Foundations of Physics, Vol. 6, No.

4, 1976

Cosmological Origin of Irreversibility, Time, and Time Anisotropies. I
Benjamin Gal-Or 1
Received May 23, 1975 Causal links among the thermodynamic, electrodynamie, and cosmological arrows of time are explained within the framework of a new theory derived from Newtonian gravitation or general relativistic theory. The master asymmetry so derived is employed to deduce the second postulate of thermodynamics in terms of dissipation function or entropic growth. Discussing Olbers' paradox and employing a "laboratory-universe principle of equivalence," the theory demonstrates how the expansion of o u r isotropie universe affects all irreversible processes on earth. Gravitation and the observed expanding space become the indirect causes o f thermal gradients and irreversible processes channeling energy from planetary and galactic cores, through colder regions, all the way into the unsaturable sink o f expanding intergalactic space. The new formulations replace the axiomatic formalisms of classical and continuum thermodynamics. The fundamental role played by the expansion (bulk) viscosity is stressed. Other possible interactions among cosmology, thermodynamics, and electrodynamics are reviewed and analyzed from a new viewpoint.

1. I N T R O D U C T I O N

Traditionally scientists distinguish among a number of time asymmetries, notably among the thermodynamic, electromagnetic, cosmological, biological, and (more recently) the microscopic arrows of time. This separation not only breaks up the foundations of physics into disjointed channels, but it has created a serious crisis at the basis of most of our theories. (1-9) This crisis, as well as the problems described in this paper, manifest themselves most clearly by new attempts to provide answers to certain fundamental questions, a sampling of which follows: 1 De.partment of Aeronautical Engineering, Technion-lsrael Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel. 407
© 1976 Plenum Publishing Corporation, 227 West 17th Street, New York, N.Y. 10011. N'o part of this publi,sation may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording, or otherwise, without written permission of the publisher.

408

Gal-Or

1. Are the origins of thermodynamic, electromagnetic, and microscopic irreversibilities known ? Can they be physically linked with gravitation and cosmology, and deduced from general relativity? 2. Is the separation among the causes of the aforementioned time asymmetries justified? Or are they no more than different manifestations of one and the same effect? I.e., in what sense might these arrows be physically correlated with each other and with a single "master asymmetry" ? What are the observational and theoretical arguments which support or disprove such possibilities ? 3. Can irreversibility (or the established statistical law of increase of entropy, "H-theorems," "mixing," "Markov processes," etc.) be deduced from the mathematics of statistical mechanics, or was it fitted into the theory as a fact-like postulate without any rigorous proof? Indeed, how is irreversibility smuggled into the various theories of statistical mechanics ? Is it an accident that no one has found a proof of irreversibility by using H-theorems, etc., after almost a century of trying ? If it turns out (as we show in Part II of this work) that statistical mechanics, with all its powerful applications, has totally failed to deduce irreversibility and time asymmetries in nature, what about its claim to fundamentality ? In trying to answer these questions, I have found it useful to demonstrate first the indirect links between cosmology and thermodynamics. These links are to be illustrated by our laboratory-universe principle of equivalence, which is described below.

2. L A B O R A T O R Y - U N I V E R S E PRINCIPLE OF E Q U I V A L E N C E

The principle to be described here is based on two sets of observations, both of which have been thoroughly confirmed by independent methods.(1°-14) These are: (i) The universe accessible to our observations contains a very large number of self-generating galactic energy sources, which, on sufficiently large scale, are homogeneously (though randomly) and isotropically distributed (the cosmological principle). (ii) The universe accessible to our observations is evolving (i.e., the observed isotropic recession in the systems of galaxies and supergalaxies). These observations verify the theoretical predictions of Newtonian theory of gravitation and of Einstein's general relativity, namely, that the universe expands.

Time.e. located inside a rigid (nonexpanding) laboratory room with reflecting (isolated) walls. In fact. each source assumes the dimensions of a typical supergalaxy.. continuously maintained in a state of sufficiently fast expansion. and Time Anisotropies. each with its own self-generating energy source. and its evolution away from or toward equilibrium would be also equivalent to that of its original counterpart. closed) or infinite (i. By contrast. Each such adiabatic cell can now be considered as an expanding room. on radio source counts. Next I illustrate our principle by employing a simplified analog within the domain of Newtonian theory. at which stage all temperature gradients will vanish. 1 5 ~ and is a relic of earlier. It is. Imagine a large number of uniformly distributed masses of about equal size.Cosmological Origin of Irreversibility. and on verified transformations of energy in stellar cores by nucleosynthesis. I 409 These conclusions. to any astronomical scale. provided all sources have the same maximum temperature. that the observed astronomical laboratory . cannot achieve equilibrium (since the density of radiation near the emitters decreases with time). both the fluxes and the gradients persist. This cause-and-effect link is indirect and involves no action at a distance. and a typical adiabatic cell represents the: statistically averaged cell volume per supergalaxy. a thermal equilibrium will be established between the sources and the surroundings (air or vacuum). a static room of astronomical size would reach equilibrium at all its parts at about the same finite time. largely rely on recent discoveries that include the discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation (which is isotropic to within less than 0 . a laboratory room with flexible walls. so that if expansion ceases.. on the extended Hubble relation. equivalent to the original room but of smaller size. it is now immaterial whether the original "large laboratory" is bounded (i. Since the distribution of the sources is isotropic (though random). unrelaxed. accordingly. there exists a point on this line at which the net flux vanishes and each source is enclosed in an imaginary adiabatic envelope consisting of an infinity of such points. hotter epochs). Extrapolating. since for both cases the average evolution observed inside a typical cell is equivalent to that of the "larger laboratory" and would suffice for reaching the same general conclusion regarding its dynamics. the result being one-directional. net energy fluxes from emitters to the unsaturable surroundings. and others that follow. It is evident from our observations that after a finite time (depending on the size of the laboratory and on details of the masses). however. albeit only for a finite relaxation time during which the system approaches equilibrium (and which increases with room size and with decreasing number of sources). namely. only an analog. Since energy always flows in opposite directions along a line of sight connecting any two neighboring sources.e. open).

