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A shaft is a rotating machine element which transmits power from one point to another
point. It is one of the most common and basic machine elements which are used in a
variety of ways in mechanical equipments. It is used for power transmission elements like
gears, pulleys, flywheels, cranks, etc. These shafts are designed to transmit required
torque and to support rotating elements like gears and pulleys. These elements produce
bending moment in addition to torque. A shall must be strong enough to sustain static and
dynamic loading.


The shafts are classified as follows according to their industrial applications.

Line Shaft: It is a shaft high transmits now to several machine clients
Spindle: A spindle is a short revolving shall. Example: Headstock spindle. Drill press
spindles. Etc.
Stub shaft: A shaft that is integral with a cagily. Motor or prank
(‘ Waiter shaft: A shod shaft that connects a prime mover to a line shaft of a machine
known as counter shaft.


The material of shaft issued as cold drawn low carbon steel with carbon content of 35
percent when greater strength is required, as in high steel such as nickel. Nickel or
chronic \ amandine sleds are used. When resistance to corrosion is desired, some copper
alloys are used. Table lists shaft materials used for shaft and their mechanical properties

The shafts may be subjected to following types of loads

(i) Simple torsion
(ii) Simple bending moment
(iii) Combined torque and bending moment
(iv) Combined axial load, tensional moment and bending moment.

(i) .Simple torsion:

When a shall is subjected to pure tensional moment Mt the shall diameter can be found
from tensional shear strength equation which is

(ii) Simple bending Moment:

When a shaft is subjected to a pure bending load, the principal stresses induced in the
shaft are tension and compression. The maximum stress induced in the shaft can be
determined by the theory of simple bending. It is given by the relation

Mb - bending moment, N-mm

(iii) Combined torque and bending moment:

When a shaft is subjected to combined loading, the design is usually based on the
maximum shear stress theory, since the shafts are usually made of ductile materials.
According to maximum shear stress theory, the following relation must be satisfied
(iv) Shafts subjected to fluctuating loads:

The ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) has worked out a special
procedure for design of shaft. The ASME design is based on maximum shear stress
theory and employed combined shock and fatigue factors as multiplying coefficients.
This factor is taken into account to take care of the nature of load. This factor should be
applied to compute bending moment and torque. Thus the design equation for combined
loading is as follows.

(v) Combined u. Load, bending moment and torsion:

If the shaft is subjected to an axial load in addition to tensional and bending moment as in
propeller shafts, then the average axial stress should be added to the bending stress and
then the maximum shear stress induced in the shaft may be calculated. When a length of
the shaft is small, the axial force will produce either tensile or compressive stresses only.
When the shaft is quite long, it may behave like a column and hence start buckling.
If the axial force P is presented and buckling of the shaft is accounted for, then the
buckling stress is given by


In many cases the shaft is to be designed from rigidity point of view. We should consider
tensional rigidity as well as lateral rigidity. (‘ I) Tensional rigidity:
The angle of twist in radians for a solid circular shaft of uniform diameter chi and length l
is given by

Where, T —Torque on the shaft


When a shaft is mounted with gears or pulleys, the center of gravity of the pulley or gear
does not coincide with the centerline of the bearings or axis of the shaft. When the shaft
is stationary. Due to this, the shaft is subjected to centrifugal force. This force will bend
the shaft further when the shaft rotates. This effect is cumulative and ultimately the shaft
The speed at which the shaft runs so that the additional deflection of the shaft from the
axis of rotation becomes infinite known as critical or whirling speed
Critical speed or whirling speed is given be

K —stiffness of the shaft
M —mass of the pulley or gear
— Static deflection of the shaft in meters.


When a shaft is subjected to fatigue loading which varies between

Maximum to minimum values ie. P to
By using Seidenberg equation

According to maximum shear stress theory, equivalent maximum

Shear stress is given by

A shaft of 750mm long is subjected to shear stress of 40 Mpa and has an angle of twist
equal to 0.01 7 radian. Determine the diameter of the shaft Take G0. 8 x 10 5 N/mm 2.
Given Data:

To find:
Diameter of the shaft.
© Solution:
We know that tensional moment of the shaft

Angle of twist.

The standard diameter is, d = 45mm Ans.

