration due to the fact that we can't understand what they're saying; the British accent is just too strong sometimes that it makes words sound like rubbish. With that thought in mind, we can say that the most obvious difference between American English and British English is accent. When a Briton or an American talks, they identify themselves primarily by the tunes of their respective varieties. (Algeo 2006, 2) The latter statement however, isn't completely true. Singing could be an exception. When Americans or Britons sing, their peculiar accents can be canceled out by the musical tune of the song, making it more difficult to decide if the singer is an American or a Briton. Take for example the famous British boy-band One Direction. When you watch them being interviewed on YouTube, their accent is thick and apparent; you have to pay close attention or

read their lips in order to get the gist of what they're saying. But when they sing however, they almost sound like Americans, and they could be understood without any difficulty. Now, let us return to the subject at hand. Generally, there are four differences between American English and British English when it comes to the area of pronunciation: rhotic accent, vowel pronunciation, consonant pronunciation, and change of stress. Rhotic Accent Let us first discuss the presence of the rhotic accent. American English is different from British English in that it is mostly rhotic (New York City and Boston are exceptions), while British English is mostly non-rhotic (Scotland and Ireland are exceptions). Rhotic accent refers to the way in which the letter r is articulated after a vowel within a syllable, like in the words Narnia, barge, torn, or birth (Gomez 2012). It can be said that people who have rhotic accents are lovers of the retroflex [r]. Here in the Philippines, when we hear Americans speak Filipino words such as parang, tara, or sarado, we sometimes find it funny because they pronounce these words in their rhotic accent. If you can't imagine what this retroflex [r] sounds like, try to say the word parang in the best American accent you can muster-don't pronounce the r with the trill of the tongue that may come to you naturally as a Filipino. Instead, stiffen your tongue as it glides through the roof of your mouth as you say the [r] sound. Then if you still don't understand this retroflex [r] concept, seek the help of the internet or ask a prolific linguist to illustrate how it's pronounced. Anyway, though most of America, Scotland, and Ireland are rhotic, their rhotic accents arent completely identical. Besides the retroflex [r], the letter r can be pronounced on two other ways: the alveolar approximant [?] and the alveolar flap [?] (Gomez 2012). The alveolar approximant [?] occurs in phonetic environments wherein the letter r comes before a vowel in a syllable or syllable cluster like in the words ran, trust, shrewd, or pray. The alveolar

flap [?] occurs in phonetic environments wherein the letter r is intervocalic, with the stress placed on the preceding vowel like in the words parish or lurid (Gomez 2012). Since explaining how these two varieties sound like is too complicated for us the researchers, all you need to know is that the alveolar approximant [?] is shared by the Americans, and Britons; while the alveolar flap [?] is unique to the Americans. Britons only use the alveolar approximant [?]. The Americans may use either the alveolar approximant [?] or the alveolar flap [?]. Please take note that only the Scots and Irish are the only Britons who have rhotic accents; the rest of Great Britain is non-rhotic. The cause of Scotland's and Ireland's deviance can be traced back to history. Up to 1776, when the American Revolution started, the individual accents of America and Britain didn't exist. They were treated as one, and no one bothered to see their differences. In other words, American and British pride were weak at that time. It was only towards the end of the 18th century that the Britons started to remove their rhotic accents (Gomez 2012). Received Pronunciation developed at the end of the eighteenth century, during the period of the American Revolution. At that time there was no pronunciation by which people in America could be distinguished from people in England. In the impressment controverisies of the 1790's, naval officers on both sides found it so difficult to tell whether sailors were British or American that the American Government considered providing certificates of citizenship. (Algeo 2006, 71) The upper classes of southern England started to eliminate their rhotic accent as a way of attaining class distinction. After some time, a new accent was gradually developed and the middle class adopted it as well. Unfortunately, this innovation didn't reach the Scots and Irish who were mostly of the lower working class and were probably too burdened by poverty to care about such trivial matters. They were the underdogs of Great Britain, so why should they care? (Gomez 2012)

