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Article ID ： 1007-7294 （2011 ）06-0678-10
Journal of Ship Mechanics
Vol.15 No.6 Jun. 2011
Overview of Upheaval Buckling Theoretical Studies for Submarine Buried Pipeline
GAO Xi-feng 1, LIU Run1, DU Zun-feng 1, TAN Zhen-dong 2
(1 State Key Laboratory of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China; 2 Military Transportation Institute of the General Logistics Department, Tianjin 300161, China)
Abstract:Pipelines constitute a vital means of transporting and distributing liquids and gases such as oil, gas and water over large geographical areas. A pipeline containing hot oil (and possibly insulated in order to prevent the solidification of wax in the pipe) will expand longitudinally on account of the rise in temperature; and if such expansion is resisted, for example by frictional affects over a kilometer or so of pipeline; compressive axial stress will be set up in the pipe-wall.The compressive forces are frequently large enough to induce lateral buckling of untrenched pipelines,or vertical buckling of trenched pipelines. The recent growth in interest in high temperature pipelines in China and some failures in Bohai Gulf have led to an explosion of interest in these phenomena for Chinese ocean engineers. This paper describes the history of the theoretical studies on the submarine buried pipeline vertical buckling and the author ’s experiences with this problem. Key words: submarine pipeline; trenched; buried; upheaval buckling CLC number: TE973 Document code: A
Since the early seventies of the last century pipelines have also become one of the main means of transporting oil and gas offshore in many parts of the world.To ensure minimal interference with other marine activities, such as fishing nets, ship anchors, etc and to ensure safety of the structure and the environmental,the pipelines are usually buried in a trench. The present paper will pay more attention on the pipeline vertical,upheaval buckling. The first paper on pipeline buckling in the open literature appeared in 1974. Palmer and Baldry demonstrated that the constraint of expansion of a pipeline on account of raised internal pressure could induce buckling through a small-scale test. Hobbs[2-3] presented a summary of the basic models of buckling in a long pipeline in 1981 and 1984. An explosion of interest has been induced in pipelines thermal buckling in the early eighties of the last century as some upheaval buckling incidents occurred in the North Sea.As Guijt pointed out that at least five upheaval buckling incidents occurred in the North Sea, three of which occurred in 1989, and all with significant cost penalties. The first incident, associated with Maersk Oilog Gas AS ’ Rolf
Received date ： 2011-04-27
Foundation item: Supported by China National Natural Science Foundation (No.40776055) and foundation of State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering (1002) Biography: GAO Xi-feng(1975-), male, Ph.D., lecturer of Tianjin University; Corresponding author: LIU Run(1974-), female, Ph.D., Professor, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
第6期 GAO Xi-feng et al: Overview of Upheaval Buckling … 679 pipeline. In the model. the question of thermally induced buckling is of considerable economic importance. Therefore from then on. pin-ended column ( ‘Euler buckling’) is inversely proportional to the square of the slenderness of the column. P0=EAα△T (1) If the axial strain ε is completely restrained. The cost of a failure in such a pipeline is so high. and it is obvious that all pipes are very slender over sufficiently large lengths.and a substantial literature has built up in the following 30 years. and its relation to today ’s applications for upheaval studies.5-υ " t where υ is Poisson’s ratio. 2 Theoretical solutions for perfect straight pipelines The compressive stress required to buckle a straight. occurred in 1986 . Similar problems occurred in railway tracks more than 70 years ago.causing the development of large compressive axial forces in the line.The 22nd Annual OTC also implied that the subsea pipeline buckling researches reach to peak at that time.Submarine pipelines often carry products which are much hotter than the surrounding seawater.the axial compressive force generated and available to participate in buckling is. Hobbs[2-3] presentFig. A linear differential equation has been established to describe the deflected shape of the . the coefficient of linear thermal expansion by α and the temperature change by △T. the theoretical and experimental studies on the subsea buried pipeline buckling are continued. P0= Apr ! (2) 0. The force created by full restraint of thermal expansion is.The potential thermal expansion is restrained by friction between the pipeline and the seabed. p is the internal pressure. not only for repairs but also for lost production. and t and r are the pipe wall thickness and radius respectively. to Fig. and the percipient analysis by Martinet and the extensive literature summarized by Kerr[18-19] are very closely related to the thermal buckling problems in pipelines.1 Force analysis of a pipeline section ed a summary of the basic models of buckling in with vertical buckling a long pipeline (Ref. the numerical method has been applied to analyze the pipeline buckling behavior [15-17]. The basic models presented by Hobbs have been modified and refined with considering the pipeline imperfection [6-12] and the elastoplastic behaviour of buckling pipelines [13-14].Young ’s modulus by E. which can lead to Euler buckling of the pipeline. This paper describes its development. The papers presented at a special session of the 1990 Offshore Technology Conference are perhaps the best explanation that the pipeline buckling research is a hot topic in this area. denoting the cross-sectional area of the pipe by A.1).Century 90 ’s up to date. Furthermore.