Diameter of the shaft, d= 45mm



A key is a device which is used for connecting two machine parts for preventing relative
motion of rotation with respect to each other. To accommodate the key, a groove called
keyway is cut both in shaft and hub. After assembly, key is partly in the shaft and partly
in the hub. Keys are commonly made from cold rolled mild steel bars Keys are generally
used as temporary fasteners that can be easily disassembled
Round key and taper pins.


The commonly adopted forms of keys may be classified into four types
(I) Saddle key
(ii) Tangent key
(iii) Sunk key
(1) Saddle key:
It is shown in fig. It is used for light services. A Keyway is provided only in the Hub of
the part to be attached. No keyway is provided in the

Shaft Saddle keys are of two Types

A) Hollow saddle key

B) Flat saddle key


(i) Sunk key:

A sunk key is subjected to two equal and opposite forces, which are distributed forces.
For our analysis, it is assumed that their effect is equivalent to a concentrated force acting
tangential to the diameter of the shaft as shown in fig, 4.2.12. (a)
Where, T Average torque transmitted
D = Diameter of the shaft.
Key may fail either in shear or crushing.
(a) Shear failure:
The tangential force acting at the shaft radius may cause shear failure of, the key. The
area-resisting shear is shown in fig. 4.2.12. (b) As the
Hatched area 1-2-3-4.
A = Area that resist shearing of key = L x b

(b) Crush are produced between key and the keyway The hub and shaft portion may
cause crushing failure.
Area that resist crushing, A = L X B

If a key is required to be equally strong in shear and crushing, the Shear strength may be
equated to the crushing strength
Where, .t = Co-efficient of friction between
The shaft and the hub.
The axial force necessary to drive the key fastener is the sum of the Frictional force
between the key and the shall and the frictional force
Due to compressive force.

and the shaft.


Spines shaft has number of key like projections integral with it and equally spaced around
the circumference as shown in fig. These are engaged with corresponding recess in a
spine hub. Spines are most
Frequently used in automobiles and machine tools. The BIS has standardized the number
of spines on the shaft as four, six, ten and sixteen spine.
The various modes of failure of spines and their corresponding strength equation are
given as follows.

Considering bearing failure:

Where, p = bearing pressure L = Length of the spine.

N = Number of spines.
(ii) Considering bending failure:

Where, F = Tangential force acting on the (iii) considering shear failure:

Note: In PSGDB, the various proportions of the keys for various types of keys are
given. Students are requested to refer PSGDB 5.16 to 5.24. From the table given, we
can select the dimensions for the key and check for various failures

Determine the dimensions of the rectangular sunk key made up of mild steel for a
80mm diameter mild steel shaft to transmit a torque of 135N-m. Assume t 50N/mm2
and o = 120N/mm2
Given data:
Diameter of shaft, d= 80mm
Torque to be transmitted, T = 13 SN-rn =135 x 10 N-mm
Shear stress, t = 50 N/ mm2
Crushing stress, o = 1 20N/ mm2
To find:
Dimensions of rectangular sunk key.
From PSGDB 5.16, for the given shaft diameter of 80mm
Width of the key, b = 22mm
Height of the key, h = 14mm
Length of the key, L = 63 to 250mm
From proportions of the key,
L= l.5d 1.5 x 80= 120mm
(i) Check for shear strength of key:

Which is less than the allowable strength? Hence the dimensions are in safe limit.
(ii) Check for crushing:

Which is less than the allowable strength Hence the

Dimensions are in safe limit.
Width of key, b = 22mm
Height of key, h = 14mm
Length of key, L = 120mm
The elements which join two shafts are known as Couplings are used to connect one
shaft to another, when the shafts of two independent unit, such as e motor and
centrifugal pump are to be connected A coupling also serves some other useful
functions as follows:
1. It follows easy disconnection of shafts for repair arid maintenance.
2. It is used to connect two shafts in order to get long shafts.
3. To provide misalignment of the shafts or to introduce mechanical flexibility
4. To introduce protection against overload.
5. To reduce the transmission of shock loads from one shaft to another.


Coupling may be classified as follows:

Rigid coupling
Flexible coupling
Box of Clamp Muff coupling
Flange Bushed coupling pin type Coupling
Universal Oldham coupling

Rigid couplings arc used only in low-speed applications where good axial alignment
between the connecting shafts can be achieved. Both the shafts that are to be
connected to be perfectly aligned laterally and angularity. Misaligned shafts, when
connected with a rigid coupling, can lead to bearing or fatigue failure.
A flexible coupling is used to connect two shafts which have lateral or angular
misalignments. It is also used to reduce the effect of shock and impact load.