Vowel Pronunciation When it comes to pronouncing vowels, Americans and Britons also differ. The vowels that this paper will be focusing on are [o]. [], and [?]. Let us first discuss the vowel sound [o]. In English in general, there are various ways of pronouncing [o]: [?], [?], [?], [?], or [u]. But to put it simply, the short o-which usually occurs within a stressed syllable with a single o like in dog or model-is pronounced as an open back rounded short sound [?] in British English, but is pronounced as either an open back unrounded long sound [?:] or an open mid-back rounded long sound [?:] in American English (Gomez 2012). Britons love to use the sound [?] while the Americans only use [?:] or [?:]. For example, Britons pronounce shot as [??t] while Americans pronounce it as [??:t] or [??:t]. It is interesting to note that the Americans were once users of the sound [?] like the Britons. Their changing of [?] to [?:] and [?:] happened because of two phonological phenomena: the father-bother merger and the lotcloth split. A split is defined as the appearance of a new sound, while a merger is defined as the disappearance of an existing sound (Gomez 2012). With the latter definitions in mind, the father-bother merger is the culprit behind the transformation of [?] to [?:]. In this phenomenon, the vowel [?] was lengthened to [?:], then it lost its roundedness and became [?:]. Roundedness is most likely the most distinctive difference between [?] and [?:] in everyday speech rather than vowel length. (Gomez 2012 ) The second phonological phenomenon, the lot-cloth split, caused the transformation of [?] to [?:]. Initially, [?] was lengthened to [?:], and then finally raised to [?:]. Usually, [?:] occurs before the voiceless fricatives [f], [s], and []; but they can also occur before the velars [k], [g], and [?], like in song, dog, and chocolate. Please remember that only Americans use [?:] and that Britons only use [?] (Gomez 2012). The vowel sound [] is also pronounced differently in American English and British English. The

Britons aren't the only ones obsessed with using a particular vowel. When it comes to [], Americans only pronounce it as it is while the Britons pronounce it as either [] or [?:], depending on certain phonetic environments. This is because during the American Revolutionary War, the Britons started to pronounce [] differently. Primarily, the near-open front unrounded vowel [] was lengthened to [:]. Next, [:] was lowered to the open back unrounded vowel [?:]. This alternate manner of pronouncing [] didn't kick-off in America though, so up to this day, Americans still pronounce [] as it is (Gomez 2012). As mentioned earlier, Britons pronounce [] as [?:] depending on certain phonetic environments. Basically, [] becomes [?:] when it occurs before the sounds [f], [s], and []-like in cat, pal, cab, or brag-or when it is followed by the consonant clusters [ns], [nt], [nt?], and [mpl] like in dance, can't, ranch, or sample. In British English, [] isn't pronounced as [?:] only when it precedes the consonants [t], [l], [b], and [g], like in cat, pal, cab, and brag. (Gomez, 2012) Finally, let us discuss the vowel sound [?]. In American English, [?] is usually pronounced as [?], while it is usually pronounced as [a?]. This is true especially in the suffix -ization. The Americans pronounce it as [?'zei?n], while the Britons pronounce it as [a?'ze??n] (Gomez 2012). Pronunciation of the Consonant [t] Generally, Americans and Britons pronounce all the consonants,except for [t], in the same manner. In English, there are six different ways of pronouncing [t], depending on certain phonetic environments. 1. Aspiratedthis occurs when [t] is the first letter of a word like in touch, or when [t] is stressed and in the middle of a word like in potential (Gomez 2012). 2. De-aspiratedthis occurs when [t] is in a syllable without the stress like in tempting, when [t] is preceded by [s] like in stop, or when [t] is at the end of a syllable like in pet or pat (Gomez 2012).

