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Child Labor in the Philippines It is alarming that extensive child labor in the Philippines is very evident anywhere.

You will see a child ages about 10 to 13 years old pushing a cart containing heavy gravels and sand to be used in a construction site 10 meters away. In Payatas, Quezon City, you will see bunch of children ages about seven to eight years old searching for some reusable plastics and metals that they may able to sell to a junk shop. They do not know how risky it is to be there in a dumpsite wherein too much exposure to it will lead to a worst case scenario. The issue of children trafficking is not new to us wherein a group of syndicates will deploy children in a certain place (e.g. Luneta Park) for them to beg for money. If they would not be able to collect money as much as they can, they will be penalized which is indeed alarming. Based on the human fundamental rights, child has the most important rights such as right to basic necessities in life like a healthy environment, formal education, and most importantly a loving family that will provide the needs of the child. Children should not be the one who works for a living but it is the very responsible of the parents to sustain the life of their children and to finance all of the needs of their children. Based on the statistical the data gathered by International Labour Organization, 2011 Survey on Children: Child labor in the Philippines, preliminary result of the 2011 Survey on Children in the Philippines revealed that of the 29 million Filipino children, aged 5-17 years old, there were roughly about 5.5 million working children, of which almost 3 million were in hazardous child labour. Instead of investing their time in studying for future and greater production, they choose not to study just because of the present poverty they experience. Most children are forced by the natural environment they are settling in to work because they need to in order to fill in their empty stomach, to finance their daily expense and to help their sick parents. Children who are involved in the child labor are those who have poor family foundation. Those parents who failed to work or decided not to work are those parents who already forgot their responsibilities as parents. This huge number of children who are involved in child labor will continue to rise up if parents would not learn parenting techniques and responsibilities. Poverty may continue to soar high when one problem is not given a solution and when that problem starts to create another problem.

It is seen that whether in Metro Manila or mostly provincial areas in Central Luzon and Bicol Region, there will be an incidence of child labor. By 2016, it is promised that percentage rate of child laborers especially child laborer in hazardous situation will decrease in number as soon as different campaigns and laws would be fully implemented. The pictures below are the common scenario in the Philippines wherein children are used as an object or means of production. They rights as children are abused by those who have power. They are not given the proper treatment that children should have. Specific Cases of Child Labor in the Philippines 1. Children in Prostitution. According to Amat, Zoren (2010), Children in prostitution refer to children under the age of 18, whether male or female, who, for money, profit, or any other consideration, or due to the coercion or influence of any adult, syndicate, or group, indulge in sexual intercourse or lascivious conduct. A. A child busy removing unnecessary things in a 'tambo'. This includes performing in obscene

exhibitions or indecent shows, whether live or in video or film. Young girls are prevalently vulnerable to prostitution but the number of boys is increasing. Most of them are

recruited from the rural poor to work in the urban areas of the Philippines or abroad. This scenario is very alarming because this will absolutely affect the children in different aspects (physically, emotionally, mentally and spiritually).

B. A child, ages about 10-12 yrs old pulls a heavy karatilya to a wet
market 10m away.

Children prostitution and exploitation is not that rampant in our country but it is alarming that there are few cases of it here in the Philippines. The reason why there is a vision of children prostitution here in the Philippines is because of poverty, no money for financing ones education or other sorts of leisure, one or both of parents are already dead, influence of an adult, or a syndicate, poor community surrounding characterized by drug-using, gambling, drinking. There is a great supply of children prostitution because of the proliferating demand of sex, recruitment of older workers, careless actors-customers (such as hotel or motel operators, computer caf operators and the like. The very consequence of this case is very grave that it may crush up the life of the child: STD and HIV/AIDS, economic exploitation, dangerous psychological effects, sexual abuse, loss of self-worth, degraded dignity and self-respect. 2. Children in mining and quarrying. If you are fond of watching documentary films of GMA 7 Kapuso Network The Notebook, you would be able to watch a documentary film entitled Batang Kalabaw which portrays children at work. The documentary showed various works that children entered to earn a living which is very sad if you will notice because their lives are placed half on the hospital and half on the grave because of the risks that surround the work. According to Zoren Amat (2010), Small scale mining has become the leading mineral industry in the country. Using low-level technologies and methods, production is labor-intensive and hazardous, meaning the production uses human work in order to produce a good and rarely ask for the help of the technology. Children are involved in all phases, from extraction to processing, as well as collecting, sorting, cooking, cleaning and transporting aggregate under difficult conditions and in locations far removed from educational facilities and adequate social services. Most children involve in mining and quarrying complain with problems of muscle pain, chest congestion, respiratory problems, stunted growth, They are prone to accidents or specifically

