70-1805-W 10-1831-T

Module 5: Steering and Suspension Systems

Automotive Technology Curriculum

2006 2005 Edition Student Test Workbook Packet

STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS

Automotive Technology Module 5: Steering and Suspension Systems Student Workbook
Technical Consultants: Roger Donovan Robin Ferguson

Project Coordinator: Erica Kassel

Editor: Janis Levsen

Produced by the Instructional Materials Laboratory 1400 Rock Quarry Center University of Missouri-Columbia Columbia, MO 65211 (800) 669-2465 http://www.iml.missouri.edu 2006 Edition Catalog no. 70-1805-W © 2006. The Curators of the University of Missouri. All Rights Reserved.
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Graphic Artists: Chris Benedict Jacqueline Craig

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY

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STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS
Name: MODULE 5: STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS STUDENT WORKBOOK TRACKING SHEET
Assignment Sheet AS1-L1-UI AS1-L1-UII AS1-L2-UII AS1-L3-UII AS1-L1-UIII AS1-L1-UVI AS1-L2-UVI AS1-L1-UVII AS1-L2-UVII AS1-L3-UVII AS1-L1-UX AS1-L1-UXI AS1-L1-UXII AS1-L2-UXII AS1-L3-UXIII AS1-L1-UXIV AS1-L2-UXIV Job Sheet JS1-L2-UI JS2-L2-UI JS1-L4-UII JS2-L4-UII JS3-L4-UII JS1-L1-UIII Title of Assignment Sheet Steering and Suspension Systems Types of Steering Systems Conventional Steering System Components Rack-and-Pinion Steering Systems Steering Gear Concerns Energy-Absorbing Steering Column Air Bag Systems Suspension Systems Front Suspension Types and Components Rear Suspension Types and Components Electronic Suspension Control Systems Wheel Bearings Wheel Basics Tire Basics Wheel Balance and Runout Steering, Suspension, and Wheel Alignment Concerns Wheel Alignment Principles Title of Job Sheet Complete a Work Order With Concern, Cause, and Correction Identify and Interpret a Steering and Suspension Concern Inspect and Adjust Manual Steering Gear Lubricant Level Inspect and Adjust Power Steering Fluid Levels Diagnose Fluid Leaks in the Power Steering System Diagnose Manual and Power Steering Gear Concerns Instructor Guide Page # 11–14 47–50 79–82 91–94 141–144 345–348 355–358 401–404 433–436 443–446 623–626 663–666 707–710 723–726 787–790 827–830 845–848 Instructor Guide Page # 19–20 21–24 105–106 107–108 109–110 145–146 Student Workbook Page # W 1–2 W 9–10 W 11–12 W 13–14 W 21–22 W 103–104 W 105–106 W 121–122 W 123–124 W 125–126 W 191–192 W 203–204 W 215–216 W 217–218 W 237–238 W 245–246 W 251–252 Student Workbook Page # W 3–4 W 5–8 W 15–16 W 17–18 W 19–20 W 23–24 Date Instructor’s Initials Date Instructor’s Initials

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Clean. and Inspect a Manual Steering Gear Reassemble and Adjust a Manual Steering Gear Remove and Install an Integrated Power Steering Gear Disassemble.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY MODULE 5: STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS STUDENT WORKBOOK TRACKING SHEET – PAGE 2 Job Sheet JS1-L2-UIII JS2-L2-UIII JS3-L2-UIII JS1-L3-UIII JS2-L3-UIII JS3-L3-UIIII JS1-L4-UIII JS2-L4-UIII JS3-L4-UIII JS4-L4-UIII JS5-L4-UIII JS1-L1-UIV JS2-L1-UIV JS3-L1-UIV JS4-L1-UIV JS1-L2-UIV JS2-L2-UIV JS3-L2-UIV JS4-L2-UIV Title of Job Sheet Remove and Install a Manual Steering Gear Disassemble. and Inspect a Power Rack-and Pinion Steering Gear Reassemble and Adjust a Power Rack-andPinion Steering Gear Test and Diagnose Components of Electronically Controlled Steering Systems Using a Scan Tool Inspect and Test Nonhydraulic Electric Power-Assist Steering Replace Rack Boots (End Take-Off Units) Replace Rack Mount Bushings Test Power Steering System Pressure Instructor Guide Page # 155–158 159–160 161–162 171–174 175–178 179–180 195–198 199–200 201–204 205–206 207–208 233–234 235–238 239–240 241–242 253–254 255–256 257–258 259–260 Student Workbook Page # W 25–28 W 29–30 W 31–32 W 33–36 W 37–40 W 41–42 W 43–46 W 47–48 W 49–52 W 53–54 W 55–56 W 57–58 W 59–62 W 63–64 W 65–66 W 67–68 W 69–70 W 71–72 W 73–74 Date Instructor’s Initials JS5-L2-UIV JS1-L3-UIV JS2-L3-UIV JS1-L1-UV 261–262 267–268 269–270 287–290 W 75–76 W 77–78 W 79–80 W 81–84 iv . Clean. and Inspect an Integrated Power Steering Gear Reassemble and Adjust an Integrated Power Steering Gear Inspect and Replace a Pitman Arm Inspect and Replace a Center Link Inspect and Replace Tie-Rod Ends Inspect and Replace an Idler Arm Inspect and Replace a Steering Damper Remove and Install a Manual Rack-andPinion Steering Gear Inspect and Replace Rack-and-Pinion Inner Tie-Rods and Bellows Boots Disassemble. Clean. and Inspect a Manual Rack-and-Pinion Steering Gear Reassemble and Adjust a Manual Rack-andPinion Steering Gear Remove and Install a Power Rack-and-Pinion Steering Gear Disassemble. Clean.

STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS MODULE 5: STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS STUDENT WORKBOOK TRACKING SHEET – PAGE 3 Job Sheet JS1-L2-UV JS2-L2-UV JS3-L2-UV JS4-L2-UV JS5-L2-UV JS6-L2-UV JS7-L2-UV Title of Job Sheet Remove and Install a Power Steering Pump Inspect and Replace Power Steering Pressure Hoses Service a Power Steering Pump Inspect.and Long-Arm (SLA) Suspension System Lubricate a Steering and Suspension System Inspect and Replace Conventional or GasCharged Shock Absorbers Inspect and Replace Air-Adjustable Shock Absorbers Inspect and Replace Stabilizer Bars and Bushings Inspect and Replace Strut Rods and Bushings Inspect and Replace Coil Springs Inspect and Replace Torsion Bar Springs Inspect and Replace Ball Joints Inspect and Replace Lower Control Arms and Bushings Inspect and Replace Upper Control Arms and Bushings Instructor Guide Page # 307–310 311–312 313–316 317–318 319–320 321–322 323–324 Student Workbook Page # W 85–88 W 89–90 W 91–94 W 95–96 W 97–98 W 99–100 W 101–102 Date Instructor’s Initials JS1-L3-UVI JS2-L3-UVI JS3-L3-UVI 369–370 371–372 373–374 W 107–108 W 109–110 W 111–112 JS4-L3-UVI 375–378 W 113–116 JS5-L3-UVI JS1-L1-UVIII JS2-L1-UVIII JS1-L2-UVIII JS2-L2-UVIII JS3-L2-UVIII JS4-L2-UVIII JS1-L3-UVIII JS2-L3-UVIII JS3-L3-UVIII JS4-L3-UVIII JS5-L3-UVIII 379–382 475–480 481–482 493–496 497–500 501–502 503–504 521–524 525–528 529–530 531–534 535–538 W 117–120 W 127–132 W 133–134 W 135–138 W 139–142 W 143–144 W 145–146 W 147–150 W 151–154 W 155–156 W 157–160 W 161–164 v . and Adjust the Power Steering Pump Belt Flush the Power Steering Gear Flush the Power Steering Pump Identify Hybrid Vehicle Power Steering System Electrical Circuits Service and Safety Precautions Identify Vehicles Equipped With a Supplemental Restraint System (SRS) Disable and Enable a Supplemental Restraint System (SRS) Remove and Install a Steering Wheel on a Vehicle Equipped With a Supplemental Restraint System (SRS) Diagnose Steering Column Concerns and Remove and Install an Energy-Absorbing Steering Column Disassemble. and Reassemble an Energy-Absorbing Steering Column Diagnose a Short. Replace. Inspect.

and Install a Wheel Spindle/Knuckle Inspect and Inflate Tires Rotate Tires Dismount. Springs. and Install Strut Assemblies Replace Strut Dampers. Diagnose. and Mount a Tire on a Wheel Equipped With a Tire Pressure Sensor Repair Punctures in Tubeless Tires Inspect. and Calibrate a Tire Pressure Monitoring System Instructor Guide Page # 549–552 553–554 555–558 589–592 593–594 595–596 597–600 601–604 637–638 639–640 641–642 643–644 645–646 Student Workbook Page # W 165–168 W 169–170 W 171–174 W 175–178 W 179-180 W 181–182 W 183–186 W 187–190 W 193–194 W 195–196 W 197–198 W 199–200 W 201–202 Date Instructor’s Initials JS1-L2-UXI JS2-L2-UXI JS3-L2-UXI JS4-L2-UXI JS1-L1-UXIII JS2-L1-UXIII JS1-L2-UXIII JS2-L2-UXIII JS3-L2-UXIII JS4-L2-UXIII 679–682 683–684 685–686 687–688 751–754 755–756 771–774 775–778 779–780 781–782 W 205–208 W 209–210 W 211–212 W 213–214 W 219–222 W 223–224 W 225–228 W 229–232 W 233–234 W 235–236 vi . and Mount Tires Dismount. and Install Transverse Spring Systems Inspect and Replace Rear Coil Springs and Insulators Inspect and Replace Rear Suspension Control Arms and Bushings Inspect and Replace Rear Suspension Shock Absorbers Test Electronic Level Control Performance Leak Test an Electronic Level Control System Remove and Install an Electronic Level Control Compressor Test an Electronic Level Control Height Sensor Test and Diagnose Components of Electronically Controlled Suspension Systems Using a Scan Tool Service Nonsealed Tapered Roller Wheel Bearings Remove and Install Sealed Front-Wheel Bearings: Front-Wheel-Drive Vehicles Remove and Install Sealed Rear-Wheel Bearings: Front-Wheel-Drive Vehicles Remove. and Mounts Inspect and Replace Rear Leaf Springs Remove. Inspect. Inspect.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY MODULE 5: STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS STUDENT WORKBOOK TRACKING SHEET – PAGE 4 Job Sheet JS1-L4-UVIII JS2-L4-UVIII JS3-L4-UVIII JS1-L1-UIX JS2-L1-UIX JS3-L1-UIX JS4-L1-UIX JS5-L1-UIX JS1-L2-UX JS2-L2-UX JS3-L2-UX JS4-L2-UX JS5-L2-UX Title of Job Sheet Diagnose Strut Suspension Systems Remove. Inspect. Inspect. Inspect.

and Wheel Alignment Concerns Measure and Correct Front-Wheel Alignment Measure and Correct Rear-Wheel Alignment Diagnose Alignment Concerns Caused by Damaged Components Instructor Guide Page # 799–802 803–804 831–834 863–866 867–870 871–876 Student Workbook Page # W 239–242 W 243–244 W 247–250 W 253–256 W 257–260 W 261–266 Date Instructor’s Initials vii . Suspension.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS MODULE 5: STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS STUDENT WORKBOOK TRACKING SHEET – PAGE 5 Job Sheet JS1-L4-UXIII JS2-L4-UXIII JS1-L1-UXIV JS1-L3-UXIV JS2-L3-UXIV JS3-L3-UXIV Title of Job Sheet Measure a Wheel-and-Tire Assembly for Radial and Lateral Runout Balance Wheel-and-Tire Assemblies Diagnose Various Steering.

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W1 . 4. Are the steering system and suspension system closely related? Explain why or why not.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS AS1-L1-UI STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS Directions — Answer the following questions by writing all responses on this sheet. Which steering gear was introduced in the 1920s and is still used today. Which components in Rudolf Ackerman's steering system allowed the front wheels to turn in an arc? NAME: DATE: 2. Which suspension system was superior to Ackerman's design in that it brought improved control and cushioned the vehicle against shocks? 3. 1.

What are the four basic rules of undercar service? A. D.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 5. W2 . B. C.

STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS1-L2-UI COMPLETE A WORK ORDER WITH CONCERN. CAUSE. all sections of the work order must be complete. Credit received for completing work order NAME(S): DATE: EVALUATION W3 . To receive credit. AND CORRECTION Directions: 1. The instructor will list a repair. Complete the work order on the following page for the repair.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY Smith’s Automotive Repair Customer’s Name: Address: Year/Make: Service Writer: Customer Authorization Signature: Customer Concern: Model: VIN: Technician: Date: Invoice #: Phone: Mileage: Vehicle Service History Information: Related Technical Service Bulletins: Diagnostic Procedures Performed: Cause: Correction: Labor Procedures and Costs Estimated Actual Outside Labor Procedures and Costs Total Labor Costs Parts Costs Quantity Part # Description Total Parts Costs Labor Total Parts Total Sales Tax GRAND TOTAL W4 .

W5 . Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. d. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. The road test should be performed by the individual who will perform the repairs. NAME(S): DATE: EVALUATION 3.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS2-L2-UI IDENTIFY AND INTERPRET A STEERING AND SUSPENSION CONCERN Equipment: Personal protective equipment (PPE) Scan tool Procedure: 1. inspect the vehicle to ensure that the vehicle is safe and that a road test will not cause damage to the vehicle. certification labels. e. Under what conditions does the problem occur? Are there unusual sounds? Are there vibrations in the steering and suspension systems? Does the vehicle pull to one side or wander? How long has the problem existed? Is it getting worse? 4. If possible. a. and calibration decals. Identify the concern. VIN. 2. CAUTION: Road test a vehicle only with the instructor’s approval. a. b. ask the owner/driver the following questions. Before performing a road test. Record the necessary information in the following space. Never drive in an unsafe manner in order to identify a problem. Safety should be of prime importance during all road tests. c. Test drive the vehicle under the conditions that the problem has been observed.

corrector.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY b. W6 . controls. a. The owner/driver can assist in identifying the source of any problems. Inspect related electrical sensors. VIN Vehicle certification labels Calibration decals Research applicable vehicle and service information. Check fluid levels. and wiring. Perform a visual inspection of the steering and suspension system. 5. Record all abnormal conditions in the following space. Ask the owner/driver to ride along during the road test. Record information in the space below. • • • b. Isolate the cause of the problem. Look for worn or misaligned components. d. c. Connect a scan tool and check for stored diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs). • • • • Look for damaged or broken components. Interpret vehicle and major component identification numbers. • • • • Steering and suspension components and their operation Vehicle service history Service precautions Technical service bulletins c.

Test the systems and components that could cause the problem. Average of the above evaluations W7 . 6. Eliminate good components until the cause is found.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS e. Determine the necessary action and record in the following space.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY W8 .

What type of design is commonly used in manual steering gears? 3. 1. Rack-and-pinion steering system — D. Conventional (linkage) steering system — NAME: DATE: B. Power steering — C.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS AS1-L1-UII TYPES OF STEERING SYSTEMS Directions — Answer the following questions by writing all responses on this sheet. Steering column — E. Define the following terms. What is the function of the hydraulic power piston in an integrated power steering gear? W9 . Steering gear — 2. A.

B. When compared with the conventional steering system.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 4. what are two advantages of the rack-and-pinion steering system? A. C W 10 . 5. B. Which three linkage components in the conventional system are omitted in the rack-and-pinion system? A.

STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS AS1-L2-UII CONVENTIONAL STEERING SYSTEM COMPONENTS Directions — Answer the following questions by writing all responses on this sheet. C. B. and wheel-and-tire assembly Transfers gearbox movement to the linkage Functions similar to a shock absorber Reduces effort required to turn steering wheel Used by driver to turn steering gear Connects the center link to the steering knuckle NAME: DATE: 2. 1. Supports the wheel bearing. Explain how motion is transferred from the worm gear shaft to the sector gear shaft in a manual steering gear. hub. E. W 11 . A. F. Write the component name in the blank beside each function given. D.

C. 5. what happens to a confined liquid when it is put under pressure? B. C. Answer the following questions about the principles of hydraulics. What are the three common types of power steering pumps? A.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 3. Explain what occurs with regard to fluid motion and multiplying force when the input piston is smaller than the output piston. B. What is the function of the rotary valve in the rotary valve integrated power steering system? W 12 . According to Pascal's law. A. How does Pascal’s law apply to the power steering system? 4.

How does the proportional rack-and-pinion steering system operate? W 13 . In a manual rack-and-pinion system. What does the rack in a manual rack-and-pinion steering system look like? NAME: DATE: 2. 4. What three components make up the typical power rack-and-pinion steering unit? A. what is the function of the bellows boots at the ends of the housing? 3. B. 1.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS AS1-L3-UII RACK-AND-PINION STEERING SYSTEMS Directions — Answer the following questions by writing all responses on this sheet. C.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 5. Why is a vehicle with an EPS system able to provide steering assistance even if the engine is off? W 14 .

certification labels. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. Determine and record the type of lubricant used. B. NAME(S): DATE: EVALUATION 3. VIN. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. and calibration decals. locate a procedure for adjusting the steering gear lubricant level. Record any leaks found in the steering gear.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS1-L4-UII INSPECT AND ADJUST MANUAL STEERING GEAR LUBRICANT LEVEL Equipment: Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Procedure: 1. Using service information.) Using the procedure. 2. (For a general procedure. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Average of the above evaluations W 15 . see Section I. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. inspect and adjust the lubricant level in the steering gear. Record the necessary information in the following space.

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Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. and wipe away any dirt from around the dipstick. 6.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS2-L4-UII INSPECT AND ADJUST POWER STEERING FLUID LEVELS Equipment: Exhaust ventilation equipment Personal protective equipment (PPE) Thermometer Procedure: 1. 2. Ensure that the engine is off. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3. Using the correct fluid. and calibration decals. Record observations. W 17 . condition. Replace the dipstick. Connect the exhaust ventilation equipment. 7. VIN. and temperature of the fluid. 4. Remove the dipstick and determine the level. fill the system to the proper level. Record the necessary information in the following space. Determine and record the type of power steering fluid used. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. 5. make sure the wheels are straight. certification labels.

NOTE: If the dipstick has add and full marks instead of hot and cold full marks. If foam is heavy. If servicing an older system that does not use a dipstick. Record observations in the following space. remove the reservoir cover or lid and adjust the fluid level to the reservoir's full mark. 9. Shut off the engine. Disconnect the exhaust ventilation equipment. 8. Average of the above evaluations W 18 . the vehicle may have to set for 1 hour. Let it idle while turning the steering wheel slowly from lock to lock two or three times. maintain the fluid level between the add and full marks.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY CAUTION: Be sure to use approved exhaust ventilation equipment when operating a vehicle in an enclosed space. NOTE: If the fluid is foamy. Start the engine. Repeat step 4 through step 8 to ensure that the fluid level is correct. allow the vehicle to set a few minutes with the engine off so that the foam can dissipate.