Some o f these complexities m a y cause local distortions or even a net flow of energy f r o m a too small cell to another. provide only additional sinks to the already unsaturable sink of expanding interstellar space. rotating a part of or the entire galaxy. Even recourse to curved space and distribution of the galaxies according to size and type leave the general result unchanged insofar as the " l a b o r a t o r y " accessible to our observations expands and remains isotropic. introducing clouds. The observed expansion causes space to act as an unsaturable t h e r m o d y n a m i c sink. black holes. and turbulent viscosities. Furthermore. electromagnetic dissipation. m-14) F o r instance. local explosions. 4 Gold's star in a (static) box modeYm has only a weak connection with the cosmological arrow and may still lead to symmetric boundary conditions. which leads to a supergalaxy in an expanding adiabatic envelope. 2 Whether the process consists in "reality" of expansion or contraction is essentially a matter for the definition of time (see below).aG) o f a possible initial cosmic anisotropic evolution have shown that it must rapidly vanish by dissipation. however. a cosmic rays. . cannot change the aforementioned conclusion. What is important here is the negative conclusion. galactic dust. 2. this effect is confirmed b y observations inside and near our own galaxy. The origin of irreversibility can be traced all the way back in time and out into expanding space. Recent investigations (15. magnetic fields. 3 Black holes. that black holes play a more important role in the generation of irreversibility in our universe by supplying a sink which remains unsaturated even if the expansion reverses into a contraction (see also the section on the origin of time for a discussion of the effect of contraction on our theory).--all these. Observed m-x4~ electromagnetic energy emissions by supernova remnants also suggest that similar dissipation effects are due to fluid and radiation stresses. etc. This restriction is obviated in the present laboratory-cell-universe equivalence.410 Gal-Or has not been static for a long t i m e ) Changing the shapes o f the sources. which is also supported by additional and independent observations. in themselves. the rotational m o t i o n of newly created neutron stars is found to be subject to electromagnetic "braking. we arrive at the following additional conclusions: 1. resolving them into billions of smaller units." with mechanical energy dissipated into radiant energy in the c o r o n a of the star and eventually lost in space n3) (see below). if verified. thereby forcing us to resort to a larger cell until isotropy has been restored? Summarizing the deductions from our principle. electromagnetic waves. Recent observations strongly indicate.

if relativity is unacceptable as the universal framework of thermodynamics. and nebulae and throughout the galaxy itself. These causal links are independly supported by both macrocosmic observations and predictions of general relativity.Cosmological Origin of Irreversibility. one-directional energy losses from the surfaces of all galactic stars and nebulae. the master asymmetry) is that associated with the expansion of the universe proper. etc. which also takes it into account). (4) Generally . their different mutual separation R1 and R~ would tell us whether tl > t2 or t2 > tl. eventually coming to be known as Olbers paradox. M. i.. To the best of our knowledge. electrodynamics. 6. and hydrodynamic stability. stars. as well as by the theories of nuclear reactions. for instance. 5. and extending through the outer layers of the various planets. and the one-directional energy flow into unsaturable space as the third cosmological time asymmetry. Halley (1656-1742) and revived by H. T H E O L B E R S P A R A D O X What may the temperature be in a nonexpanding (static) world of the present dimensions ? In trying to answer this question. reverse links are physically impossible. Gravitation and unsaturable space become the indirect causes (see below) of energy-density and temperature gradients originating at the cores of galatic emitters (where. The very existence of a universal sink (which remains unsaturated as long as space keeps expanding) is the indirect cause of the observed. If. Olbers (1758-1840). (2~) 4. stellar structures. let me refer first to an old problem originally raised by E. we define the decreasing density of radiation and matter as the second. provided the temperature is sufficiently high. one's argument can still be well based on purely nonrelativistic observations and Newtonian gravitation. conduction. and Time Anisotropies. no physical theory based on observations and present information can be devised in which the observed expansion would be caused (or dominated) by the decreasing density of radiation and matter or by the one-directional flow of energy from hot galatic sources to cold space. nuclear reactions generate the energy to be transported to outer regions by radiation. The first cosmological time asymmetry (according to our school. This arrow of time is independent of any cosmological model (including the steady-state model. For time-dependent models. W. I 411 3. Therefore. 121) 3.).e. The second and third time asymmetries are (independently) created and dominated by the master asymmetry. Time. convection. we photograph a group of supergalaxies at instants tl and t2. unlimited.

