NON EXPERIMENTAL JOURNAL Title : ‘Zero Carbon Manufacturing Facility – Towards Integrating Material, Energy and Waste Process

Flows’ Author : P D Ball, S Evans, A Levers and D Ellison Journal: Journal of Engineering Manufacture 2009

General Overview The increases in the average temperature of Earth’s atmosphere and oceans or in short, global warming is a problem that affects the whole world. Developed and developing countries contributed a part to this problem through the manufacturing businesses. Several measures and legislation is created to achieve an environmental friendly manufacturing process. Zero carbon manufacturing facility is one of the suggested ways to a more environment friendly process. Zero carbon manufacturing facility means that a facility that leaves zero carbon footprint. Carbon footprint is a measure of the greenhouse gas emissions associated with an activity, group of activities or a product. Definitions of carbon footprints may vary in terms of which activities and greenhouse gases should be included within the scope of a carbon footprint assessment, and the level of detail [Abbott, 2000]. This paper was written to address the steps a manufacturer could take in order to create a zero carbon manufacturing facility, by integrating material, energy and waste process flows using available technologies and methods in reducing carbon imprint. The term ‘zero carbon manufacturing’ is used here to include the production system, the supporting infrastructure (including offices and facilities), as well as the interface with the supply chain and community [Ball et. al, 2009].


The analysis is done to achieve objective of the research. all the data for this research was compiled using non experimental methods. 2009]. 1999]. and ascertain the viability of using material.Data Collection Method The research approach is exploratory and inductive using case work from which theory can be built and tested [Yin. the VSM 2 . such as practitioner and academician to get first hand accounts of what is happening inside a manufacturing facility. as well as the interface with the supply chain and community involved. quality and location of flow. the authors of this paper are using the inputs and outputs of these technologies instead to create a model. al. which are to establish current thinking on technological solutions and how they are integrated. VSM. Among the method used are expert interviews. and distributors. 2009]. the supporting infrastructure (including offices and facilities). Modeling only allows qualitative analysis. al. Based on the paper. Currently. to deliver products to the customers [Irani et. All the data in this paper was analyzed and mapped using Value Stream Mapping or in short. Therefore. Unlike typical VSM modeling which applies the functional features of low carbon technologies. 1994 cited in Ball et. can be done using the modeling approach. and waste flow modeling as a basis for supporting zero carbon manufacturing facility design or improvements [Ball et. Besides that. establish the requirements of zero carbon manufacture. Data Analysis Method The authors have chosen modeling as a technique to suggest an integrated view of a zero carbon manufacturing facility. no quantitative calculation such as magnitude. VSM is the discipline of mapping the material and information flows that are required to coordinate the activities performed by manufacturers. energy. visits to manufacturing companies and trade events are conducted by authors to view for themselves the production system. suppliers. al..

which includes the whole material. al. the authors can portray any output from any type flow will be used by another. 2005]. also known as Integrated Definition method 0 is used to model the flows involved. the complete cycle of waste is hard to document.concept is used to focus on primary material flow and though the waste from the process is observed. al. Figure 1 : Generic IDEF0 activity [Fulcher. IDEF0 is a structured analysis method for efficiently representing the complex relationship graphically and identifying the information and correlation between entities [Ang et.. Plus. as the resulting material is of inferior quality [McDonough et. 2002 cited in Ball et. waste and energy flows plus all the support processes involved.. 1999 cited in Patil 2005] 3 . the authors widened the use of VSM concept to cover the complete cycle for a zero carbon manufacturing process. Here each process is dependent and interrelated to the wider system and opportunities are sought to reuse and recycle materials within a system rather than allow them to leave as waste (noting that most ‘recycling’ today is actually ‘down-cycling’.. For this research paper. IDEF0. 1997 cited in Patil. al. By doing this. 2009] The value stream mapping is presented using IDEF0 modeling. it usually doesn’t include energy flows and support processes.

there is a lot of software available to apply VSM. iGrafx FlowCharter and Quality Companion by Minitab.Elements in IDEF0 modeling (refer the figure above) consists of [Patil. Among the various types of VSM software are VALSAT. 4 . n. in the sequence in which they happen. VSM is a tool to help operation managers and engineers (and others) understand how their flows currently operate and to help guide them through the process of analysis to improve those existing flows and design better ones in the future [Shook. SmartDraw. another method that can be used for this paper besides value stream mapping is detailed process mapping.d. Detailed process mapping has all the process components the value stream map does. Microsoft Excel. Microsoft Visio. process mapping is use to analyze the resources required and work content (Input). 2005]: • • • • Inputs – information or objects transformed by the activity Outputs – information or objects that are created when the function is performed Controls – the conditions or circumstances that govern the activity’s performance Mechanisms – the persons or devices that enable the activity As value stream mapping is a recognized method used as part of Six Sigma methodologies. It is called a value stream map because it shows the value-adding activities necessary to produce what is required. Suggestion for Alternative Data Analysis Method Based on the data collected and analysis done. and the outcome (Output) [Spidel. These software ranges from those that can be used to simply design and construct the maps. 2008]. Whilst. the activities performed on the work (Throughputs). 2011]. and it can be broken down in much greater detail [Stroud.]. to software that can carry out calculations and perform detailed analysis.

