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International Journal of CivilJOURNAL Engineering and OF Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print), INTERNATIONAL CIVIL ENGINEERING AND

D ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), IAEME TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET)

ISSN 0976 6308 (Print) ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), pp. 306-315 IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.3277 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

IJCIET
IAEME

DESIGN AND ESTIMATION OF RURAL ROAD IN VADDESWARAM


D.Satish Chandra1, Arjun Chhetri2, Sonam Wangchen3, Sri.Harsha Yadagani4 (Civil department, KL university, Vaddeswaram, India) (Civil department, KL university, Vaddeswaram, India) 3 (Civil department, KL university, Vaddeswaram, India) 4 (Civil department, KL university, Vaddeswaram, India)
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ABSTRACT Rural road is basically defined as the road connecting rural areas with population less than 500 or population between 500 to 1000 or between 1000 to 1500.In India Pradhan Mantra Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) provides rural connectivity to all habitations under the Ministry of Rural Development. The objective of this project is to design and estimate the total cost of construction of the rural road in vaddesearam. For which we have conducted soil survey in the study area (vaddeswaram).The experiments conducted on soil are dry sieve analysis, CBR test, plastic limit, liquid limit and standard Procter test.Designing the road based on IRC SP 20.Design include designing thickness of layers, camber design, design speed, roadway width and carriage way width selection. After the completion of design we have selected appropriate materials and layers (base course-WMM, surfacing-Single coat surface dressing with bitumen). Finally we projected the estimated quantities of materials required, cost of materials, labour charges and cost of hiring for the construction. Keywords: rural road, soil survey, design, design speed, camber design, roadway width, WMM, surface dressing, estimation, cost of material. 1. INTRODUCTION

Rural roads play very important role in social economic development and poverty reduction in rural areas. Rural road construction helps in increasing agricultural output, economic growth and poverty reduction. [2] It brings development by creating opportunities
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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), IAEME

to access goods and services located in nearby villages (or) major towns. Rural road provides alternative sources of income to the poor people and help them to increase their income, improve their living standards. The rural roads in India are in poor condition therefore Indian government has lunched pradhan mantra gram sadak yojana, December 2000 for the development of the rural roads[1]. It provides connectivity to rural areas have population between 500 to 1000 and between 1000 to 1500.Public private partnership is another option for construction of rural roads, in this type of construction private and government invest together for road construction. Here the privates sector is attracted by giving some long term profit on investment. [3] For this paper designing of rural road is done following IRC-SP-20 code. We have provided an estimation of the cost of construction the rates could vary for different places. 2. STUDY AREA

Vaddeswaram

Fig 1 study area Road details Existing road - earth road of length -1.5 km, No proper maintenance provided .The road is 6 yrs old per the villagers. The common type of soil found in this area is black cotton. Average annual rainfall -1030 mm Highest summer temperature-47 C, lowest summer temperature-28 , winter temperature-30 C Lowest winter temperature-15C.Locally available low grade materials which can be used for road construction are: River gravels,Pit gravel, Laterite, Moorum and Soft stone/sand stone. Rocks available for road construction in the area are: Lime stone, Sand stone, quartzite and granite.
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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), IAEME

3.

OBJECTIVE

The objective of our project is to design the rural road following IRC-SP-20 code book, selecting appropriate layers and materials. Estimating the materials required, estimating the total cost of construction of the road including labour charges and machinery hiring charges. 4. METHODOLOGY

The design of rural roads is done based on the rural road code book which is IRC SP 20. The sequence for designing the rural road is first we have to conduct the soil survey under which experiments are conducted on the soil sample of the area where the road is to be constructed. After the soil survey is done we get CBR values of the soil using which we can design the road layer thickness requirement. Camber design, design speed, roadway width and carriage way width is also design as per the recommendation in the code book. 5. RESULTS OF THE TEST CONDUCTED ON THE SOIL

5.1 Standard Procter compaction test

Fig 2 graph showing the optimum moisture content Results: 1.optimum moisture content: 10% 2. Maximum dry density of soil: 2.169

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), IAEME

5.2 Dry sieve analysis

Fig 3.grain size distribution chart for road soil Results: The soil is coarse grain soil as the percentage of fine is less the 50% Coarse grain sand - 43.6 % Medium grain sand -30.1% Fine grained sand -23.9 % Clay and slit -2.4% D30 =0.78 D10=0.25 D60 =2.7 Coefficient of uniformity Cu =D60/D10 =10.8, Coefficient of curvature Cc= (D30)2/D60*D10 =0.9 Criteria for well graded soil: Cu > 4 & 1 < Cc < 3 (sand) As Cc is less than 1 it is not a well graded soil, it is poorly graded soil 5.3 Liquid limit