Yet the observed night sky is dark. However. however. and with a uniform distribution of radiating objects. Suppose we have an infinitely old and infinite in extent universe with Euclidean geometry. i. For instance. the assumption of absorption of distant radiation en route to earth causes heating of the absorbing matter and only reproduces the same problem as before. Further evaluations of these ideas are given by Bondi/18) On the other hand. the red-shifts z. the distance where total blockage results. . The simplest mathematical formulation of Olbers' paradox is as follows. there are 4nrrr 2 dr such objects. before the solution was found in the 1920s through the Einstein-Friedmann-Lemaitre-Hubble discoveries of the expanding universe. This contradiction had been known for many years. the resulting sky-brightness (equilibrium) temperature in a static intergalactic space should be around 6000K (which is about the surface temperature of the sun). which are systematically observed See. below. the paradox states that if one takes into account the observed luminosities of galactic stars and nebulae (the sun being a typical emitter). Thus the total radiation B from all galactic sources within the distance R amounts to ~ R=I/An B = ~0 nL dr ~ L/A which is of the order of the surface brightness of each object (in contradiction to the observed night-sky brightness). where we first assume 5 that each object has the same luminosity L. The total contribution of radiation from all such objects is then (4mrr 2 dr)(L/47rr2). located at distance r from earth. The contribution of radiation from the entire universe would then be infinite. when foR 4 7rrZn(A /r 2) dr = 47r Solving for R gives R = 1~An. An artificial resolution can be obtained by chopping up the universe in space or time or both. but none are as satisfactory as that provided by the various observations of expanding intergalactic space.e.. a finite result is obtained if a finite cross section A (normal to the line of sight from earth) is assumed for each object. where n is their number per unit volume. Each object would then block radiation from all objects beyond it and laying in the same solid angle A/rL Total blockage of radiation results when the entire solid angle 4~r is covered.412 Gal-Or speaking. Various attempts have been made to solve this paradox. In a spherical shell of thickness dr.

with all its specific time anisotropies. 107-108 K). however. since it must undergo endothermic decomposition back to helium (which generates energy at lower temperature. Space temperature may then be higher than To and radiation would start to converge from hotter space onto colder galactic masses. (4) Thus in stable advanced stars T~ cannot exceed 10~° K. If we now picture that the universe "stops expanding. (ii) A static universe must reach a maximum temperature equal to the core (and not to the surface !) temperature T~ of stable advanced stars in the galaxies. Irreversibility would then reappear. helium. In this way one links local thermodynamics with the large-scale structure of the expanding universe! But how does the existence of the dark sky affect all irreversible processes in our own atmosphere? This question is discussed separately in a later section. Before closing this section I must. Would these irreversibilities and time arrows be pointing in opposite direction to that we observe today ? Would the convergence of radiation from space onto matter cause one to observe advanced potentials instead of the currently observed retarded potentials? However. Here H0 is Hubble's constant for the present epoch [H3 ~ =: (1. Such advanced stars are the stable massive stars that have already exhausted most of their hydrogen. these fundamental questions of thermodynamics and electrodynamics are linked to the very concept of time and its origin.2) × 10~° years(l°q and c is the velocity of light. and their core contains the most stable element--iron. however. . Naturally one is tempted to ask what happens if the universe starts to contract? Apparently contraction means blue-shifed radiation with negative z values that would cause B to increase beyond the surface brightness of any star. Time. etc. reexamine the question of maximum temperature in a static universe. With this result B converges to a value which is entirely consistent with observations.77 ~ 0. mean not only expansion but also modification of the previous integral for B so that B = foR nL [1 + (Ho/e)r] 2 dr where use has been made of Hubble's law z = Hor/C. I 413 in the radiation coming from all distant galaxies. topics reexamined in later sections. and Time Anisotropies. cannot reach 10~°K. There are two additional factors here: (i) The observed sources show distribution in the values of L. viz.finite time at which all space would be at the uniform maximum temperature T~ (and not at 6000 K as is currently assumed)." its contents would reach thermal equilibrium after a. (4) Iron.Cosmological Origin of ll'reversibility.