Record the necessary information in the following space. If the steering system is saturated with fluid. VIN. Start the engine and make three or four full lock-to-lock turns. NOTE: In order to detect a slow leak. 2. Connect the exhaust ventilation equipment.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS3-L4-UII DIAGNOSE FLUID LEAKS IN THE POWER STEERING SYSTEM DATE: NAME(S): Equipment: Exhaust ventilation equipment Personal protective equipment (PPE) Trouble light Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. Inspect the system for leaks. Record observations. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. and calibration decals. replace them. b. certification labels. Disconnect the exhaust ventilation equipment. NOTE: Hoses are usually not repairable. W 19 . Raise the vehicle's hood and visually inspect the steering system for leaks. EVALUATION 3. c. d. clean the steering system and drive the car for a distance before inspecting the system. CAUTION: Be sure to use approved exhaust ventilation equipment when operating a vehicle in an enclosed area. a. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. Shut off the engine. thoroughly clean all suspected components.

5. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. Write the recommendations below.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY CAUTION: Do not attempt to substitute a fuel hose or any other type of hose for a power steering hose. Most other hoses cannot withstand the extreme pressure demands of a power steering system. Recommend steps to correct any leaks. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. Inspect the undercar portion of the steering system for leaks. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. Recommend steps to repair any leaks found in the steering system. 4. Use only hoses that have been approved for power steering systems and that have the correct pressure rating. Write recommendations below. Record observations below. Average of the above evaluations W 20 .

B. Name four things to check when diagnosing steering gear operation in a road test. Define the term “steering play. A. What is the term for a condition in which the rear tires lose traction before the front tires? 3. D.” 4. What is the term for the condition in which the vehicle pulls in the direction of the driver’s last steering maneuver after the steering wheel returns to the center? NAME: DATE: 2. 1.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS AS1-L1-UIII STEERING GEAR CONCERNS Directions — Answer the following questions by writing all responses on this sheet. C. W 21 .

A. W 22 . List two factors that affect the effort required to turn the steering wheel.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 5. B.

d. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3. certification labels. Turn the steering wheel slowly from stop to stop. Are there leaks in the system? (See JS3-L4-UII for a procedure to diagnose leaks in the power steering system. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. VIN.) Yes_____ No_____ b. and calibration decals. If inspecting a power steering system. 2. c. a. Connect the exhaust ventilation equipment. Record the necessary information in the following space.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS1-L1-UIII DIAGNOSE MANUAL AND POWER STEERING GEAR CONCERNS Equipment: Exhaust ventilation equipment Personal protective equipment (PPE) Procedure: 1. start the vehicle's engine and run it at an idle. Is there binding at any point? Is the same effort required to turn the steering wheel in both directions? Yes_____ No_____ Yes_____ No_____ Is excessive effort required to turn the wheel? Yes_____ No_____ Does the system make any unusual noises? Yes_____ No_____ W 23 . Respond to the questions below. CAUTION: Be sure to use approved exhaust ventilation equipment when operating a vehicle in an enclosed area. 4. e.

b. a. Record the possible causes of any of the problems noted in step 6 through step 8 above. Record observations. 6. CAUTION: Road test a vehicle only with the instructor's approval. Does the car pull to one side or the other? Does the car wander? Yes_____ No_____ Yes_____ No_____ 8. drive the car at highway speed and respond to the following questions. drive the car slowly and carefully. After obtaining permission from the instructor. Record observations. 7. Shut off the engine. Record the possible causes of any of the problems noted in step 4. Disconnect the exhaust ventilation equipment.) Yes_____ No_____ 5. After obtaining permission from the instructor. 9. Note any gear rattle or clunk.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY f. After obtaining permission from the instructor. Does the steering wheel jerk during turns? (This question applies only to power steering vehicles. 10. Observe if the steering wheel returns properly from both left and right turns. drive the car slowly over bumps and rough pavement. Average of the above evaluations W 24 .

Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. locate a procedure for removing the manual steering gear from the vehicle. 4. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. Record the necessary information in the following space. Record observations. W 25 . EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3. remove the steering gear from the vehicle. Using service information. see Section I. and calibration decals.) Using the above procedure. certification labels. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. (For a general procedure. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. VIN. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. 2.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS1-L2-UIII REMOVE AND INSTALL A MANUAL STEERING GEAR Equipment: Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Torque wrench Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1.

Inspect the flexible coupling. Repair a damaged frame-mounting area before reinstalling the gear. Record observations. Record observations. Using service information. a. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Record observations. Inspect the gear mounting area of the vehicle frame for cracking or elongated holes. NOTE: Be sure to check and adjust the steering gear lubricant level if necessary. locate a procedure for installing the vehicle's manual steering gear.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 5. Refer to JS1-L4-UII for this procedure. Inspect the gear assembly for lubricant leaks or housing damage. install the vehicle's manual steering gear. Using the procedure. Using the procedure outlined below. Record observations. replace it. 6. W 26 . b. c. If the coupling is worn or damaged. inspect the steering gear and related components.

Check steering gear operation. Average of the above evaluations W 27 . 8.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS 7. Record observations. Lower the vehicle.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY W 28 .

Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. thoroughly clean its exterior with a safety solvent. Using the procedure. and calibration decals. Record the necessary information in the following space. locate a procedure for disassembling the manual steering gear. see Section II.) NOTE: After removing the gear. Record observations. 4. AND INSPECT A MANUAL STEERING GEAR DATE: NAME(S): Equipment: Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Procedure: 1. CLEAN. Do not lose any of the balls. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. NOTE: Carefully count the number of balls removed from the ball nut. Refer to JS1-L2-UIII for this procedure. disassemble the manual steering gear. A. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. EVALUATION 3. (For a general procedure. VIN.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS2-L2-UIII DISASSEMBLE. Remove the steering gear from the vehicle if required. W 29 . 2. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Using service information. certification labels.

Using service information. if a nonserviceable bearing is defective." explain the problem in the space below and determine the necessary action to correct it. Worm Shaft Ball Nut Ball Nut Grooves Ball Guides Worm Bearings Gear Housing Sector shaft teeth Sector shaft fit Sector shaft bearing Steel Balls Lash Adjuster Screw OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK NOTE: Some worm adjuster bearings are not serviceable. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Fill out the checklist below. If an item is marked "NOT OK. Average of the above evaluations W 30 . (For a general procedure. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. B. clean and inspect the manual steering gear. Therefore. see Section II. locate a procedure for cleaning and inspecting the manual steering gear.) Using the procedure. replace the entire adjuster.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 5.

(For a general procedure.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS3-L2-UIII REASSEMBLE AND ADJUST A MANUAL STEERING GEAR DATE: NAME(S): Equipment: Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Torque wrench Procedure: 1. EVALUATION 3. VIN.) Using the procedure. Using service information. certification labels. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. and calibration decals. W 31 . Record the necessary information in the following space. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. Record observations below. locate a procedure for reassembling the manual steering gear. reassemble the manual steering gear. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. see Section III. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. 2.

see Section III. Record findings. Average of the above evaluations W 32 . 5. Reinstall the steering gear on the vehicle. Record observations below. adjust the manual steering gear. Refer to JS1-L2-UIII for this procedure.) Using the procedure. Note any binding or roughness. 6. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Turn the worm shaft completely to the left and right several times. Ensure that the procedure includes all necessary specifications. Using service information. locate a procedure for adjusting the manual steering gear. Make sure that the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. (For a general procedure.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 4.

4. A. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3. NOTE: Before removal. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. see Section I. Record the necessary information in the following space. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. certification labels. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. clean all dirt from around the fluid line connections at the steering gear. remove the power steering gear. (For a general procedure. and calibration decals. W 33 .) Using the procedure. Record observations below.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS1-L3-UIII REMOVE AND INSTALL AN INTEGRATED POWER STEERING GEAR Equipment: Drain pan Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Torque wrench Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. 2. locate a procedure for removing the power steering gear. Using service information. VIN.

c. Using service information. Inspect the flexible coupling for wear or damage. locate a procedure for installing the power steering gear. Using the procedure outlined below. Consult the instructor for the proper procedure. Inspect the pressure and return hoses. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. 6. inspect the gear assembly. Record observations. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. a. b. Using the procedure. d. Also inspect the gear mounting area of the vehicle frame for cracking or elongated holes. NOTE: Repair a damaged frame before reinstalling the steering gear.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 5. Record observations. install the power steering gear. Record observations. Record observations. W 34 . Inspect the gear assembly for fluid leakage and housing damage. Record observations.

b. e. Check the operation of the steering gear.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS 7. Lower the vehicle. Average of the above evaluations W 35 . Be sure to replace all defective parts. a. c. Fill the steering reservoir and bleed the system. perform the following tasks. Record observations. d. After installation. Inspect for leaks and repair any leaks found. Record observations.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY W 36 .

Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. VIN. Remove the steering gear from the vehicle. locate a procedure for disassembling the power steering gear. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. certification labels. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. plug the fluid ports and thoroughly clean the gear's exterior with a safety solvent. 2. and calibration decals. Closely follow the manufacturer's directions for the vehicle. NAME(S): DATE: EVALUATION 3. Using service information. Refer to JS1-L3-UIII for this procedure. 4. AND INSPECT AN INTEGRATED POWER STEERING GEAR Equipment: Drain pan Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Various specialty tools Vise or holding fixture Procedure: 1. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. W 37 . NOTE: Some manufacturers do not service certain steering gear components and do not recommend disassembling the steering gear.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS2-L3-UIII DISASSEMBLE. if required. Record the necessary information in the following space. CLEAN.) NOTE: Before disassembling the power steering gear. see Section II. (For a general procedure. A–C.

5. (For a general procedure. Use the checklist below to determine if the components are defective. Using service information. locate a procedure for cleaning and inspecting the vehicle's power steering gear. NOTE: Thoroughly clean all parts in a clean safety solvent and blow-dry. clean and inspect the vehicle's power steering gear.) Using the procedure. D. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. see Section II.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY Using the procedure. Control Valve Assembly Piston Nut Worm Shaft Stub Shaft Sector Shaft Bushings Thrust Bearings Gear Housing Inlet Check Valve Steel Balls Ball Guides OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK W 38 . disassemble the power steering gear. Record observations below.

Average of the above evaluations W 39 ." determine the necessary action and record below.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS If any of the components in the list are marked "Not OK.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY W 40 .

W 41 . and calibration decals. Using the procedure. NOTE: During assembly. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. VIN.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS3-L3-UIII REASSEMBLE AND ADJUST AN INTEGRATED POWER STEERING GEAR Equipment: Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Torque wrench Various specialty tools Vise or holding fixture Procedure: 1. Record the necessary information in the following space. 2. reassemble the steering gear. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. certification labels. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. NOTE: Be sure to replace all damaged or missing steering gear parts according to the instructor's directions. Using service information. locate a procedure for reassembling the steering gear. Record observations. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. NAME)(S): DATE: EVALUATION 3. lightly coat all components with the appropriate power steering fluid.

Refer to JS1-L3-UIII for this procedure. Turn the worm shaft completely to the left and right several times. Record observations. 5. locate a procedure for adjusting the power steering gear. (For a general procedure.) Using the procedure. Note any binding or roughness. see Section IV. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Using service information. 6. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 4. adjust the power steering gear. Record observations. Average of the above evaluations W 42 . Reinstall the steering gear on the vehicle if required.

CAUTION: When lifting the vehicle. W 43 . 4. Using the procedure outlined below. separate the pitman arm from the steering linkage. Remove the cotter pin from the castellated nut that connects the pitman arm to the steering linkage. Record observations in the space below. Place a mark on the sector shaft and pitman arm to aid in positioning the components during reassembly.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS1-L4-UIII INSPECT AND REPLACE A PITMAN ARM Equipment: Ball stud taper-breaking tool Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Pitman arm puller Torque wrench Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. 5. Record the necessary information in the following space. Inspect the pitman arm for wear or damage. c. certification labels. and calibration decals. b. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3. 2. VIN. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. Using a taper-breaking tool. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. a. remove and inspect the pitman arm.

e. e. Inspect the tapered hole and stud in the pitman arm and steering link. a. Connect the pitman arm to the steering linkage. Record observations in the space below. Remove the nut and lockwasher from the sector shaft. remove the pitman arm from the steering sector shaft using the pitman arm puller. doing so can result in steering system failure. 6. W 44 . discard the old nuts and replace them with new nuts of the identical design. Continue to tighten the nut until the cotter pin can be inserted. Install the pitman arm on the sector shaft. lubricate the socket with an EP-type chassis lubricant. continue to tighten the nut to the next opening and insert the cotter pin. Refer to the appropriate service information for torque specifications. ____________ ____________ Place the wheels in the straight-ahead position and center the steering wheel. Using the procedure outlined below. Record the specifications below. make sure the arm aligns with it. Never loosen a nut to align openings. Use the marks made before disassembly to position the guide properly. Pitman Arm to Sector Shaft Pitman Arm to Steering Link b.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY d. Tighten the castellated nut to the specified torque. Using the pitman arm puller. Replace any worn parts. NOTE: If the pitman arm has a master spline. d. If the ball socket construction provides a lubrication fitting or plug. Install the lockwasher and nut on the sector shaft and torque to specifications. 7. c. CAUTION: If the opening in the castellated nut does not align with the hole in the stud. install the pitman arm. If the vehicle uses self-locking nuts instead of castellated nuts. f.

Average of the above evaluations W 45 . 8. Lower the vehicle. Record observations in the space below.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS g. Turn the wheels through a full left and right turn to check for smooth operation.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY W 46 .

separate the center link from the pitman arm. b. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. 5. W 47 . CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. idler arm. 4. Remove cotter pins and castellated nuts from all four connecting points. be sure to use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. a. VIN. Inspect the center link for wear or damage. Using a taper-breaking tool. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. EVALUATION 3. Record the necessary information in the following space. 2.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS2-L4-UIII INSPECT AND REPLACE A CENTER LINK DATE: NAME(S): Equipment: Ball stud taper-breaking tool Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Torque wrench Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. remove and inspect the center link. Using the procedure outlined below. certification labels. and the tie-rods. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. and calibration decals. Record observations in the space below.

d. Using the procedure outlined below. Record the specifications below. Never loosen the nut to align openings. ____________ ____________ ____________ Install the center link. Lubricate all ball sockets on the center link with an EP-type chassis lubricant if possible.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 6. tighten the connecting nuts to the specified torque. continue to tighten the nut to the next opening and insert the cotter pin. See the instructor for this procedure. Record observations. and install the cotter pins. Lower the vehicle. Record observations. e. 7. c. Check the toe and adjust as necessary. Replace worn parts. Refer to the appropriate service information for the torque specifications. g. f. NOTE: If an opening in a castellated nut does not align with the hole in the stud. Pitman Arm to Center Link Idler Arm to Center Link Tie-Rods to Center Link b. Average of the above evaluations W 48 . Clean excessive grease and dirt from all parts. install the center link. Inspect the tapered studs and mounting holes of the center link and all connecting arms. Turn the wheels through a full left turn and right turn to check for smooth operation. If the vehicle uses self-locking nuts instead of castellated nuts. discard the old nuts and replace with new ones of the same design. a.

remove and inspect the tie-rod end. Record findings. VIN. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. Inspect the tie-rod assembly for wear or damage. certification labels. Measure the distance from the edge of the tie-rod sleeve to the center of the tie-rod end socket. Loosen the tie-rod sleeve clamp bolt on the tie-rod end that is being removed. a. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. Using the procedure outlined below. Record this measurement below for use during reassembly. and calibration decals. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3. spray them with penetrating oil before disassembly. b. NOTE: If the clamp bolt and the sleeve are rusty. Record the necessary information in the following space. 5. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. Measurement ______________________________ W 49 . 2. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS3-L4-UIII INSPECT AND REPLACE TIE-ROD ENDS Equipment: Ball stud taper-breaking tool Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Torque wrench Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. 4.

f. Observe the condition of the sleeve. Record observations. tighten the nut to specified torque. W 50 . Thread the tie-rod end out of the adjusting sleeve. Stop when the tie-rod end turns the same amount of times as recorded in step 5f. If necessary. Repeat the measurement made in step 5b. ____________________________ Inspect the tie-rod sleeve for damage. f. Refer to the appropriate service information for the torque specifications. Record the number below. d. CAUTION: Using a pickle fork to break the taper may destroy the ball socket. adjust the tie-rod in or out to match the previous measurement. and install the cotter pin. discard the old nuts and replace them with new nuts of the identical design. or severe rusting. Using the procedure outlined below.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY c. Count the number of turns required to remove the tie-rod end. Record the specifications. bad threads. If any of the above problems are found. distortion. install the tie-rod end. _________ _________ _________ 7. replace the sleeve. a. d. c. Remove the cotter pin and castellated nut from the ball stud. Turns Required 6. Center both the inner and outer tie-rod ends in their sockets and tighten the clamp bolts to the specified torque. If the vehicle uses self-locking nuts instead of castellated nuts. Thread the tie-rod end into the sleeve and count the number of turns. Connect the tie-rod to the steering knuckle. Outer Tie-Rod to Steering Knuckle Inner Tie-Rod to Center Link Adjuster Sleeve Clamp Bolt b. Using a taper-breaking tool. separate the tie-rod from the center link or steering knuckle. e.

STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS g. j. See the instructor for this procedure. i. Average of the above evaluations W 51 . Lower the vehicle. lubricate the socket with an EP-type chassis lubricant. If the ball socket construction provides a lubrication fitting or plug. h. Check the toe and adjust as necessary. Turn the wheels through a full left turn and full right turn to check for smooth operation.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY W 52 .

Record observations. Record the necessary information in the following space. Include any specific tolerances for idler arm wear. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. and calibration decals. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. inspect the idler arm for wear or damage. W 53 . 2.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS4-L4-UIII INSPECT AND REPLACE AN IDLER ARM Equipment: Ball stud taper-breaking tool Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Torque wrench Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. certification labels. locate a procedure for inspecting the vehicle's idler arm. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. Using the procedure. Using service information. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. VIN. 4. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure.

NOTE: After removing the idler arm. Average of the above evaluations W 54 . replace the center link. see Section VIII. Using service information. (For a general procedure. inspect the stud or mounting hole in the center link.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 5. remove and install the idler arm. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle.) Using the procedure. Record observations. If the hole is worn. locate a procedure for removing and installing the idler arm in the vehicle.

2. Also make sure the damper is mounted securely.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS5-L4-UIII INSPECT AND REPLACE A STEERING DAMPER Equipment: Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Torque wrench Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. Disconnect one end of the damper. Is there tightness or binding during damper travel? Yes _______ No _________ Is there fluid leakage during damper travel? Yes _______ No _________ W 55 . Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. 5. Answer the following questions. 4. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. certification labels. Record observations in the space below. Inspect the steering damper for damage and leakage. Extend and compress the damper and note any problems. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. and calibration decals. VIN. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3. Record the necessary information in the following space. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history.