Fig 4.graph for water content Vs no. of blows


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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), IAEME

Results: Graph= (IF) = (W1-W2)/ (logN2/N1) (11.11-33)/ (log 9/36) = (-4.89/-0.60)=36% Liquid limit=17% 5.4 Plastic limit LL=17 % Plastic limit =14.5% Plasticity index=LL-PL=2.5% Now from plasticity chart we found out that the soil is OL (organic low plasticity) or ML (slit low plasticity). 5.6 CBR Test on soil samples CBR value for 2.5mm compression: (Calculated load at 2.5mm compression)/ (design load at 2.5mm compression)*100 CBR value for 5mm compression: (Calculated load at 5mm compression)/ (design load at 5mm compression)*100 Road soil for 2.5 mm=5.5*5*6.1=167.75, (167.75/1344)*100=12.48% Road soil for 5mm=12*5*6.1=366, (366/2016)*100=18.15% CBR = 18.15% 6. DESIGN FOR THE STUDY AREA BASED ON IRC-SP-20

Design for the study area based on IRC-SP-20 Details of the study area. 1. Average annual rainfall -1030 mm 2. Number of commercial vehicle per day-20 0 0 3. Temperature of the area maximum-47 C minimum-15 C 6.1 Calculating the thickness of layers to be provided for the road CBR value of soil is 18.5%,Which is more then 15 % there is no need to provide sub base base layer can be directly layed.For our study area the number of commercial vehicles per day is 20. As per the IRC SP 20: A base layer thickness of 150 mm and single coat surface dressing.

Fig 5 showing the thickness required as per IRC-SP-20

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), IAEME

Base layer of -150mm and surfacing is required. Road width - 6m as the number of vehicle per day is less than 100. Carriageway width -3m. Camber- 3.5 %. Design speed of -40 km/hr

Fig. 6 showing the road cross section. 7. SELECTION OF APPROPRIATE LAYERS FOR THE ROAD CONSTRUCTION 1. Base layer wet mix macadam (150mm) 2. Surface coating-single coat surface dressing using bitumen 7.1 Base layer wet mix macadam layer WMM layer is a layer made out of crushed aggregates and water premixed at a wet mix plant.. Thickness of single compacted Wet Mix Macadam layer shall not be less than 75 mm. Composition of aggregates -40MM -35%, 20MM -20%, 10MM 20% and Stone dust 25%. 7.2 Surface dressing Single coat surface dressing using bitumen It is a layer consisting of thin layer of bitumen sprayed on top of base layer, on which stone chips are spread and are roller compacted. Advantages of using surface dressing:Provides good sealing coat to the road surface, Provides high resistance to skidding hence accident hazards reduces, Less expensive and durable pavement. 7.3 Materials Bitumen which is less viscous is used such as 80/100. For easy and uniform spraying. This ensures proper coating and embedment of aggregate sprayed on it.

Type of construction Single coat surface dressing

Specification 100% passing through 22.4 mm Sieve and retaining on 11.2 mm sieve. Table 1 showing the aggregate specification for single coat surface dressing
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Nominal size of stone chips 13.2 mm

International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), IAEME

8.

ESTIMATION AND COSTING FOR LAYING THE ROAD

Quantity estimation S.N 1 2 SINGLE COAT SURFACE DRESSING USING BITUMEN 3 SITE CLEARANCE 1500 1500 3 6 4500 9000 SQM SQM DESCRIPTION WET MIX MACADAM L 1500 B 3 D 0.15 QTY 675 UNITS Cum

8.1 Detailed estimation


S.N 1 Preparation of the area for base layer includes watering , rolling with vibrator roller and clearance of vegetations if any present SQM Providing stone aggregate to WET MIX Macadam specification including cost, of all materials and premixing the material with water at OMC in mechanical mix plant carriage of mixed material by tipper to site as directed by the Engineer-incharge. Laying, spreading and compacting graded crushed stone aggregate to WET MIX Macadam specification laying in uniform layers with paver in base courses on well prepared surface and compacting with vibratory roller to achieve the desired density etc. as directed by the Engineer in-charge Single coat surface dressing using bitumen (13 mm nominal size chips) total amount 9000 4 36000 DESCRIPTION UNIT QTY RATE AMOUNT

Cum

675

728.6

491805

3 4

Cum SQM

1350 4500

170 27

229500 121500 Rs.878805

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), IAEME

8.2 Labour and hire charges


S.N

for laying wet mix macadam


PARTICULARS Mazdoor(beldar) for road clearance and road preparation for laying base layer Mazdoor(beldar) for laying spreading the wet mix layer and 5 nos. nos. 9 nos. Pneumatic Road roller 4 Tipper-5.5Cum soil,WMM etc 5 total amount Transportation of Per Hour 629.80 Rs.4135 Per Hour 1035 260.00 per day 260.00 per day 260.00 per day 2470 per day QTY RATE AMOUNT

4 nos.