414 Gal-Or 4. namely compulsory contraction or expansion. and p(G) is the density of the medium at a standard time t~ when R(ts) is arbitrarily fixed as equal to unity. G is the Newtonian constant of gravitation. Therefore. which not only is mathematically simpler. Integration of Eq. which. contribution of pressure to gravitation. such as the observed behavior of light in strong gravitational fields. filling the whole of space with . curved spacetime. cannot account for many effects. Consider a very large gas cloud. this otherwise reversible equation is embedded with an important time asymmetry." etc. Eq. Newtonian dynamics. (1) leads to d R ~2 _ --dF-J 8zr Gp(t~) 3 R k (3) where k is a constant of integration.= 47r Gp(t~) 3 R2 ' dZR and d R ~ dt di. (4~ One can think of the billions of galaxies either as the particles of the gas or as being localized condensations in an actual intergalactic (atomic or ionized) gas. (1) demonstrates that even Newtonian theory dictates a systematic contraction or expansion on a targe scale over which the universe is approximately uniform. but also leads to many important results that are essentially the same as in general relativity. condensations that act as tracers for the average motion and perhaps the average density of the gas in their general vicinity. DERIVATION OF THE M A S T E R TIME A S Y M M E T R Y FROM GRAVITATION T H E O R I E S In this section I derive the master time asymmetry from simplified (reversible) Newtonian or general relativistic mechanics. For this case Newtonian dynamics gives d2R -~ dt . Consequently. Conservation of matter then gives p(t) R ~ = p(t3 (2) Equation (1) admits no static solutions (which require the first and second time derivatives of R to vanish). The resulting master asymmetry (which is independently observed) is to be combined next with the reversible energy equation so as to produce equivalent inequlaities of the "second law.# 0 (I) where R is a time-dependent scale factor (whose change in time may be thought of as representing the change in time of the distance between any two supergalaxies). however. like the observed universe at large. is isotropic. I consider first the Newtonian theory.

Eqs. (1). in particular those related to the early evolution in which radiation dominated (and its pressure could not be neglected). such as static vacuum fields. or oscillating and ever-expanding space. I 415 a gas cloud. and single-body models. Hence despite all the fundamental differences between general relativity and Newtonian theory. etc. In general. or spherical and hyperbolic space. (expansion) (8) . Eq. we think of "closed" and open space. Only the inequality sign is of importance. and (4)] dR/dr ~ 0 which. This is the well-known Milne-McCrea theorem.? ~ \ dt ! = --8~ c2 (5) Subject to Eq. of course. instead of speaking about bound (k > 0) and unbound (k < 0) clouds. the scale factor R satisfies the same equation in both theories provided the effect of pressure [cf. Evaluation of the exact value of this rate of expansion from any of the cosmological models is entirely immaterial here. For that purpose I write Eq.. The case k = 0 is then characterized by Euclidean three-dimensional space. excluding unrealistic alternatives. (7) as dv/dt > 0 where v = l/p. nonadditivity of separate effects. In the second case the physical meaning of k is different.. I am concerned here with a new thermodynamics which is based on the derivation and use of the condition [cf.lc k R2 (4) 2 dZR 1 (dRy2 Gp R dt 2 . (5)] is neglected. Consequently the requirement of nonstatic solutions leads to the same classification of models and world evolutions in both theories. There exist. (2). negative masses.e. and Time Anisotropies. one can conclude that the original field equations of general relativity (which are reversible under time reversal) admit only time-evolving (nonstatic) solutions! Consequently. expansion) for past and present epochs. as will be shown later. Time. in accord with observations.e. (3).GpR2 -. i. other important models in relativistic cosmology.Cosmological Origin of Irreversibility. means (6) (7) dR/dt > 0 (i. the observed world expansion has its origin explained within the domain of both Newtonian and relativistic dynamics. For the present analysis Einstein's original field equations reduce to the simple set dR ]2 dt ] = ~ . one immediately notes that the relativistic equation (4) is identical to the Newtonian equation (3).

. ." as well as the positive nature of internal dissipation.. k k = 1.dt where dq/dt = --(1/p) v . p is the total material density defined by (14). 2 . k = 1..aq (9) dv P ~ + qg + b (10) (11) (12) b = (l/p) Z J. n). as defined in (18). n (13) P = v-z ~ L Pk ]e=l (14) G = L Pk~k/P d/dt ~_ (~/~t) + ~ . ORIGIN OF IRREVERSIBILITY IN THE NEW ASTROPHYSICAL THERMODYNAMICS In this section 1 deduce the positive nature of the "second law. where v is the specific volume. 2... ~ is the center-of-mass (barycentric) . n (15) (16) (17) -~ = (18) (i. 2. where =vis the viscous stress tensor and is the unit matrix with elements 8~B (the Kronecker delta). and p~ is the mass density (per unit volume) of chemical component k in a mixture of n chemical components (k = 1... v L = p~(~ T-pi ~). from reversible conservation equations of energy and mass in conjunction with the master asymmetry [Eq. (8)]. and ~1is the heat flux due to conduction. Thus the (reversible) first law of thermodynamics du=dq'--dw' takes the form du dq dt -. bulk and shear viscosities (of matter and/or radiation).~" Fk. p is the scalar hydrostatic pressure of the total pressure tensor ~'. and of the Clausius-Duhem inequality. Tji = Ti~) (19) (20) k=l ~" = '~r So far all these quantities are strietly reversible! Here u is the specific (per unit mass) internal energy. q is the "heat" added per unit mass... .416 Gal-Or 5.e.