This is a simple coupling which is used to connect two shafts rigidly Muff coupling is
a hollow cylindrical piece which is fitted over both shaft ends connected by means of
either keys, taper pins or set Screws as shown in fig. 4.3.1. The torque is transmitted
from one shaft to the sleeve and then to the other shaft. As it has no projecting parts,
its interior is perfectly smooth which is good from safety point of view. From design
point of view, the depth of keyway in each of the shafts to
Be connected should be exactly the same and the diameters should also be the same.
The following design procedure is suggested.

Fig. Box or Muff or Sleeve coupling

1. The sleeve is designed as a hollow shaft transmitting the entire torque of the shaft.
2. The width and thickness of the key are obtained from the PSGDB
According to the shaft diameter. The length of the key is equal to the length of the
sleeve. The key should be checked for crushing and shearing strength.
The usual proportions of the sleeve couplings are as follows:
Outside diameter of sleeve, D = 2d + 13mm
Length of sleeve, L = 3.5d
Where d is the diameter of the shaft to be joined.
Design Procedure
Step (1): Design for Sleeve:
As already mentioned, the sleeve is designed by considering it as a hollow shaft.
Hence the torque to be transmitted by the sleeve is given by

Shear strength of the sleeve material = 14N/mm for cast iron
From the above relation, induced shear stress can be determined and then it can be
compared with allowable shear stress.
Step (2): Design for key:
If we use two key to connect both the shaft then the length of each

Check for Shear:

Where cry = crushing strength of key material

= l5on/ mm2 for steel
= 80 N/mm2 for C.I


Bearing is a stationery machine element which supports a rotating shafts or axles and
confines its motion. Naturally, a bearing will be required to offer minimum frictional
resistance to moving parts so as to result in minimum loss of power. In order to
reduce frictional resistance, a layer of fluid may be provided.


Bearings are mainly classified as follows.

(i) Depending upon the type of load coming upon the shaft:
In radial bearings, the load acts perpendicular to the direction of
Of moving parts (i.e. Shaft). It is shown in fig. 4.4.1.
A) Radial bearing.
B) Thrust bearings.

In thrust bearings the pressure acts along or parallel to the axis of the shaft.

(iii) Depending upon the nature of contact:

A) Sliding contact
B) Rolling contact bearings or Antifriction bearings.
In sliding contact bearings, the shaft rotates in a bearing and there are no interposed
elements between shaft and bearings. There is a direct contact between shaft and
In rolling contact bearings, the steel balls or rollers are provided in between shaft and
bearings to reduce friction.


Bearing material should have the following properties.

I) High compressive strength
Ii) Low coefficient of friction
Iii) High thermal conductivity
Iv) High resistance to corrosion
V) Sufficient fatigue strength
Vi) It should be soft with a low modulus of elasticity
Vii) Bearing materials should not get weld easily to the journal material.

(i) Lead base contains:

It contains Lead-74%, Antimony- 15%, Tin- 1%, Arsenic-O. 5% and Cu-O.25%.
It has excellent resistance to seizure and has good corrosion resistance its
compressive strength and hardness decrease rapidly with an increase in temperature.
Therefore it should not be used above 1150.
It is used for split bushings made from strip or gravity cast bearings.
(U) Tin base habit:
It contains Tin-89%, Antimony-7.5% and Copper-3.25%.
It is slightly harder than lead habit at room temperature. It has excellent anti-series
deformability and acid-resisting properties. It is also
Used for split bushings.
(iii) Leaded bronze:
The compositions and use of leaded bronze are as follows.
Cu 80% Tin 10%, Lead-l0% it used for split bushings made 4
From strip or gravity cast bears. 4
These are having excellent Fatigue life and are capable of Carrying heavy loads at
high Temperatures.
Cu-72%, Tin-3%, Lead-23% Use for split bushings and hail’
Beings made from strip or Gravity cast bearings.
(iv) Copper lead alloy:
The compositions and uses of copper lead alloy are as follows. Cu-65%, Lead 35% -
Use for split bushings and half Bearings made from strip or Gravity cast bearings
Cu-71%, Lead-28%, Silver-l% Used for gravity cast bearings these are having
excellent fatigue life and capable of carrying
Heavy leads at high temperatures. But they are having poor erosion resistance
compared to Habit
(v) Gun metal:
Its composition is as follows.
Copper-88%, Tin-l0%, Zinc-2%.
It is used for high-grade bearings subjected to high pressure and high speeds.
(vi) Phosphor bronze:
Superior fatigue resistance.
(x) Plastics:
Composition is
Copper-80%, Tin- 10%, Lcad-9%, Phosphores- 1%. It is used for bearings subjected
to very high pressures and speeds.
(vii) Cast Iron:
It is used with steel journals. It should be provided with adequate lubricant. It is used
for low pressure and low speed bearings.
(viii) Aluminum alloy:
Its composition is
Al-92%, Cu-l%, Tin-6%, Ni-1%
It is used for cast or forged solid construction. It has better fatigue resistance but poor
surface behavior.
(ix) Silver:
The usual form of construction is clectro- plated bearing used with lead-tin or lead-
indium overlay. It has excellent corrosion resistance and
The common commercial plastics used for bearings are Nylon and Teflon. These may
be used as zero film bearings. These have high fatigue strength, hardness and more
resistant to abrasive wear.