3. Alveolar flapthis [?] is usually a substitute for the plosive dental or de-aspirated [t]. It occurs when t is at an intervocalic position, the first vowel being stressed, as in water. (Gomez 2012, 10) 4. Glottal stopthis [?] is a voiceless sound produced by blocking the airflow in the vocal tract when you speak. It acts as a substitute for the de-aspirated [t] sound at the end of a word like in put or report. It can also be found in a stressed syllable followed by the phonetic patterns [t+vowel+n] or [tn], like in button or continent (Gomez 2012). 5. Glottalized stopthis [t?] is defined as the combination of the stop [t] and the glottal stop [?]. The process of producing this sound is quite vague, but it follows the same rules for pronouncing the glottal stop [?]. It can be found in words like mutton or curtain (Gomez 2012). 6. Complete Omissionthis occurs occasionally in the presence of the pattern formed by a stressed vowel followed by the consonant cluster [nt], like in winter ['w?n?] or center ['sen?r]. This pattern is usually found in American English (Gomez 2012). In totality, both American English and British English have the aspirated and de-aspirated [t] sounds, as well as the glottal and glottalized stops, and the complete omission. They only differ when it comes to the alveolar flap [?]. The Britons never use it. Instead, they pronounce [?] as either a de-aspirated or glottalized [t] (Gomez 2012). Change of Stress Americans and Britons also differ in their placement of stress in words, more specifically in French loanwords like caf, or blas. Americans put the stress in the last syllable while Britons put it in an earlier syllable (Gomez 2012). So you see, we Filipinos aren't the only people who borrow words from a foreign language. In history, English was influenced by French during the invasion of England by William of Normandy in 1066. This invasion marked the beginning of the Norman rule of England, which

would last for about four-hundred years until the end of the Hundred Years War. Anyway, during the first years of the Norman rule, William of Normandy used his power to change the language of the government, which was English. He then imposed institutions inspired by French ones. During this period, only the low- and middle-classes were allowed to speak English. And as the years passed, when more Normans migrated to England, the Britons started to yield themselves to this language change and speak French naturally. However, there were still Britons who remained to speak English insistently. Unfortunately, French was the current language of politics, diplomacy, and the majority of society. These Britons were then forced to borrow words from the French language as a compromise. The number of loanwords increased as the Normanswhich now included both the low- and middle-classesprovided the Britons with more experiences and ways to name objects. Up to this day, we still use French loanwords (Gomez 2012). Well, as for American English and British English, they adapted French loanwords in a different way. Like we said earlier, Americans place the stress in the last syllable while Britons place the stress in an earlier syllable. It appears that the American English phonology has retained the fixed accent of the French language, which usually falls on the last syllable. (Gomez 2012) Vocabulary Differences As mentioned earlier in the introduction, Americans and Britons may use certain English words in ways which are not shared by both nationalities. In totality, it can be said that British English is somewhat more traditional than the dynamic and modern American English. So if you put together an American and a Briton and then force them to interact with each other, there is a small possibility that a misunderstanding would brew between them, solely because they differ in using certain English words.Here are a few examples: American EnglishBritish EnglishnapkinservietteeraserrubberelevatorliftFrench frieschipspantiesknickerspantstrousersunderwearpantscopbobbycollegeunisweaterjumperdrunkpiss


So as you can see from the previous table, Americans and Britons must choose some of their words carefully when interacting with each other. For instance, a Briton asks an American for a 'serviette', the American wouldn't be able to indulge the Briton's request if he didn't know that 'serviette' means 'napkin'. Some British English words are very interesting. Who would've known that it's legitimate to call an 'eraser' a 'rubber' or a 'cop' a 'bobby'? In British English you could say I belong to the Uni of Arts and Communication, since 'uni' is the British term for 'college'. Spelling Differences Now that we've briefly discussed some vocabulary differences between American and British English, let us now tackle the area of spelling. Have you ever found yourself in a situation wherein you're contemplating whether to use neighbor instead of neighbour, or center or centre? Though these pairs of words are spelled differently, each pair is semantically the samethey refer to the same thing. Therefore, it really doesn't matter if you use neighbor instead of neighbour, since either word is grammatically acceptable. The fact is, neighbor is used in American English while neighbour is used in British English. The same fact goes for center and centre. Here are a few more examples: American EnglishBritish Englishcolorcolourhonorhonourfiberfibrecatalogcataloguedefensedefencerealizerealisetraveled travelledcheckcheque In British English, words ending in -or are spelled -our like in neighbour, labour, and colour. Second, words ending in the suffix -ize are spelled -ise like in realise, apologise, and organise. Third, words ending in -er are spelled -re like centre, theatre, and metre. Fourth, words ending in -ense are spelled -ence like defence and licence. Fifth, words ending in -og are spelled -ogue like dialogue and analogue. Sixth, words ending in -yze are spelled -yse like