The energy equation (10) then reduces to . ÷ ~R. with Tolman's perfect (inviscid) fluid and radiation (Ref. The whole process is therefore adiabatic. i.(4) Our immediate aim is to derive. hl~ thus being the specific enthalpy of component k. there exists no net transfer of energy from one local element (or cell) to another. J~ = 0.. well-defined systems composed of real fluids which are capable of transferring momentum by viscous mechanisms. and Time Anisotroples.co q.e. 1 p (~a. adiabatic) expansion causes the mechanical energy p~' dv~/dt to be converted irreversibly into internal energy (so far as the expansion prevails). for instance. ) : V6 > 0 (24) which signifies that the very process of isotropic (i. employing the master asymmetry (8).PR (21) (22) Since isotropic expansion is the same everywhere (i.e. Jq is the total heat flux defined by (20) and includes enthalpy transferred by the diffusion fluxes Jk [defined by (17)]. ) ~dv / -~. 323. b is the (scalar) "body heating" associated with external forces Fk and radiation. unobtainable. J q . A : B -~ tr(ABr). all mathematical formulations will 6 The operation symbol in Eq. We also allow radiative stresses.YR P = P a 4.. (12) denotes a double inner product of second-order tensors. b = 0. I 417 velocity vector. This allows us to derive the local irreversible (dissipative) behavior. an irreversible theorem based on the reversible energy equation (10) and the verified master asymmetry [Eq.( P G ~ + PR~. namely q~a := _ ( t / p ) ( ¥ a a q_ 7~n~.e.0. . 19. With conventional definition of time the opposite irreversible process takes place during contraction. (8)]. p is a function of time alone). pp. 0 (23) Thus. which may be resolved into an isotropic pressure PR and viscous stresses •R according to ¥ = .) : v 5 =. 328).g. finally. Hereinafter. e. we immediately obtain the first important physical inequality. yielding the scalar quantity without any embedded asymmetry! 7 If our new definition of time (see Part II) is adopted.Cosmological Origin of Irreversibility. v This first inequality is in full agreement with all our macroscopic observations and is due here to the master asymmetry alone. Time. and du/dt = 0 throughout the medium (as evidently we expect from any simple analysis of local conservation of energy). We first consider several simple.0 is to be deduced later6)... this result remains unchanged in an isotropic contraction. and v~¢is the velocity of component k. using the causal links described in Section 1. q5 is defined by (12) (the observed fact that q) >/.

. (24) in conjunction with the fact that under isotropic expansion only the radial velocity vr and its derivatives must be taken into account." Substituting Eq.2 F D + (§F -. the bulk and shear viscosities. Otherwise the general case gives q~ + b ~ > 0. showing that the expansion itself dictates the positive nature of the bulk viscosity.418 Gal-Or incorporate this inequality all the way to the "second law" and throughout the entire superstructure of thermodynamics. Solving Eq. ~ where b = ½[V~ + (V~) T] (26) (25) is the (symmetric) rate-of-deformation tensor (also called the stretching tensor). is not stated. 6. The third inequality of our theory is thus expressed by K> 0 (31) .K)V. (28). on substitution in (27). Whenever q~ can be neglected in comparison with b a similar procedure leads to b > 0. ~ is "reversible. we get __ -P (28) (29) which. are equivalent to the second law of thermodynamics. T H E O R I G I N O F D I S S I P A T I O N I N N E W T O N I A N F L U I D S A Newtonian fluid is defined by the linear relation = [2/zf) -? (~ -. yields ~ 1 ( 8 p ] ~ ~: > 0 = ~ \ COt! (30) Equation (30) is a very interesting result. we obtain ~a =2_~/x I/cortez K 1 C O z which must be combined with the continuity equation (assuming no nuclear reactions for this medium) cop 1 8 e co-i+ 7 ~ ~r (r vJ = 0 where p is a function of time alone. Insofar as the positive nature of K and ix. These conclusions.~F)(tr D)] ~ . as I shall demonstrate later. (25) in (12) and considering Eq.