260.00 per day

2 3

Mazdoor(beldar)for compaction of the layer Total

S.N

for laying Single coat surface dressing (with bitumen)


PARTICULARS Mazdoor(beldar) for brushing and cleaning of the base layer Mazdoor(beldar) for heating and spreading of bitumen Mazdoor(beldar) for compaction of the layer Total Pneumatic Road roller QTY RATE AMOUNT

4 nos.

260.00 per day

2 3

4 nos. nos. 8 nos. Per Hour

260.00 per day 260.00 per day 260.00 per day 2210 per day 1035

4 Tipper- 5.5 Cum Transportation of bitumen and chips Bitumen boiler oil fired Bitumen Spraying Hydraulic Chip Spreader Surface dressing total amount

Per Hour

629.80

6 7

Per Hour Per Hour

170 2070 Rs.6115.0

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), IAEME

Total labour and hiring charges per day = Rs 10250 For the total construction approximately it could take 2 days there for total labour and hiring charges =Rs.20,500 The total cost of construction including material charges labour and hiring charges is = Rs.8, 99,305 ,3% for contingencies= Rs.26, 980, Net total cost of road construction =Rs.9, 26,285 9. PERT CHART

Fig 7 showing the pert chart

Activities 1.Soil survey (soil tests) 2.Design based on IRC-SP-20 3.Checking for locally available materials 4.Selection of layers for the road 5. Estimating the total materials required and also the total cost for laying the road including labour charges and machine hires. 6. Arrangements of labours and hiring of construction equipments 7. Transporting the materials to the construction site 8.Site clearance and laying the WMM layer 9.Laying the surface dressing Minimum days required for the construction

Duration 5 days 2 days 1 day 1 day 2 days

1 day 1 days 1 day 1 day 14 days

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), IAEME

10.

CONCLUSION Construction of rural roads in India need attention as there are lots of villages which are not connected and the villages which have road connection are in poor condition. Locally available materials should be used for the construction of rural road so as to make the construction economic. Road layers can be constructed using certain types of municipal wastes hence making use of waste materials for construction. Summary of the design for our study area road: 1. Full length of road= 1.5km 2. Roadway width= 6m 3. Carriage way width=3m 4. Base layer=WMM(wet mix macadam) 150 mm thickness 5. Surface dressing=single coat surface dressing with bitumen 6. Designed speed 40km/hr 7. Camber =3.5% The estimated cost for laying the above road costs Rs.9,26,285

REFERENCES Journal Papers [1] Agarwal. P. K, Singh. A. P, Some strategies for sustainable maintenance of rural roads in India, International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology, Oct.-Dec., 2010, Vol I, Issue III. [2] Dominique.V.Walle, Choosing Rural Road Investments to Help Reduce Poverty, Elsevier Science Ltd, World Development, 2002 Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 575589. [3] Sinha.A.B, Public private partnership in building rural infrastructure in India, JM International journal of management research, january,2010, Vol -1 Issue 2. [4] Bant Singh and Dr. Srijit Biswas, Effect of E-Quality Control on Tolerance Limits in Wmm & Dbm in Highway Construction - A Case Study, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 33 - 45, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499. [5] T Subramani and P.K.Kumaresan, Traffic Study on Road Network to Identify the Short Term Road Improvement Projects in Major Urban Centre, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 66 - 76, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499. Books [6] Dr.K.R.Arora, Soil Mechanics And Foundation Engineering (standard publishers distributors) ISBN: 81-8014-112-8. [7] Dutta. B.N., Estimating and costing 26 revised edition (UBS Publishers distributors pvt.Ltd). [8] Kanna.S.K,Highway Engineering(Nem chand & bros,civil lines,Roorkee)2011, ISBN: 978-81-85240-63-3 Code Book [9] IRC-SP-20.Manual on route location design, construction and maintenance of rural road (Indian road congress).
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