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**Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics:
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Gas dynamics” deals with the study ofc fluid flow when it is in motion. It analyses the high speed flows of gases and vapours with considering its compressibility. Applications The applications of Gas Dynamics are (j) used in steam and Gas turbines (i high speed aerodynamics ( Jet and Rocket propulsion ( high speed turbo compressors etc. The fluid dynamics of compressible flow problems which involves the relation between force, velocity, density and mass etc. Therefore, the following laws are frequently used for solving the Gas Dynamic problems. (i) Steady flow energy equation [ from first law of thermodynamics] (ii) Entropy relations [ from second law of Thermodynamics] (iii) Continuity equation [ from law of conservation of mass] (iv) Momentum equation [ from Newton’s second law of motion]

1.1 Energy Equation The first law of thermodynamics states that when a system executes a cyclic process, the a sum of work transfers is proportional to the algebraic sum of heat transfers. i.e.,

The quantity ‘dQ’ and ‘dw’ will follow the path function, but the quantity (dQ — dw) does not depend on the path of the process. Therefore, the change in quantity (dQ— dw) is a property called “Energy” (E). Thus

In the above equation, the energy term ‘E’ may includes kinetic energy, internal energy, gravitational potential energy, strain energy, magnetic energy, etc., By ignoring magnetic energy and strain energy the energy term ‘E’ may be written as

III. Energy equation for a flow process A change or a series of changes in an open system is known as a ‘flow process” examples are (i) Flow through nozzles, diffusers and ducts etc, (ii) expansion of steam and gas in turbines (iii) Compression of air and gases in turbo compressors etc. .

This is a steady flow energy equation which is generally used in flow problems of gases and vapours. 1.1.2 Adiabatic energy equation Compared to other quantities. the change in elevation g(z —zi) is negligible in flow problems of gases and vapours. In a reversible adiabatic process the heat transfer ‘q’ is negligibly small and can be ignored. Expansion of gases and vapours in nozzles and diffusers are examples of such process. For such processes equation (1.7) is reduced to

1.1.3 Adiabatic energy transfer and energy transformation In an adiabatic energy transfer process, the shaft work will present(eg) expansion of gases in turbines and compression in compressors etc., In an adiabatic energy transformation process, the shaft work is zero. e.g. expansion of gases in nozzles and compression in diffusers etc. The adiabatic energy equation (1.7) is valid for processes involving both energy transfer and energy transformation. The energy equation for compressors and turbines is

1.2. Stagnation state and stagnation properties The state of a fluid attained by isentropically decelerating it to zero velocity at zero elevation is referred to as the stagnation state. It is often used as a reference state. The properties of the fluid at stagnation state are the stagnation properties of the t eg. stagnation temperature, stagnation pressure, stagnation enthalpy etc., 1.2.1 Stagnation enthalpy Stagnation enthalpy of a gas or vapour is its enthalpy when it is adiabatically decelerated to zero velocity at zero elevation. As per the definition. At the initial state = h c = c and At the final state h =h0 c=0

where h = stagnation enthalpy and h = static enthalpy In an adiabatic energy transformation process the stagnation enthalpy remains constant. 1.2.2 Stagnation temperature (or) Total temperature (T0 ) Stagnation temperature of a gas or vapour is defined as the temperature when it is adiabatically decelerated to zero velocity at zero elevation. For a perfect gas, the equation (1.11) can be written as

**1.2.3 Stagnation pressure (P (or) Total pressure
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Stagnation pressure is the pressure of the gas when it is adiabatically decelerated to zero velocity at zero elevation. The adiabatic relation for a perfect gas is

**1.2.4 Stagnation velocity of sound [ao]
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We know that the accoustic velocity of sound temperature, the stanation velocity of sound For a given value of stagnation

1.2.5 Stagnation density (ps)

For the given values of stagnation pressure and temperature, the stagnation density is given by

**1.3 Bulk modulus of elasticity (k)
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The bulk modulus of elasticity of a fluid is defined by

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