2006]. there are several modeling techniques that can be applied for process mapping. and can be used to identify the waste in a process. Since it is quite similar. 5 . SIPOC and IDEF (usually IDEF0 or IDEF3. depending on what needs to be portrayed) [Khadye. detailed process mapping is an alternative. if done effectively. A detailed process map. plus the parameters that are used (inputs and outputs of all the flows in zero carbon manufacturing) to create modeling of process is also the same. The most commonly followed techniques of process mapping are flowcharting. including non-value added steps.Since the authors for this paper do not intend to do a quantitative analysis and didn’t use the functional features of low carbon technologies to build the process modeling. will show the actual process. a detailed process mapping is a viable solution too. but concentrate on the input and output of these technologies instead. Like VSM.

The objective of this experiment is to study the generated cutting force. Minimum quantity lubrication or in short. Cutting fluids not only reduce heat. either lubricants or coolants. Yanuar B . injecting a mixture of water and oil into the cutting region. MQL works with pressurized air. Data Collection Method The data was collected by machining experimentation on the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. The experiment was executed on a 3-axis CNC milling machine.EXPERIMENTAL JOURNAL Title : ‘Machinalibilty of Ti-6Al-4V Under Dry and Near Dry Condition Using Carbide Tools’ Author : Ahmad Yasir M. Nagi H. it acts as lubrication and assist chip removal by flushing it. MQL) conditions. Machining processes generates high temperature due to friction between workpiece and cutting tools. 2009 General Overview This paper was written to study the machinability of a titanium alloy from the alpha beta group Ti-6Al-4V under dry and near dry (minimum quantity lubricant.E.G.I Journal: The Open Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering Journal. tool wear and tool life when machining the material under dry and near dry condition.H. The dimensions of the Ti-6Al-4V test piece are 100x100x160 mm. Gusri A. Che Hassan C. These test pieces were pre-machined 2mm of each surface before the experiment in order to remove the residual stress 6 and . Jaharah A. Machining temperature can be reduced by using cutting fluids.S.

al. Experiment were stop at various time intervals to measure the tool wear. Measurements of tool wear were stopped. 120. 2009]: . The DOE of this research can be simplified using the following table by research authors. al. when either one of these criteria was obtained [Yasir et. The effectiveness of mist coolant was tested at three different levels of cutting speed.3 mm ..catastrophic tool failure . 2009]. 2009] According to this paper.aging at the outer layer. al. The radial depth of cut was kept constant at 10mm.. 135 and 150 m/min. coolant was not used for dry machining.machining time reached 20 minutes 7 . Table 1: Factors and Levels for DOE [Yasir et. The experiment done collected two and three level data for four factors involved in the study. The cutting force was measured using a 3-axis dynamometer [Yasir et.the flank wear reached 0. Data Analysis Method The design of experiment for this research was multi level factorial. Machining under MQL or near dry condition was done at two levels of coolant flow rate of 50 and 100 mL/H..

According to this paper. Both flank wear and surface roughness was plotted against all three cutting speed. 3 outputs were studied.. Graph 2: Example of chart showing surface roughness at 120m/min for different feed rate and coolant flow rate [Yasir et. cutting speed. Tool life experiment was recorded under four cutting condition. al. feed rate and depth of cut. Data on tool wear was plotted in two condition. coolant flow rate(mL/H). I believe all the data for this experiment was analyzed manually. coolant flow rate(mL/H). 120. coolant flow rate. al. flank wear and surface roughness. 135 and 150 m/min. Conclusion was drawn based on the histogram. 8 . feed rate (mm/tooth) and depth of cut(mm) [Yasir et.Based on my understanding. All charts and graphs were probably plotted using Microsoft Excel. In each graph. feed rate (mm/tooth) and depth of cut(mm). Graph 1: Example of histogram showing tool life (min) vs cutting speed(m/min). 2009]. tool life. surface roughness and cutting force. All the data collected was presented in histogram for tool life (min) vs cutting speed(m/min). 2009]. the data for every feed rate at all coolant flow rate was plotted.. Conclusion on tool wear factors was made according to the graphs.