0.7mm giving a design internal pressure 4.the model no account has been taken of the initial out -of -straightness and further numerical work on the effects of initial imperfections would be valuable.069 38wL (7) A further result of practical interest is the size of the slipping length adjacent to the buckle. 65MPa and design temperature rising 85 ℃. The maximum amplitude of the buckle vm=2.2 is the vertical buckling result for a typical pipeline with a practical range of friction coefficients. as Hobbs  remarked.The curves in Fig.that is to say.s.1).4.The equilibrium path from B to C describes the relationship between the temperature and the buckle length for a pipeline with small imperfection. Fig.2 Buckle wavelength v. at x=0.2 look like U-shape.2≤准≤0.76 EI (4) 2 L 1/2 5 2 -5 P0=P+ wL 2 (5) 2 22 1.2 shows that there exists the largest ‘safe’ temperature change to avoid vertical buckling in this particular pipeline is about 45 ℃ if the coefficient of friction 准 is taken as 0.5L (8) 准w Fig. 准 is the coefficient of friction between pipe and subgrade. Hobbs  explained that the equilibrium path from A to B is unstable.1. 2 2 2 2 y″+n y+ m 2 =0 (3) 4 x -L 8 where m=w/EI. P -P L s= 0 -0.calculated by author with Hobbs ’s model in Bohai Bay.The pipe has an outside diameter of 323. n =P/EL and w is submerged weight of pipeline (including weight coat) per u nit length.4.408×10 wL EI And the maximum bending moment.9mm.It is assumed that the bending moment at the lift-off point is zero.The temperatures against length of buckle and amplitude curves are the classical results in pipeline thermal buckling analysis until now. In the notation of Fig. The equation is solved and the following results are obtained: P=80. friction coefficient of foundation soil Fig. there are two possible buckle lengths for one temperature change.680 船舶力学 第 15 卷第 6 期 buckled part of the pipeline which is treated as a beam column under uniform lateral load. Nonetheless.and a wall thickness of 12.which is a consequence of the assumption of fully mobilized friction even for vanishingly small displacement.597 × 10 EA 准 wL -0. is -5 2 2 2 4 (6) M=0.25 准 E I EI where P is the axial load in the buckle and P0 is the axial load away from the buckle (Fig. .
The imperfections concerned may include a crest in the sea bed profile. Ballet and Hobbs . Taylor and Tran (1996) summarized three basic types of initial imperfection for subsea buried pipeline. Taylor and Gan . or an angu larly mismatched field joint. Croll . Maltby and Calladine  and Hunt and Blackmore  should be mentioned.With the initial imperfection. Boer et al. Pedersen and Jensen . Ju and Kyriakides .Many researches have been done on imperfect pipelines. which are illustrated in Fig. upheaval may take place in the pipeline because of the existence of initial imperfection. Fig. Taylor and Gan . such as.Other less obvious possibilities include the free span gap or trench step. Friedman.第6期 GAO Xi-feng et al: Overview of Upheaval Buckling … 681 3 Studies on imperfect pipelines Engineering practice shows that the in-situ shape of a buried pipeline in the field is far from being straight. 1996) .as when isolated rock is located immediately below the line or another pipeline is to be crossed. Whilst L i is determined from simple statics. The initial imperfection is denoted by amplitude v om and wavelength L 0 or L i as shown. or a prop.3.3 Typical imperfection configurations (Taylor and Tran. Hunt and Blackmore . Taylor and Tran [7-8]. Maltby and Calladine . Taylor and Tran [7-8]. L 0 is subject to individual engineering judgment. Richards and Andronicou . Under the temperature rising. Among them. the pipeline may develop initial de formation.