analyse and paralyse. And lastly, the l at the end of a verb is doubled when adding endings that start with a vowel like in the words travelled, modelling. and fuelling. (Oxford Dictionaries 2012) In American English, they use the word endings -or, -ize, -er, -ense, -og, and -yze. Also, the letter l isn't doubled when it precedes a verb ending that starts with a vowel. The deceased linguist Noah Webster is responsible for the simple spelling rules of American English. When he published the first dictionary of American English in 1928, he eradicated the complicated spelling methods of British English and replaced them with simpler ones. This act of Noah Webster reflects the practical and arrogant spirit of the American nation (Benedikt, n.d.). Basic Grammatical Differences As a finale to the discussion on American and British English differences, let us now tackle some of the aspects of grammar. First of all, in British English, collective nouns can be followed by both singular and plural verbs, depending on whether the collective noun is thought of as a single idea or as many people. For example, it is legitimate for Britons to say The away team are bullying the crying kids. However, the latter statement is ungrammatical for the Americans who would rather use is than are after a collective noun (Maxwell and Clandfield 2012). In British English, the verb have often has a delexical function in a sentenceit is used in contexts wherein it has insignificant meaning, occurring with an object noun which denotes a particular action. For example, Britons would usually ask Do you like to have a bath?, as opposed to the Americans who would rather ask Do you like to take a bath?. Here are a few more examples: American EnglishBritish EnglishLet's take a nap.Let's have a nap.I want to take a vacation in France!I want to have a vacation in France!I'm taking an exam in algebra tomorrow.I'm having an exam in algebra tomorrow. In totality, Britons are avid users of the verb have while Americans are avid users of the verb take. Of course this only applies when either have or take has a delexical function. For example,

Americans wouldn't say Yes, I take an eraser, when asked if he/she has an eraser. Instead he would say Yes, I have an eraser. As for some auxiliary verbs and modals, Americans and Britons use them quite differently. For Britons, the auxiliary verb do could be a substitute for another verb when answering a question. For example, if you ask a Briton Are you playing basketball with us?, he would reply Hmm...I might do. Americans on the other hand, would reply Hmm...I might., since the latter reply of the Briton is ungrammatical for for them (Maxwell and Clandfield 2012). Britons also use needn't instead of don't need. Here are a few examples: American EnglishBritish EnglishYou don't need to visit me all the time you know.You needn't to visit me all the time you know.I said we don't need to come to class tomorrow!I said we needn't come to class tomorrow!Oh, you don't need to feed us all the time.Oh, you needn't feed us all the time. As seen from the table above, needn't sounds more formal or sassy than don't need. Americans are more practical, not caring whether their words sound sassy or notthey simply use don't need. Britons, on the other hand, are distinctly known for their use of needn't (Maxwell and Clandfield 2012). Another testimony to the fanciness of British English is the Britons' occasional usage of the modal shall as opposed to the Americans' consistent use of will and should. Britons use shall as an alternative to will and should when talking about the future and when asking for someone's advice or opinion. Here are a few examples: American EnglishBritish EnglishI will punch your face if you don't shut up.I shall punch your face if you don't shut up.We will lose this game.We shall lose this game. Should I ask Grace to marry me?Shall I ask Grace to marry me? Britons in general are partial to using shall. On the other hand, shall is unusual and will and should are normal for Americans. Both shall and will are grammatical though, so you needn't be