larger the better type and nominal the best type characteristics. Based on the paper. to study all three output. as it will show detailed interaction between all the factor and level. There are many software that offer ANOVA such as Design-Ease. which greatly improves the engineering productivity [Phillips. The author conclusion on cutting force effects was drawn based on both histogram and graph. Using ANOVA. 1998]. Suggestion for Alternative Data Analysis Method The mass data collected from this experiment was due to authors objective. cutting speed. the percentage contribution of the various process parameters on the selected performance characteristic can be estimated. tool wear. which results in highest value of S/N (signal to noise) ratio in the experimental region. Taguchi method is a unique and powerful statistical experimental design technique. feed rate (mm/tooth) and depth of cut(mm). Based on percentage contribution. Taguchi classifies the objective functions as smaller the better type. Interactions are the extent to which the effects of one factor differ according to the levels of another factor [Dallal. data was collected at two or three level. F-ratios can be evaluated to check the adequacy of the parameters and their factor effects [Stockburger. 9 . Besides that. 2008]. coolant flow rate. my first suggestion is to further analyze the data using ANOVA (analysis of variance). tool life and cutting force under four cutting factor. feed rate and depth of cut. The optimal level for a process parameter is the level. all the data alternatively could be analyzed using Taguchi method. 1989].The final output. XLStat and many more. coolant flow rate (mL/H). information about how significant is the effect of each controlled parameter on the quality characteristic of interest can be obtained.axis vs each cutting speed under different coolant condition. Mini Tab. The histogram shows the cutting force of each 3 axis against cutting speed(m/min). cutting force data was shown in both histogram and graph. That said. While the graphs projected cutting force at X. For each condition. [Accessed on 26 October 2011]. Gerard E.S.L. Tom. 2009. Shook. Irani. 223(B).. J. [Accessed on 26October 2011].. Ohio. Evans. L. Taguchi Techniques for Quality Engineering. 5(3).lean. Flow Analysis. The Edinburgh Centre for Carbon Management. p. BPM Series: Process Mapping Basics – Part II [online]. International Journal of Production Research. Lean Enterprise Institute[online]. Amar S.. Columbus. p. Ohio State University.htm> [Accessed 28 October 2011]. Journal of Engineering Manufacture. 2005. M. Available at : http://it. Business Process Management Journal. M. SOLE . 2002. 1997.. P. Spidel.. What Is A Carbon Footprint? Report Version 2. 35(5). L. A. Fulscher. Patil. Energy and Waste Process Flows. 2000. McGraw-Hill Company. D. Wichita State University. A. Process Mapping.... “ Value Stream Mapping of a Complete Product ”. Cradle to Cradle: Remaking The Way We Make Things. Available through: Tufts University <http://www. Khadye. McDonough. K. Incorporating Environmental Index as Waste into Value Stream Mapping. D.References Abbott. R. The Little Handbook of Statistical Practise . New York. P..d. 1989. and Ellison. Ang C. Zero Carbon Manufacturing Facility – Towards Integrating Material. Thesis. M. Vinayek. Available at: www... 2008. 2008. Boston. J.southernmarylandsole. 1999. and Braungart. 1385-1412. and Zhou. 1999. Luo. Levers.The International Society of Logistics [online]. 1085-1096. Available at : www.jerrydallal. A Knowledge Based Approach to the Generation of IDEF0 Model. USA: North Point Press. J. Anatomy of a Process Mapping Workshop. W. and Gay. International ed. and Takt John.toolbox. 208-237. 10 . p. Phillip. Misunderstandings about Value-Stream Mapping. Khoo. S. Ball. R. [Accessed on 27 October 2011]. 2006. J..

C. J Delaine.. 1994. David W. Available through: Missouri State University <http://www. and Gusri.. E.htm> [Accessed 28 October 2011] H. Introductory Statistics: Concepts. Jaharah.missouristate. Models and Applications. London: Sage Publications.. A.psychstat.S. R. Ch Hassan. Stroud.isixsigma. 2011. Missouri. 1998. Yasir. Yin.G.I.. 11 . Nagi. Case Study Research – Design and Methods. Available at: www. Machinalibilty of Ti-6Al-4V Under Dry and Near Dry Condition Using Carbide [Accessed on 27 October 2011]. 2(1-91).Stockburger. Ahmad M. The Open Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering Journal. More Value: Value Stream or Detailed Process Mapping? [online]. 2009. Yanuar. B. A.

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