internally generated temperature and pressure rises over ambient suffered by the pipe. EIw P=80.Similar analysis to perfect pipeline. 乙 乙 .86 L 2 0 L0 2 2 (9) where v0 denotes imperfection displacement above the horizontal datum surface at x.(11) can be obtained from Pe=P 1. (2) and (11)~(15). 0<x<L0.And all models presume system symmetry and seabed trench-bottom rigid ity. together with relatively small deformations and linear elastic properties.682 船舶力学 第 15 卷第 6 期 The physical problems together with the key conceptual and mathematical models for each type of initial imperfection have been set out based on a stress-free-when-initially-deformed datum in the paper. the model definition is completed by means of the longitudinal equilibrium and compatibility expressions: P0-Pe= 准wL +准wLs (11) 2 and P0-Pe L 准wLs .ψ1 Lo 75.293cos 2. In the first case.uf + =0 (12) 2AE 2AE In accordance with the requirements of the potential energy theorem.(1) and Eq.The em pathetic model employs idealized buckling mode to propose v0=v0m πx 0. △T and p respectively. in terms of the so-called pre-buckling force P 0 can be calculated by Eq. the pipeline remains in continuous contact with some vertical undulation in an otherwise idealized horizontal and straight line.6 L where P denotes the idealized buckling force.707-0. in conjunction with the unique amplitude/wavelength relationship also origi - nating from idealized studies: v0m 2. so-called empathetic model.407×10-3w vm = = 4 4 EI L L 0 (10) where w denotes the pipe ’s submerged self-weight (or effective download) per unit length and I represents the pipe ’s cross-sectional second moment of area.(2). with v 0m = v0 x=0 .(1).962 v 2 m L In Eq.(12) Ls is the slip length and uf is the flexural end shortening 1/2 2 (13) (14) L/2 L/2 2 2 uf = 1 (15) y′ d xy i′ d x 0 0 2 From Eqs. Presuming fully mobilized friction resistance to be developed.76 EI =3. the relationship between temperature and buckle ampli tude can be obtained.261 76 π x +0.the pipe buckling force Pe in Eq.
4).第6期 GAO Xi-feng et al: Overview of Upheaval Buckling … 683 The isolated prop alternatively features a sharp vertical irregularity such that voids exist to either side.4 Isolated prop topologies (Taylor and Tran. with L>L i ensuing if circumstances so dictate.The wavelength L reduces to some specific value Lu whereupon the pipeline lifts off the prop.The associated differential equation for the initial imperfection takes the form Fig. stop-start trenching procedures can also be responsible. 1996) . Five key stages have been proposed in buckling development (Ref. to Fig. As the temperature of the pipeline rises due to routine operation. the initial span or imperfection wavelength Li suffers a reduction as the pipeline tightens up under compressive action P. The prop represents the undercrossing of a non-parallel pipe or the presence of an intervening rock. Post-upheaval buckling initially involves wavelength Lu<L<Li.