Frame End Linkage End b. Inspect all mounting brackets and grommets. Install the damper to the vehicle's frame and to the steering linkage.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY Is there skipping (lack of resistance) during damper travel? Yes _______ No _________ NOTE: If "Yes" is the answer to any of the above questions. Turn the wheels through a full left turn and full right turn. Record observations in the space below. ______________ ____________ 7. Install new cotter pins where used. 6. Refer to the appropriate service information for torque specifications. Lower the vehicle. a. c. replace the damper. Tighten fasteners to the specified torque. Replace any broken or deteriorated hardware. Make sure the wheels turn smoothly. Disconnect both the frame and the linkage ends and remove the damper from the vehicle. Using the procedure outlined below. Record specifications. install a steering damper. Average of the above evaluations W 56 . 8.

4. and calibration decals. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. 5. NAME(S): DATE: EVALUATION 3. Using service information. When necessary. remove the manual rack-and-pinion steering gear. use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Record observations. W 57 .STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS1-L1-UIV REMOVE AND INSTALL A MANUAL RACK-AND-PINION STEERING GEAR Equipment: Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Torque wrench Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. 2. certification labels. VIN. Record the necessary information in the following space.) Using the procedure. (For a general procedure. Inspect the gear assembly for lubricant leaks or housing damage. locate a procedure for removing the manual rack-and-pinion steering gear. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. A. see Section II.

see Section II. (For a general procedure. Using service information. Record observations. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Record observations. 7. locate a procedure for reinstalling the manual rack-and-pinion steering gear. 8. reinstall the manual rack-and-pinion steering gear. Inspect the condition of the flexible coupling and rubber mounting bushings. Average of the above evaluations W 58 . Check the operation of the steering system. B.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 6. Replace any worn or deteriorated parts.) Using the procedure.

1. • Lock the steering wheel and use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. 2. W 59 . To inspect hard plastic rod boots. Squeeze the boot until the inner socket is felt. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. replace it. While squeezing the boot. and calibration decals. have an assistant perform one of the following steps. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. a. c.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS2-L1-UIV INSPECT AND REPLACE RACK-AND-PINION INNER TIE-RODS AND BELLOWS BOOTS Equipment: Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Specialty tools Torque wrench Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. Using the procedure outlined below. certification labels. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. perform the following steps. inspect the condition of the inner tie-rods and bellows boots. Record the necessary information in the following space. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. Turn the steering wheel back and forth one-eighth to one-quarter of a turn. NAME(S): DATE: EVALUATION 3. VIN. 2. Push and pull on the tires and turn them in and out one-quarter of a turn. b. If the tie-rod feels loose.

turn the wheels in and out while watching for movement in the tie-rods. Record observations. • 4. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. If a more thorough inspection is necessary.) Using the procedure. If so. NOTE: It may be necessary to remove the rack-and-pinion unit before removing the inner tie-rod and bellows. W 60 . • • Remove the inner tie-rod boot clamps and slide the boot back to expose the rod. remove the rack-and-pinion inner tie-rods. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Record observations and describe any repairs in the space below. Using service information. replace the tie-rods. B. Watch the sockets for movement. refer to JS1-L1-UIV for the procedure. see Section III. If movement is detected. Turn the steering wheel back and forth while the wheels rest on the ground. d. (For a general procedure. e. perform the steps below. If movement is detected. Record observations and describe any repairs in the space below.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY • With the vehicle off the ground. locate a procedure for removing the rack-and-pinion inner tie-rods. replace the rod.

6. (For a general procedure. When checking inner tie-rods on manual rack-and-pinion systems that contain a liquid lubricant. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Check the operation of the steering system. Average of the above evaluations W 61 .) Using the procedure. Record observations. reinstall the rack-and-pinion inner tie-rods. 5. G. do not remove the boot unless removing the entire assembly or replacing the lubricant. locate a procedure for reinstalling the rack-and-pinion inner tie-rods. see Section IV. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS NOTE: Some manual steering gears are filled with a liquid lubricant that may spill when removing the boot. Using service information.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY W 62 .

Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Record observations. if required. Using service information. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. CLEAN. and calibration decals. 2. AND INSPECT A MANUAL RACK-ANDPINION STEERING GEAR Equipment: Drain pan Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Specialty tools Vise or holding fixture Procedure: 1. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. (For a general procedure. Record the necessary information in the following space. certification labels. VIN. NAME(S): DATE: EVALUATION 3. Remove the steering gear from the vehicle.) Using the procedure. W 63 . Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. see Section III. 4. disassemble the manual rack-and-pinion steering gear. Refer to JS1-L1-UIV for this procedure. locate a procedure for disassembling the manual rack-and-pinion steering gear.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS3-L1-UIV DISASSEMBLE.

Gear housing Pinion Rack Pinion bearings Rack bearing Bellows boots Rack bushings Yoke spring OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Determine the necessary action for correcting any problems identified in the above chart and record below.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 5. Inspect the parts and use the checklist below to identify any defective components. Average of the above evaluations W 64 . 6. Thoroughly clean all parts in a safety solvent and then blow-dry the parts.

certification labels. 2. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. Using service information. VIN. (For a general procedure. Record the necessary information in the following space. reassemble the manual rack-and-pinion steering gear. NAME(S): DATE: EVALUATION 3.) Using the procedure. locate a procedure for reassembling the manual rack-and-pinion steering gear. see Section IV. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS4-L1-UIV REASSEMBLE AND ADJUST A MANUAL RACK-AND-PINION STEERING GEAR Equipment: Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Specialty tools Torque wrench Vise or holding fixture Procedure: 1. Record observations. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. W 65 . and calibration decals. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet.

Using the procedure. Note any binding or roughness. if required.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 4. Reinstall the steering gear on the vehicle. Using service information. Average of the above evaluations W 66 . refer to JS1-L1-UIV. Record observations. 6. Record observations. Turn the pinion shaft through a couple of full left to right turns. locate a procedure for adjusting the manual rack-and-pinion steering gear. Submit the procedure to the instructor. adjust the manual rack-and-pinion steering gear. For this procedure. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. 5.

remove the power rack-and-pinion steering gear. VIN. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. see Section I. (For a general procedure. 4. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3. locate a procedure for removing the power rack-and-pinion steering gear. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. Record the necessary information in the following space. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. A. Using service information. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS1-L2-UIV REMOVE AND INSTALL A POWER RACK-AND-PINION STEERING GEAR Equipment: Drain pan Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Torque wrench Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. 2. W 67 . always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. and calibration decals. certification labels. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Record observations below.) Using the procedure.

Check operation of the power steering system. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Record observations below. (For a general procedure. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. see Section I.) Using the procedure. 6. install the power rack-and-pinion steering gear.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 5. B. Average of the above evaluations W 68 . locate a procedure for installing the power rack-and-pinion steering gear. Using service information.

NAME(S): DATE: EVALUATION 3. locate a procedure for disassembling the power rack-and-pinion steering gear. AND INSPECT A POWER RACK-ANDPINION STEERING GEAR Equipment: Drain pan Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Specialty tools Vise or holding fixture Procedure: 1. if required. Record observations below. and calibration decals. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. For this procedure. W 69 . 4. Remove the steering gear from the vehicle. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. CLEAN. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. Record the necessary information in the following space. VIN.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS2-L2-UIV DISASSEMBLE. disassemble the power rack-and-pinion steering gear. refer to JS1-L2-UIV. certification labels. (For a general procedure. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure.) Using the procedure. Using service information. 2. see Section II.

Thoroughly clean all parts with a safety solvent and blow-dry them. Add components to the list if necessary. service the valve and pinion assembly as a complete unit. Use the following checklist to identify any defective components found during the inspection. Gear Housing Rack Pinion and Control Valve Assembly Pinion Bearings Rack Bearing Bulkhead Seals Rack Bushings OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK NOTE: Except for the sealing rings on the spool valve. Average of the above evaluations W 70 . Determine necessary action for correcting any problems identified in the above checklist and record below. 6.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 5.

Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. see Section III. locate a procedure for reassembling the steering gear. NAME(S): DATE: EVALUATION 3. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. (For a general procedure. 2. W 71 . Record observations below. VIN. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. certification labels. and calibration decals. reassemble the steering gear.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS3-L2-UIV REASSEMBLE AND ADJUST A POWER RACK-AND-PINION STEERING GEAR Equipment: Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Specialty tools Torque wrench Vise or holding fixture Procedure: 1. Using service information. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. Record the necessary information in the following space.) Using the procedure.

Record observations. Turn the pinion through several complete left-to-right turns. Using service information. 6. locate a procedure for adjusting the steering gear. refer to JS1-L2-UIV. Reinstall the rack-and-pinion steering gear on the vehicle if required. Note any binding or roughness.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 4. 5. For this procedure. adjust the steering gear. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Average of the above evaluations W 72 . Record observations. Using the procedure.

such as while turning. Find out when the electric power-assist steering (EPS) indicator came on. when the vehicle was at a certain speed. Turn the ignition to the run position and use the scan tool to retrieve the diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs)—OBD I (on-board diagnostics generation I) and OBD II (on-board diagnostics generation II). 5. With the ignition switch off. Locate the correct scan tool and software. 2. Record the findings below. connect the scan tool to the data link connector (DLC). on start-up. NAME(S): DATE: EVALUATION 3. certification labels. Question the customer about the conditions when the problem occurred in order to reproduce the same condition for troubleshooting. Record the necessary information in the following space. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. 7. VIN. 6.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS4-L2-UIV TEST AND DIAGNOSE COMPONENTS OF ELECTRONICALLY CONTROLLED STEERING SYSTEMS USING A SCAN TOOL Equipment: EPS-capable scan tool Personal protective equipment (PPE) Procedure: 1. and calibration decals. Record observations below. 4. Interpret the trouble codes. etc. W 73 . Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history.

CAUTION: Road test a vehicle only with the instructor's approval. Record below. test drive the vehicle to ensure proper EPS operation. Average of the above evaluations W 74 . 10. 11. Clear the codes. After obtaining permission from the instructor.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 8. Perform a pinpoint test to locate the faults. 9. Perform the necessary procedures to correct the problem.

2. B. Use service information to locate the electric power-assist steering (EPS) components. and calibration decals. Record the necessary information in the following space.) Using the procedure. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3. VIN. (For a general procedure. W 75 . Record observations below. 4. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. certification labels. Using service information. locate a procedure for inspecting and testing the EPS control unit. see Section V. inspect and test the control unit.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS5-L2-UIV INSPECT AND TEST NONHYDRAULIC ELECTRIC POWER-ASSIST STEERING Equipment: Digital multimeter (DMM) Personal protective equipment (PPE) Procedure: 1. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history.

Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. inspect and test the pressure sensor. Using service information.) Using the procedure. see Section V. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. locate a procedure for inspecting and testing the EPS rack-and-pinion motor. Using service information. Record observations below. (For a general procedure. Average of the above evaluations W 76 . (For a general procedure.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 5. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. see Section V. 6. D. C. Record observations below.) Using the procedure. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. inspect and test the rack-and-pinion motor. locate a procedure for inspecting and testing the EPS pressure sensor.

) Using the procedure. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS1-L3-UIV REPLACE RACK BOOTS (END TAKE-OFF UNITS) Equipment: Caliper Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Tie-rod puller Torque wrench Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. Record observations. Record the necessary information in the following space. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. see Section I. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. locate a procedure and specification for performing rack boot replacement. 4. (For a general procedure. Check the wheel alignment and adjust if necessary. 2. VIN. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. replace the rack boots. Using service information. Average of the above evaluations W 77 . and calibration decals. certification labels. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY W 78 .

see Section II. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Record observations in the space provided. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. Average of the above evaluations W 79 . and calibration decals. Using service information. locate a procedure and specifications for performing rack mount bushing replacement. VIN.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS2-L3-UIV REPLACE RACK MOUNT BUSHINGS DATE: NAME(S): Equipment: Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Torque wrench Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1.) Using the procedure. (For a general procedure. certification labels. EVALUATION 3. replace the rack mount bushings on both sides of the vehicle. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. Record the necessary information in the following space. 2. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY W 80 .

VIN. Record the necessary information in the following space. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3. Using service information. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. W 81 . 2.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS1-L1-UV TEST POWER STEERING SYSTEM PRESSURE Equipment: Adapter hose and fittings Drain pan Exhaust ventilation equipment Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Safety valve Shutoff valve 0 psi to 2. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. The procedure must also list all pressure specifications and describe which type of power steering fluid the vehicle needs. certification labels. draw a diagram in the space below of how the equipment should be connected. and calibration decals. Using the procedure. locate a procedure for connecting power steering pressure testing equipment to the vehicle. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle.000 psi pressure gauge Procedure: 1. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet.

NOTE: Be sure to clean around the fittings before removing them. 1. Record the pressure below. 5. 6. With the tester valve still open. Be sure that the reading is within the specifications determined in step 3 of this job sheet. Fill the pump reservoir with the correct fluid and bleed the system. doing so could damage the pump. operate the engine at idle speed and read the gauge. Using the diagram. Connect the exhaust ventilation equipment. CAUTION: Do not hold the valve closed for more than 5 seconds. The reading indicates the pump flow pressure. 7. doing so prevents fluid contamination. Close the test valve completely and then reopen it three times. _______ psi b. W 82 . Start the engine and allow it to idle. _______ psi 9. connect a pressure gauge and shutoff valve to the outlet side of the pump. 8. _______ psi 2.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 4. CAUTION: Be sure to use the approved exhaust ventilation equipment when operating a vehicle in an enclosed area. a. Completely open the shutoff valve. _______ psi 3. Record the pressure each time the test valve opens and closes. Check the pump's relief pressure. Compare the readings to manufacturer's specifications and record observations below.

11.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS 10. 15. Shut off the engine. Check the condition of the steering gear. a. Compare these readings with the maximum pump output and record observations below. Disconnect the pressure test equipment from the vehicle. Average of above evaluations W 83 . CAUTION: The vehicle does not have power-assisted brakes while the hydro-boost is bypassed. 14. determine necessary action. Fill the power steering reservoir with the correct fluid and bleed the system. describe the condition of the power steering system below. 12. If there are any problems during the test. Using the results of the above tests. Turn the steering wheel to the left and right stops and record the highest pressure. power cylinder and control valve. Left Stop __________ psi Right Stop __________ psi b. If the vehicle is equipped with hydro-boost brakes and does not pass the test under step 10. Record observations below. Disconnect the exhaust ventilation equipment. bypass the hydro-boost unit to isolate the cause of the problem. 13. and hydro-boost valve.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY W 84 .

remove the power steering pump. 2. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. Record the necessary information in the following space. EVALUATION 3. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. and calibration decals. see Section I. certification labels. (For a general procedure. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. locate a procedure for removing the power steering pump. VIN. Using service information.) Using the procedure. A. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS1-L2-UV REMOVE AND INSTALL A POWER STEERING PUMP DATE: NAME(S): Equipment: Belt tension gauge Drain pan Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Specialty tools Torque wrench Vise Procedure: 1. W 85 . Record observations.

NOTE: Replacement pumps generally are not equipped with a pulley. and clean the exterior of the pump with safety solvent. If necessary. Remove the old pulley and install it on the new pump. doing so causes damage to the internal pump. Inspect the power steering pump and mountings. Remove the pulley. W 86 . if necessary. a. Use the following checklist to indicate problems with the pump. 6. Drain the fluid from the reservoir.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 4. Hold the pump and rotate the removal tool nut counterclockwise to remove the pulley. Before installing an old reservoir on a new pump. 5. make sure the reservoir is in good condition. Pulley Reservoir Mountings Hoses Drive Belt OK OK OK OK OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Determine the necessary action for any item marked "Not OK" and record below. • • • Install a suitable pulley removal tool on the pulley hub. CAUTION: Do not apply inward or outward pressure on the pulley shaft to remove or install the pulley. Place the removal tool in a bench vise with the pump pointing upward. Inspect the old pulley carefully. NOTE: Replacement pumps may or may not be equipped with a reservoir. replace the pulley that drives the new pump.

Using the procedure outlined below. replace the reservoir. Place the reservoir over the pump housing and carefully align all holes. Screw the installation tool into the threaded hole in the pump shaft. • • b. Remove any other retaining bolts. W 87 . Remove and discard the pump to reservoir O-ring. CAUTION: Never tap around the flange with a steel hammer or pry directly on the reservoir. • • • 7. Place the pulley against the pump shaft. Use a hammer and a block of wood to tap the reservoir into place. Coat the inside edge of the reservoir and the O-ring with petroleum jelly. a. Remove the reservoir. • • • • Support the pump housing securely in a vise or holding fixture.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS b. Hold the pump and turn the tool nut to install the pulley on the pump shaft. Using a wood block and a hammer (or a soft-faced hammer). if necessary. Install the new pulley. Remove the outlet fitting and O-ring. tap around the flange of the reservoir to release it from the pump. Install the new reservoir. • • • • Install a new reservoir O-ring seal and outlet fitting gasket on the pump housing. Thoroughly clean the reservoir in a safety solvent and blowdry. Place the end of the tool in the vise with the pump extending upward.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY • 8. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. locate a procedure for installing the power steering pump. 11. adjust the power steering belt. see Section I. (For a general procedure. see Section I. locate a procedure for adjusting the power steering belt. install the power steering pump. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. 10. F.) Using the procedure. E. Install all retainers and tighten them to the specified torque. (For a general procedure. Average of the above evaluations W 88 . 9.) Using the procedure. Using service information. Using service information. Fill the power steering reservoir with the correct fluid and bleed the system. Inspect for and correct any leaks. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle.

2. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS2-L2-UV INSPECT AND REPLACE POWER STEERING PRESSURE HOSES DATE: NAME(S): Equipment: Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Torque wrench Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. Record the necessary information in the following space. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. certification labels. EVALUATION 3. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. VIN. and calibration decals. Use the following checklist to indicate problems with the hoses. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. Dampness and leakage at crimp joints Abnormal swelling Abrasions Cracks Soft or spongy feel Damaged or worn fittings Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No W 89 . 4. Inspect the power steering hoses. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle.

Using the procedure. 6. 8.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY Determine the necessary action for any item marked "Yes" and record below. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Fill the reservoir with the specified fluid and bleed the system. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Check for and repair any leaks. remove the power steering hose. Flush the power system gear and pump. 9. Record observations below. 7. locate a procedure for installing the power steering pressure hoses. locate a procedure for removing the power steering pressure hoses. See JS5-L2-UV and JS6-L2-UV. Using the procedure. Average of the above evaluations W 90 . Using service information. Record observations. install the power steering hose. Using service information. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. 5.

see Section III. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. Using service information. certification labels. remove the pump from the vehicle. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3. and calibration decals. locate a procedure for disassembling the power steering pump. If required. A.) Using the procedure. (For a general procedure. disassemble the power steering pump. Record the necessary information in the following space. W 91 . Refer to JS1-L2-UV for this procedure. Record observations.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS3-L2-UV SERVICE A POWER STEERING PUMP Equipment: Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Specialty tools Torque wrench Procedure: 1. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. 4. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. 2. VIN.