A journal bearing is a sliding contact bearing which gives lateral Support to the
rotating shaft. It consists of two main parts,
1. A journal is that part of the shaft which runs in a sleeve or bushing.
2. A hollow cylinder i.e. Sleeve is at rest.
In journal bearing, the diameter of the journal is kept less than the diameter of the
bearing to allow the flow of lubricant between the Surfaces
Design steps:
Step 1: Calculate the diameter of journal from given power. Use the following

T —Torque to be transmitted
P —Power to be transmitted
— Shear stress
Step 2: Select a suitable value of —ratio. Determine the length of the
D ,L
Bearing and the bearing pressure by using the table given in PSGDB
Step 3: Calculate the bearing pressure by
Using p = Check this
Pressure with the allowable value given in the table of PSGDB page
7.31. If it is not within the limit, select suitable value of ratio. D
Step 4: Select the clearance and find out clearance ratio £by using the
Table given in PSGDB page 7.32 D
Step 5: Select suitable oil and its viscosity at operating temperature, Zn
Which is preferably within 60° to 75°C.
Step 6: Calculate the bearing characteristic number. It should be P
Greater than the minimum value given in PSGDB 7.31.
Step 7: Determine the Sommerfield number and therefore the minimum
Film thickness from fig. In PSGDB 7.40 otherwise use tables given in
PSGDB 7.36 to 7.39. The value should be more than 4D
Step 8: Calculate the co-efficient of friction using Petroff’ s equation or Mckee’ s
Step 9: Determine the heat generated (Hg) and heat dissipated (Hd).The generated
heat is more than the dissipated heat, provide artificial Cooling arrangements.
Note: During examination, the students are required to refer same Data book. The
prescribed data book by Anna University is PSG Data book. In PSGDB the various
dimensionless numbers are
Given for several of ratio for various bearings. In our book the D Design procedure is
purely based on PSGDB. In design procedure The corresponding page numbers are
given as PSGDB.



Crankshaft is used to convert the reciprocating motion into rotary motion or vice
versa. The crankshaft is composed of the following parts:
(i) Crank pin (ii) Crank web and (iii) Shaft. The crank pin is used to connect the
connecting rod; the shafts are rotated in main bearings which are mounted on the
engine structure. The crank web connects the crank pin and the shaft.


The crankshafts can be divided into two types

1. Overhang crank or side crank
2. Center crank
Fig. Illustrates these two types of cranks
A crankshaft can be made with two side cranks on each end or with two or more
center cranks. A crankshaft with only one side crank or center crank is called single
through crankshaft. A crankshaft with two side cranks or more center cranks is called
multithrow crankshaft.


Generally, crankshafts are subjected to shock and fatigue loads. Thus, the materials of
the crankshaft should have enough tough and fatigue strength. The crankshafts are
generally made of carbon steel, special steel or special cast iron.
In industrial engines, carbon steels such as 40C8, 55C8 and 60C4 are commonly
In transport engines, manganese steel such as 20Mn2, 27Mn2 and 37Mn2 are
generally used.
In aero engines, nickel chromium steel such as 3 SN, 1Cr 60 and 40N, 2Cr 28 are
commonly used.
1. Crank pin design:
The crank pins of the overhung crank are assumed as a cantilever )beams. If the
piston gas load P is acting on the pin, it may not be evenly distributed over the crank
pin length. Therefore, the bending moment nay be taken as 0.75Pl The maximum
bending stress will be produced it the junction of the pin and the crank web.
We know that, the bending stress

2. Journal design:
The bending at the middle of the journal is

Where I => Crank web thickness = 0.45 to 0.75d l= Length of journal = 1.5d to 2d
We know that

Equating (i) and (ii)

From the above relation, the diameter of journal can be determined.