death because of the heavy materials around them which are commonly used in mining and quarrying such as big hammer and stones. 3. Children in pyrotechnics Places in Luzon such as La Union, Bulacan, Batangas, and Cavite and Visayas such in Cebu and Aklan and in Mindanao ( Zamboanga and South Cotabato) are the places where firecrackers are eminent. In the places mentioned above are the top producers of firecrackers all over the country. With respect to its huge amount of production of firecrackers, they only use less of capital but more of the labor. In lieu of technology, top producer of firecrackers employ children because of its cheap wages. Zoren Amat said that These children are exposed to highly flammable and combustible substances in the production of firecrackers. They suffer from dizziness, asthma, weight loss, sore eyes, backaches and breathing difficulties. Demand for this child labor in pyrotechnics increases as technological advancement decreases. 4. Children in deep-sea fishing Who would forget the movie of Cesar Montano, Muro Ami wherein children were involved in deep-reef hunting. There were many children who are so affected because of risky process of hunting reefs. There are no safety materials and oxygen. Compressors and only goggle will be your equipment in getting reefs. According to Amat (2010), mostly boys, children in deep-sea fishing are exposed to physical, chemical or biological hazards. Furthermore, they are engaged in pa-aling and kubkub fishing, two hazardous deep-sea fishing methods, which expose them to even greater risks. There are difficult tasks undergo by this poor children such as pulling heavy nets filled with different fishes, carrying the coolers, operating the winch, pulling up the

anchor, arranging nets and many more. Because of heavy loads, they face different bad conditions such as pain, cuts, wounds, skin diseases, sore eyes, fatigue and paralysis. These conditions are very alarming because what is involved here is the condition and life of the children. It is now over commercialized that the children become the main object of work. It is very degrading on the part of the children to do works that are supposed to be work of adults. 5. Children at agricultural work Based on ILS report 2001, more than 2 million children are employed in agriculture. Philippines, as a major exporter of rice, banana, and coconut, has a wide range of farmlands. These farmlands are cultivated by a huge number of children ages between 14-17 years old. When children are at agriculture work, they are expected to be exposed to different hazardous materials which risk their health condition. They are exposed to chemical fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides. According to a data, Around 1.5 million children are exposed to hazardous situations. Around 690,000 of them reportedly suffer from workrelated injuries. They also suffer from malnutrition, retarded physical development, skin diseases, infections, wounds, cuts and bruises, dehydration, headaches, fever and body pains, and respiratory complications. Serious ailments owing to exposure to extreme weather conditions and chemicals become visible only after years of working on the plantations. 6. Children at domestic works According to Amat, A child

domestic worker (CDW) is defined as a child working in an employer's household with or without wage. CDWs perform such domestic

chores such as washing dishes, cooking, cleaning the house, and looking after young children.

Child domestic workers are very frequent mostly in an urbanized area because of the great need of helper. They come from large farming and fishing families in poor regions, who work away from their families for extended periods of time, mostly adjacent or accessible to NCR. A large number of women and children that are later trafficked for labor and sexual exploitation are initially recruited as domestic workers. CDWs form a mobile group of children, always in transit and easily turned over from one employer to another, using ports as entry/exit points as well as land and air routes. This issue of child domestic helper is very renowned because urban areas like in Manila need an instant helper in their respective houses. CDWs have no work contract or benefits that are why it is in demand in the market. They also have no access to health benefits. That is the risk and danger of being employed as a CDW. A CDW works an average of 15 hours a day, and is on-call 24 hours a day. Leave days are usually limited to one day each month; many have no day off at all. Freedom of movement is also limited, since many are not allowed to venture beyond the house gates, except when the employer sends them on errands or brings them along when their services are needed. Main Reasons of Child Labor 1. Poverty 2. Illiteracy 3. Irresponsible Parents (Absence of proper guidance) 4. One or both parents are dead 5. Poor Environment (Place where full of gamblers, drug users, smokers, and street children) 6. Lack of leisure activities to do Impacts of early labor to children The impacts of labor to children are huge and usually in negative forms. Based on the Declaration of the Rights of the Children (DRC) no. 9 Children have the right to be protected against cruel acts or exploitation, e.g. children should not be obliged to do work which hinders his development both physically and mentally Children should not work

before a minimum wage and never when that would hinder his health and his moral and physical development. What the common scenario nowadays oppose the no. 9 rights of the children based on DRC. Children who are left behind because of irresponsible or maybe dead parents are brought by some syndicates. The sad thing here is that the syndicates force the children to work in expense of their rights to being children. They work in expense of their privilege to live decently. Sometimes, children in a labor force face problems such as that they are exposed to some hazardous materials that would really affect their health conditions. Childrens lives, especially in mining, and deep-sea fishing are being risked just because they have to because if they will not work, they will only eat boiled sweet potato, salt and water but sometimes none at all. Children at domestic work sometimes faces domestic violence from their bosses that would probably affect the psychological aspects in their life. It would probably alter the good probabilities that that children might have in the future. Children are deprived do something good that is why continuous poverty is seen on our country and all over the world. Future leaders (the present children) are barred in doing what they want in life especially good things that is why rampant crimes are still visible in this world because of the improper orientation to children.