Record observations. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Thoroughly clean all the steering pump components in a safety solvent and blow-dry. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. reassemble the power steering pump. see Section III. (For a general procedure.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 5. W 92 . Housing Rotor Shaft and bearings Reservoir Pulley Pressure Plate Thrust Plate Vanes Cam Ring OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Determine the necessary action for any item marked "Not OK" and record below.) Using the procedure. 6. Inspect the components. C. locate a procedure for reassembling the power steering pump. Use the chart below to indicate any problems with the components. Using service information.

refer to JS1-L2-UV. Average of the above evaluations W 93 .STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS 7. manually rotate the shaft and check the pump for binding. After assembly. if required. 8. Reinstall the power steering pump on the vehicle. The shaft should rotate freely. Some manufacturers give a turning torque specification for shaft rotation. For this procedure.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY W 94 .

and calibration decals. VIN. Use the list of defects below to indicate problems with the power steering belt. Glazed Cracked Oil soaked Torn or split Improper alignment Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Determine the necessary action for any item marked "Not OK" and record below. NAME(S): DATE: EVALUATION 3. REPLACE. AND ADJUST THE POWER STEERING PUMP BELT Equipment: Belt tension gauge Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Torque wrench Procedure: 1. W 95 . Inspect the power steering pump belt. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. Replace the belt if it is defective.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS4-L2-UV INSPECT. 2. certification labels. Record the necessary information in the following space.

F. 5. Using the procedure from step 4 above. remove and install the belt. locate a procedure for removing. adjust the power steering belt tension. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. see Section I.) Average of the above evaluations W 96 . Using the procedure.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 4. if necessary. (For a general procedure. installing. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Using service information. and adjusting the power steering pump belt.

CAUTION: Do not crank the starter for more than 30 seconds at a time. Disable the ignition system so the vehicle cannot start. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3. For the procedures to disable the ignition system. Record the necessary information in the following space. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. lifting 4. certification labels. 2. crank the engine and turn the wheel from lock to lock. Disconnect the return hose from the power steering pump. 5. VIN. Fill the fluid reservoir with clean fluid to the specified full mark. always use proper equipment and observe all safety precautions. With the ignition system disabled. Exceeding 30second cranks could damage the starter. Have an assistant continue to add fluid until about 2 quarts push through the system. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. and calibration decals. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. W 97 . Place the pump end of the hose in a drain pan. refer to specific service information.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS5-L2-UV FLUSH THE POWER STEERING GEAR Equipment: Drain pan Exhaust ventilation equipment Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Torque wrench Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. 8. 6. Pause and let the starter cool between cranks. 7. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history.

recheck the fluid and add fluid if necessary. 12. 9. Reconnect the return hose to the power steering pump. 13. 17. After the engine reaches normal operating temperature. 14. 11. CAUTION: Be sure to use approved exhaust ventilation equipment when operating a vehicle in an enclosed area.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY CAUTION: Do not let the power steering pump run dry. Lower the vehicle. 15. Crank the engine and turn the wheels from lock to lock to force air out of the system. Shut off the engine. 18. Disconnect the exhaust ventilation equipment. 16. Connect the exhaust ventilation equipment. 19. Average of above evaluations W 98 . Recheck the fluid level and add fluid if necessary. Fill the fluid reservoir with clean fluid to the specified full mark. Reconnect the ignition system. 10. Lower the vehicle. Start the engine and turn the wheel from lock to lock to remove any remaining air in the system.

always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. 6. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. Disable the ignition system so the vehicle cannot start. refer to specific service information. and calibration decals. Pause and let the starter cool between cranks. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. W 99 . 2. crank the engine and turn the wheel from lock to lock. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. Have an assistant continue to add fluid until about 2 quarts push through the system. 4. For procedures to disable the ignition system. 5. CAUTION: Do not let the power steering pump run dry. Disconnect the gear end of the pressure hose. With the ignition system disabled. CAUTION: Do not crank the starter for more than 30 seconds at a time. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. Place the gear end of the pressure hose in a drain pan. Exceeding 30second cranks could damage the starter.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS6-L2-UV FLUSH THE POWER STEERING PUMP Equipment: Drain pan Exhaust ventilation equipment Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Torque wrench Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. certification labels. 7. 8. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3. VIN. Fill the fluid reservoir with clean fluid to the specified full mark. Record the necessary information in the following space.

Fill the fluid reservoir with clean fluid to the specified full mark. 16. Recheck the fluid level and add fluid if necessary. 13. 15. CAUTION: Be sure to use approved exhaust ventilation equipment when operating a vehicle in an enclosed area. Start the engine and turn the wheel from lock to lock to remove any remaining air in the system. 17. Average of the above evaluations W 100 . After the engine reaches normal operating temperature. 11.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 9. Crank the engine and turn the wheels from lock to lock to force the air out of the system. 18. Shut off the engine. Lower the vehicle. Lower the vehicle. Connect the exhaust ventilation equipment. Disconnect the exhaust ventilation equipment. 14. 10. recheck the fluid and add fluid if necessary. Reconnect the ignition system. 19. Reconnect the pressure hose to the steering gear. 12.

Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. determine the locations of the high-voltage system components. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. W 101 . including the high-voltage cables and service plug. NAME(S): DATE: EVALUATION 3. determine if special care is needed when handling any components of the high-voltage system. Record the necessary information in the space provided. certification labels. VIN.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS7-L2-UV IDENTIFY HYBRID VEHICLE POWER STEERING SYSTEM ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS SERVICE AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Equipment: Personal protective equipment (PPE) Safety cones for the work area Procedure: 1. 4. and calibration decals. Record in the space provided. Using service information. Record in the space provided. 2. Using service information.

see section V. deactivate the high-voltage system.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 5. Using service information. Average of the above evaluations W 102 .) Using the procedure. (For a general procedure. D. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. locate a procedure for deactivating the high-voltage system.

What holds the steering wheel to the steering shaft. Why does the government require all vehicles to be equipped with an energy-absorbing steering column? 3. 4. B.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS AS1-L1-UVI ENERGY-ABSORBING STEERING COLUMNS Directions — Answer the following questions by writing all responses on this sheet. D. 1. Explain the design of the two-piece steering column and how it operates during a collision. NAME: DATE: 2. W 103 . C. What are the four principle components of the energy-absorbing steering column? A.

What is the purpose of the breakaway capsules in the column mounting bracket? W 104 .AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 5.

What does that statement mean? 4. A. Where is the driver-side air bag located? NAME: DATE: 3. Are air bags alone adequate protection during a collision? Explain why or why not. Air bags are passive restraints. 1. 2.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS AS1-L2-UVI AIR BAG SYSTEMS Directions — Answer the following questions by writing all responses on this sheet. B. W 105 . Provide two different names for air bag systems.

roller. B. W 106 . E. A. and accelerometers Computer that stores electronic diagnostic codes Provides air bag electrical connection between the steering wheel and steering column Holds the air bag system wires F.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 5. C. Write the air bag component name in the blank beside each description given. D. Contains bag as well as chemical that inflates the bag Lets the driver know if the system is functioning properly Types include mass.

NOTE: An oversized steering wheel hub is not sufficient evidence that the vehicle is equipped with an SRS. NAME(S): DATE: EVALUATION 3. 2. 4. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. record any other indicators such as symbols on the vehicle or warning schematics that indicate if the vehicle is equipped with an SRS. In the space below. In the space below. Record the necessary information in the following space. certification labels. and calibration decals. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. VIN. Average of the above evaluations W 107 . record the digits in the vehicle identification number that indicate if the vehicle is equipped with an SRS.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS1-L3-UVI IDENTIFY VEHICLES EQUIPPED WITH A SUPPLEMENTAL RESTRAINT SYSTEM (SRS) Equipment: Personal protective equipment (PPE) Procedure: 1.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY W 108 .

) Using the procedure. disable the air bag system. CAUTION: After removing the negative battery cable. NAME(S): DATE: EVALUATION 3. tape it to ensure that it does not contact the battery. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. and calibration decals. W 109 . (For a general procedure. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. see Section III.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS2-L3-UVI DISABLE AND ENABLE A SUPPLEMENTAL RESTRAINT SYSTEM (SRS) Equipment: Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Specialty tools Procedure: 1. CAUTION: After completing the deployment procedure. Record the necessary information in the following space. Using service information. B. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. The depletion time required for the reserve power varies greatly depending on the vehicle. 2. locate a schematic and procedure for disabling an air bag system. VIN. certification labels. Obtain the exact depletion time from the manufacturer's service information. wait until the reserve power is depleted before attempting further service. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history.

enable the air bag.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 5. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Using the procedure. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Average of the above evaluations W 110 . locate a procedure for enabling the air bag. Using service information.

Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. NAME(S): DATE: EVALUATION 3. certification labels. Using service information. (For a general procedure. see Section IV. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS3-L3-UVI REMOVE AND INSTALL A STEERING WHEEL ON A VEHICLE WITH A SUPPLEMENTAL RESTRAINT SYSTEM (SRS) Equipment: Personal protective equipment (PPE) Hand tools Steering wheel puller Procedure: 1. 2. A. Record the necessary information in the following space. W 111 . locate a procedure for removing a steering wheel on a vehicle equipped with a supplemental restraint system. and calibration decals.) Using the procedure. VIN. remove the steering wheel. Record observations below. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure.

) Using the procedure. Verify that the steering system is operating properly and the air bag system circuit is active. Using service information. Average of the above evaluations W 112 . Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. locate a procedure for installing a steering wheel on a vehicle equipped with a supplemental restraint system. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. 5. install the steering wheel.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 4. Record observations below. (For a general procedure. see Section IV. B.

a. Record the necessary information in the following space. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. 2. Answer the following questions. In the space below the questions. Does the steering wheel lock correctly? Yes_____ No_____ b. determine necessary action to correct any problems found during the inspection. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. Does the ignition switch operate correctly? Yes_____ No_____ W 113 . and calibration decals. certification labels. VIN.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS4-L3-UVI DIAGNOSE STEERING COLUMN CONCERNS AND REMOVE AND INSTALL AN ENERGY-ABSORBING STEERING COLUMN Equipment: Exhaust ventilation equipment Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Steering wheel puller Procedure: 1. Inspect the operation of the steering column. NAME(S): DATE: EVALUATION 3.

A. locate a procedure for removing the steering column. Using service information. start the engine before performing this test. see Section V. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. start the engine before performing this test.) W 114 .) Yes_____ No_____ e. (For a general procedure.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY c. Is the amount of effort required to turn the steering wheel appropriate? (If the vehicle has power steering. Does the column seem to be loose while the steering wheel is turning? Yes_____ No_____ 4. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure.) Yes_____ No_____ g. Does the tilt mechanism operate correctly? (This question applies only to vehicles equipped with a tilt mechanism. Does the column shift lever operate correctly? (This question applies only to vehicles equipped with column shifters. Are there any unusual noises when the steering wheel is turned? (If the vehicle has power steering.) Yes_____ No_____ f.) Yes_____ No_____ d.

Do the column mountings show signs of looseness or cracking? Yes_____ No_____ c. (For a general procedure. CAUTION: Handle the steering column carefully after removing it because it is extremely susceptible to damage. Dropping the column on its end could collapse the steering shaft or loosen the plastic injections.) W 115 . Are there any loose grommets on the shift linkage? Yes_____ No_____ 6. C. determine necessary actions to correct any problems found during the inspection. Record observations. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. doing so may damage the energyabsorbing column. Using service information.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS Using the procedure. see Section V. CAUTION: Never remove a steering wheel by hitting the end of the steering shaft with a hammer. 5. In the space after the questions. Answer the questions below. Inspect the column assembly. Does the flexible coupling show signs of wear? Yes_____ No_____ b. remove the steering column. locate a procedure for installing the steering column. a.

After obtaining the instructor's permission. test drive the vehicle to check the operation of the column as outlined below. Record observations. Check the operation of all electrical devices in the steering column. c. Record observations. Average of the above evaluations W 116 . 7. Watch for any problems in the steering column while turning the steering wheel through left turns and right turns. install the steering column. Record observations.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY Using the procedure. Put the gear shift in all positions and watch for any problems in the column. b. Record observations. CAUTION: Failing to tighten bolts to the specified torque or installing bolts that are too long could render an energy-absorbing steering column ineffective. a. CAUTION: Road test a vehicle only with instructor's permission.

remove the steering column from the vehicle. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. W 117 . A. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3. INSPECT. and calibration decals. locate a procedure for disassembling the steering column.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS5-L3-UVI DISASSEMBLE. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. 2. disassemble the steering column. see Section VI. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. 4. AND REASSEMBLE AN ENERGYABSORBING STEERING COLUMN Equipment: Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Specialty tools Procedure: 1. certification labels. (For a general procedure. Record the necessary information in the following space. Using service information. If required. Record observations. Refer to JS4-L3-UVI for this procedure. VIN. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet.) Using the procedure.

list the major components inspected and indicate if there are any problems. Visually inspect the air bag system. NOTE: If there is not enough space provided. a. NOTE: Terminology used to describe air bag components may vary depending on the vehicle. Inspect the steering column. Steering wheel Steering shaft universal joints Flexible couplings Collapsible column Lock cylinder mechanism Mast jacket Steering shaft Shift tube Shift bowl Steering shaft bearings Wheel lock mechanism Tilt mechanism OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Determine necessary action for any components marked "Not OK" and record below.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 5. list additional components on another sheet of paper. use the same terminology as the manufacturer. In the spaces provided. W 118 . 6. Use the following checklist to indicate problems with steering column components. When listing components.

) Using the procedure. Record observations. Using service information. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. if required. locate a procedure for assembling the steering column. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Reinstall the steering column in the vehicle. see Section VI. 8. Average of above evaluations W 119 . (For a general procedure. C. assemble the steering column.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS Component Name Problem Detected Component Name Problem Detected Component Name Problem Detected Component Name Problem Detected 7. Refer to JS4-L3-UVI for this procedure.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY W 120 .

A. Which vehicle components are considered unsprung weight? W 121 .STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS AS1-L1-UVII SUSPENSION SYSTEMS Directions — Answer the following questions by writing all responses on this sheet. NAME: DATE: B. 1. 2. A. List three functions of a suspension system. Rebound position — 3. Jounce position — B. Describe the movement of the coil springs and tires in the following positions. C.

Unibody — 5. Describe the following frame designs. A.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 4. Conventional — B. Why does an independent suspension system provide a smoother ride than a nonindependent suspension system? W 122 .

STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS AS1-L2-UVII FRONT SUSPENSION TYPES AND COMPONENTS Directions — Answer the following questions by writing all responses on this sheet. Which type of suspension incorporates a coil spring and shock absorber in a single unit. What are the two most commonly used shock absorbers? A. Which type of suspension uses upper and lower control arms of different lengths. 3. B. W 123 . C. 1. B. NAME: DATE: 2. What are the three most common types of springs used on suspension systems? A. 4.

9. 1. Also called A arms or wishbones.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 5. Kingpin ____ F. Leaf spring ____ G. has the ability to tilt and rotate. Steel bar wound into a coil. All the descriptions will not be used. Constructed of one or more leaves. Stabilizer bar ____ I. Coil spring ____ D. W 124 . Stabilizes the lower control arm. Strut rod 6. A coil spring and shock absorber combination. Allows steering knuckle to pivot on axle. 11. 10. Supports the wheel bearings and may be integrated with the knuckle. 7. 4. 5. Connects the control arm to the steering knuckle. Minimizes swaying and leaning of vehicle during turns. ____ A. Ball joint ____ C. Shock absorber ____ H. Causes fluid to foam. Dampens spring movement. Aeration ____ B. 3. Control arm ____ E. 2. Match the descriptions to the suspension terms. 8.

What component controls lateral axle movement in most trailing arm rear suspensions? 5. which component allows the leaf spring to change length as the vehicle travels over a rough surface? NAME: DATE: 2. In what position is a transverse spring mounted in a vehicle? 3. In the leaf spring rear suspension. which component is used to control axle movement? 4. 1.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS AS1-L3-UVII REAR SUSPENSION TYPES AND COMPONENTS Directions — Answer the following questions by writing all responses on this sheet. mounted at each rear wheel? W 125 . composed of a coil spring and shock absorber. On rear-wheel-drive coil spring suspensions. In which type of suspension is a unit.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY W 126 .

Never exceed the legal speed limit during the road test. Road test the vehicle to note suspension system concerns. a. c.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS1-L1-UVIII DIAGNOSE A SHORT. An assistant should record all observations made during the road test. 2. Do not attempt to drive and record results at the same time. e.AND LONG-ARM (SLA) SUSPENSION SYSTEM Equipment: Personal protective equipment (PPE) Tape measure Dial indicator or ball joint gauge Hand tools Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. d. W 127 . Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. CAUTION: Always obtain the instructor's approval before conducting a road test. Conduct the road test in an area with little or no traffic. Record the necessary information in the following space. VIN. DATE: NAME(S): EVALUATION 3. b. Always wear safety belts. certification labels. Suspension system noises Vehicle body sway Vehicle bounce Vehicle roll on turns OK_____ OK_____ OK_____ OK_____ Not OK_____ Not OK_____ Not OK_____ Not OK_____ Describe any other suspension concerns below. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. and calibration decals. Use the checklist below to record results.

Perform the following tasks before taking the measurements. locate a procedure for measuring the vehicle's ride height. 5. Inspect control arms for damage. OK_____ OK_____ OK_____ OK_____ OK_____ OK_____ Not OK_____ Not OK_____ Not OK_____ Not OK_____ Not OK_____ Not OK_____ Determine the necessary action for any item marked “Not OK” and record below. Inspect control arm bushings for wear. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Using service information. Using the procedure. 4. c. Jounce the vehicle and note any noise produced by the suspension system. 6. a. Inspect springs for damage. and bushing. Perform a visual inspection of SLA suspension components. f. W 128 . measure the vehicle's ride height at all four corners of the vehicle.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY Determine the necessary action for any concern noted in the road test and record below. Use the checklist below to record results. Inspect shock absorbers for leakage. e. Make sure the procedure also provides the points on the vehicle to take ride height measurements. Inspect shock absorber bushing. b. Inspect sway bar. links. Also make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. d.

suggest procedures for solving the problem. Remove all unnecessary weight from the vehicle. d. 8. c. add equivalent weight to the vehicle. g. 9. Record the ride height measurements below. If the tank is not full. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. Clean all foreign material from the areas at which the measurements are to be taken. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. b. Fill the fuel tank completely when taking ride height measurements. e. such as luggage or other nonessential cargo.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS a. Make sure the vehicle is on a level surface when taking measurements. W 129 . Jounce the vehicle vigorously and allow the suspension to settle. Grease seal Grease fitting Stud nut/Cotter pin OK OK OK NOT OK NOT OK NOT OK Determine the necessary action for any item marked "NOT OK" above and record below. Do not allow anyone to sit in or lean on the vehicle while taking measurements. If the height is not correct. Inflate tires to the recommended pressure. 7. Inspect the general condition of the ball joints. f. Make sure the tires are the proper size and type. Use the chart below to indicate the condition of various ball joint parts.

see Section IV. Ensure that the procedure includes tests for radial looseness and axial play. Lower the vehicle. see Section IV. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. E. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. using the procedure listed in step 10 of this job sheet. G. evaluate the load-carrying ball joints. (For a general procedure. locate a procedure for evaluating the condition of the nonload-carrying ball joints. Ensure that the procedure includes tests for looseness. (For a general procedure. Use this procedure only if necessary in step 11. unload the ball joints. If necessary. 11.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 10. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Using service information. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Using service information. locate a procedure for evaluating the condition of the load-carrying ball joints. 12. Record observations.) Using the procedure. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. locate a procedure for lifting the vehicle to unload the load-carrying ball joints.) W 130 . Using service information.