3. Crank web design:
Under this position, the crank arm is subjected to a bending

Case (ii): Crank at an angle of maximum torque:

I. Crank pin design:
Bending moment in the crank pin.

1. Crank pin design:

2. Shaft diameter at the junction of right-hand crank web:

3. Crank web design:

Bending moment due to radial force
Which should be less than the allowable value.


The connecting rod is an intermediate link between the piston and the crankshaft of
an I.C. engine. It transmits force from the piston to the crankshaft. It also carries the
lubricating oil from the crank pin end to the piston pin end and provides lubrication to
the piston cylinder assembly. The connecting rod converts the reciprocating motion of
the piston to rotary motion of the crankshaft. The main parts of the Connecting rod of
an I.C. engine are shown in fig.
It has (i) An eye at the small end to acconunt date piston pin bearing
(ii) A long shank usually of I-section and
(iii)A big end opening, which is usually split to take the crank pin bearing shells. The
length of the connecting rod is usually kept 3 to 4.5 times the crank radius.
The materials for connecting rod ranges from mild or medium carbon steels to alloy
steels. In industrial engines, carbon steel with ultimate tensile strength 550 to 670N/
mm2 is used. In transport engines, alloy steel having strength of about 780 to 940N/
mm2 is used. Manganese steel. In aero engines, nickel chrome steel having ulti1i1al
tensile strength of about 940 to 135 N/mm2 is used. Connecting rods are mostly
manufactured by drop forging.


A connecting rod is subjected to alternating tension and compression, the

compressive stress being much greater than tensile stress and is therefore mainly
designed as a strut. The stresses in the connecting rod are set up by a combination of
forces. The various for acting on the connecting rod are
1. The combined effects of gas pressure on the piston and the Inertia of the
reciprocating parts.
2. Inertia of the connecting rod.
3. Friction of the piston rings and of the piston.
4. The friction of the two-end bearings.



The piston is a disc which reciprocates with in a cylinder. It is either moved by the
fluid or moves the fluid, which entering into the cylinder. The piston of an IC. Engine
is subjected to most severe stress conditions it receives an impulse from expanding
gases and transmits 3 forces to a crankshaft via the connecting rod. The piston used in
IC. Engine is usually of Trunk Type.
Trunk type piston consists of
(i) Head or Crown to carry the gas pressure.
(ii) Skirt to act as a beaming for connecting rod side thrust
(iii) A piston pin to connect it to the connecting rod.
(iv) Piston rings to seal the cylinder.

Fig. Trunk type piston

A well-designed piston has the following characteristics
1. The piston should have enormous strength and heat resistance properties withstand
high gas pressures and inertia forces.
2. The weight should be minimized to reduce the inertia force due to reciprocating
3. Good and quick heat dissipation from the crown to the rings and bearing area and
then to cylinder walls.
4. Form an effective gas and oil seal.
5. Sufficient bearing area to prevent undue wear.
6. Material of the piston must possess good wearing qualities, so that the piston is
able to maintain the surface hardness unto the operating temperature.
7. Have little or no tendency towards corrosion or “Picking up”


Commonly used materials for the pistons of I.C. Engines are: Cast iron Cast
Aluminum, Forged Aluminum, Cast Steel and forged Steel
Cast iron is the most popular maternal used for the construction of pistons for low-
speed engines. Tin coating of cast iron pistons reduces cylinder wear and scuffing.
However, the main limitation of cast iron is the high weight density which increases
the mass of the reciprocating parts and thereby the inertia force. A close-grained
pearlitie material is almost universally used for cast iron pistons.
Aluminum alloys give light pistons and for better heat dissipation, aluminium alloys
are the ideal materials due to their high thermo
Conductivity. Aluminium is 3 times lighter than cast iron. Its strength is good at low
temperatures but it looses about 50% of its strength at temperature above 300° C. Its
expansions are about 2 times that of cast iron and resistance to abrasion is low at high
temperatures. These disadvantages have now been overcome by alloying it with
other. Materials.
The strength of the cast aluminum alloy is approximately the same as that of cat iron.
It gives lighter piston and better heat dissipation but is
Costlier than cast iron.