wary of using them in speaking or writing. Just remember that they are only used to refer to things in the future. Now let us examine the common past tense forms of verbs in American and British English. (Maxwell and Clandfield 2012) American EnglishBritish Englishdreameddreamtsmelledsmelltspoiledspoiltburnedburntlearnedlearnt It can be seen

from the previous table that in British English the irregular form of verbs is more used while in American English the regular form is common. Some of the British words above may even sound ungrammatical to you: spoilt and learnt. Sometimes these words are even a little bit harder to say compared to their American counterparts. But remember that though the latter words might sound unusual, they are grammatical, nonetheless. Now, let us examine the Briton's consistent use of the present perfect. American EnglishBritish EnglishI broke my arm!I have broken my arm!I took my biology exam yesterday.I have taken my biology exam yesterday.I already saw that Harry Potter movie.I have already seen that Harry Potter movie. Generally, Britons use the present perfect tense to express an action that already happened in the past but is still relevant in the present. The above sentences in the American English column are considered ungrammatical in British English. So you see, British English can be more complicated than American English in that using the present perfect tense is mandatory. In American English, however, both the past and present perfect tenses are acceptable (Foundation for International Education 2012). And finally, let us examine the reductions in American English that are never found in British English. A reduction happens when a native English speaker reduces or eliminates certain sounds. (Quinones 2009) American EnglishBritish English wannawant togonnagoing togimmegive megottagot to

Americans use reductions mainly for convenience, as well as for the smoothness of speech. Reductions usually occur with function wordswords we use to make our sentences grammatical but they rarely occur with content wordswords we use to help us form mental images (Quinones 2009). (On its Web site, Pronuncian teaches that function words include pronouns, determiners, prepositions, and auxiliary verbs. Content words on the other hand include nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs.) This tendency of Americans to use reductions is another reflection of their spirit of practicality, since reductions make pronouncing words easier. This ends our discussion on the differences between American and British English. A Brief Introduction to Philippine English The Philippines is known to be one of the largest English speaking countries in the world. Even though there are about 170 different languages spoken in the Philippines, the most widely used is Tagalog, while English is the lingua franca (Binh n.d.). Nowadays, both Tagalog and English have been used together while communicating, making Taglish now a popular language used in the country. When Filipinos use English however, they might sometimes use it in such a way that is incomprehensible to both the Americans and Britons. This 'unusual' variety of English is known as Philippine English. Basically, Philippine English is different from both American and British English in terms of phonology, vocabulary, and grammar. Phonology There are not much notable differences between Philippine English and American English when studying phonology; however, some allophones give an exception. 1The pronunciation of r after a vowel; 2The alveolar sounds /d/, /t/, /l/, and /n/ have a dental articulation (mentioned by Millward and Hayes, 2011);

3// and // are often pronounced as /d/ and /t/ respectively; 4/v/ and /f/ are often pronounced as /b/ and /p/ respectively; 5The pronunciation of some words are similar to Spanish due to their great influence in our language such as the word strong becomes istrong or estrong; 6 The pronunciation of similar vowels sound the same such as in the words feel and fill, full and fool, and top and tap; and 7The diphthong /??/ is pronounced as /o:/. Philippine English is syllable-timed because they learn their English from reading books and watching television, not from communicating with the native speakers of the language (Binh n.d., 1). Thus, there learning of the English language is secondhand rather than firsthand. It is important to note that learning a language by means of the mediabooks, television, or the radio is ineffective, since the latter objects are inanimate and cannot therefore provide 'meaningful' learning but merely 'rote' learning. Also, these inanimate objects can't have eye contact with the Filipinos learning English and can't possibly affirm or correct their linguistic performances. Therefore, it is no wonder that the Filipinos (who strongly are under the influence of their native tongue) often mispronounce the phonemes of the English language since there are no available native speakers of English to correct them. Obviously, the media is the most accessible English 'teacher' for most Filipinos. Vocabulary Filipinos sometimes use some English words in creative ways, changing their original meanings depending on the various situations in their everyday lives. The Americans and Britons might deem their use of the English language as inappropriate or funny, but the simply don't understand that the phenomenon of language drifting is taking place. The Filipinos can't help but make their own convenient version of English, just like the practical Americans couldn't help but