Record the specifications related to the ball joint movement. record the condition of the ball joints.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS Using the procedure. evaluate the nonload-carrying ball joints. observations. Compare this to the above tests. Based on the comparison. Record 13. Average of the above evaluations W 131 .

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY W 132 .

and calibration decals. NOTE: If the seal is an integral part of the joint. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. certification labels. Record the necessary information in the following space. 4. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. Recommended lubricant ________________________ 5. A high-pressure. Inspect all steering and suspension joint grease seals. replace the entire joint. Record the type of lubricant recommended for the vehicle's steering and suspension. Record observations.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS2-L1-UVIII LUBRICATE A STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEM Equipment: Grease gun Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. 2. VIN. If any seals are torn or missing. CAUTION: Use a hand-operated. DATE: NAME(S): EVALUATION 3. air-operated gun can easily rupture seals. especially if a novice is using it. low-pressure grease gun. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. replace them. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. W 133 . Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history.

Make sure to use the proper grease. Apply a heavy film of grease to the steering stops on the steering knuckle and control arms. Most suspension and steering systems use an extreme pressure (EP) grease. Wipe excessive grease from all joints. install temporary fittings. Apply grease to each fitting until grease begins to flow out of the bleed area at the base of the seal or until the seal starts to swell. If plugs are used instead of fittings.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 6. and lower the vehicle. doing so ruptures the seal. CAUTION: Do not continue to force lubricant into a socket after the seal starts to swell. 9. 8. Wipe all grease from each grease fitting. reinstall plugs. 7. Average of the above evaluations W 134 .

VIN. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS1-L2-UVIII INSPECT AND REPLACE CONVENTIONAL OR GAS-CHARGED SHOCK ABSORBERS Equipment: Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. CAUTION: It is important to support the axle during shock removal to prevent the axle from dropping down and causing injury or damaging the brake line. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. certification labels. NAME(S): DATE: EVALUATION 3. Secureness of Mounting Condition of Rubber Bushings Amount of Fluid Leakage Condition of Piston Rod and Tube OK OK OK OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK W 135 . Carefully inspect the shock absorbers. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. 4. Record the necessary information in the following space. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. Record the inspection results below. 2. and calibration decals.

7. Once again extend and compress the piston rod through several full strokes and complete the following chart. washer.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY If any of the above items are marked "Not OK. Using the procedure outlined below. Remove the bolts that hold the lower end of the shock absorber to the lower control arm and then remove the shock absorber. turn the shock over and fully compress it. 6." determine the necessary action and record below. Next. Smooth Action Noise Resistance to Movement in Both Directions OK OK OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Shock Expands When Released From Compressed Position (Gas Charged Only) OK Not OK If any of the items above are marked "Not OK. Hold the shock in an upright position and fully extend it. a. 5. and rubber bushing. W 136 . Remove the upper shock absorber retaining nut. Extend and compress the piston rod through several full strokes and then complete the chart below. b. Repeat this action three times to expel any air trapped in the hydraulic cylinder." determine necessary action and record below. Hold the piston rod to keep it from turning. Smooth Action Noise OK OK Not OK Not OK 8. remove the shock absorber.

Record the specifications in the space below. bleed any air trapped in the shock absorber. Lower the vehicle. Using service information.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS Resistance to Movement in Both Directions Expansion of Gas-Charged Shock When Released From Compressed Position OK Not OK OK Not OK If any of the items are marked "Not OK. Using the procedure outlined below. install the shock absorber. Fully extend the shock absorber and install the lower mounting washer and grommet on the piston rod. g. f. determine all torque specifications related to the installation of the shock absorber. c. 9. Install and tighten the bolts and nuts that retain the lower end of the shock to the specified torque. Insert the shock through the opening in the control arm and allow the piston rod stem to pass through the upper mounting hole. Install the upper mounting grommet and washer and then install and tighten the retaining nut and bolt to the specified torque. Using the procedure described in step 7 of this job sheet. d. a. e. b. Average of the above evaluations W 137 ." determine the necessary action and record below.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY W 138 .

CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. 4. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. 2. Visually inspect the shock absorbers. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. Secureness of Mounting Condition of Rubber Bushings Amount of Fluid Leakage Condition of Piston Rod and Tube Air lines Air line fittings OK OK OK OK OK OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK W 139 .STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS2-L2-UVIII INSPECT AND REPLACE AIR-ADJUSTABLE SHOCK ABSORBERS Equipment: Hand tools Vehicle lifting equipment Personal protective equipment (PPE) Procedure: 1. CAUTION: It is important to support the axle during shock removal to prevent the axle from dropping down and causing injury or damaging the brake line. Record the necessary information in the following space. certification labels. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. Record the inspection results below. Wear PPE while performing all procedures on this job sheet. VIN. and calibration decals.

Disconnect the air line from the shock absorber. Inflate the shocks to the maximum pressure recommended by the manufacturer and inspect the condition of the rubber air boots. remove the shock absorber. Determine all torque specifications related to the installation of the shock absorber.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY If any of the items are marked "Not OK. 6. 5. W 140 . Discharge all air from the system. Repair or replace any damaged or broken lines. a. Using the procedure outlined below. Using the procedure outlined below. Attach the lower shock mounting and tighten it to the specified torque. Record observations below. Describe below any repairs made to the air lines. b. including the description of any repairs made. as needed. 8. Record the specifications below. Install washers and rubber grommets on the shock. b. Remove the upper shock mounting. c. Remove the lower shock mounting and the shock absorber. d. Inspect the condition of the plastic air lines and connectors. a. install the air adjustable shock absorber. c. 7." determine necessary action and record below.

Inspect for leaks at all connections and make repairs. Adjust shocks to the desired height/pressure. b. Average of the above evaluations W 141 . e. Prepare a soapy water solution and apply it to all connections. c.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS d. 10. a. as necessary. Lower the vehicle. Connect the air lines. 9. Inflate the shock absorbers to the maximum specified pressure. Attach the upper shock mounting and tighten it to the specified torque.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY W 142 .

certification labels. Jounce the vehicle and note any noise that the stabilizer assembly produces. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. bushings. 5. Visually inspect the condition of the stabilizer bar. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. Record observations.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS3-L2-UVIII INSPECT AND REPLACE STABILIZER BARS AND BUSHINGS Equipment: Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. VIN. Record the inspection results below. and links. 2. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3. and calibration decals. Stabilizer Bar Stabilizer Bar Bushings Mounting Brackets and Links OK OK OK Not OK Not OK Not OK W 143 . always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. Record the necessary information in the following space. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. 4.

Record observations. brackets. remove the stabilizer bar. a. Determine all torque specifications related to the installation of the stabilizer. Grasp the bar and shake it. Remove the link bolts or brackets that connect the stabilizer to the control arms." determine the necessary actions and record below. Lower the vehicle.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY If any of the items are marked "Not OK. 6. 9. Record the specifications in the space below. Reverse the removal procedures to install the stabilizer. a. Inspect the condition of the bushings. Note any movement in the bushings. 7. b. Average of the above evaluations W 144 . c. Using the procedure outlined below. d. Using the procedure outlined below. install the stabilizer. Replace all damaged or missing parts as directed by the instructor. 8. b. Remove the brackets that connect the stabilizer to the frame and remove the stabilizer and bushings. Record observations below. and links.

4.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS4-L2-UVIII INSPECT AND REPLACE STRUT RODS AND BUSHINGS Equipment: Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. VIN. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. Strut Rods Strut Bushings OK OK Not OK Not OK If any of the above items are marked "Not OK. Record the necessary information in the following space. Inspect the condition of the strut rods and bushings. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. and calibration decals. 2." determine the necessary actions and record below. certification labels. Record the inspection results. W 145 . CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle.

see Section IV. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Check and reset all wheel alignment angles as necessary. Using service information. Record observations. Lower the vehicle. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Inspect the strut rods and bushings.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 5. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. See the instructor for wheel alignment procedures. Average of the above evaluations W 146 . 6. Using service information. install the strut rods and bushings. locate a procedure for installing the strut rods and bushings. locate a procedure for removing the strut rods and bushings. remove the strut rods and bushings. D. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure.) Using the procedure. see Section IV. 8. Record observations.) Using the procedure. (For a general procedure. B. Record observations. (For a general procedure. 7.

certification labels. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3. Note any broken or collapsed coils. 2. Inspect the coil spring. and calibration decals. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. Also note any evidence of coil clash.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS1-L3-UVIII INSPECT AND REPLACE COIL SPRINGS Equipment: Hand tools Vehicle lifting equipment Specialty tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Procedure: 1. Wear PPE while performing all procedures on this job sheet. VIN. W 147 . 4. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. Record observations below. Record the necessary information in the following space. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle.

A—spring mounted on lower control arm or Section III. e. remove the coil spring. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. CAUTION: Follow the manufacturer's instructions carefully during removal and installation. see Section II. A—spring mounted on upper control arm. Using service information. (For a general procedure. a. Complete the chart below. Coil springs Control arms Stud and the tapered hole in the steering knuckle Disconnected control arm bushings and bolts Shock absorber Disconnected stabilizer and strut rod bushings OK OK OK OK OK OK NOT OK NOT OK NOT OK NOT OK NOT OK NOT OK If any of the above items were marked "NOT OK. locate a procedure for removing the coil spring. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. f. d.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 5. Inspect the condition of the coil spring and related components." describe the problem and suggest the appropriate actions below. failure to do so could result in serious personal injury. c.) Using the procedure. Record observations below. W 148 . b. 6.

level surface. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. locate a procedure for installing the coil spring. b. (For a general procedure. Tighten all fasteners to the specified torque. Move the vehicle at least 30 ft and park it on a flat. 9. Be sure to reinstall any rubber insulators before installing the spring. Jounce the vehicle several times. Check and reset all alignment angles as necessary. Lower the vehicle. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. c. Using service information. Average of the above evaluations W 149 . see Section II. a. install the coil spring. B—spring mounted on upper control arm.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS 7. Clean the spring mounting pads before installation. Allow it to settle out and check chassis height. 8.) Using the procedure. C—spring mounted on lower control arm or Section III. See the instructor for wheel alignment procedures.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY W 150 .

VIN. Record observations below. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS2-L3-UVIII INSPECT AND REPLACE TORSION BAR SPRINGS Equipment: Vehicle lifting equipment Hand tools Specialty tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Procedure: 1.) Using the procedure. Using service information. locate a procedure for removing the torsion bar spring. (For a general procedure. Make sure the wheels are in the full rebound position. Wear PPE while performing all procedures on this job sheet. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. A. and calibration decals. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. W 151 . Record the necessary information in the following space. see Section IV. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. certification labels. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. 4. remove the torsion bar spring. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. 2.

locate a procedure for installing the torsion bar spring. mounts. and bushings OK OK OK NOT OK NOT OK NOT OK If any of the above items were marked "NOT OK. W 152 . install the torsion bar spring. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle." describe the problem and suggest the appropriate actions below. C. Inspect the condition of the torsion bar spring and related components. if used Torsion bar (Look for nicks or scoring.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY CAUTION: Follow the manufacturer's instructions carefully during removal and installation. 5.) Adjusting bolt assembly. Using service information. failure to do so could result in serious personal injury. b. Fill out the chart below. see Section IV. c. Replace all damaged or missing parts as directed by the instructor.) Using the procedure. Clean spring mounting points before installation. Tighten all fasteners to the specified torque. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. 6. (For a general procedure. a. Seal.

Using service information. 8. Record observations below. Average of the above evaluations W 153 . adjust the torsion bar ride height. locate a procedure for adjusting the torsion bar ride height. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS 7. Check and reset all alignment angles as necessary. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. See the instructor for wheel alignment procedures. Using the procedure.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY W 154 .

safety stands must remain under the lower control arm at all times during these procedures. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. W 155 . Record observations below. and calibration decals. Record the necessary information in the following space. certification labels. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3. Therefore. Refer to JS1-L1-UVIII for this procedure.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS3-L3-UVIII INSPECT AND REPLACE BALL JOINTS Equipment: Hand tools Vehicle lifting equipment Taper-breaking tool for ball joints Specialty tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Procedure: 1. CAUTION: The spring and control arm must be retained throughout the removal and installation of the ball joint. Check the condition of the ball joints. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. 2. VIN. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. 4. Wear PPE while performing all procedures on this job sheet. Place safety stands under the lower control arm.

Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Record observations below. 8. Inspect for cracking or distortion. Thoroughly clean and carefully inspect the tapered hole in the steering knuckle. See the instructor for wheel alignment procedures. Using service information. D—nonload-carrying ball joint. 6. 7.) Using the procedure.) Using the procedure. C—load-carrying ball joint or Section V. Refer to JS2-L1-UVIII for the lubrication procedure. install and lubricate the ball joint. see Section V. Check and reset all alignment angles as necessary. see Section V. Record observations below. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. locate a procedure for removing the ball joint. Record observations below. Using service information.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 5. remove the ball joint. (For a general procedure. D—nonload-carrying ball joint. (For a general procedure. C—load-carrying ball joint or Section V. locate a procedure for installing the ball joint. Lower the vehicle. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Clean the ball joint mounting area of the control arm. Average of the above evaluations W 156 .

4.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS4-L3-UVIII INSPECT AND REPLACE LOWER CONTROL ARMS AND BUSHINGS Equipment: Hand tools Vehicle lifting equipment Taper-breaking tool for ball joints Specialty tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Procedure: 1. 2. and calibration decals. Control arm bushings OK Control arm Noise when jounced OK OK NOT OK NOT OK NOT OK If any of the above items were marked "NOT OK. Record the necessary information in the following space.) W 157 ." describe the problem and suggest the appropriate actions below. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. (If the spring is on the upper control arm. certification labels. Wear PPE while performing all procedures on this job sheet. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. VIN. place a wood block between the upper arm and the side rail before raising the vehicle. Inspect the condition of the control arm and bushings. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3. Complete the chart below.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY
CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle, always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. 5. Using service information, locate a procedure for removing the lower control arm. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. (For a general procedure, see Section VI, B.)

Using the procedure, remove the lower control arm. Also inspect the condition of the ball joint seal and tapered stud. Check the tapered hole in the steering knuckle for wear. Record observations below. NOTE: Mark the position of the alignment cams on vehicles that have the spring on the upper control arm. CAUTION: Follow the manufacturer's instructions carefully during removal and installation; failure to do so could result in serious personal injury.

6.

Using service information, locate a procedure for replacing the lower control arm bushings. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. (For a general procedure, see Section VI, C.)

Using the procedure, replace the lower control arm bushings. Record observations below.

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STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS
CAUTION: To prevent crushing the control arm, be sure to support the inner portion of the control arm when pressing bushings. 7. Using service information, locate a procedure for reinstalling the control arm. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure.

Using the procedure, reinstall the control arm. a. b. Clean all mounting points on the control arm and frame before beginning installation procedures. Reinstall the control arm. When installing the arm on vehicles that have the spring on the upper arm, align the marks made before removal. Tighten all fasteners to the specified torque.

c. 8.

Lower the vehicle. Check and reset all alignment angles as necessary. See the instructor for wheel alignment procedures.

Average of the above evaluations

W 159

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY

W 160

STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS
JS5-L3-UVIII INSPECT AND REPLACE UPPER CONTROL ARMS AND BUSHINGS
Equipment: Hand tools Vehicle lifting equipment Taper-breaking tool for ball joints Control arm bushing press Personal protective equipment (PPE) Procedure: 1. 2. Wear PPE while performing all procedures on this job sheet. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history, VIN, certification labels, and calibration decals. Record the necessary information in the following space.
EVALUATION NAME(S):

DATE:

3.

Inspect the condition of the control arm and bushings. Fill out the chart below. Control arm bushings (rubber) Control arm bushings (metal) Cross-shaft nuts Control arm OK OK OK OK NOT OK NOT OK NOT OK NOT OK

If any of the above items were marked "NOT OK," describe the problem and suggest the appropriate actions below.

W 161

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY
4. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle, always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. CAUTION: The positioning of the safety stands depends on the location of the spring. If the spring rests on the upper control arm, place the safety stands under the frame. If the spring rests on the lower control arm, place the safety stands between the spring seat and the ball joint. 5. Using service information, locate a procedure for removing the vehicle's upper control arm. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. (For a general procedure, see Section VII, B.)

Using the procedure, remove the vehicle's upper control arm. Record observations below. CAUTION: Follow the manufacturer's instructions carefully during removal and installation; failure to do so could result in serious personal injury.

6.

Using service information, locate a procedure for removing and replacing the control arm shaft and bushings. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. (For a general procedure, see Section VII, C—rubber bushings or Section VII, D—metal bushings.)

Using the procedure, replace the control arm shaft and bushings. Record observations below.

W 162

Tighten all fasteners to the specified torque. a. b. e. Using the procedure. do not tighten cross-shaft nuts until the vehicle is at rest on the floor. Check and reset all alignment angles as necessary. tighten cross-shaft nuts. If necessary. Clean all mounting points on the control arm and frame before beginning installation procedures. On control arms using rubber bushings. See the instructor for wheel alignment procedures. d. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. c.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS 7. Lower the vehicle. Average of the above evaluations W 163 . locate a procedure for reinstalling the control arm. Reinstall the control arm either by aligning the marks made before removal or by installing the alignment shims in the same positions. f. reinstall the control arm. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Using service information. 8.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY W 164 .

certification labels. VIN. Always wear safety belts. e. c. b. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. 2. a. and calibration decals. Use the checklist below to record results. d. W 165 . EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3. Never exceed the legal speed limit during the road test. An assistant should record all observations made during the road test.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS1-L4-UVIII DIAGNOSE STRUT SUSPENSION SYSTEMS Equipment: Personal protective equipment (PPE) Tape measure Dial indicator or ball joint gauge Hand tools Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. Road test the vehicle to note suspension system concerns. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. Suspension system noises Vehicle body sway Vehicle bounce Vehicle roll on turns OK_____ OK_____ OK_____ OK_____ Not OK_____ Not OK_____ Not OK_____ Not OK_____ Describe any other suspension concerns below. Conduct the road test in an area with little or no traffic. Do not attempt to drive and record results at the same time. CAUTION: Always obtain the instructor's approval before conducting a road test. Record the necessary information in the following space.

a. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Using service information. f. Inspect springs for damage. Inspect struts for leakage. Perform a visual inspection of strut suspension components. Inspect control arm bushings for wear. Use the checklist below to record results. d. Inspect strut mounts and bearings for damage.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY Determine the necessary action for any concern noted in the road test and record below. and bushing. Inspect control arms for damage. g. Inspect sway bar. e. Jounce the vehicle and note any noise produced by the suspension system. b. c. Inspect jounce bumpers for wear. links. h. locate a procedure for measuring the vehicle's ride height. 5. OK_____ OK_____ OK_____ OK_____ OK_____ OK_____ OK_____ OK_____ Not OK_____ Not OK_____ Not OK_____ Not OK_____ Not OK_____ Not OK_____ Not OK_____ Not OK_____ Determine the necessary action for any item marked “Not OK” and record below. W 166 . 6. Also make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Make sure the procedure also provides the points on the vehicle to take ride height measurements. Inspect strut dampers for damage. 4.

STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS Using the procedure. Fill the fuel tank completely when taking ride height measurements. f. 8. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. suggest procedures for solving the problem. Perform the following tasks before taking the measurements. Inflate tires to the recommended pressure. If the tank is not full. Jounce the vehicle vigorously and allow the suspension to settle. b. Clean all foreign material from the areas at which the measurements are to be taken. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. e. Use the chart below to indicate the condition of various ball joint parts. Inspect the general condition of the ball joints. c. Do not allow anyone to sit in or lean on the vehicle while taking measurements. Record the ride height measurements below. 7. Make sure the tires are the proper size and type. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. add equivalent weight to the vehicle. 9. Grease seal Grease fitting Stud nut/Cotter pin OK OK OK NOT OK NOT OK NOT OK W 167 . If the height is not correct. Remove all unnecessary weight from the vehicle. measure the vehicle's ride height at all four corners of the vehicle. d. g. a. such as luggage or other nonessential cargo. Make sure the vehicle is on a level surface when taking measurements.

Using service information. Average of the above evaluations W 168 . 10. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Using the procedure. Using the procedure. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Record observations below. record the condition of the ball joints below. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. evaluate the ball joints and compare the results to specifications. evaluate the strut mounts and bearings.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY Determine the necessary action for any item marked "NOT OK" and record below. locate a procedure for evaluating the condition of the ball joints. Using service information. Based on the comparison. locate a procedure for evaluating the condition of the strut mounts and bearings. 11.

certification labels. INSPECT. allowing the suspension to hang free. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle." determine the necessary actions and record below. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. and calibration decals. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle from under the frame. Damper Spring Strut Mount Strut Jounce Bumper OK OK OK OK OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK If any of the above items are marked "Not OK. 4. Record the inspection results below. 2. EVALUATION 3. AND INSTALL STRUT ASSEMBLIES DATE: NAME(S): Equipment: Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Torque wrench Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. VIN. Inspect the strut condition. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS2-L4-UVIII REMOVE. Record the necessary information in the following space. W 169 .

Average of the above evaluations W 170 . Using service information. F. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Lower the vehicle. 7. locate a procedure for removing the strut assembly.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 5. locate a procedure for installing the strut assembly. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. remove the strut assembly. (For a general procedure. Using service information.) Using the procedure.) Using the procedure. (For a general procedure. install the strut assembly. see Section II. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. see Section II. 6. A.

VIN. Using service information.) Using the procedure. locate a procedure for disassembling the strut assembly. 2. (For a general procedure. NOTE: For this procedure. 5. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. Remove the strut assembly from the vehicle. Allow the front suspension to hang free. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. B. disassemble the strut assembly. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. 4. certification labels. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. SPRINGS. see Section II.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS3-L4-UVIII REPLACE STRUT DAMPERS. W 171 . and calibration decals. AND MOUNTS Equipment: Coil spring compressor for strut Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Torque wrench Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. if required. refer to JS2-L4-UVIII. Record the specifications in the space below.

Make certain that the coil spring compressor is securely installed on the compressed spring before removing the upper piston rod nut. W 172 . remove the strut damper and install a cartridge. locate a procedure for replacing the damper cartridge. 8. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. C.) If the strut is equipped with a replaceable damper cartridge. 6. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. see Section II." describe the problem and determine the necessary actions in the space below. (For a general procedure. skip this procedure and go to step 10.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY CAUTION: Use only coil spring compressors that are approved for strut service. Using service information. Strut Mount (Rubber Mount and Bearing) Strut housing Spring Damper Leakage Jounce Bumper OK OK OK OK OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK If any of the above items are marked "Not OK. 7. If working with a sealed strut. Bench test the damper and record the results below. Inspect the condition of the strut components and record the results below.

10. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Install the strut assembly on the vehicle if required. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS 9. E. Average of the above evaluations W 173 . refer to JS2-L4-UVIII. Be certain the spring is properly aligned and seated in the spring mounts as shown in the service information. For this procedure. locate a procedure for reassembling the strut assembly. a. see Section II. reassemble the strut assembly. Using service information. Replace all worn or missing parts as directed by the instructor. (For a general procedure. b.) Using the procedure.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY W 174 .

STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS
JS1-L1-UIX INSPECT AND REPLACE REAR LEAF SPRINGS
Equipment: Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Special tools as needed Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. 2. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history, VIN, certification labels, and calibration decals. Record the necessary information in the following space.
EVALUATION NAME(S):

DATE:

3.

Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle, always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions.

4.

Visually inspect the condition of the leaf spring. Record the results of the inspection below. Spring leaves Tie bolt Inner leaves U-bolts Rebound clips Shackles and bushings OK_____ Not OK_____ OK_____ Not OK_____ OK_____ Not OK_____ OK_____ Not OK_____ OK_____ Not OK______ OK_____ Not OK______

W 175

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY
If any of the items are marked "Not OK," describe the problem and determine the necessary actions. Record below.

5.

Using service information, locate a procedure for removing the leaf spring. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. (For a general procedure, see Section I, B.)

Using the procedure, remove the leaf spring. Record observations below.

CAUTION: Leaf springs are very heavy. Ask an assistant to hold and lower the spring assembly from the vehicle. Serious personal injury can result from being struck by a falling spring. 6. Inspect the components listed in step 4. In the space below, record any problems found in the spring components and determine necessary actions.

7.

Using service information, locate a procedure for replacing the spring eye bushing. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure.

W 176

STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS
Using the procedure, replace the spring eye bushing. Record observations below.

8.

Using service information, locate a procedure for installing a leaf spring. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. (For a general procedure, see Section I, E.)

Using the procedure, install the leaf spring. Record observations below.

Average of the above evaluations

W 177

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY

W 178

STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS
JS2-L1-UIX REMOVE, INSPECT, AND INSTALL TRANSVERSE SPRING SYSTEMS
DATE: NAME(S):

Equipment: Hand tools Vehicle lifting equipment Special tools as needed Personal protective equipment (PPE) Procedure: 1. 2. Wear PPE while performing all procedures on this job sheet. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history, VIN, certification labels, and calibration decals. Record the necessary information in the following space.
EVALUATION

3.

Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle, always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions.

4.

Visually inspect the transverse spring and related components. Record the results on the checklist below. Transverse spring Spring links Control arms Bushings Mounts OK_____ NOT OK_____ OK_____ NOT OK_____ OK_____ NOT OK_____ OK_____ NOT OK______ OK_____ NOT OK______

If any of the above items were marked "NOT OK," describe the problem and suggest the appropriate actions below.

W 179

CAUTION: Springs produce great pressure and service procedures must be followed closely to prevent injury. 7. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. locate a procedure for removing a transverse spring and related components. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Using the procedure.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 5. 6. Record observations below. Using the procedure. locate a procedure for installing a transverse spring and related components. record any problems found with the spring or related components and suggest the appropriate actions. Average of the above evaluations W 180 . install the transverse spring. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Inspect the components listed in step 4. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Record observations below. Using service information. In the space below. Using service information. remove the transverse spring.

locate a procedure for removing the rear coil spring from the vehicle.) W 181 . Record any problems found during the inspection (e. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle.g. Using service information. C. and calibration decals. (For a general procedure.. 2. Visually inspect the coil spring. 4. Record the necessary information in the following space. VIN. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. EVALUATION 3. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. broken or collapsed coils or evidence of coil spring clash). Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. see Section II.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS3-L1-UIX INSPECT AND REPLACE REAR COIL SPRINGS AND INSULATORS DATE: NAME(S): Equipment: Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Special tools as needed Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. certification labels. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. 5.

if Applicable OK_____ Not OK_____ Shock Absorber Disconnected Stabilizer Bushings OK_____ Not OK_____ OK_____ Not OK_____ If any of the above items are marked "Not OK. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. CAUTION: Be sure to follow the manufacturer's instructions carefully during removal and installation of the rear coil spring. 8. E. Failure to do so can result in serious personal injury." describe the problem and determine necessary actions. Use the checklist below to note any damage. Inspect the rear coil spring components. Record observations below.) Using the procedure. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Average of the above evaluations W 182 . locate a procedure for installing the coil spring. Using service information. install the coil spring.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY Using the procedure. remove the rear coil spring. 6. Lower the vehicle. (For a general procedure. see Section II. 7. Control Arms OK_____ Not OK_____ Disconnected Control Arm Bushings and Bolts.

Record the necessary information in the following space.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS4-L1-UIX INSPECT AND REPLACE REAR SUSPENSION CONTROL ARMS AND BUSHINGS Equipment: Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Special tools Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. certification labels. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. Upper and lower control arms Control arm bushings Track rod Track rod bushings Track rod mounting brackets OK_____ Not OK_____ OK_____ Not OK_____ OK_____ Not OK_____ OK_____ Not OK_____ OK_____ Not OK_____ If any of the above items are marked "Not OK." describe the problem and determine necessary actions. 4. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. Visually inspect the control arms and track rod. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. W 183 . NAME(S): DATE: EVALUATION 3. 2. Use the checklist below to note any damage. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. VIN. and calibration decals.

Using service information. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. replace the control arm bushings. record any problems found with the spring or related components and suggest the appropriate actions. 6. Inspect the control arm and related components. D. Record observations. see Section III.) Using the procedure. In the space below. (For a general procedure. remove the rear suspension control arm. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. 7.) Using the procedure. locate a procedure for removing the control arm. (For a general procedure. B—lower arm and C—upper arm. W 184 . locate a procedure for removing and replacing the control arm bushings. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Using service information. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 5. Record observations. see Section III.

Using service information. locate a procedure for installing the control arm. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Lower the vehicle when installation is complete. Using the procedure. Average of the above evaluations W 185 . install the control arm. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Record observations.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS 8.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY W 186 .

Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. Carefully inspect the shock absorbers for the following: Secureness of mounting Condition of rubber bushings Amount of fluid leakage Condition of piston rod and tube OK OK OK OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK W 187 . 4. and calibration decals. CAUTION: It is important to support the axle during shock removal to prevent the axle from dropping down and causing injury or damaging the brake line. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS5-L1-UIX INSPECT AND REPLACE REAR SUSPENSION SHOCK ABSORBERS DATE: NAME(S): Equipment: Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. 2. certification labels. VIN. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. Record the necessary information in the following space. EVALUATION 3. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle.

and rubber bushing. b. Secure the piston rod to keep it from turning. 5. therefore. this inspection procedure may be difficult to perform on a gascharged shock. 6." describe the problem and determine necessary action. a. washer. NOTE: Extreme force is required to compress a gas-charged shock.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY If any of the above items are marked "Not OK. remove the shock absorber. NOTE: Do not grasp the piston rod with a wrench or pliers. Using the procedure outlined below. Remove the bolts or nut holding the lower end of the shock absorber to the axle and remove the shock absorber. Inspect the shock absorber by fully extending and compressing the piston rod several times. Record below." describe the problem and determine the necessary actions. W 188 . Is the action rough? Does the shock make any unusual noise? Does the shock exhibit resistance to movement in both directions? Does the shock expand when released from a compressed position (gas charged only) Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes No If any of the above items are marked "Yes. Use the flats provided at the end of the piston rod. Remove the upper shock absorber retaining nut. Complete the following checklist.

8. Repeat step 6 and record the results below. Repeat this action at least three times to expel any air trapped in the hydraulic cylinder. 10. 9. Then install and tighten the retaining nut to the specified torque. f. determine any torque specifications related to installing the shock absorber. install the shock absorber. Using the procedure outlined below. c.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS 7. Hold the shock in an upright position and extend it fully. e. Repeat this action three times to expel any air trapped in the hydraulic cylinder. d. Insert the shock through the upper mounting hole. Then turn it over and compress it fully. Install and tighten the bolts or nut retaining the lower end of the shock to the specified torque. b. a. Hold the removed shock in an upright position and extend it fully. Install the upper mounting grommet and washer. on the piston rod. if used. Fully extend the shock absorber and install the lower mounting washer and grommet. Average of the above evaluations W 189 . Record the specifications. Then turn it over and compress it fully. Lower the vehicle. Using appropriate service information.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY W 190 .

1. How do the actuators in a variable-ratio shock or strut system operate to control the ride? W 191 .STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS AS1-L1-UX ELECTRONIC SUSPENSION CONTROL SYSTEMS Directions — Answer the following questions by writing all responses on this sheet. What is the basic difference between conventional suspension systems and electronic suspension control systems? NAME: DATE: 2. Which electronic suspension control system is the simplest and what is its function? 3.

B. What is the purpose of an air spring system and which component fills the air springs with air? 5.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 4. What are the two types of electronic handling control systems and what are their functions? A. W 192 .

5. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3. 6. While monitoring the ammeter reading. run the compressor. shut off the compressor and observe the pressure gauge. 2. Record the necessary information in the following space. Does the current draw exceed 14 amp? Does the compressor fail to reach 110 psi? Does pressure leak off? YES_____ NO_____ YES_____ NO_____ YES_____ NO_____ W 193 . certification labels. Disconnect the pressure line from the dryer and attach a 0-psi to 150-psi pressure gauge to the dryer fitting. When pressure reaches 110 psi. Connect a 12-volt power supply to the compressor with an ammeter connected in series between the power supply and the compressor. Use the following checklist to record the findings.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS1-L2-UX TEST ELECTRONIC LEVEL CONTROL PERFORMANCE Equipment: Hand tools Ammeter 0-psi (pounds per square inch) to 150-psi pressure gauge Personal protective equipment (PPE) Procedure: 1. Disconnect the wiring harness at the compressor motor and the exhaust solenoid terminals. and calibration decals. Wear PPE while performing all procedures on this job sheet. VIN. 4. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history.

Reconnect the wiring and air line. Average of above evaluations W 194 . Describe the problem and suggest the appropriate actions below.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY If any of the previous items were marked "YES." proceed to step 7. 7. If all the above items were marked "NO." refer to the appropriate service information for guidance.

If "NO" was marked. Note the pressure gauge." go to step 5 of this job sheet. Isolate the compressor by closing the shut-off valve. Open the shut-off valve and apply shop air through the Schrader valve until the gauge reads 100 psi to 120 psi. go to step 7 of this job sheet. Record the necessary information in the following space." go to step 8 of this job sheet. go to step 6 of this job sheet. 2. Make sure the shut-off valve is on the compressor side of the gauge. Does the pressure hold steady? YES_____ NO_____ If the answer is "YES.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS2-L2-UX LEAK TEST AN ELECTRONIC LEVEL CONTROL SYSTEM DATE: NAME(S): Equipment: Hand tools 0-psi (pounds per square inch) to 150-psi pressure gauge Shut-off valve Personal protective equipment (PPE) Procedure: 1. certification labels. Wear PPE while performing all procedures on this job sheet. 4. EVALUATION 3. If the answer is "NO. 5. and calibration decals. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. VIN. Tee the pressure gauge into the system between the dryer and the air line. W 195 . Does the pressure hold steady? YES_____ NO_____ If "YES" was marked.

Record observations below. Apply a soapy water solution to the compressor assembly and observe for leaks. Record observations below. describe the condition of the system and recommend the appropriate actions below. Apply a soapy water solution to all components except the compressor and observe for leaks. Based on the results of the tests and inspections performed in this job sheet.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 6. Average of the above evaluations W 196 . 7. 8.

4. Record observations below. W 197 . Record observations below. see Section I. VIN. remove the compressor. certification labels. Record the necessary information in the following space. Wear PPE while performing all procedures on this job sheet. Using service information. 2.) Using the procedure. E. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. NAME(S): DATE: EVALUATION 3. locate a procedure for removing and reinstalling the compressor.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS3-L2-UX REMOVE AND INSTALL AN ELECTRONIC LEVEL CONTROL COMPRESSOR Equipment: Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Procedure: 1. and calibration decals. (For a general procedure. Inspect the condition of the air line and wiring after they are disconnected from the vehicle.

Record observations below. they must be repaired. Test the performance of the compressor. install the compressor. 7. 6. Record the results of the performance test below. refer to JS1-L2-UX. Leak test the air line connection at the compressor with a soapy water solution. Record results below.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 5. For this procedure. NO LEAKS_____ LEAKS FOUND_____ If leaks are found. Average of the above evaluations W 198 . Using the procedure from step 3 of this job sheet.

VIN. Support the axle so it is as close as possible to normal ride height. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. Record the necessary information in the following space. Use the checklist below to record the test results. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. see Section I. locate a procedure for testing the operation of the height sensor. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. A. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure.) Using the procedure.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS4-L2-UX TEST AN ELECTRONIC LEVEL CONTROL HEIGHT SENSOR Equipment: Hand tools Vehicle lifting equipment Personal protective equipment (PPE) Procedure: 1. certification labels. test the height sensor. and calibration decals. Lower the vehicle when the test is completed. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Wear PPE while performing all procedures on this job sheet. Do the shock absorbers fill when the control arm is moved upward? Does the compressor stop running when the control arm is moved down? YES_____ NO______ YES_____ NO_____ W 199 . (For a general procedure. Using service information. 2. 4.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY
Do the shock absorbers deflate when the control arm is moved downward? Is there a proper amount of delay before the shock absorber responds? YES_____ NO______ YES_____ NO_____

If any of the previous items were marked "NO," describe the problem and recommend the appropriate actions below.

Average of the above evaluations

W 200

STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS
JS5-L2-UX TEST AND DIAGNOSE COMPONENTS OF ELECTRONICALLY CONTROLLED SUSPENSION SYSTEMS USING A SCAN TOOL
Equipment: Scan tool Personal protective equipment (PPE) Procedure: 1. 2. Wear PPE while performing all procedures on this job sheet. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history, VIN, certification labels, and calibration decals. Record the necessary information in the following space.
NAME(S):

DATE:

EVALUATION

3.

Using service information, locate a procedure for connecting a scan tool and retrieving diagnostic trouble codes from an electronically controlled suspension system. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure.

Using the procedure, retrieve the codes. Record observations below.

4.

Use service information to interpret the diagnostic trouble codes.

W 201

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY
5. Using service information, locate a diagnostic chart to determine steps needed to pinpoint problems in the electronic suspension system. Describe the problem in the space below.

6.

Perform the necessary procedures to correct the problem. Describe the procedures in the space below.

7.

After repairs have been performed, use the scan tool to test the system to be sure no problems exist.

Average of the above evaluations

W 202

STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS
AS1-L1-UXI WHEEL BEARINGS
Directions — Answer the following questions by writing all responses on this sheet. 1. What type of wheel bearing is most commonly used on rear-wheel-drive vehicles and why is it used?
NAME:

DATE:

2.

What are the four major parts of a tapered roller wheel bearing? A. B. C. D.

3.

The outer wheel bearing cones are pressed into what component?

4.

The wheel bearings are supported by what component?

5.