A flywheel is a heavy rotating mass which is placed between the power source and
the driven machine to act as a reservoir of energy. The primary function of flywheel
is to act as an energy accumulator”. It will absorb energy when demand is less than
the supply of energy and will release it when the demand is more than the energy
being supplied. Depending upon source of power and type of driven machinery, there
are two distinct application of the flywheel.
(i) In some cases, the power is supplied at a uniform rate, while the requirement of
power from the driven machinery is variable. Example: Punching press driven by an
electric motor, rolling mill driven by an electric motor. In these cases, the flywheel
stores energy during the idle portion of the work cycle by increasing its speed and
delivers this energy during the peak load period of punching.
Flywheels arc made the three different types.
1. Disc type flywheel:
This type of flywheel is of solid disc type as shown in fig 4.8.1. It is used in
automobiles engines.
2. Web type flywheel:
It consists of a heavy rim connected to the hub by a disc shaped plate called web, as
shown in fig 4.8.2.
This flywheel is mostly used with small power vertical IC. Engines.
(ii) In other applications, the availability of energy is at a fluctuating rate, but the
requirement of it for the driven machinery is at uniform rate. Example: Machinery
driven by an I.C. engine.
Fig. Solid disc type flywheel
Fig. Web-type flywheel
3. Arm type flywheel:
It is the most
Common type flywheel used in cases where a large size flywheel is needed. It
consists of a heavy rim, which is connected to the hub by a large number of radial
arms. It is shown in fig 4.8.3.
Fig. Solid disc type flywheel

Fig. Web-type flywheel

Fig. Arm type flywheel



In rolling element bearing, the contact between the bearing elements is rolling instead
of sliding. The shaft is supported on rollers or balls. Since the contact between the
bearing element is rolling, this type has very small friction and thus, it is also called
as antifriction bearings.


Rolling contact bearing may be classified as follows:
1. Depending upon the type of rolling element.
A. Ball bearing and
B. Roller bearing
2. Depending upon the load to be carried
A. Radial
B. Angular contact and
C. Thrust bearing


1. Explain the various types of shafts used in power transmission.
2. Write short notes on bushed pin type flexible couplings.
3. Short notes on Critical or whirling speed.
4. Write down the design procedure of journal bearings.
5. Write down the step-by-step design procedure for Muff or Sleeve couplings.
6. Write down the design procedure of keys and splines.
7. What are the various types of couplings with its applications?
8. Write down the step-by-step design procedure for Muff or Sleeve couplings.
9. Write down the step-by-step design procedure for Clamp or Spilt muff couplings.
10. Explain the various types of flange couplings with neat sketches.
1. A hollow steel shaft of 800mm outside diameter and 500mm inside diameter is
used to drive a propeller of a marine vessel. The shaft is mounted on bearings 6m
apart, and it transmits 6000kw at 200rpm. The maximum axial thrust is 750kn and.
Shaft weighs 75kn: Determine
A) Maximum shear stress induced..
B) Angular twist of shaft between bearings.
2. A shaft is to transmit power from an electric motor to a
Machine through a pulley by means of a vertical belt drive with unit speed ratio. The
pulley weighs 500N and is overhanging at a distance of 150mm, from the bearing.
Diameter of pulley is 300mm maximum power transmitted at 250rpm is 4.5kw. Co
efficient of friction between the belt and the pulley is 0.3.Combined shock and fatigue
factor in torsion is .5 and in Bending is 2.0, Permissible shear stress for the shaft
material is 45 N/Sq. Mm. Design the shaft.
3. Two shafts 80mm diameter are to be connected by means of two cast iron flange
couplings. The allowable shearing stress of the bolt materials is 45N/mm2 while that
of the shaft materials is 55N/ mm2 Find the size of the bolts to be used. Check the
bolts for the induced crushing stress.
4. A marine type flange coupling is used to transmit 4.5MW at 200rpm. The
allowable shear stress in the shaft and bolts may be taken as 45N/ mm2 Determine the
shaft diameter and the diameter of the bolts as per our Indian standard.
5. Design a cast iron flywheel for a four-stroke engine to develop 150kw brake power
at 200rpm. The work done during the power stroke is 1.4 times the average work
done during the whole cycle. The mean diameter of the flywheel may be taken as 2.5
meter. The total fluctuation of speed is to be limited to 5% of the mean.