7 K and p = 10-a°-10 -27 g/cm ~. (1°) T = 2. we obtain a link between cosmology and local thermodynamics. for which K--+ 0). DISSIPATION IN NONEXPANDING FLUIDS Turning now to the more general cases involving nonadiabatic. Time. Significantly. p v~ = 1_1_ ~_(r2v. as T tends to absolute zero.Cosmological Origin of Irreversibility. (34) indicates that the rate of dissipation decreases with decreasing temperatures. = H o r . (la) By employing equations of state. _ ~: pp~(dv~/dt) (l/p2)(dp/dt) ~ -p~ 3//o > 0 (33) Alternatively. damping takes place through the bulk viscosity alone. one finds for ideal interstellar gas a bulk viscosity between about 10-5-10 -~ P. For both cases. acting as a damping resistance to the cosmological expansion.) _ p r 2 ?r 3H o p (32) Combining (32) with (30) and (23). Unfortunately. not be satisfied for low-density monatomic gases (such as helium. unless we postulate isotropic. turbulent expansion or formation of local. the dissipation tends to zero. no experimental data on • in space are now available. this link is expressed as q)a = 9 K H o 2 / p = 3p~Ho/p > 0 (34) Taking Hg 1 = 1.77 × 101° years. the continuity equation becomes dv ~ _ dt 1 V. (24) leads to p~ba = p # q ~ > 0 whereby a fourth inequality is obtained /x =k~a + / x R > 0 (36) (35) and ¢ ~ is the dissipation function. whose mathematical characterization is such that ~. and Time Anisotropies. is expressed by Hubble's relation v~. or nonuniform systems with local volume (vL) and velocity (~L) 825/6/4-4 . I 419 The bulk viscosity is. When v~. The energy equation may.~ > 0. self=gravitating condensations of matter. therefore. Eq. the shear viscosity is no longer present in the equation. uniformly distributed. in particular. however. Similar results are obtained with non-Newtonian fluids/TM 7. indicating that if turbulent eddies are absent. nonexpanding.

Since H0 is exceedingly small. only q~c is o f interest in local studies.e. F o r incompressible fluids v • tel = 0./~c. nor with the so-called Mach principle. ~V i ( ~I)i ~Vk. using (23).q./zR. (10)] to a local observer.q- q- q~z q. i. negative. however. (10) is rewritten as (37) S = --p~ dv~ ~ ~ .6~Ho v • rcr du 1 dv L = ~ . it is only the locally observed dissipation that vanishes. of course. In our case.h >t O (39) where. ~. This last m a y be positive. V ./~ > 0. Thus. while q)a c a n n o t be made to vanish so far as the observed master asymmetry prevails. ~L = q~ + ~L + 2 p .~ r q_ GKHo v . or zero. (38) becomes = q)L = du dS + 1_ V P "L + pL dvL .420 Gal-Or deviations f r o m the standard uniform expansion rate dv~/dt treated before.L and Eq. 2 avi ~ ~Vi ~ O?)i = ~ ~x~ ~YL-x~+ 0x-Z . 9 Our theory is distinct from various new attempts to restore strict causality in quantum physics by reviving earlier proposals called hidden-variable theories.@ ~ V • jq q. W h e n S = 0. for Newtonian fluids. Such an observer m a y decompose the general mechanical term into p~ dv~/dt and pL dvr/dt when the last term represents local volume deviations f r o m uniform expansion. comoving with the local m e d i u m ' s center-of-mass velocity. (b a has served to introduce the causal origin of irreversibility via its deduced positive nature and that of K.y i -./x.~ ~i. 8 Including.pL "-~ b (38) whereby 3 is defined. while the hidden 9 effect o f q~a is of no practical value in local thermodynamics.. F o r these systems the viscous dissipation becomes (/3 = q~.~~ i + ~~ i'0 ~x~ >~ 0 (40) The physical meaning o f S is related to our local observations. nonexpanding systems in our laboratory (which are to be considered as deviations from a uniform expansion rate taken as the standard--for more details on this standard see Part II). . etc. Neither is it in disagreement with them. we have K > 0. Eq. s I apply the first law of thermodynamics [Eq. according as the local system expands or contracts with respect to the standard.

the existence of entropy s defined by ds = (dq)rev/T is postulated. (43) becomes du _ TdS _ pL dry dt dt dt which. gives the familiar Planck inequality (46) 3=TdS 1 dt q .d r @ X k~l 8c-~ X dcT~@ "" (41) and the thermodynamic temperature. and Time Anisotropies. and employing Eq.> 0 (45) Thus. where A and B are constants. ds/dt >~ .b >~0 (47) which is the cornerstone of modern continuum thermodynamics. C O N N E C T I O N S W I T H C L A S S I C A L A N D C O N T I N U U M THERMODYNAMICS 421 In classical equilibrium thermodynamics.Cosmological Origin of Irreversibility. Thus.. (8). Eq.~ t~ dc~: + . for systems involving heat transfer. defined by [ as] -1" T ( 8s] . by substituting in (39). we obtain d u ~ = TdS~ adv ~ d-~ dt -. L / o T (48) .pk/p. k (43) Reverting to the isotropic processes described previously (in which no net diffusion or chemical reactions take place. (41) now takes the familiar (Gibbs) form 1 ds = -~ du @ P dv -... respectively. and chemical potentials are. for a gas and/or radiation obeying the state equation p = p R T -? A T e. Time. For a pure material undergoing a local macroscopic process. i.e.. I 8. ck . Consequently. For an adiabatic process in a gravitational field (47) reduces to [T(ds/dt)]~>~ O. ( 8s ) (42) Here the symbol ( )~ denotes that all other quantities are kept constant for each partial differentiation.. ). v. ds = ~ du + -@v.p V ' ~ q . the expansion causes the entropy to increase. Here T is defined by means of the equilibrium function s = s(u. pressure.. where ck -.p W = = 0 (44) T~ ds~ . dce == 0).V ..