What kind of tapered roller or ball bearings do many of today's frontwheel-drive vehicles use?

W 203

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY

W 204

Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet.) Using the procedure. remove the wheel bearings. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. 4. see Section III. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. B. W 205 . Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. locate a procedure for removing the wheel bearings. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Record the necessary information in the following space. 2. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3. Using service information.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS1-L2-UXI SERVICE NONSEALED TAPERED ROLLER WHEEL BEARINGS Equipment: Bearing cone drivers Dial indicator Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Seal driver Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. (For a general procedure. and calibration decals. Record observations below. VIN. certification labels.

work on the hubs with the friction disk removed. Clean the hub and wheel bearings. bearings. blow out all old grease from the bearing. b. and hub. W 206 . doing so may result in personal injury. Use the checklist below to note any problems. wipe the grease out of the hub. Use a solvent to thoroughly wash the wheel bearings (and all of the other parts removed with them). CAUTION: Keep all wheel bearings in sets and return them to the spindle from which they were taken. Make sure to remove all grease from the inside of the bearing. NOTE: If the rotor is in two pieces. Do not replace defective wheel bearings with used wheel bearings." describe the problem and determine necessary action for correcting it. 6. Spindle condition Bearing cones Bearing cages Bearing rollers Hub condition OK_____ OK_____ OK_____ OK_____ OK_____ Not OK_____ Not OK_____ Not OK_____ Not OK_____ Not OK_____ If any of the above items are marked "Not OK. Using a clean shop towel. a.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 5. Inspect the spindle. Rewash the bearings and accompanying parts. CAUTION: Do not allow the bearing to spin on the finger(s) while blow-drying the bearing. • • Using compressed air. Avoid getting grease on the friction surfaces of the rotor.

and adjusting the wheel bearings. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Using service information. Reassemble the remaining brake and wheel assembly components. see Sections III. Average of the above evaluations W 207 . A. 8. Lower the vehicle. B and IV. install. and adjust the wheel bearings. 9. installing. repack. locate a procedure for repacking. (For a general procedure.) Using the procedure.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS 7. Record observations below. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY W 208 .

Using service information. Using the procedure. NAME(S): DATE: EVALUATION 3. remove the front-wheel bearing.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS2-L2-UXI REMOVE AND INSTALL SEALED FRONT-WHEEL BEARINGS: FRONT-WHEEL-DRIVE VEHICLES Equipment: Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Special tools as needed Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. W 209 . CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. Record observations below. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. certification labels. VIN. 2. Record the necessary information in the following space. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. and calibration decals. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. locate a procedure for removing the frontwheel bearing. 4.

6. Tighten all fasteners to the specified torque and lower the vehicle when installation is complete. Clean and inspect the steering knuckle and constant velocity joint splines and nut. Record observations below. Using the procedure. install the front-wheel bearing.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 5. locate a procedure for installing the frontwheel bearing. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. In the space below. Using service information. Average of the above evaluations W 210 . record any defects found and suggest procedures to correct them.

Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. and calibration decals. Using the procedure. Using service information. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. 4. remove the wheel bearing. Wear PPE while performing all procedures on this job sheet.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS3-L2-UXI REMOVE AND INSTALL SEALED REAR-WHEEL BEARINGS: FRONT-WHEEL-DRIVE VEHICLES Equipment: Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Special tools as needed Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. W 211 . Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Record the necessary information in the following space. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. 2. locate a procedure for removing the rearwheel bearings. certification labels. VIN. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. NAME(S): DATE: EVALUATION 3. Record observations below.

Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Average of the above evaluations W 212 . Clean and inspect the backing plate and mounting bolts. Using the procedure. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 5. install the rear-wheel bearings. 6. Record observations below. Using service information. In the space below. Tighten all fasteners to the specified torque and lower the vehicle when installation is complete. locate a procedure for installing the rear-wheel bearings. record any defects found and determine the necessary action to correct them.

locate a procedure for removing a wheel spindle/knuckle. B. and calibration decals.) Using the procedure. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. (For a general procedure. W 213 . INSPECT. Record the necessary information in the following space. remove the wheel spindle/knuckle. 4. 2. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3. Using service information. see Section VI. Wear PPE while performing the procedures on this job sheet. Record observations below.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS4-L2-UXI REMOVE. VIN. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. AND INSTALL A WHEEL SPINDLE /KNUCKLE Equipment: Ball joint taper-breaking tool Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. certification labels.

Use the checklist below to note any problems. install the wheel spindle/knuckle. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Record below. Average of the above evaluations W 214 . Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Tighten all fasteners to the specified torque. 6.) Using the procedure. Refer to JS1-L2-UXI for this procedure." describe the problem and determine necessary action for correcting it. Using service information. NOTE: Be sure to inspect and repack the wheel bearings before installing the spindle/knuckle. Lower the vehicle when reinstallation is completed. C. (For a general procedure. locate a procedure for installing a wheel spindle/knuckle.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 5. Grease seal surface Spindle threads Surface on which inner cones rest Fit of inner cones OK_____ OK_____ Not OK_____ Not OK_____ Not OK_____ Not OK_____ OK_____ OK_____ If any of the above items are marked "Not OK. see Section VI. Inspect the spindle/knuckle assembly. Record observations below.

1. Answer the following questions about wheel offset. How is wheel size designated? NAME: DATE: 3. E. A. A. What is the purpose of safety rims on a wheel? 4. What is wheel offset? W 215 . 2. D.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS AS1-L1-UXII WHEEL BASICS Directions — Answer the following questions by writing all responses on this sheet. Name the five basic parts of a wheel. B. C.

C. W 216 . B.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY B. A. List three problems that can occur if the wheel lug nuts are not torqued to the proper specifications. What problems can be caused by putting a wheel with the wrong offset on a vehicle? 5.

1. 3.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS AS1-L2-UXII TIRE BASICS Directions — Answer the following questions by writing all responses on this sheet. Ply rating — W 217 . C. A. B. Speed rating — C. Define the following terms associated with tire ratings. List the three basic types of cord body construction for passenger car tires? A. A. Beads — NAME: DATE: B. Tread wear grade — B. Cord body — C. Tread — 2. Define the three basic tire components below.

C. E. LT — 285 — 60 — R— 17 — W 218 . A tire in the shop has a size of LT285/60R17. D. A. What is a tire's aspect ratio? 5. B. Describe the meaning of each component of the size below.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 4.

Record the necessary information in the following space. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. Answer the questions below. Wear PPE while performing all procedures on this job sheet. and calibration decals. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3. Is the tread wear abnormal? Are there punctures? Are there lumps or knots? Are there exposed cords? Are the valve stems damaged? Are the valve stems missing? Are there flat spots? Are radial and bias tires on the same axle? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No W 219 . always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS1-L1-UXIII INSPECT AND INFLATE TIRES Equipment: Pencil-type tire gauge Tread depth gauge Personal protective equipment (PPE) Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. 4. VIN. 2. certification labels. Visually inspect each tire for wear or damage.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY Do the tire sizes vary? Yes No For the questions answered "Yes. • If the pressure is high. Repeat this step until the correct pressure is reached. 5. Spin each wheel-and-tire assembly while noting any wobble (lateral or radial runout). 6. Determine the proper inflation pressure for the vehicle. Compare the reading to the pressure recommended by the vehicle manufacturer. b. Cold Inflation Pressure Front Tires Rear Tires Spare Tire 7. W 220 ." describe the problem and determine necessary actions in the space below. press the metal stem in the center of the valve to release air from the tire and recheck the pressure with the tire gauge. Lower the vehicle. as needed. If abnormal tread wear is noted during the inspection. Check and adjust the tire pressure. Remove the cap from the valve stem. Record observations. c. be sure to identify the cause. Record the pressures in the spaces. Press the tire gauge on the stem to obtain the pressure reading. a.

add air and recheck the pressure with the tire gauge. Repeat this step until the correct pressure is reached. make sure they are in place. Average of the above evaluations W 221 . If stem extensions are used. d. Reinstall the valve stem caps. e.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS • If the pressure is low.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY W 222 .

2. Record the necessary information in the following space. Record observations below. 4. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. VIN. W 223 . Using service information. a. Be sure to determine the lug nut torque sequence and the final torque specifications. locate a procedure for rotating the tires in the correct pattern. rotate the vehicle's tires. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. Using the procedure. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS2-L1-UXIII ROTATE TIRES DATE: NAME(S): Equipment: Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Torque wrench Vehicle lifting equipment Wheel wrench Procedure: 1. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. Inspect the condition of the tires during the rotation. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. and calibration decals. Wear PPE while performing all procedures on this job sheet. certification labels. EVALUATION 3.

Inspect the condition of the wheel studs and lug nuts. lower the vehicle and finish tightening the lug nuts with a torque wrench to the manufacturer's specified torque rating. a. Clean dirt and corrosion from the wheel hub mounting area and from the center pilot hole of the wheel. Install the wheel covers. If tightening the lug nuts manually. Replace any defective wheel studs or lug nuts according to the instructor's directions. 5. tighten all lug nuts completely in an alternating pattern (or in a star pattern for five lug nuts). CAUTION: To prevent damage to the wheel covers during installation. Using the proper wrench. b. tighten the nuts alternately to draw the wheel evenly against the hub. If the wheels are equipped with a tire pressure monitoring system. 9. CAUTION: To prevent rotor distortion. If using an electric or pneumatic impact tool with torque sticks. Place each wheel on the hub and install the lug nuts finger-tight. hit the cover only around the outer circumference with a soft-faced rubber mallet. Record observations below. 7.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY b. Average of the above evaluations W 224 . c. do not use an air wrench to replace lug nuts on hubs with disc brakes. 6. Inflate all tires to the recommended pressure. 8. perform the procedure to register the wheels with the system in their new location.

remove it from the vehicle. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. VIN. apply a rubber lubricant to both beads before dismounting. Remove the valve core to deflate the tire. NOTE: In order to make bead removal easier and to prevent damage. AND MOUNT TIRES Equipment: Personal protective equipment (PPE) Tire changer Tire pressure gauge Valve core tool Wheel weight pliers Procedure: 1. W 225 . Wear PPE while performing all procedures on this job sheet. CAUTION: Failure to follow manufacturer's instructions when operating a tire changer can result in serious personal injury. 4. Mount the tire on the tire changer and dismount the tire according to the instructions of the manufacturer of the tire changer. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3. If the wheel-and-tire assembly is on a vehicle. Record the necessary information in the following space. certification labels. Remove any wheel weights from the wheel. 5.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS1-L2-UXIII DISMOUNT. and calibration decals. 6. INSPECT. 2.

wheels. c. Using the procedure outlined below. a. Clean the bead seating area of the rim before mounting the tire. b. Record any problems in the space below. Check for wear or damage to the tire tread or sidewall. Check for any punctures in the tire. Patch repairable punctures before mounting. Replace the tire if the beads are badly torn. Replace any defective tires. Discard defective tires. or valve stems according to the instructor's directions. See JS3-L2-UXIII for this procedure. describe the necessary action to correct the problem. Is the rim damaged or bent? Are the rim bead seats rusted? Is the wheel broken or cracked? Is the valve stem in bad condition? Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No If "Yes" is the answer to any of the above questions. 9. inspect the tire that needs to be mounted. Inspect the beads. W 226 . Check for and remove any foreign material from inside the tire. e. Write responses below. d. 8.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 7. Inspect the wheel and valve stem and answer the following questions.

Reinstall the wheel-and-tire assembly on the vehicle. Install the valve stem cap or extension.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS 10. Inspect the tire for uneven bead seating and correct as needed. 11. Average of the above evaluations W 227 . e. Mount the tire on the wheel according to the manufacturer's instructions for the tire changer. f. g. Check for leaks at the valve core. CAUTION: Do not exceed 25 psi when popping the tire beads. Keep fingers clear of the tire when seating the bead on the rim. Check for leaks around both tire beads. Install the valve core and adjust the tire pressure to the recommended pressure. Repair any leaks. Apply a rubber lubricant to both beads before mounting. c. if required. d. Rebalance the tire. Inflate the tire to 40 psi to seat the beads after they popped. b. a. 12. Repair any leaks.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY W 228 .

Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Retain the valve core for reinstallation. Using the procedure. remove it from the vehicle. certification labels.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS2-L2-UXIII DISMOUNT. AND MOUNT A TIRE ON A WHEEL EQUIPPED WITH A TIRE PRESSURE SENSOR Equipment: Personal protective equipment (PPE) Tire changer Tire pressure gauge Valve core tool Wheel weight pliers Procedure: 1. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. 6. 5. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. Record the necessary information in the following space. 4. W 229 . NAME(S): DATE: EVALUATION 3. mount the wheel-and-tire assembly on a tire changer and dismount the tire. Remove the valve core to deflate the tire. 2. VIN. INSPECT. locate a procedure for dismounting a tire on a wheel with a tire pressure sensor. If the wheel-and-tire assembly is on a vehicle. Remove any wheel weights from the wheel. Using service information. and calibration decals. Wear PPE while performing all procedures on this job sheet.

Replacing the valve stems with types that are not designed for the system may cause the sensors to corrode and malfunction. Clean the bead seating area of the rim before mounting the tire. wheels. c. 8. Check for and remove any foreign material from inside the tire. inspect the tire that needs to be mounted. Replace any defective tires. Discard defective tires. Check for wear or damage to the tire tread or sidewall. Patch repairable punctures before mounting. Record any problems in the space below. d. Inspect the beads. or valve stems according to the instructor's directions. 9. Using the procedure outlined below. Replace the tire if the beads are badly torn. Inspect the wheel and valve stem and answer the following questions. Write responses below. describe the necessary action to correct the problem. Is the rim damaged or bent? Are the rim bead seats rusted? Is the wheel broken or cracked? Is the valve stem in bad condition? Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No If "Yes" is the answer to any of the above questions. CAUTION: The valve stems used for tire pressure sensors are specially made for the sensors. Check for any punctures in the tire.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 7. a. b. W 230 . e. See JS3-L2-UXIII for this procedure.

Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. CAUTION: The valve cores used for tire pressure sensors are specially made for the sensors. Using the procedure. 16. 14. 15. Using service information. CAUTION: The valve caps used for tire pressure sensors are specially made for the sensors. locate a procedure for mounting the tire on a wheel with a tire pressure sensor.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS CAUTION: Do not use a rubber sealant to install the new stem because sealant can clog the pressure sensor. 17. mount the tire on the wheel. the valve stems are serviced normally. On those systems. Install the valve core and adjust the tire pressure to the recommended pressure. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. NOTE: Some early tire pressure sensors are located in the center of the rim and do not use the valve stem as a part of the system. Replacing the valve caps with types that are not designed for the system may cause the sensors to corrode and malfunction. Inflate the tire to 40 psi to seat the beads after they pop. 13. Replacing the valve cores with types that are not designed for the system may cause the sensors to corrode and malfunction. Inspect the tire for uneven bead seating and correct as needed. 11. 12. Rebalance the tire. W 231 . Keep fingers clear of the tire when seating the bead on the rim. CAUTION: Do not exceed 25 psi when popping the tire beads. Apply a rubber lubricant to both beads before mounting. Repair any leaks. Install the valve stem cap or extension. 10. Check for leaks around both tire beads.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 18. if required. Reinstall the wheel-and-tire assembly on the vehicle. Average of the above evaluations W 232 .

Locate and mark the puncture. Record the necessary information in the following space. 2. Answer the questions below. 4. refer to JS1-L2-UXIII. 5. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. EVALUATION 3. Is the puncture repairable? Is the bead in good condition? Is the tire wear normal? Yes_____ No_____ Yes_____ No_____ Yes_____ No_____ Is the tire in good general condition? Yes_____ No_____ W 233 . Wear PPE while performing all procedures on this job sheet. 6. Remove the foreign object causing the puncture. Mount the tire in a tire-spreading tool and inspect the condition of the tire. VIN. If the wheel-and-tire assembly is on a vehicle. remove it from the vehicle. For this procedure. 7. and calibration decals.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS3-L2-UXIII REPAIR PUNCTURES IN TUBELESS TIRES DATE: NAME(S): Equipment: Personal protective equipment (PPE) Tire buffer Tire changer Tire pressure gauge Tire-spreading tool Procedure: 1. certification labels. Dismount the tire.

Apply tire patch cement and allow it to dry thoroughly. Prepare the area that needs patching according to the type of patch that is used. Using the procedure outlined below. 12. if required. a. repair the tire. 13. b. 9. e. Install the patch and bond the patch to the tire. 8.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY If "No" is the answer to any of the above questions. c. 14. d. 10. if used. Reinstall the wheel-and-tire assembly on the vehicle. Remove all buffing dust from the tire. Consult the instructor for directions. Mount the repaired tire on the wheel. 11. Cut off the excess patch-plug. For this procedure. Record below. Average of the above evaluations W 234 . Record the results. Balance the tire. Probe the puncture to make sure all foreign material is removed. Determine the type of repair to make and record it. Test the repair for leaks. refer to JS1-L2-UXIII. describe the problem and determine necessary action.

replace the tire pressure sensor. Using the procedure. locate a procedure for dismounting a tire on a wheel with a tire pressure sensor. and calibration decals. NAME(S): DATE: EVALUATION 3. DIAGNOSE. certification labels. VIN. mount the wheel-and-tire assembly on a tire changer and dismount the tire. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. Using service information. Check the accuracy of the tire pressure monitoring system by performing the following steps on each wheel. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Wear PPE while performing all procedures on this job sheet. Record the necessary information in the following space. 4. a. W 235 . If the gauge and system readings still do not match. reregister the wheel with the system and perform step 3a again. If the gauge and system readings do not match within specifications. AND CALIBRATE A TIRE PRESSURE MONITORING SYSTEM Equipment: Personal protective equipment (PPE) Tire pressure gauge Tire changer Magnet tool for tire pressure monitoring system Procedure: 1. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS4-L2-UXIII INSPECT. 2. Check the air pressure in the tire with an air gauge that is known to be accurate and compare the reading to the one from the system. b.

9. mount the tire on the wheel. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. locate a procedure for calibrating a tire pressure monitoring system. 8.) Using the procedure. Using the procedure.) Using the procedure. locate a procedure for replacing the tire pressure sensor. Install the wheel-and-tire assembly on the vehicle. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. see Section V. Using service information. B. F. 10. (For a general procedure. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Rebalance the tire. Using service information. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. see Section V. locate a procedure for mounting a tire on a wheel with a tire pressure sensor. replace the tire pressure sensor. Average of the above evaluations W 236 . (For a general procedure. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Using service information. 6. 7.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 5. calibrate the system. Use an accurate gauge to recheck the air pressure in each tire and ensure that the readings match those from the tire pressure monitoring system within specifications.

What are two disadvantages of an imbalanced wheel-and-tire assembly? A. What is the term that is used to describe a wheel-and-tire assembly that is heavier at one point than another? NAME: DATE: 2. B. Static balance — B. What is a sign that a wheel-and-tire assembly has lateral runout? W 237 . A. 1. Define the following terms associated with wheel-and-tire assemblies. What is a sign that a wheel-and-tire assembly has radial runout? 5.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS AS1-L3-UXIII WHEEL BALANCE AND RUNOUT Directions — Answer the following questions by writing all responses on this sheet. 3. Dynamic balance — 4.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY W 238 .