eradicate or simplify the complicated aspects of British English. The vocabulary of Philippine English comes from a range of phenomena that includes semantic and part-of-speech shift, loan interpretations, coinages and creative innovations, compounds and hybrids. (Binh n.d.) The following are some examples of the terms mentioned above: 1Part-of-speech shift: the noun traffic being used as an adjective in the sentence The street is so traffic!; 2Loan transitions: the word eggs was given a definition of testicles because in Spanish, the word huevos has a definition of eggs, testicles (as cited in Thompson, 2003, p. 53-54); 3Coinages: Colgate referring to any brand of toothpaste; 4Compounds: toilet + restroom = comfort room; and 5Hybrids (word compounding from different languages): buko juice is the term used to refer to the juice of a young coconut. When it comes to the vocabulary of Filipinos though, American and British English do have their influences, even though Philippine English is continuing to expand. Here are a few examples: American EnglishBritish EnglishPhilippine Englishelevatorliftelevatorpantstrouserspantshigh schoolsecondary school high schoolcafeteriacanteencanteeneraserrubbereraserstovecookerstoveMonday thru FridayMonday to FridayMonday to Friday Generally, Filipinos are more inclined to use American English terms rather than British English terms. We, the researchers, have never heard a fellow Filipino call an eraser a rubber or a stove a cooker. Grammar Listed below are some grammatical features of the Philippine English that are most of the time considered ungrammatical in both American and British English: (Binh n.d.) 1The absence of subject-verb agreement: She go to school.

2The usage of present perfect in replacement of past simple: Yesterday I have met her. 3The usage of past perfect in replacement of present perfect or past simple: Have some students tell they class what they had seen 4The usage of present continuous tense which refers to habits and routines: He is going to school by jeep every morning. 5Transitive verbs are mistakenly used as intransitive verbs: James dont like.; 6The usage of auxiliary verbs in present tense: She said he has finished the test.; 7Determiners arent commonly used: United States instead of The United States; 8Demonstratives used do not satisfy nouns: This pencils; and 9Non-count nouns become count nouns: James has a beautiful hair.

Conclusion(s) and Recommendations In conclusion, American and British English are not completely the same. They differ in some aspects of pronunciation, vocabulary, spelling, and grammar. British English is relatively sophisticated and traditional, while American English is simple and dynamic. Filipinos are more inclined to use American English than British English, but they still have their own variety called Philippine English, which is incomprehensible for both the Americans and Britons. We, the researchers recommend that the reader be open-minded and not treat the facts in this paper as absolute truths. If the reader wants to know more about the subject, he/she must do his/her own research or investigation. Nevertheless, our stand remainsdon't think that American and British English are completely the same, and don't underestimate the capacity of the Filipinos to make the English language more convenient for their own use.

Reference List: Online PDF Files and book 1 Algeo, John. British or American English (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 1-2, 71. 2Benedikt, Zdenek. Differences between American English and British English, accessed September 17, 2012. 3Binh, Nguyen Thanh. A Brief Description of Philippine English, accessed September 17, 2012. 4Foundation for International Education. British English Style Guide for Students, accessed September 17, 2012. 5Gomez, Paco. British and American English Pronunciation Differences, accessed September 17, 2012.

diff.pdf Websites and Online Dictionary 1Kerry Maxwell and Lindsay Clandfield, Differences in American and British English Grammar,, accessed October 10, 2012.

1 Oxford Dictionaries, s.v. British and American Spelling, accessed October 10, 2012, 2Quinones, Candice. Spoken English Reductions: Whaddayasay?. Presentation, IELC Seminar, Fall 2010, accessed October 11, 2012.