684 船舶力学 2 第 15 卷第 6 期 Li -x wLi Li EIy″-Fi -x +w 2 =0 2 2 2 where Fi is the shear force acting at the crown.Model definition of each phase is com pleted by means of longitudinal equilibrium and compatibility expressions of similar form to Eqs. For phase (b) the buckling/flexural expression is EI y″-yi″ -P v0m -y -M-Fx+ wx =0 (18) 2 where M denotes the crown moment and shear force F represents half the prop force. The characteristic equation reveals the relationship between nL and Li /L.wx 2 (22) EIn where the constants of integration c1 and c2 can be determined in accordance with the bound ary conditions of each phase. (d) and (e) shown in Fig.4.The boundary conditions take the form y x=L/2 =y′ x=L/2 =y″ x=L/2 =y′ x=0 =0 and y x=0 =v0m . respectively. which can be obtained by the further computational manipulation. 2 EI y″-yi″ -P vm-y -M+ wx =0 2 And the differential equations for phase (e) are EI y″-yi″ -P vm-y -M+ wx =0 2 for 0≤x≤Li /2 EIy″-P vm-y -M+ wx =0 2 for Li /2≤x≤L/2 The boundary conditions appertaining to Eq. y′ x=0 =0 and =y′ x=L/2 =y″ x=L/2 =0.(21) are y y x=L/2 x=0 2 2 (19) (20) (21) =v m . The expression for phase (d) is as follows with the boundary conditions y y″ x=L/2 x=L/2 2 =y′ x=L/2 = =y′ x=0 =0 and y x=0 =vm.(11) and (12).(20) and Eq. 3 4 (16) Computational manipulation with boundary conditions gives the vertical deflection vi as vi= w 2Li Li -x -3 Li -x (17) 72EI 2 2 In addition to the static determination of Li in terms of imperfection amplitude vi. equations for longitudinal equilibrium and compatibility together with an appropriate buckling/ flexural expression are required for each of the phases (b). 2 The general solution to the buckling/flexural expression takes the following form y=c1cosnx+c2sinnx+k1+k2x. .
Taylor and Tran (1993) developed the buckle model for protected pipeline. typified by a step and adopted a shooting method to solve the standard fourth-order linear or dinary differential equation. For the later stage L >L i . continuous or discrete.With regard to the re spective temperature rise/buckling amplitude loci and the results given in Fig. Q 0 is the maximum value of soil resistance per unit length. Hunt and Blackmore  studied the effects of asymmetric bed imperfections. whereas the different boundary conditions.(20). y′ x=0 =0. EIQ0 /Y0 " p= ! 1/2 (24) where p is the compressive force in pipe. In all the calculations above. With L<Li in the early postbuckling phase.y " EI ! -P ! -M+ wx =0 2 = yi x=L/2 . requires similar analysis to that given above and typified by Eqs.pre -buckling flexural stage is no longer effectively available. The post-upheaval buckling is divided into two stages. the prop-attendant voids discussed above can become in filled to the extent that the in -service. It is also necessary to employ longitudinal equilibrium and compatibility expressions to relate P to the temperate rise.5 Parametric studies of Empathetic model . and Y 0 represents the amplitude of initial imperfec tion. together with the employment of fixed anchorages.5. y x=L/2 y″-yi″ " v m. Comparison between two typical types. the prop and the step. ranging from 50mm to 300mm. im plied that more profound destabilizing role can be attributed to the step than the prop. y x=0 =v m .5 for various initial imperfection amplitudes v 0m .a vectorial equilibrium compatibility analysis is employed here by using the moment curvature relationship (23) 2 This equation is as the same as Eq. such as trenching and burial. Parametric studies of Empathetic models. Maltby and Calladine  proposed a simple formula for the axial load at which the localization of buck ling occurs based on sinusoidal imperfection assumption. Ballet and Hobbs  investigated the possibility of asymmetric buckling in the prop case and found the results. In addition to establishing the above upheaval model for imperfection pipelines.it can be seen that on ly the relatively small imperfections typified by v0m = Fig.the buckle has been assumed to be completely symmetric. y′ x=L/2 = y i′ x=L/2 and EIy″ x=L/2 = EIyi″ x=L/2 induce the different characteristic equation.3 occurs where the above voids become infilled with leaching sand and represents a special sub -case of the first.If marine conditions permit and particularly where continuous burial is involved.第6期 GAO Xi-feng et al: Overview of Upheaval Buckling … 685 The third case in Fig.(20) and (21).em ploying the foregoing data in Bohai Bay.have been investigated with graphical comparison illustrated by Fig.