CAUTION: Drive the vehicle only with the instructor's approval. drive the vehicle to warm the tires and eliminate flat spots. 2. W 239 . Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. Record the necessary information in the following space. certification labels. when applicable.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS1-L4-UXIII MEASURE A WHEEL-AND-TIRE ASSEMBLY FOR RADIAL AND LATERAL RUNOUT Equipment: Runout gauge Tire changer Personal protective equipment (PPE) Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. Using service information. Make sure the tires are raised 3 in to 4 in off the floor. and calibration decals. Check and correct wheel bearing adjustment. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. NAME(S): DATE: EVALUATION 3. Wear PPE while performing all procedures on this job sheet. 6. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. locate a procedure for determining the maximum allowable radial and lateral runout for the wheel-and-tire assembly. VIN. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. 5. After obtaining permission from the instructor. 4.

mark the location of the high spot. Based on the results of step 8. W 240 . go to step 8. Rotate the wheel one full revolution. a. Unbolt the wheel and rotate it two studs on the hub. Repeat steps 7 a. YES NO NOTE: If match mounting must be performed. c. YES NO Match mounting should be performed. Corrective action needs to be taken. a. Position a runout gauge on the center rib of the tire. Zero the runout gauge at the low spot of the wheel-and-tire assembly. go to step 10 of this job sheet. Compare runout to the specification recorded in step 6 of this job sheet. If runout is not within acceptable limits. ________________ ________________ Test radial runout of the wheel-and-tire assembly. and c above. indicate below which corrective procedures. should be performed. Rotate the wheel again and mark the high spot on the tread. Radial runout 8. Is the new mark near the high spot marked in c of step 7 above? YES b. b. If runout is within acceptable limits. If runout is still excessive. Also mark the wheel bolt nearest the high spot. if any. proceed to step 9. b.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY Maximum radial runout Maximum lateral runout 7. NO Does the new mark line up with the wheel stud mark? YES NO c. Record runout below. Answer the questions below.

W 241 . Using a tire changer. d. the tire must be replaced. Rotate the tire again. Test the wheel-and-tire assembly for lateral runout. Mark the low spot on the tire and zero the gauge. proceed with balancing the tire. Mark the runout high spot on the wheel and tire. Inflate the tire to the specified pressure. If runout is within specifications. Place the runout gauge on the tire sidewall as close to the tire shoulder as possible. a. go to step 11. a. e. f. Using the procedure outlined below. If runout is still excessive. c. Rotate the wheel one revolution. If runout is within specification. deflate the tire and break the beads loose. c. Mark the high spot on the tire. Compare the lateral runout recorded above to the specification recorded in step 6 of this job sheet. match mount the wheel-and-tire assembly. Lateral runout d. Also mark the lug bolt nearest the high spot. Measure the lateral and radial runout of the wheel. Record the results of the match mounting procedure below. 10. this job sheet is complete. b. Install the wheel on the vehicle and recheck the runout.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS 9. replace it. b. If the wheel is defective. If runout is not within specification. Rotate the tire on the rim 180° from its original position. Record the lateral runout in the space below.

a. Is the marked wheel stud near the low spot marked in b of step 10? YES b. mark the position of the high spot and answer the questions below. NO Is the marked wheel stud near the high spot marked in c of step 10? YES NO c. YES NO Should the hub or hub assembly be repaired or replaced? YES NO Average of the above evaluations W 242 . Repeat steps 10 a. refer to step 9. and c. If runout is still excessive. Unbolt the wheel and align the low spot mark with the marked wheel stud.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 11. Should the tire and wheel be match mounted? If so. Answer the following questions based on the answers to questions a and b above. b.

Consult the instructor if excessive runout is found. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3. 2. W 243 . Record the necessary information in the following space. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. Is the tire and wheel runout within specifications? YES_____ NO______ NOTE: Excessive tire and wheel runout should be corrected before attempting to balance the tires. (Refer to JS1-L4-UXIII. certification labels. 4. and calibration decals. Inspect tire condition. Wear PPE while performing all procedures on this job sheet.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS2-L4-UXIII BALANCE WHEEL-AND-TIRE ASSEMBLIES Equipment: Static/dynamic wheel balancer Wheel weight pliers Personal protective equipment (PPE) Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. VIN. Test the lateral and radial runout of the wheel-and-tire assembly to be balanced.) Record the test results and compare them to the tire and wheel runout specifications recorded in step 6 of JS1-L4-UXIII. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. 5. Record any excessive wear or defects below. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions.

Install weights securely. Lower the vehicle. 8. 7. Reinstall the wheel-and-tire assembly on the vehicle. a. Remove the wheel-and-tire assembly from the vehicle. Tighten the lug nuts to the specified torque. Remove old wheel weights. d. c. Remove any pebbles or foreign material lodged in the tire tread and wheel assembly. Recheck balance after weights are installed. Average of the above evaluations W 244 . Be sure to include the steps below in the balancing procedure.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 6. b. Balance the wheel-and-tire assembly according to the instructions provided by the manufacturer of the balancer.

STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS AS1-L1-UXIV STEERING. AND WHEEL ALIGNMENT CONCERNS Directions — Answer the following questions by writing all responses on this sheet. Describe the two types of lateral pull. • • • • • 2. Name five causes of wheel shimmy. B. Answer the following questions about lateral pull. Answer the following questions about wheel shimmy. A. A. 1. Name two characteristics of wheel shimmy. 3. SUSPENSION. What two variables affect the noise that damaged wheel bearings make? A. • • B. • • NAME: DATE: W 245 .

When road testing a vehicle for lateral pull. what type of surface should the vehicle be driven on? W 246 . Name four causes of lateral pull. • • • • 4.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY B. What term is used to describe the failure of the steering wheel to return to the straight-ahead position after a turn? 5.

STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS
JS1-L1-UXIV DIAGNOSE VARIOUS STEERING, SUSPENSION, AND WHEEL ALIGNMENT CONCERNS
Equipment: Notebook Pen Personal protective equipment (PPE) Procedure: CAUTION: Always obtain the instructor's approval before conducting a road test. Conduct the road test in an area with little or no traffic. Never exceed the legal speed limit during the road test. Always wear safety belts. An assistant should record all observations made during the road test. Do not attempt to drive and record results at the same time. 1. 2. Wear PPE while performing all procedures on this job sheet. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history, VIN, certification labels, and calibration decals. Record the necessary information in the following space.
NAME(S):

DATE:

EVALUATION

3.

Use the procedure outlined below to road test the vehicle for shimmy. a. b. c. Slowly drive the vehicle in a straight line and observe for shimmy. Slowly accelerate to highway speed while noting any shimmy. Have an assistant record the results of the shimmy test.

4.

Use the procedure outlined below to road test the vehicle for vibration. a. b. Drive the vehicle at highway speed and note any vibrations. Vary the speed and note if the vibration increases, decreases, or changes in quality.

W 247

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY
c. If vibration is noted, drive past the speed at which the vibration occurs, release the accelerator, and carefully slip the transmission selector into neutral. If the vibration stops, the problem is likely in the driveline. Coast down through the speed where the vibration occurs and note whether it stops or changes. Have an assistant record the results of the vibration test.

d. e. 5.

Use the procedure outlined below to road test the vehicle for wander. a. b. Relax hands on the steering wheel while driving straight. If the vehicle leads to one side, correct the steering and note if the vehicle leads to the other side. If the vehicle constantly needs correcting to the right and left, the problem is wander. NOTE: If the vehicle leads to the same side after every correction, the problem is lateral pull. The test for lateral pull is described below in step 6. c. If wander or lateral pull is detected, drive the vehicle on different road surfaces to make sure that an irregular road surface is not causing the problem. Have an assistant record the results of the wander test.

d. 6.

Use the procedure outlined below to road test the vehicle for lateral pull. a. Drive the vehicle on a flat, level surface and note any lateral pull. The characteristic of lateral pull is the vehicle leads in the same direction. If pull is detected, drive the vehicle on a variety of road surfaces to make sure a particular surface is not pulling the vehicle. Carefully apply the brakes to see if the pull occurs only when braking. Have an assistant record the results of the lateral pull test.

b. c. d.

W 248

STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS
7. Use the procedure outlined below to road test the vehicle for hard steering or poor steering return. a. b. Drive the vehicle on a flat, level surface and make several turns to both the left and the right. Note if the effort required to steer the vehicle is excessive. Note if the steering returns to the straight-ahead position when the vehicle is coming out of a turn. Have an assistant record the results of the steering test.

c. 8.

Use the procedure outlined below to road test the vehicle for wheel bearing noise. a. Drive the vehicle at a slow speed and steer it from side to side in order to load the wheel bearings on both sides of the vehicle. Listen for bearing noise. Note any increase in noise. If noise is heard, note which wheel the noise is coming from. If there is a bearing noise, drive on different types of road surfaces to eliminate road surface conditions as a source of the noise. Have an assistant record the results of the bearing noise test.

b.

c. 9.

If any problems are detected during the road test, diagnose what the problems might be. Record the diagnosis below. NOTE: Use a diagnostic chart from the appropriate service information to aid in diagnosis.

Average of the above evaluations

W 249

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY

W 250

STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS
AS1-L2-UXIV WHEEL ALIGNMENT PRINCIPLES
Directions — Answer the following questions by writing all responses on this sheet. 1. Answer the following questions about camber? A. What is camber?
NAME:

DATE:

B.

What are two purposes of camber? • •

2.

Answer the following questions about caster? A. What is caster?

B.

What are two purposes of caster? • •

W 251

B. 5. What measurement should be taken and corrected before any alignment adjustment is made? W 252 .AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 3. A. What is toe? B. What is the difference between toe-in and toe-out? 4. What are two indications that a vehicle has an incorrect thrust angle? A. Answer the following questions about toe.

Wear PPE while performing all procedures on this job sheet. Perform a prealignment check of the vehicle. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. Record the necessary information in the following space. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3." Tire pressure Tire sizes Wheel bearing adjustment Steering and suspension components Wheel-and-tire assembly runout Steering gear adjustment OK OK OK OK OK OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK W 253 . 2. certification labels. VIN. 4. adjust the rear wheels first. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. NOTE: If the vehicle requires a four-wheel alignment. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. Use the checklist below to indicate if the condition of an item is "OK" or "Not OK.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS1-L3-UXIV MEASURE AND CORRECT FRONT-WHEEL ALIGNMENT Equipment: Alignment machine Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Special tools as needed Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1. and calibration decals.

Record the specifications for each angle. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure." describe the problem and determine necessary action in the space below. locate a procedure for measuring front-wheel alignment angles in the proper sequence. Left Camber Caster Right _________________________ _________________________ W 254 . 5. List all angles that the alignment equipment is capable of measuring. Using service information. Also record the vehicle's ride height specifications. Using the sequence developed in step 5 of this job sheet. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. If the ride height is incorrect. consult the instructor before continuing. measure the camber and caster. Inform the instructor if worn parts are discovered during the prealignment inspection. Measure the vehicle ride height and compare it to the specifications recorded in the above procedure. replace them to ensure an accurate alignment. Record the measurements below. Is the vehicle at proper ride height? Yes No NOTE: Incorrect ride height results in incorrect alignment. NOTE: If there are worn or loose parts.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY Vehicle load Ball joints OK OK Not OK Not OK If any item in the previous list is "Not OK. 6.

List any special tools required. Include any special tools required. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Record observations below. Using service information. (For a general procedure.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS 7. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. locate a procedure for adjusting the front-wheel toe. locate a procedure for adjusting the front-wheel caster. Using service information. 10. Record observations below. adjust the front-wheel caster to specifications. 9. adjust the front-wheel camber to specifications. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Measure the toe and record measurements below. Using the procedure. Using the procedure. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. 8. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. see Section VI. List any special tools required. Using service information.) W 255 . Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. locate a procedure for adjusting the front-wheel camber.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY Using the procedure. adjust front-wheel toe to specifications. indicate what problem may be preventing proper adjustment. 11. Record observations below. Record any angles that could not be adjusted to specifications. In the space below. Average of the above evaluations W 256 .

2. Record the necessary information in the following space. Wear PPE while performing all procedures on this job sheet. and calibration decals." Tire pressure Tire sizes Wheel bearing adjustment Suspension components Wheel-and-tire assembly runout Steering gear adjustment OK OK OK OK OK OK Not OK Not OK Not OK NOT OK Not OK Not OK W 257 . CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. EVALUATION NAME(S): DATE: 3. adjust the rear wheels first. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. NOTE: If the vehicle requires a four-wheel alignment. Use the checklist below to indicate if the condition of an item is "OK" or "Not OK. 4. VIN. Perform a prealignment check of the vehicle. certification labels.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS2-L3-UXIV MEASURE AND CORRECT REAR-WHEEL ALIGNMENT Equipment: Alignment machine Hand tools Personal protective equipment (PPE) Special tools as needed Vehicle lifting equipment Procedure: 1.

NOTE: If worn or loose parts are found." describe the problem and determine necessary actions in the space below. Record the measurements below. Is the vehicle at proper ride height? Yes _____ No _____ NOTE: Incorrect ride height results in incorrect alignment.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY Vehicle load Ball joints OK OK Not OK Not OK If any item in the list is "Not OK. Record the specifications for each angle. measure all rear-wheel alignment angles. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. replace them to ensure an accurate alignment. Using the sequence developed in step 5. 6. Inform the instructor if worn parts are discovered during the prealignment inspection. locate a procedure for measuring rear-wheel alignment angles. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. Also record the vehicle's ride height. Measure the vehicle ride height and compare it to the specifications from the procedure above. If the ride height is incorrect. Using service information. Left Right Camber _________________________ Caster Toe _________________________ _________________________ W 258 . 5. consult the instructor before continuing.

Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. 9. locate a procedure for adjusting the rearwheel caster. (For a general procedure. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. locate a procedure for adjusting the rear-wheel toe.) W 259 . Using service information. 8. List any special tools required. (For a general procedure.) Using the procedure. List any special tools required. see Section VII. Record observations. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. locate a procedure for adjusting the rear-wheel camber. see Section VII. B. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. Have the instructor check the box to approve the procedure. see Section VII. Record observations below. Using service information source. B.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS 7. adjust the rear-wheel caster to specifications. Make sure the procedure is appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. List any special tools required. adjust the rear-wheel camber to specifications. B.) Using the procedure. (For a general procedure. Using service information.

Record any angles that could not be adjusted to specifications. adjust the rear-wheel toe to specifications. 11. Check the vehicle thrust angle if the alignment equipment allows for it. Recheck all angles. Correct any angles that still do not meet specifications. In the space below.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY Using the procedure. Record the results below. indicate what problem may be preventing proper adjustment. 12. Record observations. 10. Average of the above evaluations W 260 .

Do not attempt to drive and record results at the same time. Always wear safety belts. and calibration decals. CAUTION: Always obtain the instructor's approval before conducting a road test. Record observations below. Never exceed the legal speed limit during the road test. An assistant should record all observations made during the road test. 2. Perform a road test to confirm the concern. NAME(S): DATE: EVALUATION 3.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS JS3-L3-UXIV DIAGNOSE ALIGNMENT CONCERNS CAUSED BY DAMAGED COMPONENTS Equipment: Personal protective equipment (PPE) Vehicle lifting equipment Alignment equipment Hand tools Tape measure Tram gauge Brake pedal depressor NOTE: Perform the procedures in this job sheet if the alignment is still incorrect after performing the normal alignment procedures in JS1-L3-UXIV and JS2-L3-UXIV. Research applicable vehicle service information such as vehicle service history. certification labels. W 261 . Procedure: 1. Record the necessary information in the following space. Wear PPE while performing all procedures on this job sheet. VIN. Conduct the road test in an area with little or no traffic.

On the right side of the vehicle." Tire pressure Tire sizes Wheel bearing adjustment Steering and suspension components Wheel-and-tire assembly runout Steering gear adjustment Vehicle load Ball joints OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK Not OK If any item in the previous list is "Not OK. Steer the wheels so that they are straight ahead. Position the vehicle on the alignment equipment and perform the prealignment inspection.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 4. W 262 . Make any necessary adjustments. a. use a tram gauge to measure from the center of the front wheel to the center of the rear wheel." describe the problem and determine necessary action in the space below. 5. Repeat the measurement on the left side of the vehicle. Check alignment settings and compare them to specifications. 6. Measure the vehicle's wheelbase to check for front wheel setback. Record the measurement below. b. Record the measurement below. Use the checklist below to indicate if the condition of an item is "OK" or "Not OK. c.

Make sure the specifications are appropriate for the make and model of the vehicle. locate specifications for engine cradle measurements and alignment. Use proper lifting equipment to raise the vehicle. Determine the necessary action and record below. Perform width measurements of engine cradle mounting points at the front and back of the cradle. b. Record the measurements below. Remove any components that are blocking access to the cradle mounting points. 7. To check for cradle damage or distortion.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS d. Perform diagonal measurements from the vehicle's center point (or manufacturer's designated position) to each of the engine cradle mounting points. always use proper lifting equipment and observe all safety precautions. Perform the following steps to check engine cradle alignment. W 263 . 9. Record the measurements below. 8. Have the instructor check the box to approve the specifications. Compare these measurements and note any difference from side to side. 10. perform the following measurements. Using service information. NOTE: Clean dirt and debris from all measurement points to ensure accurate measurements. a. CAUTION: When lifting a vehicle. a.

Compare all measurements to specifications to determine if the cradle is damaged or misaligned. 11. Record the measurements below. c. loosen all cradle mounting bolts. the cradle will need to be straightened or replaced. move the cradle to the correct position.AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY b. Record the measurements below. If the cradle is damaged. Perform diagonal measurements of engine cradle mounting points. Steer the wheels straight ahead. and retighten the mounting bolts. 12. Steer the wheels to the left until the indicator is aligned (normally about 20° left). a. Lock the front brakes using a brake pedal depressor. W 264 . Perform length measurements of engine cradle mounting points at both sides of the cradle. c. a. e. b. Position the vehicle on the alignment equipment to measure the steering axis inclination (SAI) and included angle. d. Determine the necessary action and record below. c. Start at the left front wheel. If the cradle is misaligned. NOTE: Some types of computerized alignment equipment provide SAI and included angle readings as part of the camber and caster measurement. Steer the wheels to the right until the indicator is aligned (normally about 20° right). b.

Compare the readings to specifications. Record the reading below. Record the reading below.STEERING AND SUSPENSION SYSTEMS f. Compare the SAI and included angle readings to specifications. d. h. Steer the wheels straight ahead. Record the readings below. Determine the necessary action and record below. Steer the wheels to the left until the left front wheel is at 20°. g. a. Check the vehicle's turning radius (toe-out on turns). Record the SAI and included angle readings in the space below. b. 13. Determine the necessary action and record below. Average of the above evaluations W 265 . NOTE: Ensure that the front-wheel toe setting is correct before checking the turning radius. Repeat the procedure for the right front wheel. Steer the wheels to the right until right front wheel is at 20°. c.

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY W 266 .

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