. rl) rli d3rl (50) (51) . however. a theory which is unified. The formal pretext for such an a priori procedure is in "causality. This completes the formulation of the foundations of our new theory. on the other hand. respectively. which is in turn equivalent to an a priori imposition of electrodynamic irreversibility! Even in quantum electrodynamics. so that each solution of these equations for time t has a symmetric counterpart for --t. only the retarded solution is chosen so as to agree with observations. on one hand. both solutions are valid." but to state that the cause must precede the effect is essentially equivalent to an a priori time asymmetry. the actual emission of radiation is attributed to "'spontaneous" downward transitions. Mathematically speaking. I j(t -. with the theories of gravitation and modern cosmology. we review the main problems involved and the prospect of our school achieving a partial unification via a second principle of earth-cosmological links. with classical and continuum thermodynamics. and. E L E C T R O M A G N E T I C TIME ASYMMETRY IRREVERSIBILITY AND THE MASTER No unified theory of thermodynamic and electromagnetic irreversibilities is available. t) ( /~(t -. h) d rl where the electric charge density fi and the current density j are subject to Maxwell's equations. These are known as retarded (charge emits energy) and advanced (charge absorbs energy) solutions. The time symmetry of Maxwell's equations allows one to obtain the familiar retarded solutions r) A~dv(t. In practice. Why does an accelerated electric charge lose radiant energy to surrounding space? Why is it never seen to receive incoming radiation fi'om outer space? The classical equations of electrodynamies are fundamentally symmetric under time reversal.422 Gal-Or Expression (48) is in fact the familiar "second law" of classical thermodynamics ds ~ d'Q/T (49) which in our theory is deduced from the master inequality (8). formally. the rates of induced upward and downward transitions must be symmetric.(( r -. (211 9.([ r ! Ir -- r 1 !/C). In this section.rl lr -r?i i/c).

but is derived from the reaction of the universe. 20. while in Eqs. we impose the condition ~ = 1 to obtain purely outgoing radiation. . is confined to interactions between pairs of lo See. In agreement with observations. while in the later case it gains inc. These questions were examined by Hogarth. Hoyle and Narlikar. and Narlikar. causing the flux of radiation to drop off as r -'2. Time. The reason for this choice goes beyond pure electrodynamics. ~ ( t .r~-i d~r~ In Eqs. I 423 By reversing the sign of t. r) = f j(t + (I r -. Wheeler and Feynman achieved their result by imposing asymmetric initial conditions on the system of the type that lead to the thermodynamic arrow of time and causality. A more general solution can be obtained by combining (50)-(53) in the form A = c~Aret + (1 -. and Time Anisotropies. the actual expanding universe is not time symmetric. Arguments that link electromagnetic irreversibility to the universe at large were reported by Wheeler and Feynman. Ref. one obtains the advanced solutions 1° ~ .oming radiation from space. rl) s !r -. under time reversal. they have also tried to demonstrate which cosmological model agrees with the observed retarded solutions--a topic which is outside the scope of this paper. r 0 d~r~ (52) (53) Aaav(t. however.r 1 !/c).Cosmological Origin of Irreversibility. However. Ca) who pointed out that unlike the static universe analyzed by Wheeler and Feynman. According to the absorber theory of Wheeler and Feynman. r) = f f3(t + l ! r _--r~ ~. (52) and (53) they are due to source disturbances at later times. (50) and (51) q~ and A at time t are due to disturbances arising earlier from the source.c~)A~av (55) where 0 ~< c~ ~< 1 and in which there is both outgoing and incoming radiation. Using such arguments. In both cases the electric and magnetic field intensities fall off as r -1 for large r. the symmetry. (~ The advantage of their approach is that the value c~ = 1 does not have to be assumed. It can now be explained within the framework of the new thermodynamics. That result was actually used in the previous formulation of the Olbers paradox.! I/e). In the former case the solution represents loss of radiation energy from source to space.