Lyngberg B. Journal of Transportation Engineering. 1984. Texas. 4 The future The economic importance of submarine pipelines has greatly increased in recent years with the development of offshore oil and gas fields in many parts of the world. 9(2): 211-257. 13: 355-373. In-service buckling of heated pipelines[J]. Calladine C R.Without the lateral restraint the horizontal snaking is dominant for pipeline to relieve the thermal stresses.  Hobbs R E. Upheaval buckling failures of insulated burial pipelines-a case story[C]// In proceedings of the 22nd Annual OTC. Marine Structures. Tran V. Houston.  Guijt J.The safe temperature obtained by imperfect model is obviously lower than the one calculated by perfect model. Pipeline buckling caused by axial loads[J]. 1(2): 2-10. Pedersen P T.Therefore. However. broadly from the classical analysis. 6: 325-358. 110(2): 175189. Journal of Constructional Steel Research. 37(9): 943-963. An investigation into upheaval buckling of buried pipelines--ii. and it is more cost-effective to simply lay pipelines on the seabed. to one additionally including large pipe dis placement and associated cover non-linearity. Experimental and theoretical studies in subsea pipeline buckling[J]. 1996. References  Palmer A C. Texas. Experimental apparatus and some observations[J]. Theory and analysis of ex perimental observations[J]. . 1974. 37(9): 965-983. Houston. 26 (11): 1283-1284. Prop-imperfection subsea pipeline buckling[J]. 1995. Lateral buckling of axially-compressed pipelines[J]. the stud ies of pipelines lateral thermal buckling and the soil lateral resistance will become a hot topic for unburied submarine pipeline. generate stable post-buck ling path. Journal of Petroleum Technology. Baldry J A S. 1990: 581-592.  Taylor N. 1990: 573-578. 1981.  Nielsen N J R. Thin. there are still some involved problems need to be dealt with.  Maltby T C. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences. in deep water. The trend for offshore oil and gas extraction to take place in deeper and more remote wa ters is leading to the construction of longer pipelines that operate at higher temperatures and pressures. Hobbs R E. In shallow water.686 船舶力学 第 15 卷第 6 期 50 and 100mm display a maximum temperature together with the associated snap buckling phenomenon.  Taylor N.However.  Ballet J P. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences. An investigation into upheaval buckling of buried pipelines--i. to one additionally covering material non-linearity. Calladine C R. The remaining four cases. Tran V. to one covering initial imperfections. 1992. v 0m =150 to 300mm. Marine Structures.  Hobbs R E. 1993. Asymmetric effects of prop imperfections on the upheaval buckling of pipelines[J]. Analysis and numerical modelling of pipelines upheaval buckling have progressed over the last thirty years. 1995.  Maltby T C. there is no requirement for burial. The vulnerabil ity of pipelines to thermal stress is well documented in many case studies and review papers.Walled Structures. Upheaval buckling of offshore pipeline: overview and introduction[C]// In proceedings of the 22nd Annual OTC. ASCE. it is common practice to bury a pipeline for protection from trawl gear and to prevent buckling.
Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering. Lateral buckling of railroad tracks due to constrained thermal expansion[M]. France. 1986: 1-34. May. Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology. Blackmore A. 1997. Soc. Oxford. 355(4): 2185-2195. Gan A B. OMAE2001-4124. Pipeline Industry. Murray D W. Yoosef-Ghodsi N. 25(2): 164-169. Pergamon Press. Seabed irregularity effects on the buckling of heated submarine pipelines[C]// WEMT Ad vances in Offshore Technology. ASCE. 1986: 1-8. 1986. Amsterdam. Rio De Janeiro. 1992. Richards D M. Phil. 1: 11-22. 1986. Martínez C. 2004. Behaviour of buried pipelines subjected to imposed deformations[C]// 12th Int.  Friedmann Y. 11: 63-68. 5294. Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering. Trans. II: 115-122.  Einsfeld R A.  Pedersen P T. Rodríguez J F. 1978. Marine Structures. 2001.  Boer S.  Taylor N. Texas. Paris. Houston. Buckling considerations in the design of the gravel cover for a high tem perature oil line[C]// Proc.  Pasqualino I P.  Ju G T. Thermal buckling of offshore pipelines[J]. Jensen J J. Alves J L D. 2003. 1988.第6期 GAO Xi-feng et al: Overview of Upheaval Buckling … 687  Croll J G A. Murray D W. 18th OTC. 1988. Conference on Offshore and Arctic Engineering.）， 女 ， 博士 ， 天津大学建筑工程学院教授 ； 杜尊峰 （1984. Hulsbergen C H. Railroad Track Mechanics and Technology. Andronicou A. A simplified model of upheaval thermal buckling of subsea pipelines[J].  Hunt G W. 1986: 250-265. Failure simulation of a buried pipeline under thermal loading[C]// Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering (OMAE). Buckling analysis of high-temperature pressurized pipelines with soilstructure interaction[J]. 1997. et al. Thin-Walled Structures. 1986. Upheaval creep of buried heated pipelines with initial imperfections [J]. 海底埋设管线屈曲剧变理论研究综述 高喜峰 1， 刘 润 1， 杜尊峰 1， 谭振东 2 （1 天津大学 水利工程仿真与安全国家重点实验室 ， 天津 300072 ； 2 总后军事交通运输研究所 ， 天津 300161 ） 摘要 : 海上生产的烃类必须在高温高压下运输以使流体舒缓而避免蜡组分的凝固 。 由 于内外压差和温差引起强制膨胀 导致轴向压缩力 ， 此时便产生了海底管线的屈曲 。 此 压缩 力 既 能 引 起 管 线 在 海 床 平 面 内 的 侧 向 屈 曲 ， 也 能 造 成 垂 向 屈 曲 。 通常将管线埋于沟槽内从而确保与其它海洋活动的干扰最小化 。 在此情况下 ， 侧向土约束超过了由管线浮重造成的 垂向隆起约束 。 因此 ， 要特别注意挖沟埋设管线的垂向屈曲 。 最近对中国高温管线和渤海湾几起事故的关注引发中国海 洋工程师对此现象的强烈兴趣 。 文章综述了海底埋设管线垂向屈曲的理论研究历史 ， 以及作者对此问题的一些经验 。 希 望海洋工程师能从本领域的文献综述和总结中受益 。 文中同时研究了管线的防护层设计 ，最后明确了未来发展的方向 。 关键词 : 海底管线 ； 沟槽 ； 埋设 ； 屈曲剧变 中图分类号 : TE973 刘 文献标识码 : A 作者简介 ： 高喜峰 （1975.. Debouvry B. 110(4): 355-364. 5: 131-142. 29 (1-4): 59-78. 126(5): 250-257. Some aspects of the design of hot buried pipelines[C]// Offshore Oil and Gas Line Technology Conference. Thin-Walled Structures. Homoclinic and heteroclinic solutions of upheaval buckling[J].  Richards D M. Brazil. Buried pipe modeling with initial imperfections[J].  Villarraga J A.  Friedmann Y.）， 男 ， 博士 ， 总后勤部军事交通运输研究所高级工程师 。 .  Kerr A D.）， 男 ， 博士 ， 天津大学建筑工程学院讲师 ； 润 （1974. 2001.  Zhou Z J.. R. 4: 295-323. 1974. Rail Int. Battista R C. Kyriakides S.  Kerr A D. 1993. Lond.）， 男 ， 博士 ， 天津大学建筑工程学院讲师 ； 谭振东 （1979. Analytical design method helps prevent buried pipe upheaval[J]. On the stability of the railroad track in the vertical plane[J]. Submarine pipeline buckling imperfection studies[J].
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