while in a large-scale (asymmetric) ensemble of charged particles.7 K the particles are maintained close to their ground state by the expansion of intergalactic space. In a future development the same result may be reached from the change in average distance. downward transitions are highly improbably and incoming radiation is perfectly absorbed. Yet at the prevailing temperature of 2. which in turn undergo upward transitions in a static world. Another possibility is via the master asymmetry that causes interstellar space to change toward very low density of radiation and particles. Thus. the master asymmetry stands at the center of the picture and can be directly combined (in a number of different mathematical formulations (G)) with the reversible electromagnetic equations.. they become asymmetric. the universe must act as a perfect absorber of electromagnetic disturbances generated within it. Therefore. unsaturable expanding space that a perfect absorbtion becomes feasible.. their arguments are not complete or convincing. again. so as to deduce the observed electrodynamic irreversibility. Table I. and Electrodynamics Master asymmetry --+ thermodynamic asymmetry -~ electromagnetic asymmetry (a) Master asymmetry --+ electromagnetic asymmetry ~ thermodynamic asymmetry (b) / Master asymmetry \ (c) i electromagnetic asymmetry +-----+ thermodynamic asymmetry inter . namely: master asymmetry . In order to create the necessary asymmetry. or from general relativity. and lead to a local time asymmetry in electrodynamics. Deeply embedded in this chain of causal links are questions related to the very nature of time and to the interaction between thermodynamics (of matter) and electromagnetic radiation.e. Accordingly. such as the universe.424 Gal-Or particles. The possible interactions are given in Table I. i. But how can the world act like a perfect absorber? Wheeler and Feynman restricted their theory to a static universe. a wave emitted in a galactic source it absorbed by space particles. Thermodynamics. Here. unsaturable space (particles close to ground state) --+ space acting as "perfect absorber" -+ electrodynamic irreversibility. thereby giving rise to eIectrodynamic irreversibility. the divergence of the world lines according to the observed "red-shifted" master asymmetry. B is only in the nonstatic. Possible Interactions Among Cosmology.

12. JETP Lett. ed. 1962). Quart. it may be the radiation itself that is "imprinted" with asymmetry that in turn. B. B. Novotny. Chicago. Introduction to Stellar Atmospheres and Interiors (Oxford University Press. Gal-Or. I 425 In mechanism (c) the electromagnetic and thermodynamic asymmetries include embedded photon and material asymmetries. 13. V. 1974). 1967). 186. 17. ed. ed. 9. T. So far. in Modern Developments in Thermodynamics. Oxford. Zeldovich. Nature 230. Gal-Or. Ann. T. 16. Feynman. free of aggregations or nonuniformity due to gravitation. 15. Wheeler and R. etc. ed. Sandage. 13. 5. 8. J. generates the observed thermodynamic irreversibility whenever interactions between radiation and matter do take place [mechanism (b)]. Mod.(21~ REFERENCES B. New York. N. Phys. Aharony. 1974). by B. not only does the electrodynamic asymmetry vanish. Radio-Astr. B. and Time Anisotropies. If a macroscopic system could be entirely made of superconducting matter. The Nature of Time (Cornell Univ.. Y'a.) On the other hand. 1973). Mechanisms (a) and (b) may also be equally valid. Relativistic Astrophysics (University of Chicago Press. 1974). 11. Time. in Modern Developments in Thermodynamies. 7. A. 12 (1971). Y. 3. 1971). but the "red-shifted" asymmetry is unobservable. Rev. New York. S. Gold. New York. 1. B. J. 196(A6). We must. B. Ne'eman. 1328 (1969). Gal-Or. Rev. we have no means of ascertaining which of the three interactions is the proper one. Gal-Or (Wiley. 1972). L. J.Cosmological Origin of Irreversibility. 11 (1972). gravitation is behind our ability to observe red-shifts and irreversibilities through the motion of selfgravitating sources. 2. by B. Zeldovich and I. Phys. in Modern Developments in Thermodynamics. 282 (1972). Mechanism (a) attributes the electrodynamic irreversibility to the thermodynamic onesidedness of matter in intergalactic space. A. 157 (1945). Astrophysics and Stellar Structure (Waltham. ed. Illinois. Nobikov. therefore. (In a completely transparent world. in Recent Developments in General Relativity (Pergamon Press. Gravitation and Cosmology (Wiley.Y. Sci. C. which are observational manifestations of one and the same basic phenomenon of irreversibility. 4. Narlikar. Gal-Or (Wiley-. Press. Misner. 12. 1970). 14. by B. Gold. Gal-Or. assume that all of them are feasible. D. 307 (1970). 17. 6. New York 1974). W.. in fact. P. E. 10. Science 176. Modern Developments in Thermodynamies (Wiley. differentiated only by our epistemology. Motz. Ya. New York. Weinberg. Soe. New York. Gal-Or (Wiley. Acad. . New York. 305 (1972). would that allow us to establish proper asymmetric links between thermodynamics and radiation? Unfortunately we do not yet know. Ithaca. A. Massachusetts.

1933). . L. H. Gal-Or. B. Gold. Cambridge. in Modern Developments in Thermodynamics. T. New York. 20. Relativity Thermodynamics and Cosmology (Oxford Press. Gal-Or (Wiley. 21.426 Gal-Or 18. Part 11: Crossroads in Physics (Neaman Institute of Advanced Studies at theTechnian-lsrael Institute of Technology. 1974). Cosmology (Cambridge University Press. by B. Tolman. 19. Oxford. R. Haifa. ed. Crisis in Western Science and Philosophy. 1976). Bondi. 1961).

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